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Paper 1 2

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2. HINDI 42


This document of the analysis of pupils performance at the ISC Year 12 and ICSE Year 10 Examination is one
of its kind. It has grown and evolved over the years to provide feedback to schools in terms of the strengths and
weaknesses of the candidates in handling the examinations.

We commend the work of Mrs. Poonam Sodhi and the ISC Division of the Council who have painstakingly
prepared this analysis. We are grateful to the examiners who have contributed through their comments on the
performance of the candidates under examination as well as for their suggestions to teachers and students for the
effective transaction of the syllabus.

We hope the schools will find this document useful. We invite comments from schools on its utility and quality.

Gerry Arathoon
November 2015 Chief Executive & Secretary


The Council has consistently been bringing out the Pupil Performance Analysis document since 1994.
This document is reviewed every year and changes incorporated based on suggestions received from various
quarters which include experts in the field of education as well as heads of schools and teachers, in order to
make the study more useful and meaningful.

This document comprises of qualitative analysis of performance of pupils at the ISC examinations. Performance
Analysis has been carried out for the most popular subjects that are largely ascribed to, by the schools.
The purpose of this study is to enable teachers to see at a glance, overall performance of all candidates who have
taken the examination and examiners comments on each question. This would enable the teachers to understand
the assessment of the ISC examinations better and would help them to guide their students more effectively.

The qualitative analysis details the assessment criteria followed for evaluation of answer scripts. Once the
process of evaluation of scripts is over, examiners are requested to give detailed comments on the performance
of candidates for each question. This includes the examiners response on what constitutes a good answer;
common errors made by candidates while answering the questions; their popularity with students and overall
performance of students.

Mrs. Shilpi Gupta along with Mrs. Desiree Tennent, Ms. Mansi Guleria and Mrs. Theresa Cherian have done
commendable work in ensuring that this document is prepared well in time, in order to guide students who will
be appearing for the ISC Examination.

Poonam Sodhi
November 2015 Deputy Secretary

Total Number of students who took the examination 70,120
Highest Marks Obtained 100
Lowest Marks Obtained 1
Mean Marks Obtained 77.97

Percentage of Candidates according to marks obtained

Mark Range
0-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100
Number of Candidates 40 241 6832 32928 30079
Percentage of Candidates 0.06 0.34 9.74 46.96 42.90
Cumulative Number 40 281 7113 40041 70120
Cumulative Percentage 0.06 0.40 10.14 57.10 100.00

Range of Marks Obtained

Percentage of Candidates

15.00 9.74
5.00 0.06 0.34

0-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100

Marks Obtained



Question 1
Write a composition (in approximately 450-500 words) on any one of the following subjects: [30]
(You are reminded that you will be rewarded for orderly and coherent presentation of material,
use of appropriate style and general accuracy of spelling, punctuation and grammar.)
(a) Courage does not mean the absence of fear, but implies an attempt to conquer fear.
Describe some of your worst fears and how you managed to overcome them.
(b) Grandparents are a source of joy to us. Narrate the most memorable experience you
have had with your grandparents.
(c) Films should be made to escape from reality, not to remind us of how grim life is.
Argue for or against this statement.
(d) How far do you agree that nice people are seldom successful and thoroughly successful
people are seldom nice?
(e) Eyes.
(f) Write an original story beginning with the following words:
The news came as a pleasant surprise..
Comments of Examiners
(a) This was a descriptive topic where the candidates
Suggestions for teachers
were required to write on fear and how to
Teach students to plan logically
conquer fear. Most candidates wrote only on before writing the essay.
courage without writing on fear and how to Practice in essay writing is a MUST
conquer it, while in some cases only fear was in class.
highlighted. There was evidence of lack of planning, Special emphasis should be laid on
repetition of ideas, linguistic and structural errors maintaining the tense, correct usage
and rambling. of verbs, prepositions and
(b) A large number of candidates attempted this topic. conjunctions
Most did a good job but in some cases, a general Teach students to read and
account of how their grandparents were and the understand key words in the topic
relationship between them was given but an account before writing the essay.
Explain the necessity of taking a
of a memorable incident was left out. As a result,
marks were lost. Students to be told not to use
(c) Most of the candidates who attempted this topic did vernacular idioms or their
not take a stand. A large number first wrote that translations in the essays.
films should be for entertainment and then There should be an open discussion
contradicted themselves. Many of the essays were on various topics in class for
long and rambling, which led to repetition of ideas. circulation of ideas.
Essays lacked lucidity, coherence and planning.

(d) There was much confusion between nice and
successful in this essay. Many candidates drifted Teach students the essential
away from the topic and failed to give their own components of a short story, such as
viewpoint. The essays tended to lack a personal plot, characters, dialogues, a proper
perspective. beginning and an end.
(e) This one-word topic Eyes was attempted by a
fairly large number of candidates. Many wrote from a scientific point of view about the eye, how
it works, its several parts, the problems faced by those who lack eyesight, and so on. Most essays
were well-written and properly organized; however some lacked focus and creativity and were full
of errors.
(f) Story writing was attempted by quite a few candidates. However, most essays consisted of a
simple narrative only. Many were neither original nor creative, without a plot, story, characters,
dialogues and a proper conclusion. A large number lacked coherence and lucidity and were full of

Question 1.
The quality of language employed, the range of appropriateness of vocabulary and sentence structure,
syntax, the correctness of grammatical constructions, punctuation and spelling decided the overall
grade of the essay.
Marks were deducted for gross errors like errors of agreement and number, serious tense errors,
wrong verb form, elementary errors of sentence construction, misuse of vocabulary, errors in spellings,
punctuation or lack of it. Marks were also deducted for use of incorrect or irrelevant idioms, misuse of
pronouns, articles and preposition.
(a) This was a descriptive topic. The candidate were required to describe his or her worst fears and
how he / she managed to overcome them.
(b) This was a narrative topic. It called for a true account of a personal experience. Candidates
needed to write about any incident with their grandparents during their lives which was
particularly memorable. (as a teenager/17 year old could also talk of a single grandparent)
(c) This was an argumentative topic. Candidates had to take a definite stand and express it clearly.
The stand had to be supported by effective argumentation. Candidates could NOT sit on the
fence. Candidates were not penalized for holding a view different from that of the examiner.
(d) This was a reflective topic. The candidates were required to write in some detail, their opinion
on how nice people are seldom successful and thoroughly successful people are seldom nice.
Candidates had to agree or disagree with the topic or even give their general views.
(e) This was a one-word topic. The content had a wide range / scope. All relevant interpretations /
approaches were accepted.
(f) Candidates were required to begin their story with the given words. The story had to be original
and not plagiarised or lifted partly or wholly from any source. It needed to have all the
necessary elements such as: plot, characterisation and dialogue. It was not to be a mere narration
of events. Originality of thought and a creative bent of mind were given credit.

Question 2
Write an article for your School magazine on a competition that was recently held in your school. [20]
Write the article in about 300 words using the points given below:

Name of the competition nature of event organisers number of participants chief guest
judges quality of the competition criteria for judgement winners overall experience.

Comments of Examiners
This was a question based on amplification of given Suggestions for teachers
points on a competition held in school. Many Practice in writing a variety of
candidates scored because all the points were present in reports is a MUST in class.
the piece of writing. However, a lot of candidates could Students must be encouraged to read
not differentiate between competition, tournament and newspapers so that the correct usage
fest. Many copied the points word by word from the and style of language is maintained.
Instructions on how to write a
question paper; this led to the word limit not being
proper report must be given to
maintained. There was lack of awareness regarding rules students.
and regulations of competitions and criteria for Special care must be taken to add to
judgement. the vocabulary of students; technical
terms and event-related words must
be dealt with.
Importance of the word-limit should
be explained.

Question 2
This was an exercise in amplification. There had to be effective linking of points. Candidates could
use the points in any order they chose; however, all points had to be used. If there was no development
of points, marks were deducted.

Question 3
Answer sections (a), (b) and (c).
(a) In each of the following items, sentence A is complete, while sentence B is [10]
not. Complete sentence B, making it as similar as possible to sentence A.
Write sentence B in each case.
(0) (A) If you want to earn well, you must work hard.
(B) To earn
Answer: (0) To earn well, you must work hard.

(1) (A) Sachin is an outstanding sportsman and a good artist.
(B) Besides.
(2) (A) Mother said to Paul, A courier came for you yesterday.
(B) Mother told Paul that.....
(3) (A) As soon as the minister took the oath, the spectators started
(B) No sooner ..
(4) (A) He is so short that he cannot be a soldier.
(B) He is too ..
(5) (A) The lawyer examined the documents with utmost care.
(B) The documents...
(6) (A) I will buy the horse if it is quite sound.
(B) Unless.
(7) (A) Only Shakespeare could write such a tragedy.
(B) No one.
(8) (A) Rita is a journalist and writer.
(B) Not only .....
(9) (A) Although Lakshmi worked very hard, she failed in the
(B) Notwithstanding Lakshmis .
(10) (A) No one would deny that he was totally fit before his death.
(B) Everyone ...
(b) Fill in each blank with a suitable word. (Do not write the sentence.) [5]
(1) Do you want to take _______ every single object from the box?
(2) The plane must take _________ before dark.
(3) The children spoke ______ a whisper as they were scared.
(4) We must not speak ill about a person ______ his back.
(5) He disliked the play so much that he walked _______ in the middle of
the first act.
(6) Walking barefoot _________ the grass is very good for health.

(7) This rule does not apply _________ you as you are less than eighteen
years old.
(8) You must apply ________ the job immediately.
(9) They have been living in Delhi _________ ten years.
(10) Mrs. Kapur has been living in Chennai_______ 2000.

(c) Fill in the blanks in the passage given below with the appropriate form of the [5]
verb given in brackets. Do not write the passage, but write the verbs in the
correct order.
Two carpenters ______(1)(work) on Mr. Sharmas roof. When they
________(2) (stop) work at 6 p.m., they ______(3) (leave) their ladder ______
(4)(lean) against the house. At 7 p.m., Raju, a thief, passed by the house and
________(5)(see) the ladder. The house___________(6)(be) now empty as
Mr. and Mrs. Sharma ________(7) (go) to the market. Raju _______(8)
(climb) up the ladder, ________(9)(get) in through a first-floor window, and
_______(10)(go) straight to the main bed room where he stole all of
Mrs. Sharmas jewellery.

Comments of Examiners
(a) Some candidates used the exact words of the question
sentence. Many candidates made superfluous use of Suggestions for teachers
commas which caused them to lose marks. Rules of Rules of punctuation to be made
transformation were not clear to most candidates. clear to students.
Enough practice must be given in
(b) This part was mostly attempted satisfactorily.
transformation of sentences.
However, some candidates wrote more than one Instruct students to write only ONE
answer, and many were careless while writing, appropriate answer.
making errors in spelling. Rules of tenses and sequence of
(c) This part of the question was attempted satisfactorily. tenses should be made clear to
However, once again, candidates erred in giving more students.
than one answer. Some candidates did not follow the Give more practice in verbs and
correct sequence of tenses; the passage then began to tenses and insist on the careful
lack coherence. working out of the passage,
following the correct order.

Question 3
(a) The opening word of each answer (part B) had to be given as in the question paper. No other
beginning was acceptable.
(1) (B) Besides being an outstanding sportsman, Sachin is a good artist.
(2) (B) Mother told Paul that a courier had come for him the previous day / the day
(3) (B) No sooner did the minister take the oath than the spectators started applauding.
(4) (B) He is too short to be a soldier.
(5) (B) The documents were examined by the lawyer with utmost care.
The documents were examined with utmost care by the lawyer.
(6) (B) Unless the horse is quite sound, I will not buy it.
(7) (B) No one but Shakespeare could write such a tragedy./
No one save Shakespeare could write such a tragedy.
(8) (B) Not only is Rita a journalist but also a writer.
(9) (B) Notwithstanding Lakshmis hard work, she failed in the examination.
(10) (B) Everyone would agree/accept/admit that he was totally fit before his death.
(b) The candidates were advised not to copy the sentences (This was done with a view to save
their time). However the strict order had to be maintained.
(1) out
(2) off
(3) in
(4) behind
(5) out
(6) on
(7) to
(8) for
(9) for
(10) since
(c) The candidates were advised not to copy the sentence. However the strict order had to be
(1) were working / had been working
(2) stopped

(3) left
(4) leaning
(5) saw
(6) was
(7) had gone
(8) climbed
(9) got
(10) went

Question 4
Read the passage given below and answer the questions (a), (b) and (c) that follow:
(1) To be encumbered with a corpse is to be in a difficult position. True, any doctor, even
one just out of medical school, would have been able to diagnose the cause of death.
The man had died of heart failure or what the doctors call cardiac arrest. The cause of
his heart having stopped pumping blood was that someone had slid a sharp sliver of
steel between his ribs just far enough to penetrate the great muscle of the heart and to 5
cause a serious and irreversible leakage of blood so that it stopped beating. Cardiac
arrest, as I said.
(2) I wasnt too anxious to find a doctor because the knife was mine and the hilt had been
in my hand when he died. I stood on the open road with the body at my feet and I was
scared, so scared that the nausea rose in my throat to choke me. This particular body 10
had been a stranger I had never seen him before in my life.
(3) I was unarmed, if you except the sgian dubh the black knife which I always carry.
The sgian dubh is a much underrated weapon. Mine is at least a hundred and fifty
years old. The ebony handle is ribbed on one side to give a good grip, but smooth on
the other side so it draws clear without catching; the blade is less than four inches long; 15
the stone set in the handle balances the knife so that it makes a superlative throwing
weapon. I carry it in a flat sheath in my left sock.
(4) This is how it had happened.
(5) A little after I had driven out of the city, I saw a car ahead, pulled off the road, and a
man waving the universally recognized distress signal of the stranded motorist. It 20
turned out, quite naturally, that there was something wrong with his car and he
couldnt get it to move. I got out, walked over to his car and peered at the exposed

(6) He didnt use the gun straight away. He first tried to take a swipe at me with a well-
designed little club. I turned my head and saw his upraised arm and dodged sideways. 25
If the club had connected with my skull it would have jarred my brains loose; instead it
hit my shoulder and my whole arm went numb.
(7) I hopped back and groped for the sgian dubh as I went. Fortunately its a left-handed
weapon which was just as well because my right arm wasnt going to be of any use.
(8) He came for me again but when he saw the knife he hesitated. He dropped the club and 30
dipped his hand beneath his jacket and it was my turn to hesitate. But his club had a
leather wrist loop and the dangling weapon spoilt his draw and I jumped him just as
the pistol came out.
(9) I didnt stab him. He swung around and ran straight into the blade. He sagged against
me with a look of surprise on his face. Then he went down at my feet and the knife 35
came free.
(10) So there I was on a lonely road with a newly created corpse at my feet and a knife in
my hand, a bad taste in my mouth and a frozen brain.
(11) From the time I had got out of my car to the moment of death had been less than two
minutes. 40

Adapted from Running Blind by Desmond Bagley

(a) (i) Given below are four words and phrases. Find the words which have [4]
a similar meaning in the passage:
(1) burdened
(2) enter
(3) not given much importance
(4) most effective
(ii) For each of the words given below, write a sentence of at least [4]
ten words using the same word unchanged in form, but with a
different meaning from that which it carries in the passage:

(1) arrest (line 4)

(2) draws (line 17)

(3) set (line 18)

(4) club (line 28)

(b) Answer the following questions in your own words as briefly as possible:
(i) How did the stranger die? [3]
(ii) Why was the narrator scared? [2]
(iii) Describe the narrators weapon. [3]
(iv) Why did the narrator stop his car and get out? [2]
(c) Describe the incident of the killing of the stranger in not more than 100 words
(Paragraphs 5 to 9). Failure to keep within the word limit will be penalised.
You will be required to:
(i) List your ideas clearly in point form. [6]
(ii) In about 100 words, write your points in the form of a connected passage. [6]

Comments of Examiners
(a) (i) Some candidates were unable to locate the
correct word, especially for (3) and (4). Suggestions for teachers
(ii) A number of candidates had limited knowledge Encourage vocabulary and word
of the different meanings / functions of the same building exercises. Encourage use
word. Instructions on usage in sentences were of dictionary.
not followed in many cases. At times, the Give practice in making sentences
sentences were too short and the meaning was
with words having multiple
meanings / functions.
(b) (i) Many candidates misunderstood the question and
wrote about the whole sequence of events that Stress upon reading the instructions
caused the strangers death. carefully.
(ii) Several candidates could not analyse what Teach students to analyse and
caused the narrators fear; they wrote instead distinguish between cause and
about the consequence of the fear. effect.
(iii)Most candidates answered this question Tell students that when description
satisfactorily. However, some could not present is to be done, proper sequence of
a systematic description of the weapon. the features must be given.
(iv) Analysis of the exact answer was not done by a Teach students the basic rules of
number of candidates who did not write the note-making. Practice must be
required points.
given with the help of short unseen
(c) (i) Several candidates overlooked the hint given for
answering the question (paragraphs 5 to 9). passages.
Note-making rules were not clear to a number of Prcis writing, using complete
candidates as single words were written, which sentences, condensation and
carried no meaning and had no relevance to the precision in presenting information
given question. At times, ideas were haphazardly correctly and relevantly should be
noted, with no idea of the sequence of events. In made very clear by teachers.
some cases, only a few points were written, not
sufficient to cover the complete answer.

(ii) In some cases, the prcis were not written in 100 words. In other cases, the summarised passage
had no connection with the points in (c)(i). A number of candidates wrote the whole summary
in the form of notes. Incomplete sentences and random phrases were written, with no regard for
punctuation and articles, which made the passage meaningless and incoherent.

Question 4
(a) (i) Candidates were instructed to find words, from the passage which had a similar meaning to
those given in the question paper.
(1) Encumbered
(2) Penetrate
(3) Underrated
(4) Superlative
(ii) The candidates were instructed to use the following words in sentences of their own but
with a different meaning from that used in the passage. If the form of the word was
changed or if the meaning was the same as that of the passage, marks were deducted.
(1) arrest (as used in the passage: to stop the process of something) seize someone
and take them into custody ; the action of arresting someone; arrest someones
(2) draws (as used in the passage: pulls out) produces a picture; pulls curtains open or
shut; attracts people to a place or an event; takes in a breath; finishes a contest with
an even score.
(3) set (as used in the passage: put in a specified place or position) give someone a
task; fix a time; establish as an example; prepare a table for a meal; harden into a
solid, semi-solid or fixed state; arrange hair; put a broken or dislocated bone into
place for healing; a number of things or people grouped together; set of the sun or
moon (not sunset); a set in tennis or any other game; a set in a play or a film; firmly
fixed and unchanging; set off; set out; set in; set aside.
(4) club (as used in the passage: a heavy stick used as a weapon) a stick with a heavy
head used to play golf; a group of people who meet regularly for a particular
activity; a place where members can relax, eat meals or stay overnight.
(b) Candidates were required to answer the questions as briefly as possible and in their own words.
Marks were deducted for excessive length and gross errors. Candidates had to draw their material
only from the passage.
(i) The stranger died of heart failure or cardiac arrest. Someone had slid a knife into his heart
and caused a serious leakage of blood / damage to the heart muscles to stop it beating.
(ii) The narrator was scared because he was encumbered with a corpse; the knife that killed the
corpse belonged to him; the hilt had been in
his hand when the man had died; and he was standing on an open road with the body at his

(iii) The narrators weapon was a sgian dubh the black knife; it was a 150 years old; the
ebony handle was ribbed on one side to give a good grip; it was smooth on the other side
so it could draw out without catching on anything; the blade was less than four inches long;
and the stone set in the handle gave it balance; superlative throwing weapon; carried in a
flat sheath in his sock. (any six of these eight points)
(iv) The narrator had driven out of the city and a little ahead he had seen a car with its driver
signalling for help. There was something wrong with the car.
(c) Summary:
(i) A minimum of six points are required. Marks were given for content. The following
points could also be combined into six points.
(ii) Marks were awarded for expression and the candidates ability to express the points
clearly. Marks were deducted for linguistic errors.
Possible points for the summary:
The narrator was driving on the road when he saw a car stopped on the side. 1
He got out of his car to help the driver.
The driver tried to hit him with a club-like weapon.
The narrator dodged the weapon but got hit on his shoulder. 2
His arm became numb.
The narrator groped for his own knife.
The knife was a left handed weapon so he could use it with his good hand.
The stranger tried to take out his gun but could not.
The narrator jumped on him just as he took his gun out.
The stranger swung around and ran into the narrators blade.
He sagged against the narrator.
He fell at the narrators feet and the knife came free.

(a) Topics found difficult by candidates in the Question Paper:
Q 1 (a), (c), and (d)
Q 4 (a) (i) and (a) (ii)
Q 4 (c) (i) and (c) (ii)

(b) Concepts in which candidates got confused:

Narrative essay and short story
Rules of transformation
Argumentative and critical writing / composition
Analysis, cause and effect
Note-making and writing the key words
Competition and Annual event / activity
Organizing as hosts and participating as guests

(c) Suggestions for candidates:

Read works in English, of good standard by noted writers
Practice use of new words
Use the dictionary and thesaurus extensively
Practice listening and speaking skills in English to acquire competence in writing skills
Pay close attention to the rubric, question-wise instructions, word-limit, key words of the
composition topics
Improve upon your stock of words and be aware of the changes taking place in English
Remain true to the rules of grammar and dont experiment with the set rules
Be careful of spelling errors, careless omissions and punctuation negligence
Do smart work to get the maximum marks



(Answer one question)

Question 1
Choose two of the passages (a) to (c) and answer briefly the questions that follow:
(a) Leonato : A victory is twice itself when the achiever brings home
full numbers. I find here that Don Pedro hath bestowed
much honour on a young Florentine called Claudio.
Messenger : Much deserved on his part, and equally remembered by
Don Pedro. He hath borne himself beyond the promise
of his age, doing in the figure of a lamb the feats of a
lion. He hath indeed better bettered expectation than
you must expect of me to tell you how.
Leonato : He hath an uncle here in Messina will be very much
glad of it.
(i) Where are the speakers? Which victory does Leonato refer to [1]
in his speech?
(ii) What role has Claudio played in the war? [2]
(iii) Explain the line:
A victory is twice itself when the achiever brings home full [1]
(iv) What information does the messenger give as a response to Leonatos [2]
words in the last line of the extract?
(v) What, according to the messenger, has been Benedicks performance in [2]
the war?
(vi) Give the meanings of the following words as they are used in the context [1]
of the passage:
bestowed; expectation; feats

(b) Leonato : [To Hero] Daughter, remember what I told you.If

the prince do solicit you in that kind, you know your

Beatrice : The fault will be in the music, cousin, if you be not

wooed in good time. If the prince be too important,
tell him there is measure in everything, and so dance
out the answer.

(i) Where does this scene take place? Who is the prince that Leonato is [1]
talking about?
(ii) What is Beatrices opinion regarding marriage just before this extract? [2]
(iii) Explain the line:
If the prince be too important, tell him there is measure in [1]
everything, and so dance out the answer.
(iv) Describe in detail the three dances that Beatrice compares to the acts of [2]
wooing, wedding and repenting.
(v) What does the scene tell you about Beatrices nature? [2]
(vi) Give the meanings of the following words as they are used in the [1]
context of the passage:

solicit; wooed; measure

(c) Benedick : Sir, sir, be patient. For my part, I am so attird in

I know not what to say.
Beatrice : O, on my soul, my cousin is belied.
Benedick : Lady, were you her bedfellow last night?
Beatrice : No, truly not, although until last night
I have this twelvemonth been her bedfellow.
Leonato : Confirmd, confirmd, oh that is stronger made,
Which was before barrd up with ribs of iron.
Would the two princes lie? And Claudio lie,
Who loved her so, that speaking of her foulness,
Washed it with tears? Hence from her, let her die.
Friar Francis : Hear me a little
For I have only been silent so long
And given way unto this course of fortune
By noting of the lady.
(i) Whom does Benedick refer to as Sir? [1]
(ii) Which signs has Friar Francis noted about Hero? [2]
(iii) Explain the line:
I have only been [1]
Silent so long, and given way unto
This course of fortune
(iv) What is Leonato confirming? How did he arrive at this conclusion? What [2]
does he wish for his daughter and why?

(v) What advice does Friar Francis give them later in the scene and what [2]
according to him could be the possible outcome to his plan?
(vi) Give the meanings of the following words as they are used in the context [1]
of the passage:
belied; attird; barrd

Comments of Examiners
(a) (i) While attempting this part, some candidates did
not give the reference to the war fought. Suggestions for teachers
(ii) The fact that Claudio, though young, had fought Students must be encouraged to do
bravely, was not written by several candidates. an exhaustive reading of text.
(iii)A number of candidates could not explain twice Students should be taught to
itself and full numbers. Most merely repeated identify and focus on important
what was already given in the quoted lines. information in the scenes studied.
(iv)Several candidates did not write that the Relationship between characters,
messenger had delivered the news to their traits, what their words
Claudios uncle and that he had wept tears of reveal about them should be
joy. They merely wrote that the uncle was emphasised.
overjoyed. Students should be encouraged to
(v) This part was answered correctly by most of the develop their own perspective and
candidates. analysis.
(vi)Some candidates were unable to give the correct
meaning of feats.
(b) (i) This part was answered correctly by most of the candidates.
(ii) Many candidates were unsure of their answers and gave vague answers about Beatrices
opinion of men.
(iii)The meaning of important and dance out the answer was not given by many candidates. It
was evident that these candidates did not know how to explain the lines.
(iv)There was considerable confusion about the three dances and the corresponding states of
emotion or feeling. Most candidates merely gave the names of the three dances.
(v) Most candidates answered this part correctly.
(vi)A few candidates could not give the correct meaning of the word solicit.
(c) (i) Most candidates answered this part correctly.
(ii) The signs of Heros innocence noticed by the Friar were not given in some cases. Some
candidates mentioned the emotions.
(iii)The lines were not explained exhaustively. Many candidates merely paraphrased the quoted
lines. The meaning of given way.course of fortune was not given in several cases.
(iv)The manner in which Leonato comes to the conclusion was not brought out in many answers.
(v) This part was answered correctly by majority of the candidates.
(vi)Most candidates answred this part correctly.

Question 1.
(a) (i) The speakers are in Leonatos house / in front of Leonatos house.
The victory referred to here is the successful military campaign of Don Pedro/ putting
down of civil strife by Don John.
(ii) Claudio has fought bravely in the war and though young and inexperienced (he is
compared to a lamb) he has fought like a lion and fought more bravely than was
expected of him.
(iii) The line means that the victory is worth celebrating as few men of high rank have been
killed in the war / have come home safely/ very few or none killed.
(iv) The messenger says that he had already delivered him letters and his uncle shed tears of
joy at the news.
(v) Benedick has fought well and has done good service in the wars. He is a good soldier.
(vi) Bestowed conferred/ given/ awarded/ showered
Expectation anticipation/ presumption / thought of
Feats achievements/ brave acts/ accomplishments/ attainments/ valiant deeds
(b) (i) The scene takes place in a hall in Leonatos house. Don Pedro is the prince that
Leonato is talking about.
(ii) Beatrice says that she will not accept a husband made of dust/clay. She will not be
mastered by a handful of dust. Adam is the father of mankind and so, all his sons are
her brothers.
(iii) Beatrice says if the prince is very important, then he should romance Hero like a dance.
The dance should have proper rhythm and timing./ If he is importunate, Hero should
remind him that there is proper rhythm and sequence in everything and so dance out her
answer,/ be tactful in her answer.
(iv) Wooing, wedding and repenting are like three different dances.
Wooing is like a Scottish Jig, hot, hasty and fantastical.
Wedding is like a measure, proper, modest and old fashioned.
Repentance is the lively Cinque pace. It moves with speed, faster and faster.
(any two have to associate act with dance)
(v) She is lively, intelligent, not over awed by her uncle and knows her own mind, witty,
independent, harbours a dislike for marriage, strong headed. (any two)
(vi) Solicit - ask, approach, entreat, appeal, seek approval
wooed to pursue in way of marriage / court
Measure moderation, proportion, rhythm, a slow dance.

(c) (i) Leonato
(ii) Heros face had an expression of shock which expressed that she was not unfaithful.
There was a burning desire in her eyes to prove to the princes that she is not guilty/she
is innocent.
(iii) I have only so long been quiet and allowed matters to go in this way/take its course.
(iv) Leonato confirms that his daughter is guilty because Beatrice mentions that she did not
keep Hero company the night the man was seen at her window. He wishes death for her
as it would be better for her than to live in shame and bring dishonour to his name.
(v) The Friar advises them to pretend that Hero has died.
The possible outcomes to his plan could be: news of her death may make those who are
accused feel pity/ her death will bring new life in Claudios deeper love/ will cleanse of
her tarnished reputation/ if plan fails she can be sent to a nunnery. (any one)
(vi) belied - falsely accused, slandered, blamed
attired wrapped up, covered, dressed, clothed
barred fastened, strengthened

ARMS AND THE MANGeorge Bernard Shaw

Question 2
Choose two of the passages (a) to (c) and answer briefly the questions that follow:
(a) Raina : [dreamily] I sent her away. I wanted to be alone. The
stars are so beautiful! What is the matter?
Catherine : Such news! There has been a battle.
Raina : [her eyes dilating]Ah! [She comes eagerly to Catherine].
Catherine : A great battle at Slivnitza! A victory! And it was won by
Raina : [with a cry of delight] Ah! (They embrace rapturously).
Oh, mother! (Then with sudden anxiety) Is father safe?
(i) How does Catherine assure Raina that her father is safe? [2]

(ii) Describe the role played by Sergius in the cavalry charge. [2]

(iii) What fear did Raina have about Sergius before he proved himself? [1]

(iv) Who interrupts the conversation between Raina and Catherine? What does [2]
the person inform them about the events in the town?
(v) How does Catherine want Raina to treat Sergius when he returns? [1]

(vi) What does Raina do when she is left alone in her chamber? [2]

(b) Catherine : You are a barbarian at heart still, Paul. I hope you behaved
yourself before all those Russian officers.
Petkoff: : I did my best. I took care to let them know that we have
a library.
Catherine : Ah; but you didnt tell them that we have an electric bell in it?
I have had one put up.
Petkoff : Whats an electric bell?
Catherine : You touch a button; something tinkles in the kitchen and then
Nicola comes up.
Petkoff : Why not shout for him?
(i) Where are Major Petkoff and Catherine? [1]

(ii) Why does Catherine call Major Petkoff a barbarian at heart? [2]
(iii) What reasons did Major give for his early return from war? [2]
(iv) What did both of them boast of? [1]
(v) Major and Catherine have their own individual views on civilized people. [2]
Give details of their views.
(vi) Whom does Major Petkoff shout at? [2]

(c) Nicola : [going closer to her for greater emphasis] Never you mind
my soul: but just listen to my advice. If you want to be a lady,
your present behaviour to me wont do at all, unless when
were alone. Its too sharp and impudent; and impudence is a
sort of familiarity: it shews affection for me.
(i) Why does Nicola react in this manner? [2]
(ii) In an earlier scene, what had Louka said about Nicolas soul? [1]
(iii) Explain the meaning of: its too sharp and impudent. [1]
(iv) How does Louka react to the suggestions given to her by Nicola in this [2]
(v) What explanation does Nicola give Sergius for his presence in the room? [2]
(vi) Give two traits of each of the following characters: [2]
(1) Nicola
(2) Louka

Comments of Examiners
(a) (i) Many candidates wrote that the messenger had
Suggestions for teachers
given the news of Sergius victory.
Stress upon a thorough reading of
(ii) The fact that Sergius had gone against his
the text.
instructions and acted without orders was not
The dynamics between characters
mentioned in several cases.
should be discussed in class.
(iii) A number of candidates did not write that
Characteristics and attitudes of the
Raina feared that Sergius would cut a poor
characters to the various situations
figure on the battlefield.
should be pointed out.
(iv) This part was answered correctly by most
Development of the plot/action
should be noted.
(v) Many candidates did not use the word
worship but used various other synonyms
which were accepted.
(vi) Rainas activities were not clearly given by many candidates.
(b) (i) Most candidates answered this part correctly.
(ii) The discussion between Major Petkoff and his wife about bathing was not correctly given by
a number of candidates.
(iii) The order to demobilise the army was not mentioned in many answers.
(iv) The library and the electric bell were not mentioned in some scripts.
(v) This part was generally answered correctly.
(vi) Most candidates attempted this part correctly.
(c) (i) Nicolas sense of affront was not conveyed properly in many cases.
(ii) Candidates answered this part correctly.
(iii) The exact meaning of sharp and impudent was not given in several cases. Answers were
vague and generalised.
(iv) Many candidates seemed to be unaware of the answer to this question. They did not mention
that she felt that Nicola took away all her courage with his cold blooded wisdom.
(v) Candidates answered this part correctly.
(vi) This part was attempted correctly by most candidates.

Question 2.
(a) (i) He has sent the news about the victory in the battle of Slivnitza. He has informed that
Sergius is the hero of the hour, the idol of the regiment.
(ii) Sergius went against Russian commanders/ acted without orders, led and headed the
cavalry charge on his own responsibility/ was the first man to attack.
(iii) She feared that he might cut a poor figure in front of all those clever Russians officers.
(iv) Louka. To fasten the shutters and close the windows as there may be shooting in streets.
The Serbs being chased by Bulgarian cavalry, there is a possibility of them running into
(v) Catherine wants Raina to worship him when he returns.
(vi) Takes of her fur cloak and throws it on the ottoman OR goes to the chest of drawers to
adore Sergius portrait, takes it in her hands and elevates it like a priestess OR prepares
to read a romantic novel.

(b) (i) In the garden of Major Petkoffs house.
(ii) Catherine calls her husband a barbarian at heart, because he tells her that he does not
believe in the modern custom of washing and bathing every day. His father had never
had a bath in his life and he lived to be 98, the healthiest man in Bulgaria. He does not
mind a good wash once a week to keep up to his position but once a day was extreme and
ridiculous. (any two)
(iii) The war was over/ The treaty was signed three days ago at Bucharest /and the order for
the army to demobilise was issued the day before.
(iv) Petkoff had boasted of having a library in their house and Catherine now tells him that
they had also an electric bell.
(v) Catherine feels it is uncivilised to shout for ones servants as civilized people did not do
so. Petkoff told her that civilized people did not hang out their washing to dry where
visitors could see them. Catherine says civilised people would not notice such things.
(vi) Major Petkoff shouted at Nicola (as Nicola did not respond to his call). (He felt that
Nicola had become deaf).
(c) (i) Nicola is stung by Loukas comment that he prefers to be her servant rather than her
husband humiliates him, mentions his soul which is that of a servant.
(ii) Louka said that she knew Nicolas soul, which was the soul of a servant. She meant that
Nicola could only be a servant and nothing else.
(iii) Loukas behaviour, according to Nicola, was too rude and undignified.

(iv) Louka is rebellious and defiant. She tells Nicola that he takes away all courage from her
by his cold blooded wisdom.
(v) Nicola told Sergius that he was here to warn Louka away as whenever, she had free time,
she would run to the library to read books. (Obviously, Nicola is trying to create a good
impression about Louka in Sergius mind).
(vi) Nicola, the male servant is obedient servile and faithful.
Louka is ambitious, defiant, clever, shrewd and an opportunist.


(Answer four questions on at least three textbooks which may include EITHER
Much Ado about Nothing OR Arms and the Man.)

Question 3 [20]
How do Ursula, Don Pedro and Hero try to trick Beatrice into believing that Benedick is in
love with her? How does Beatrice react and what does she resolve to do?

Comments of Examiners:
This was a purely textual question, so candidates should
have paid attention to close textual detail. Suggestions for teachers
Some candidates gave a very long and winding Stress upon a thorough reading of
introduction so the actual tricking of Beatrice was the texts. Discourage summaries or
shortened considerably. notes.
The main points of the scene/scenes
Some tended to give an account of the tricking of
Benedick also. should be noted and emphasised.
Close attention to textual detail was missing. Students should learn to interpret,
Many candidates left out the second part of the question analyse and develop a point of
and therefore in spite of writing the first part well, lost view.
Important lines which can be used
While many candidates quoted extensively from the for quotations should be pointed
scene some tended to write mere summaries without any out.
reference or quotation from the scene. Students should learn how
Poor language and weak construction of the long answer character traits are revealed through
question led to low marks being scored in some cases. the actions of the characters.
Few commented on Heros unusual liveliness and her
ingenuity as revealed in this scene.

Question 3
Don Pedro is interested in the merry war that exists between Beatrice and Benedick.
He feels that they are suited to each other and believes that if only they could overcome their
antipathy to each other, they would able to come closer. He includes Claudio and Hero in his plan.
While Don Pedro and Claudio decided to arrange matters in such a manner, that Benedick would be
made aware of Beatrices liking him, Hero decides to ensure that Beatrice would also realize
Benedicks deep affection for her.
She sets the scene in the orchard where she plans to engage Ursula in artless conversation all the
while ensuring that Beatrice over hears them.
Hero sets trap for Beatrice by sending Margaret to tell Beatrice that she is the subject of Hero and
Ursulas gossip.
Beatrice appears instantly and follows them, hidden among the honeysuckle, to eavesdrop.
Hero and Ursula speak of Benedicks unrequited love for Beatrice and Beatrices disdainful scorn
for Benedick.
They speak of Benedicks virtues and Beatrices faults, concluding that Beatrice is too
self-endeared to be told of the matter.
Hero, feigning exasperation, tells Ursula that she will devise some honest slander to poison
Benedicks love for Beatrice and thereby save him from wasting away with love.
Alone, reflecting on what she has just heard, Beatrice surrenders contempt and maiden pride, and
determines to accept Benedicks love.

Beatrices simple, humble, intuitive acceptance of her faults and her willingness to change
foreshadows the intimacy of her next meeting with Benedick.
Beatrices concern for Benedick is real, though guarded due to an earlier perceived rejection by

Question 4 [20]
Though Hero is supposed to be the heroine of the play, she is a passive character. Discuss.
Comments of Examiners
There was a tendency to write Heros character which
Suggestions for teachers
was not required - candidates did not seem to have read
Discourage the tendency to merely
or understood the words of the question.
Very flat and generalised answers were given in some
Encourage independent thought and
cases. A few candidates wrote about Heros quiet dignity
or that she is being presented as a stereotype. Most
Encourage students to focus on the
candidates tended to compare and contrast her with her
wording of the question.
more vivacious cousin Beatrice.
Discourage flat answers. Answers
Some candidates gave a short summary of the play. Very
should be analytical and display
few examples from the play were given.
critical insight with constant
Very few candidates mentioned Heros unusual liveliness
reference to individual scenes and
and inventiveness during the tricking of Beatrice.

Question 4
Hero is the heroine of the play but she is overshadowed by Beatrice and thrown into the
background due to her passive and meek nature. She is influenced by other characters and events
and acted upon by external circumstances rather than taking the course of action herself.
In Act I, though, she is the lady of the house, she speaks only to inform that Signor Montanto is
Benedick, she quietly accepts her fathers order to accept Don Pedro if he proposes to marry her.
Then, she passively accepts Claudio and is resigned to her fate when she is brutally slandered in
church. She remarks Hath no mans dagger here a point for me? and then she swoons. In the last
revelation scene, she readily accepts Claudio and agrees to marry him.
Unlike Beatrice she shows a tendency to depend on others. Only in the gulling scene of Beatrice
does she show use of wit and intelligence, practices deception on her cousin. She is quite, chaste
and modest, the pride of her father and this impression is what she leaves on the audience.
Dignified manner in which she deals with Don Pedro.
Foil to Beatrice.
Pattern of womanhood along the lines of Ophelia & Desdemona.
Acted upon does not act.
Contrast to Beatrice: Beatrices indignation juxtaposed against Heros quiet compliance.

ARMS AND THE MANGeorge Bernard Shaw
Question 5 [20]
Give a vivid description of the interaction between Raina and the fugitive in the first Act.
How are their views different from each other?
Comments of Examiners
Most candidates provided correct and exhaustive answers Suggestions for teachers
to this question. However, some gave very long Stress upon a thorough reading of
introductions and therefore the actual interaction was the play.
mentioned very briefly. Some merely provided a Discussion of the major issues
summary of the scene. The two viewpoints of the cavalry presented in the play must be carried
charge was not written in some cases. A few candidates out in class.
did not focus on Bluntschlis description of the realities The attitudes of the characters, their
of war. pronouncements should be
The second part of the question was not answered by examined in the light of their natures
several candidates. and roles in the play.
Students should be taught to avoid
the tendency to summarise.

Question 5
Raina is young, beautiful, aristocratic and engaged to Sergius, a handsome officer fighting for his
country. She takes great pride in her heritage, her family and her love.
Raina has romantic and idealized attitude towards love and war based on reading Byron,
Pushkin and attending operas. She is extremely thrilled with Sergiuss victory.
A fugitive seeks cover in her room while trying to escape the Bulgarian army. He threatens her
unchivalrously. She protects him by hiding him behind the curtains.
He gives her the true picture of war, which is in sharp contrast to her concepts of chivalry and
He talks about chocolates and is frightened; nervous and ready to cry which is definitely not what
is expected of a soldier.
He has no quixotic illusions about his profession or about the business of warfare.
He destroys Rainas romantic image of Sergius and makes him appear as foolish and a coward.
A fugitive who shows Raina reality and is practical in his views.
It signifies a pragmatic and down-to-earth attitude to war with Rainas romantic ideals and vision.
Anti Romantic theme.

Question 6 [20]
Arms and The Man has been called a drama of ideas. Discuss the manner in which the
ideas on War, Love and Social Status are dealt with in the play.

Comments of Examiners
The contrasting ideas of war and love were not given by
many candidates. Very generalised answers were given Suggestions for teachers
While teaching emphasis should be
by a number of candidates. The theme of social snobbery laid not merely on the plot or the
was not dealt with in several cases. There was very little story but also on the characters and
reference to Shaws socialistic ideas as presented in the the themes of the play.
play. Candidates did not analyse why Raina prefers Students should be encouraged to
Bluntschli and Sergius feels comfortable with Louka. discuss their interpretations and
Some candidates displayed a tendency to summarise. insights into the incidents and the
characters of the play.

Question 6
The drama of ideas is an aspect of modern drama.
This was a natural progression from the well-made Play of the19th century which had the features
of exposition, situation and unravelling.
In modern Drama, this was replaced by exposition, situation and discussion.
The discussion centred on the conflict of contrasting ideas.
In Arms and the Man, Shaw presents several ideas which went against contemporary beliefs and
Central to the play is the conflict between idealism and realism.
Shaw uses the drama of ideas but uses humour and laughter to expose the unrealistic attitudes
towards Love and War. In this way, he made his ideas more palatable to his audience.
He attacks the sham glamour and the artificial sentiment associated with love and war which lead
people to adopt romantic postures and deceive themselves.
Through Raina and Sergius, the drama depicts the idealisation of love. The romantic couple behave
like characters in a heroic romance.
Sergius imagines himself as a knight of medieval romance and dedicates his military achievements
to his lady love, Dearest, all my deeds have been yours. You inspired me. I have gone through the
war like a knight in a tournament, with his lady looking down at him.
They talk about higher love. Their language and actions are hyperbolical - he drops chivalrously
upon one knee to kiss he hand; she adores his portrait and elevates it like a priestess. They
worship each other. She refers to him as, my soul, my hero, my lord and so on. He addresses
her as my queen, my lady, my saint. Their language with each other is the language of courtly
love. They believe that there can be: no meanness, no smallness, no deceit in their love.

This is however belied by Sergius attitude with Louka. Raina finds herself attracted to Bluntschli,
her chocolate cream soldier. Both realise that higher love is a very fatiguing thing to keep up
for any length of time.
The play also explores the romanticism that surrounds War. Raina and Catherine see only the
glamour of War. Catherines eloquent description of Sergius accomplishment at Slivnitza is the
stuff of romance. You cant guess how splendid it wasChaff
Bluntschli, the fugitive from the battlefield, brings in the realistic aspect of War. He exposes the
fear and futility of war comparing Sergius to Don Quixote tilting at windmills.
Ultimately, even Sergius denounces war as a fraud. A hollow sham. He says, soldering is the
cowards art of attacking mercilessly..equal terms.
We learn that Sergius won because the Serbians did not have the correct ammunition.
Bluntschli, on the other hand, is a professional who fights only when it is necessary. Im a
professional soldier. I fight.havent to. He isnt an amateur like Sergius who playacts whether it
be at love or at war.
The play also deals with social snobbery. The Petkoffs boast of their library, their trips to Vienna,
and their lineage which goes back twenty years. Their snobbery is revealed as a hollow sham. In
Shaws eyes (perhaps referring to the snobbery of the upper classes in England.) wealth and status
is not commendable, ability and efficiency is. By this yardstick, Nicola, Bluntschli and Louka are
more able than Sergius and the Petkoffs.
The issue of social class is also discussed through the aspirations of people like Louka and Nicola.
Whereas Nicola is content with his position and wishes to be the perfect servant so that he can
open his own shop with the goodwill of his employers, Louka wishes to be free of the restrictions
of class and society as she feels that she is no way inferior to Raina. She sets about achieving her
goal and ultimately wins Sergius.

IVANHOESir Walter Scott

Question 7 [20]
Describe the general tournament held on the second day of the tournament at Ashby.
Comment on the role of the Dark Knight at the tournament.

Comments of Examiners
Few candidates attempted this question.

Question 7
The second day of the tournament was a general tournament. It was more dangerous than single
encounters and at the same time, more frequented and practised by the chivalry of the age.
Many knights who did not have the confidence in their own skill to defy a single adversary, of high
reputation, would display their valour in the general combat.
At this general tournament about 50 knights would fight on each side.

The Disinherited Knight was the leader of one body and Boris Guilbert would lead the other band.
Prince Johns arrival was followed by the arrival of Cedric with Lady Rowena. Prince John
assisted Lady Rowena, the destined Queen of the Day to the seat opposite his own.
Heralds proclaimed silence and the rules of the tourney were declared. This was necessary as the
tournament would be conducted with sharp swords and pointed lances, so undue disasters had to be
The combat had to cease as soon as Prince John threw down the warder in his hand. If a knight
contravened the rules, he would be stripped of his arms, humiliated and punished.
After the proclamation, the heralds withdrew and knights entered on either side and arranged
themselves in a double file opposite each other with the leader of each party in the centre..
The trumpets sounded and the foremost ranks of either party rushed at each other. The rear rank of
each party advanced at a slower pace to help the defeated and aid the victors of their party.
After the dust had settled, it could be seen that half the knights on each side had fallen off their
horses. The ones still mounted, were now fighting with swords as their lances had broken.
The second rank on each side who were acting as reserve rushed forward to aid their companions.
The Disinherited Knights party were at a disadvantage. He was hemmed in by Frank de Beouf and
Athelstane. The publics sympathies were with him. Only his superb horsemanship kept saving
Prince John was advised to throw down his warder and end the fight but his malice against the
Disinherited Knight prevented him from doing so.
In the Disinherited Knights party there was a large knight in black armour, mounted on a black
horse. Initially he showed no interest in fighting, acting more like a spectator. The public had
dubbed him the Black Sluggard.
When the Disinherited Knight was surrounded and attacked, he came to his aid and attacked
Athelstane. Having dealt with him, he left the Disinherited Knight to deal with Bois Guilbert.
Seeing the Templar at a disadvantage, Prince John threw down the warder and ended the fight.
Prince John was urged to announce the Disinherited Knight as the best knight of the tournament
but he decided to award the Black Knight. However when his name was announced, he was
nowhere to be found.
When the Disinherited Knight was brought forward to receive the chaplet of honour, his helmet
was removed and the people realised that he was actually Ivanhoe, Cedrics estranged son.

Question 8 [20]
Compare and contrast the characters Rowena and Rebecca. What are the difficulties faced
by each of the women?

Comments of Examiners
Few candidates attempted this question.

Question 8
In many ways, Rebecca and Rowena are quite similar. They are beautiful, virtuous, loyal, self-
possessed. They contend with strong willed fathers and they love Ivanhoe. Lady Rowena is the
ward of Cedric the Saxon. She is prevented from marrying Ivanhoe till the end of the book
because Cedric would like to see Rowena married to Athelstane, a match that could reawaken the
Anglo-Saron line. Rowena is fair, chaste, loyal, mild mannered but she has some backbone as she
defies her guardian by refusing to marry Athelstane. Rebecca the daughter of Issac, a Jew, falls in
love with Ivanhoe but she shows self-control.
The differences that emerges between them is simply the different challenges they face. The
portrayal of Rebecca is more sympathetic as she does more she heals Ivanhoe and has to contend
with her own feelings. Rebecca tends to Ivanhoe after his injury at Ashby and falls in love with
him. She is also the woman Brian de Bois Guilbert pursues putting her in the position of being
victimised at Temple-stone.
Another point of view is the womens cultural backgrounds as a Saxon, Rowena is a second class
citizen, as a Jew Rebecca is truly beneath everyone in the social hierarchy of twelfth century
England. This fact makes the readers sympathetic to her. That the Templars are able to try her as a
sorceress with no evidence whatsoever is also due to the fact that she is Jewish. They would never
have done this to a Christian Saxon such as Rowena.

Question 9 [20]
Evaluate the role of Gurth in the plot of Ivanhoe.

Comments of Examiners
Few candidates attempted this question.

Question 9
A swineherd for Cedric of Rutherwood.
He wears an iron collar around his neck with Cedrics name on it like a dog.
He has great regard for his master, shares Cedrics love for Saxon culture but hatred for Normans.
He wants to be free.
Cedric chains him for leaving Rutherwood without permission.
What really sours things between Gurth and Cedric isnt politics of thralldom, its Ivanhoe.
He chooses to help Ivanhoe at the Ashby tournament rather than looking after Cedrics pigs.
Even though he is truly loyal to Cedric, he is actually close to Ivanhoe.
When De Bracy and Bois Guilbert capture Cedric, he does best to save his life.
When they are fighting on the same side with Gurth to rescue Cedric, he is successfully freed and
Cedric appreciates his effort and Gurths dream comes true.
Although he genuinely loves both, ultimately he still remains a slave.

Question 10 [20]
Give a vivid description of how E.V. Lucas views the pleasures of giving and receiving
presents in his essay Unbirthday and other Presents.

Comments of Examiners
Very vague and generalised answers were given by many
candidates. Some candidates did not seem aware of the Suggestions for teachers
Stress upon a careful reading of the
points and made up their own answers. There was
absence of examples from the essay in many answers. essays.
The main points of the essay could
The importance of unbirthday presents was not
emphasised by several candidates. be underlined for greater clarity and
Students should be able to
understand the writers intent and
point of view.

Question 10
There are different varieties of gifts birthday, wedding, Christmas.
Unbirthday presents are the nicest. It calls for great care and excitement, as other presents may not
require thought or affection.
It is the only present where the golden rule applies you must never give to another, anything
that you would rather keep for yourself, nothing that does not cause you a pang to part from.
The thoughts that go in while buying a birthday present and an unbirthday present.
The benevolence factor comes into play when one thinks of buying unbirthday presents.
Ordinary presents are sought as dates near. Out of all the three presents, wedding presents are
generally bought without care or affection.
Lucas states that certain presents should not be given as presents pictures, scent, cigars and
neckties. He says where thoughts and imagination are required it will always be difficult to select.
While hunting for presents there is a possibility of visiting curiosity shops set up in high-end areas.
He claims that carrying chequebook in these places would be extremely dangerous.
Refers to a London shop that has kept a cheque-block on every counter and has a mechanical door.
He ends on the note that if shops adopted these plans then happiness of the world would be

Question 11 [20]
An inconvenience is only an adventure wrongly considered. With close reference to
G.K. Chestertons essay On Running After Ones Hat, give suitable examples to prove
his point.

Comments of Examiners
Candidates displayed a tendency to summarise the
Suggestions for teachers
essay. There was repetition of points in many answers.
Stress upon a thorough reading of
The cheerful, optimistic, positive attitude of the writer
the essay.
was not brought out by many candidates. In several
The examples given by the essayist
cases, examples given by the writer were not given.
could be listed for better
The tone of the essay and the attitude
of the essayist should be pointed out.

Question 11
G.K. Chesterton conveys the message of optimism towards lifes trivial annoyance. He comments
on the interesting nature of inconveniences expecting everyone to look at such inconveniences,
e.g. flooding in London and the fire in a romantic light.
He claims that men swear or women cry due to sentimental or imaginative inconveniences.
He cites an example of a grown up complaining while waiting for a train. For a young boy this
wait turns out to be a time of adventure. What is important is ones perception.
He illustrates how a man running after his hat shouldnt be regarded as an inconvenience but as a
comic event. He compliments and thanks an old gentleman running after his hat in Hyde Park for
he provided a humorous situation for onlookers to enjoy.
He focuses on his friends everyday attempt to open up his jammed drawer and encourages him to
picture his efforts as exciting and adventurous.
Thus even the floods in London should be regarded as nothing more than adventures.
By examining these everyday inconveniences, Chesterton concludes that they are unrealized

Question 12 [20]
Referring closely to the essay, On Going On a Journey, discuss Hazlitts thoughts on
going on a journey.

Comments of Examiners
Generalised and vague answers were given by many Suggestions for teachers
candidates. Weaker candidates tended to write their own Careful reading and re-reading of
essays which had no relevance to the text. The attitude the essay must be stressed upon.
and the philosophy of the essayist was not brought out in Students should try and attempt
many answers. Hazlitts arguments for a solitary journey silent reading so as to internalise
was not mentioned by several candidates who attempted the intention of the writer.
this question. Main points should be pointed out
and emphasised

Question 12
William Hazlitt likes to go on a journey alone. While he enjoys society indoors, outdoors, nature
is company enough for him.
He does not like to carry the encumbrances of life in the city when he goes on his journey. He
prefers his solitude.
He also enjoys the perfect liberty to think, feel and do as he pleases. In such circumstances he
would like to be left to his repose.
He refers to Sterne who had said that he would like a companion during his travels, but one who
would only remark about natural phenomena and nothing else. However, Hazlitt believes that the
constant comparing of notes interferes with the involuntary impression of things on the mind and
hurts the sentiment. He does not want any conflict or controversy during his journey.
This would make a toil of pleasure. Perhaps both are attracted and enchanted by different things
and instead of being in perfect accord there would be a certain uneasiness and dissatisfaction.
Moreover, it would be difficult to communicate ones perceptions to others. He says that to give
way to ones feelings before others seems extravagance or affectation and at the same time to
unravel the mystery of ones thoughts and to make others take an equal interest in it is a task to
which few are competent. Even if he has a travelling companion, he would not like to share too
many of his thoughts with him. A friend may intrude into our musings and thoughts and bring up
unpalatable topics.
He lovingly mentions spots where he has had unusual experiences. He would like to return to
these places at some distant time, but he would like to return alone, so that he can revive the
influx of thoughts of regret and delight that he had felt once. He would also like to ponder over
the realisation of how much both he and the world have changed.
Hazlitt declares that he has no objection to visiting ruins, aqueducts and pictures in the company
of friends or a party as these things can be talked about. The sentiment here is not tacit but
communicable and overt.
He distinguishes between the two kinds of journeying. In setting out on a solitary ramble, the
question is what we shall meet by the way. He declares that the mind is its own place and we are
not really ready to arrive at the end of our journey.

When he goes on a journey to a foreign country, he would like a companion as he would like to
hear the sound of his own language. Moreover certain sights like the Pyramids are too mighty for
any single contemplation.


Question 13 [20]
In the short story A Real Durwan, Boori Mas services resembled those of a real
durwan. Do you agree with the given statement? What are your views with regard to her
Comments of Examiners
Candidates who attempted this question gave very vague
Suggestions for teachers
and general answers. The idea of Boori Ma as a durwan
While teaching, help students grasp
was not brought out by many candidates. Several
the main points of the story.
candidates did not attempt the latter part of the answer.
Encourage class discussions so that
a text can be looked at from
different angles. The points of view
of the different characters should be

Question 13
Boori Ma committed and dedicated woman sweeping the stairwell, lived a simple life.
She patrolled activities not only within the building but also around it and her services like a real
durwan. In the building no one had anything valuable except Mrs. Misra who had a telephone.
Refugee from East Bengal during partition. Took refuge in this building. Created fanciful stories
of her opulent lifestyle before partition. She recalled her happy days before the partition now
she is a refugee. Mr. Chatterjees constant refrain she was the victim of changing times.
She was a superb entertainer and everyone loved and liked her.
Boori Ma visited the homes of residents who welcomed her.
Patrolled activities in the colony.
Screened itinerant peddlers.
Would summon a rickshaw for the inhabitants of the house.
With a few slaps of her broom, she would rout any suspicious character that strayed into the area
in order to spit, urinate, or cause some other trouble.
Is compared to the gatekeepers of houses on Lower Circular Road or Jodhpur Park.
The residents of the building took her services for granted.
She existed on the fringes of their lives, commenting and observing.( She would sit in the
doorway, not inside their rooms)

However her relatively easy existence changed when the following occurred:
One Mrs. Dalal, on the third floor took special care of her. When her husband got promoted, he
bought two basins. He planned to install one on the stairwell just to impress visitors.
The workmen toiled throughout the day making it impossible for Boori Ma to sweep the stairwell
and she retired to the rooftop. Mr. Chatterjee again commented that these were sure signs of the
changing times.
Mr. Dalal promised her a blanket as they were going on a vacation; she was the only one who
wished her goodbye.
Renovation works started in many households making it difficult for her to keep track of people
going in and out of the collapsible gate. She took to sleeping on the rooftop. She became
restless and started circling the neighbourhood in the afternoons, talking to strangers.
The basin got stolen and the blame fell on her. People in the building sought the advice of
Mr. Chatterjee who claimed that the building needed a real durwan. Everyone decided to
appoint a real durwan.. Boori Ma resigned herself to her fate.
Theme of displacement and alienation. Boori Ma truly falls a victim to changing times and
Personal Interpretationirony of the term real durwan. Decision of the inmates reflects the
growing selfishness and mercenary and materialistic attitudes of times erasing all humanity.

Question 14 [20]
Referring closely to the short story The Lumber Room, discuss how young Nicholas
outwits his aunt and thus evades her attempts to confine him in a dry, boring and
unimaginative existence.

Comments of Examiners
Many candidates scored well in this question. Most
answers were well written and comprehensive. Suggestions for teachers
Very close reading of the text is
Some candidates did not focus on Nicholas opinion of vital.
his aunt and the manner in which he outwits her. The Encourage students to explore the
lumber room and the sway its treasures had on the young ideas presented through the story.
boys imagination was not explored. Nicholas fertile Teach the students to corroborate
mind as opposed to his aunts unimaginative their opinions with examples from
authoritarian nature was not explored in a few cases. the text.

Question 14
The Lumber room takes us into the magical world of the child, Nicholas, the protagonist of the
story is a precocious child with a lively imagination. His aunt on the other hand, is a literal
minded, unimaginative dictatorial person, who enjoyed using the psychology of the carrot and the
stick as a means of disciplining the children. The aunt in the story is modelled upon one of
Murros aunts who had made his childhood miserable.
Little wonder then that Nicholas was always testing his abilities against the tolerance levels of his
aunt. The incident described in the short story centres around the punishment meted out to
Nicholas by his aunt. The punishment was given to Nicholas because Nicholas had declared that
there was a frog in his wholesome bread and milk and had therefore, refused to have it. The aunt
had immediately turned the excuse frivolous. However, Nicholas, the skilled tactician had
refused to shift from his ground because he had himself put the frog into the bowl of bread and
His aunt had taken immediate punitive measures. His boy-cousin, and girl-cousin and his quite
uninteresting younger brother were to be taken to the Jagborough sands to enjoy themselves while
Nicholas was to stay at home. Unfortunately, however, the looked for reaction in Nicholas was not
forthcoming. Nicholas did not look suitably chastened. The beginning of the expedition itself
seemed to indicate how it would progress as the girl-cousin scrapped her knee rather painfully
against the step of the carriage as she was scrambling in and as she began crying.
Somehow, this seemed to put Nicholas in good humour. He also knew that his younger brother
Bobby would not enjoy himself as his boots were tight and were hurting him. His aunt sought to
further increase misery by dictating that Nicholas would not go into the Gooseberry garden which
was one of his favourite haunts. Predictably, Nicholas face took on a look of obstinacy. This
proved to his aunt that he was determined to get into the Gooseberry Garden. Because I have
told him, he is not to to foil his attempts, the aunt spent an hour or two in trivial garden
operations so that she could keep a watchful eye on Nicholas and prevent him from entering the
forbidden paradise. This was quite in character as the aunt was a woman of few ideas.
Nicholas, however, had other plans He did make one or two sorties into the garden with obvious
stealth of purpose but he had other plans of entertaining himself. He had planned to explore the
Lumber Room which was always kept locked. Compared to the Lumber Room with all its hidden
delights, the Gooseberry Garden was a delight, a mere material pleasure.
The Lumber Room is normally a room where discarded furniture and objects no longer in use are
kept. To the young Nicholas, the large dimly lit room with one high window providing the only
source of illumination was a store house of unimagined treasures. He lost himself in the piece of
framed tapestry which was evidently meant to be a fire screen. To Nicholas, the details of the
tapestry picture was a living breathing story. The tapestry depicted a hunting scene, a man
having killed a stag with an arrow. Nicholas deduced that it could not have been a difficult shot
because the stag was only one or two paces away from the hunter. The thick vegetation
embroidered on the tapestry suggested that the hunter had crept up to a feeding stag. The two dogs
in Nicholas opinion had been trained to keep to heel till the arrow was discharged. Nicholas also
imagined four galloping wolves coming towards the hunter. His lively imagination wondered
whether the hunter would be able to kill them with the two arrows remaining in his quiver. Thus,
he sat for many golden minutes revolving possibilities of the scene.

Nicholas attention was also captured by other interesting things stored in the room such as the
quaint twisted candle sticks in the shape of snakes, a teapot fashioned like a China duck and a
carved sandalwood box packed with aromatic cotton wool in which was stored little brass figures
of bull, peacocks and goblins delightful to see and to handle. There was also a large square book
with plain black covers inside which there were pictures of the most exotic and delightful birds.
While Nicholas was admiring the pictures, he heard his aunt calling out to him. When the
summons became more and more agitated, and shrill, Nicholas crept out from the room, locked it
behind him and sauntered casually into the garden. There, he found that the aunt had slipped into
the rainwater tank, while trying to search for him. She now needed Nicholas help to get out. This
was the perfect moment for Nicholas to extract his revenge. He declared that the voice was not his
aunts at all. It was actually the evil one tempting him. He proceeded to test the voice was
asking whether there would be strawberry jam for tea. When the aunt said yes, he immediately
declared that this proved that he certainly was the evil one because his aunt had said that there
wasnt any jam. Nicholas had seen four jars in the store cupboard. Probably, his aunt did not
know of their presence. However, the evil one must have known about the jars. there was an
unusual sense of luxury in being able to talk to an aunt as though, one was talking to the Evil
One. However, Nicholas knew that he could not stretch the matter any further and therefore, he
went nosily away from the spot. The aunt had to be rescued by a kitchen maid.
The twist in the story arises out of the fact that Nicholas who was supposed to have been punished,
enjoyed himself the most that day whereas the three children who were given a treat had a
thoroughly miserable time at the beach.

Question 15 [20]
Referring closely to the short story Lamb to the Slaughter, give details of the conditions
that led Mary Maloney to commit her husbands murder. Describe her feelings and the
strategies adopted by her to prove her innocence.

Comments of Examiners
Most candidates wrote good answers to this question.
Some however, made errors in factual details. The events Suggestions for teachers
leading to Mary murdering her husband were not Stress upon a thorough reading of
explained by a number of candidates. The strategies the text.
adopted by her to establish her innocence and to gain the Students should be taught to
sympathy of the policemen were not given in detail in establish the sequence of events in
several cases. The ending of the story was not explored. the story.
Instead of mentioning the leg of lamb several other Students should be warned against
things were mentioned by the candidates. presenting incorrect facts in their

Question 15
Mary Maloney, six months pregnant, is awaiting her detective husbands return. His return was
always a blissful time of day for her. It is evident that her life revolves around her husband
She made him drinks, but there is not much conversation; the husband prepares another drink for
himself. She tries to talk to him but he does not pay attention. He seems a little tense and
He makes her sit down and tells her that he wants to leave her but promises to give her money and
promises to look after her. Her reaction- at first she does not seem to understand his words.
She takes refuge in routine and does things mechanically. She decides to roast a leg of lamb for
supper but hes not interested His words act as a trigger and suddenly she walks behind him and
hits him with the meat piece felling him with a blow.
Reality kicks in and still acting on impulse, she quickly puts the meat in the oven. She becomes
aware of her crime and knows the outcome but is concerned about her unborn child. Already a
scheme is being prepared in her mind. She gets ready, rehearses her lines and checks her voice and
facial expression before she goes to the grocer, Sam, and has a normal conversation with him. In
her conversation, she establishes the fact that she is cooking supper for her husband
When she returns home all her emotions come to the fore. She assumes the role of the hysterical
She dials the police station.
Noonan and OMalley investigate the case along with two detectives and a police photographer.
The policemen were exceptionally nice to her and tried to make her feel comfortable.
They search for clues and discuss all possibilities. Mrs. Maloney seizing the opportunity offers
drinks and encourages them to have the meat while they continue to discuss the case thus leaving
no evidence of the weapon used to murder her husband.
She sits in the other room and giggles, giving the story a slightly macabre ending. The reader is
left entertained but also horrified.


Question 16 [20]
The poem The Eve of Waterloo begins in revelry and merriment, which unexpectedly
transforms into despair and ultimately, a revelation. Describe the events that lead to this

Comments of Examiners
Partial answers were given by many candidates. Most Suggestions for teachers
answers were generalised and showed lack of awareness Poems should be studied keeping
of the text. the theme and major ideas in mind.
The transition from revelry and merriment to tension and Students should become aware of
fear and ultimately pathos was not explored in many tone, imagery, poetic tools used.
answers. Concepts found difficult should be
Important portions of the poem, especially the reference explained clearly.
to the Scots and the two last stanzas of the poem were left References to experiences of
out by some candidates. The revelation at the end was left students would encourage and foster
out in several cases. empathy.

Question 16
The Eve of Waterloo refers to the events that took place before the battle of Quatre Bras a
preliminary battle before the Battle of Waterloo.
The poem begins with the description of a Ball in Belgiums capital Brussels by the Duchess of
Richmond. There is merriment, excitement and revelry as the beautiful women interacted with the
brave soldiers until their enjoyment is disrupted by the sound of cannons.
They ignore the sound and resume their fun when the cannons sound even more deadly than
Fredrick William of Brunswick understands the meaning of the sound and rushes to the battlefield
to avenge his fathers death. He fell fighting as a hero.
The approaching enemy led to sudden partings between the soldiers and the ladies as the
soldiers are bound by their sense of duty and responsibility.
The war preparations begin and with the sounding of the trumpets, the soldiers are roused to
action. Even the citizens throng the streets with fear in their hearts..
The Scottish ranks recall their martial glory and the fame of their Scottish heroes, Evan and
As the army march through the woods of Ardennes, even Nature appears to be lamenting. These
soldiers now treading the grass by evening might be dead beneath the same grass
The entire sequence of events is recalled and when the war ends the earth appears to be uniformly
covered. Death becomes a great leveller.
The ephemeral nature of all human endeavour is portrayed. War is presented at the end of the
poem as the great leveller. There is also the suggestion that war only leads to large scale

Question 17 [20]

Referring closely to the poem Mending Wall, discuss the two attitudes to barriers or walls,
as presented in the poem. What, in your opinion, does the poet wish to convey through the

Comments of Examiners
Many candidates did not seem to have understood the
poem, especially, the whimsical tone of the speaker in Suggestions for teachers
the poem. No critical insight was found in the answers. Philosophy of life reflected in the
poem should be explored in class.
Most candidates attempted a vague general summary of The two voices or attitudes should
the poem without focussing on the deeper issues be emphasised.
involved. The two attitudes to walls and relations were The characteristics of the poet
not brought out in many answers. The two voices or should be explained to the students.
points of view were ignored. Issues arising out of the poem could
In some cases, the second part of the poem was left out. be discussed with modern day

Question 17
The poem presents two distinct attitudes to life. These attitudes are depicted through the
commonplace rural activity of repairing walls in farms in Spring.
Frost creates two distinct characters that have different ideas of what exactly makes a person a
good neighbour.
The narrator or speaker in the poem describes a phenomenon that he has observed in Nature.
A mysterious force in Nature which does not like the existence of walls sends the frozen ground
bloat the frozen ground under his walls so that the upper boulders are spilled to the ground.
He distinguishes this from the activity of the hunters who tear the boulders down to search for the
hiding rabbits to please their yelping dogs.
The gaps which he refers to are made imperceptibly so that large gaps are made through which two
people could pass together abreast.
The narrator informs his neighbour who lives beyond the hill and on an appointed day, they meet
to walk along the boundary and set the wall between us once again.
They keep the wall between us as we go and pick up the boulders from their respective sides.
A note of whimsy is introduced in the narrators comment that they have to use a magic spell to
ensure that the boulders balance on each other.
The narrator deplores his neighbours preoccupation with repairing the wall. He views it as old
fashioned and even archaic.
The narrator can be characterized as philosophical, unconvinced and amiable.

To him, this activity means nothing more than an outdoor game. He tries to reason with his
neighbour pointing out that here they dont need a wall as the neighbour grows pine trees and the
narrator has an apple orchard.
His logical mind wants to know whom he is walling in or walling out before he builds a wall.
He wishes that his neighbour arrived at an understanding of the utter meaningless and futility of a
wall by himself.
However, this seems improbable as the neighbour will not go beyond his fathers saying Good
fences make good neighbours.
As the neighbour moves about on his task grasping the boulders in his hands he appears to the
speaker as an old stone age savage armed. The darkness that he moves about in emanates from
within his mind which is resolutely shut to any new notion.
The wall does not only act as a divider separating the two properties but also as a barrier to
friendship and communication. From the narrators point of view, barriers lead to alienation and
emotional isolation and loneliness. The wall represents both mental and physical barriers.
It is against Nature so nature tries to bring the wall down.
The dispute between the two neighbours represents the clash between tradition and modernity.
Perhaps, the speaker feels that one cannot get to know a person unless one puts down ones wall or
The poet is scrupulous in presenting the other point of view in the poem, i.e. barriers help in
maintaining their individuality and personal identity.

Question 18 [20]
How does Dilip Chitre in his poem Father Returning Home, highlight Mans
estrangement from a man-made world?
Comments of Examiners
Majority of the candidates scored well in this question. Suggestions for teachers
However, some showed poor knowledge of the poem. Explore the poem in the context of
Critical insight was lacking in some answers. No effort present day society and social
was made to explore the images presented by the poem. concerns.
Close reference to the poem was lacking at times. Some Encourage discussion in class and
help students to sustain their
candidates added their own matter in their answers.
insights with references to the
The sense of alienation and estrangement of the father poem.
was left out by a few candidates. Help students to understand the
images and poetic tools used in the

Question 18
The poem Father Returning Home, is at times a dispassionate and yet a very sympathetic picture
of the life lived by a daily commuter in a city.
To such a person, the train by which he travels to and fro from work becomes an integral part of
his life.
In no other place, does the term being lonely in a crowd achieve a more telling significance.
The first stanza of the poem describes the fathers train journey while returning home. It is a
journey that he undertakes every-day.
The father stands among commuters in the yellow light of a local compartment. The suburbs
slide past his unseeing eyes. He has become used to these sights and therefore, does not pay
attention to them anymore.
The fathers social status is conveyed subtly through his appearance and clothes. His shirt and
pants are soggy and his raincoat is mud stained. He, however, carries a heavy load of books in a
bag that is falling apart. The books indicate an intellectual inquiring mind which is not, perhaps,
apparent to his indifferent family.
His eyes, grown dim with age, peer out at the world. He goes homeward perhaps in hope he
gets off the train as a word dropped from a long sentence a redundant word, whose absence does
not make a difference to the sentence.
The train carries on without any feeling. The man did not have any importance to the life in the
train. There is a certain eagerness in the manner that he hurries across the length of the grey
platform, enters the lane and though the mud on his chappals seem to hinder him, he hurries home.
The eagerness with which the father hurries home is contrasted with the indifference and apathy he
encounters there. There is nothing waiting for him but stale chappati and weak tea, both the
adjectives become symptomatic of his life. He is alienated from everything around him. Like the
train, the family seems to have dropped him from their lives as they carry on with their lives.
His book and the toilet to which he retreats become his defences against a harsh uncaring world.
He contemplates mans estrangement from a man-made world.
The greying hair at his wrists evokes a sense of sympathy for a man who has nothing to look
forward to.
Interestingly enough, no conversation either in the train or in the home is referred to. The silence
of the father indicates the utter isolation and loneliness of his world.
His children are sullen keeping away their jokes and secrets from him. The only companion
in his life is the radio and his dreams of his past (the ancestors entering the subcontinent through
the Khyber Pass) and his future, his grandchildren. In spite of his dreary existence, he had dreams
and he has hope.


(a) Topics found difficult by candidates in the Question Paper:

Hero as a passive character in Much Ado About Nothing
Treatment of the themes of love, war and social snobbery in Arms and the Man
Mending Wall- the theme of manmade barriers.
(b) Concepts in which candidates got confused:
Hero as the heroine of the play, yet a passive character.
Eve of Waterloo- the rapid change from joy and merriment to tension and despair.
The two attitudes to manmade barriers in Mending Wall.
The growing isolation and estrangement of the modern, urban man.
(c) Suggestions for candidates:
Read the texts thoroughly and repeatedly.
Identify and if necessary, underline or mark important portions in the context of plot, theme,
characterization, philosophy, authorial comment and so on.
Practice both references to the context and long answer questions.
Learn proper time management so that equal attention can be given to all the questions in the
While writing answers, answer all parts of the question.
Refer or quote extensively from the text to support your assessment or point of view.
Avoid long rambling introductions in your answers.
Try and answer the question asked and avoid giving generalized answers.



Total Number of students who took the examination 23,857

Highest Marks Obtained 99
Lowest Marks Obtained 1
Mean Marks Obtained 83.58

Percentage of Candidates according to marks obtained

Details Mark Range

0-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100
Number of Candidates 17 50 1126 5901 16763
Percentage of Candidates 0.07 0.21 4.72 24.73 70.26
Cumulative Number 17 67 1193 7094 23857
Cumulative Percentage 0.07 0.28 5.00 29.74 100.00

Range of Marks Obtained

80.00 70.26
Percentage of Candidates





10.00 0.07 0.21

0-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100
Marks Obtained


Question 1
Write a composition in Hindi in approximately 400 words on any ONE of the topics given below:-
fuEufyf[kr fo"k;ksa esa ls fdlh ,d fo"k; ij yxHkx 400 'kCnksa esa fgUnh esa fucU/k fyf[k;s :-
(a) Ukkjh : ek] cgu] iRuh rFkk csVh gj #i esa vknj.kh; gSA & foospu dhft,A
(b) thou esa lq[k le`f) ikus ds fy, gj O;fDr vius fy, fdlh O;olk; dks pquuk pkgrk gSA vki
vius fy, fdl O;olk; dks pquuk ilan djsaxsA mldh izkIrh ds fy, vki D;k D;k iz;Ru djsaxs
rFkk mlls nsk o lekt dks D;k ykHk gksxkA
(c) ^ekuo dh vfregRokdka{kk us gh iznw"k.k tSlh fodjky leL;k dks tUe fn;k gSA bl dFku ds i{k
;k foi{k esa vius fopkj izdV djsaA
(d) vkt ds ;qx esa VwVrs ifjokjA
(e) fdlh ,sls pyfp= dk o.kZu dhft, ftls vkius vius ifjokj ds lkFk ns[kkA ml pyfp= ds fuZnsku]
laxhr fuZnsku] dgkuh rFkk dgkuh ls feyus okyh fk{kk dk o.kZu djrs gq, crk,a fd og pyfp=
vkidks fdl dkj.k ls cgqr vPNk yxkA
(f) fuEufyf[kr fo"k;ksa esa ls fdlh ,d fo"k; ij ekSfyd dgkuh fyf[k, :-
(ii) dgkuh dk vafre okD; gksxk --------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------^firkth ds ekxZnkZu ls gh vkt eSa bl ;ksX; cuk gwA^
(ii) dgkuh dh 'kq#vkr uhps fy[ks okD; ls dhft, :
^,d fnu esjk iMkslh^^--------------------------------------------

ijh{kdksa dh fVIif.k;k
(a) ukjh % ek] cgu] iRuh rFkk csVh gj :i esa vknj.kh; gS & v/;kidksa ds fy, lq>ko
vf/kdkak Nk=&Nk=kvksa us bl fo"k; ij fucU/k fy[kkA dqN us
ek dk :i cgqr foLrkj ls fy[kk] 'ks"k cgu] iRuh csVh ds ckjs esa & v/;kidksa dks pkfg, fd fucU/k ys[ku dk
de fy[kkA vH;kl djk,aA ^izLrkouk* dh fucU/k ds
fucU/k esa izLrkouk cgqr de Nk=&Nk=kvksa }kjk fy[kh x;hA fy, vko;drk le>k,saA
& fucU/k ds izR;sd igyw ij ys[ku vk/kkfjr
(b) thou esa lq[k le`f) ikus ds fy, gj O;fDr vius fy, fdlh
dk;Z djus ds fy, Nk=ksa dks izfjr fd;k
O;olk; dks pquuk pkgrk gSA
bl fo"k; esa Nk=&Nk=kvksa esa ^O;olk;* 'kCn ds }kjk Hkze mRiUu
gqvkA mUgksaus gksVy [kksyuk] nqdku [kksyuk lHkh ckrsa vius fucU/k
esa 'kkfey dhA okLrfod y{; ugha crk;kA ^izLrkouk* dk vHkko Hkh n`f"Vxkspj FkkA

(c) ^^ekuo dh vfregRokdka{kk us gh iznw"k.k tSlh fodjky leL;k & fucU/k ds izR;sd igyw ij fy[kk tk,A
dks tUe fn;k gSA** dksbZ Hkh igyw vuns[kk u jgsA d{kk esa
bl fo"k; ij ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa us cgqr vf/kd o cgqr vPNk fy[kkA izR;sd igyw dk vH;kl djkus gsrq fucU/k
vkt dh ToyUr leL;k ij gksus ds dkj.k fo"k; dh tkudkjh ys[ku djk;k tk,A
mke Js.kh dh jghA dgha&dgha ^egRodka{kk* dk ifjizs{; vLi"V & dgkuh ys[ku gsrq bl rjg ds fo"k;ksa gsrq
jgkA d{kk esa vH;kl djk;k tk;s ftlls ;s Lej.k
(d) vkt ds ;qx esa VwVrs ifjokj & vf/kdkakr% ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa us la;qDr jgs dh vfUre iafDr fn, tkus ij fy[kuk
ifjokj o ,dy ifjokj ds gkfu&ykHk fy[ksA ifjokj ds VwVus vko;d gSA
ds eq[; dkj.k de yksxksa }kjk crk, x,A & dgkuh ys[ku esa fo"k; /;ku ls i<+k tk,A
(e) ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa us bl fo"k; ij Hkh vf/kd fy[kkA ^Fkzh bfM,Vl* o iafDr fy[kdj o.kZu izkjEHk djus dk vH;kl
^ih ds* fQYe dh dgkuh cgqr vPNs <+ax ls fy[khA ifjokj ds djk;k tkuk pkfg;sA
lkFk dk vuqHko dqN yksxksa ls fy[kkA funsZku o laxhr funsZku
dSlk Fkk bl ij cgqr de fy[kk x;kA
(f) (i) vusd Nk=&Nk=kvksa us bl fo"k; ij fy[kkA firk }kjk ik, ekxZnkZu dk o.kZu fd;k] ijUrq dqN Nk=ksa us
vfUre okD; tksM+uk vko;d ugha le>kA
(ii) bl fo"k; ij cgqr de fy[kk x;kA

Question 1
(a) Hkwfedk %& ukjh n;k] ek;k] eerk] d#.kk vkSj izse dh ewfrZ] fo/kkrk dh vn~Hkwr jpuk -------------------------
--------------xq.kksa dk Hk.Mkj -----------------ek] cgu] iRuh] csVh gj #i esa vknj.kh; -------------------------------dke dkt
esa eU=h ---------------------------------Hkkstu rS;kj djds nsus okyh ekrk -----------------------k;u ds le; vIljk ----
----------------------/keZ ds vuqlkj pyus okyh ---------------------------- {kek tSls xq.kksa dh Lokfeuh -----------------------ohj
lkglh iq=ksa dh tUe nk=h ------------------------------ek ds #i eerk dh ewfrZ -----------------------iRuh ds #i
lgukhyrk ---------------------------------cgu ds #i esa lgukhyrk] ykM ds lkFk---------------------------------cq<+kis es
yM+ds ls T;knk ennxkj ------------------------vuUr xq.kksa dk Hk.Mkj ------------------------gj #i es vknj.kh; ---------
(b) izLrkouk %& -------------------izR;sd O;fDr lq[k lqfo/kk pkgrk gS] ----------------------thou fcrkus ds fy;s dksbZ
u dksbZ dke djrk gS --------------------------fo|kFkhZ dkSu ls O;olk; pquuk pkgrk gS ----------------
mlds fy, D;k D;k iz;kl -------------------------nsk o lekt dks D;k ykHk -------------------milagkjA
(c) Hkwfedk %& ekuo dh egRokdk{kk, D;k gS ------------------------mu bPNkvksa ds dkj.k dkSu dkSu ls uohu
lk ---------------------------mu lk/kuksa ds ykHk ------------------------------muds iz;ksx ls iznw"k dh leL;k -------------------------
----------iz;ksx dgk rd mfpr -------------------------- milagkjA
ijh{kkFkhZ dh viuh bPNk gS og blds i{k es fy[ks ;k foi{k esa
(d) Hkwfedk %& VwVrs ifjokj ls D;k vfHkizk; ----------------vkt fdu dkj.kksa ls ifjokj VwV jgs gSa ---------------------
-----euq"; dk egRokdka{kh gksuk -------------------nwj nwj ukSdfj;k feyuk -----------------------------,d ;k nks cPps ------
--------------vkil esa fopkjksa dk u feyuk -------------------------LorU=rk ls jgus dh bPNk-------------------vf/kd iSls
dekus dh bPNk ----------------------ekrk&firk o ?kj ftEesnkfj;ksa ls cpuk ------------------ekrk firk o cPpksa dh
lksp dk vUrjA lek/kku ds fy, ekrk firk rFkk cPpksa ds feydj jgus ds ykHk lkspuk -----------------?kj

dh vk/kh ckgj dh lkjh ,d cjkcj bl fo"k; dks le>uk -----------------dsoy /ku ds ihNs ugh Hkkxuk ---
----------de jksd Vksd djuk ----------,d nwljs ds dke vkuk --- milagkjA
ijh{kkFkhZ ek cki ls cPpksa dk vyx gksuk ;k ifr iRuh dk vyx gksuk fdlh Hkh fo"k; ij fy[k
ldrk gSA nksuksa gh ekU; gksaxs
(e) Hkwfedk %& euksjatu ds lk/ku dkSu ls-------------------pyfp= D;k gS ----------------------dc vkSj dSls ifjokj ds
lkFk dk;Zdze cuk --------------------dkSu lh fQYe ns[kh -----------------------------funsZku fdlus fd;k -------------------
dSlk funsZku Fkk -----------------laxhr dSlk Fkk ------------------------------dgkuh dSlh ------------------------lekt ij D;k
izHkko --------------------------------D;k vPNk yxk ------------- milagkjA
(f)(i) dgkuh ekSfyd gksuh pkfg, rFkk vfUre okD; **firkth ds ekZx nZku ls gh vkt eSa bl ;ksX; cuk
gw gh gksuk pkfg,A
(ii) dgkuh ekSfyd gksuh pkfg, rFkk dgkuh dh kq#vkr %& ,d fnu esjk iM+kslh ---------------------------ls gh
gksuh pkfg,A

Question 2
Read the following passage and briefly answer the questions that follows:-
fuEufyf[kr vorj.k dks i<+dj] vUr esa fn, x, izuksa ds laf{kIr mkj fyf[, %&
igyk lq[k fujksxh dk;k vFkkZr~ lcls cM+k lq[k LoLFk kjhj gS A vLoLFk O;fDr u viuk Hkyk dj
ldrk gS] u ?kj dk] u lekt dk vkSj u gh nsk dk A
izkphu dky ls gh mke LokLF; ds fy, O;k;ke ds ego dks igpkuk x;k gS A cM+s&cM+s euhf"k;ksa us
O;k;ke dks mke LokLF; dk vk/kkj crk;k gS A
/keZ] vFkZ] dke] eks{k bu pkjksa dk ewy vk/kkj LokLF; gS A tgk rd bl lQyrk dh ckr djsa rks
ekuo&thou dh lQyrk Hkh blh lw= esa fNih gS A
Cqf/nekkiw.kZ dk;Z rFkk lQyrk ds fy, ifjJe Hkh LoLFk kjhj ls gh laHko gksrk gS A vr% LoLFk
efLr"d rFkk LoLFk cqf/n ds fy, gesa kjhj dks LoLFk j[kuk pkfg, A
LokLF; vkSj lQyrk dk xgjk ukrk gS A lQyrk ds fy, O;fDr dks ifjJe djuk vko;d gS vkSj
vLoLFk O;fDr ifjJe ugha dj ldrk A LoLFk efLr"d ls gh euq"; esa lkspus&fopkjus dh kfDr vkrh gS]
og viuk gkfu&ykHk lksp ldrk gS A ftl nsk ds O;fDr det+ksj o vLoLFk gksaxs og nsk dHkh mUur ugh
gks ldrk A ,d fo|kFkhZ rHkh Js"B fo|kFkhZ gksxk tc og LoLFk gksxk A pkgs fo|kFkhZ gks ;k v/;kid] O;kikjh
gks ;k odhy] deZpkjh gks ;k kkld] ukSdj gks ;k Lokeh] izR;sd dks vius dk;Z esa lQyrk izkIr djus ds
fy, LoLFk gksuk vko;d gS A
bl LokLF; dh j{kk ds fy, euhf"k;ksa us ] oS|ks&MkWDVjksa us rFkk ;ksxh egkRekvksa us vusd lk/ku crk,
gSa & ftlesa kq/n ok;q] izkr% Hkze.k] la;fer thou] lPpfj=rk] fufpUrrk] lUrqfyr Hkkstu] xgjh uhan rFkk
O;k;ke izeq[k gS A bues Hkh O;k;ke gh mke LokLF; dh ewy tM+ gS A vkyL; :ih egkfjiq ls NqVdkjk ikus
ds fy, Hkh O;k;ke dks viukuk vko;d gS A O;k;ke O;fDr dk pqLr&nq#Lr j[krk gS A O;k;ke kkjhfjd
o ckSf/nd nks izdkj dk gksrk gS Akkjhfjd O;k;ke ds fy, n.M&cSBd] [kqyh gok esa nkSM+ yxkuk] unh esa

rSjuk] ?kqM+lokjh djuk] dqrh yM+uk rFkk fofHkUu izdkj ds [ksy] tSls & gkdh dcM~Mh] jLlkdlh] cSMfe.Vu
vkfn [ksys tk ldrs gS A ckSf/nd O;k;ke ds vUrZxr kCn igsfy;k] cqf/n&ijh{k.k ds izu rFkk krjat vkfn
[ksy vkrs gSa A
LokLF; ds izfr tkx:d gksus ds dkj.k gh vkt O;fDr fQj ;ksx dh vksj eqM+ jgs gSa A ;ksxkluksa dk ego
c<+rk tk jgk gS A bu ;ksxkluksa ds }kjk kjhj dh eklisfk;k iq"V gksrh gSa A lkFk gh euq"; dks ,dkxzfpkrk
dh kfDr izkIr gksrh gS A O;k;ke djus o ;ksxkluksa ls euq"; tYnh cw<+k ugh gksrk A mldh ikpu fdz;k
Bhd jgrh gS] jDr&lapkj fu;fer gksrk gS ftlls efLr"d LoLFk jgrk gS A euq"; esa vkRefookl] vkRefuHkZjrk
tSls xq.kksa dk lekosk gksrk gS tks euq"; dh lQyrk dh dqath gSA
Tkks lq[kksa dk miHkksx djuk pkgrk gS rFkk thou esa lQyrk :ih dqath ikuk pkgrk gS mls LokLF; ds
fu;ekas dk ikyu djuk pkfg, A
iz'u %&
(a) ^igyk lq[k fujksxh dk;k^ ls vki D;k le>rs gSa \ LokLF; fu;eksa dk ikyu djus ls D;k ykHk gksrk
gS \
(b) LokLF; vkSj lQyrk dk vkil esa xgjk ukrk fdl izdkj gS \
(c) LokLF; j{kk ds fy; fdlus vkSj D;k lk/ku crk, \
(d) 'kkjhfjd o ckSf)d O;k;ke ls vki D;k le>rs gSa \ ;s fdl izdkj fd;s tkrs gSa \
(e) ;ksx lk/kuksa dk egRo D;ksa c<+ jgk gS rFkk bl ;ksx lk?kuk ds D;k ykHk gSa \

ijh{kdksa dh fVIif.k;k
(a) vifBr x|kak vf/kdrj Nk=ksa dh le> esa vk;kA *igyk lq[k v/;kidksa ds fy, lq>ko
fujksxh dk;k* dk vFkZ Nk=ksa us vius vuqlkj Li"V fd;k o
blesa os lQy Hkh jgsA & fk{kdksa dks pkfg, fd vifBr x|kak ds
mkj fy[kokrs le; izukuqlkj mkj
(b) vf/kdrj Nk=ksa us izu dk mkj vPNh rjg fn;kA
fy[kus dk vH;kl vo; djok;saA
(c) LokLF; j{kk ds lk/kuksa esa izu&i= ds vykok Hkh tkudkfj;k
& Nk=ksa dks funsZk nsa fd os fdlh Hkh igyw dks
nh x;hA Nk=ksa dks izu&i= ds vk/kkj ij gh mkj nsus ds
vuns[kk u NksM+saA gj fcUnq ij /;ku nsaA
fy;s izsfjr djuk djuk pkfg;sA
& mkj dks viuh Hkk"kk esa fy[kus dk vH;kl
mudks crkuk pkfg, fd i<h x;h ckr dks vius vuqlkj cny
dj fy[ksaA
(d) 'kkjhfjd o ckSf)d O;k;ke iwNs tkus ij vf/kdkak Nk=ksa us nksuksa ds ckjs esa tkudkjh ugha nhA dqN us 'kkjhfjd
O;k;ke rks crk;k ijUrq ckSf)d O;k;ke ugha fy[kkA
(e) ;ksx ds lk/kuksa dk egRo] ykHk] Nk=&Nk=kvksa us izui= ds vuqlkj vPNh rjg ls fy[kkA izR;sd fcUnq ij mke
rjhds ls fy[kk x;kA

Question 2
(a) igyk lq[k fujksxh dk vfHkizk; gS fd bl lalkj esa lcls cM+k lq[k kjhj dk LoLFk gksuk gSA D;ksafd
vLoLFk O;fDr u rks viuk Hkyk dj ldrk gS] u vius ifjokj dk] u gh nsk o lekt dk Hkyk dj
ldrk gSA LokLF; ds fu;eksa dk ikyu djus ls O;fDr g`"V iq"V jgrk gSA lq[kksa dk Hkksx djrk gS
vkSj thou esa lQyrk izkIr djrk gSA
(b) LokLF; vkSj lQyrk dk xgjk ukrk bl izdkj gS fd lQyrk ds fy, esgur vko;;d gSA vLoLFk
O;fDr rks esgur dj ugha ldrkA LoLFk efLr"d ls gh euq"; esa lkspus fopkj djus dh kfDr vkrh
gSA og viuh gkfu ykHk lksp ldrk gSA ftl nsk ds yksx detksj o vLoLFk gksaxs og nsk dHkh
mUufr ugha dj ldrkA ,d fo|kFkhZ rHkh Js"B fo|kFkhZ cu ldrk gS tc og LoLFk gksxkA fo|kFkhZ
gh D;ksa v/;kid] O;kikjh] odhy] deZpkjh ;k dksbZ kkld] dksbZ Hkh ekfyd ;k ukSdj gj fdlh dks
vius dk;Z dh lQyrk ds fy, LoLFk gksuk t#jh gSA
(c) LokLF; j{kk ds fy, cM+s cM+s oS|ksa&MkWDVjksa euhf"k;ksa rFkk ;ksxh egkRekvksa us vusd lk/ku crk, gSa
ftuesa kq/n gok] lqcg dh lSj] la;eiw.kZ thou] vPNk pfj=] fufpUrrk] lUrqfyr Hkkstu] iwjh uhan
rFkk O;k;ke izeq[k gSAa vPNs LokLF; ds fy, O;k;ke bu lc ls mke gSA
(d) Tkks kjhj dks rkdr o kfDr iznku djs og kkjhfjd O;k;ke rFkk tks eu dks izlUu o LoLFk j[ks
rFkk cqf/n dks dqkkxz djs og ckSf/nd O;k;ke gSA
kkjhfjd O;k;ke ds fy, [kqqyh gok esa nkSM+ yxkuk] n.M cSBd yxkuk] unh esa rSjuk] ?kqM+lokjh
djuk rFkk fofHkUu izdkj ds [ksy [ksys tk ldrs gSa tSls gkWdh] dcM~Mh] jLlkdkh rFkk cSMfe.Vu
ckSf/nd O;k;ke ds fy, kCn igsfy;k cw>uk] cqf/n ijh{k.k ds izuksa ds mkj nsuk rFkk krjat
vkfn [ksy [ksys tk ldrs gSaA
(e) vktdy yksx vius LokLF; ds izfr cgqr tkx#d gks jgs gSAa bl fy;s ;ksx lk/kuksa dh vksj eqM+ jgs gSAa bu
;ksx lk/kuksa ls kjhj dh ekal isfk;k iq"V gksrh gSa] euq"; dks ,dkxzfpkrk dh kfDr izkIr gksrh gSA blls
mldh ikpu fdz;k Bhd jgrh gS] jDr lapkj fu;fer gksrk gSA og tYnh cw<+k ugha gksrkA O;fDr dk efLr"d
LoLFk jgrk gS mlesa vkRe fookl c<+rk gS] vkRe fuHkZjrk vk tkrh gSA Tkks euq"; ds thou dks lQyrk
dh vksj ys tkrh gSA

Question 3
(a) Correct the following sentences :-
fuEufyf[kr okD;ksa dks 'kq) djds fy[ks:a -
(i) Tkks dke djks og iwjk t#j djksA
(ii) firk dk iq= esa fookl gSA
(iii) mls e`R;qn.M dh ltk feyh gSA
(iv) og xq.koku efgyk gSA
(v) lHkh dk;kZy; esa mifLFkfr de gSA

(b) Use the following idioms in sentences of your own to illustrate their meaning:-
fuEufyf[kr eqgkojksa dk vFkZ Li"V djus ds fy, okD;ksa esa iz;ksx dhft, : -
(i) Qwyk u lekukA
(ii) dku HkjukA
(iii) Ikkuh esa vkx yxkukA
(iv) Jh x.ksk djukA
(v) Ykksgs ds pus pckukA

ijh{kdksa dh fVIif.k;k
(a) (i) okD; laks/ku esa Nk=ksa us O;kdj.k vkSj okD; jpuk laEcU/kh v/;kidksa ds fy, lq>ko
vkqf);k dhA dqN us vuko;d ifjoZru dj ds okD;
'kq) djus dk iz;Ru fd;k] dqN us ^Hkh^ tksM+dj 'kq) fd;k & d{kk esa O;kdj.k dk vH;kl fu;ekuqlkj
tks xyr FkkA ek=k lEcU/kh xyfr;k Hkh feyhaA djk;k tkuk pkfg,A
& vH;kl ds lkFk&lkFk] le; le; ij
(ii) dkjd dk ifjiDr Kku u gksus ds dkj.k dqN Nk=ksa us
O;kdj.k dh ijh{kk ysA blls O;kdj.k
xyfr;k djhaA
'kqf) ij idM+ cuh jgsxhA
(iii))dkSulk 'kCn L=hfyax gS vkSj dkSulk iqfYyax] bldk Kku
& ^foks"k.k* dh tkudkjh nsdj L=hfyax o
dqN Nk=ksa dks ugha FkkA lakks/ku ds fu;eksa dh mis{kk dj]
iqfyax 'kCnksa dk iz;ksx dk vH;kl djk;k
euekuk gsj Qsj djds okD; iqu% fy[k fn;k x;kA
tk,A 'kCndksk esa o`f) dh tk,A
(iv) vf/kdkak L=hfyax ds 'kCnksa esa iz;qDr foks"k.k lgh fy[kk
& d{kk esa ikB esa vk, eqgkojksa ds okD; iz;ksx
x;k FkkA dqN Nk=ksa us ^xquorh^ ds LFkku ij ^xquourh^ dk
dk vH;kl djk;k tk,A
iz;ksx fd;k
& d{kk esa eqgkojksa ds vFkZ le>k, tk,sa o
(v) ^opu*ds vuqlkj d{kk esa okD; ifjorZu djuk fl[kk;k
okD; cuok, tk,saA
tk,A dqN Nk=ksa us cgqopu dk iz;ksx u djds inksa esa gsj & cgqr ls Nk= dsoy vFkZ gh fy[k nsrs gSa ;k
Qsj djds fy[k fn;k] ;k fcanq yxkus esa pwd x,A vFkZ dk iz;ksx dj okD; cukrs gSaA d{kk
(b) (i) eqgkojk ^Qwyk u lekuk* vf/kdkak ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa us le>k o esa bl ij /;ku fn;k tk,A
lgh izdkj ls okD; iz;ksx fd;kA
(ii) *dku Hkjuk* eqgkojs dk Hkh vf/kdkak Nk=kas us mfpr o lgh
<+ax ls iz;ksx fd;kA
(iii)*ikuh esa vkx yxkuk* vf/kdkak ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa us okD; xyr cuk,A 'kk;n os eqgkojs dk vFkZ ugha le> ik,A
(iv) Jh x.ksk djuk& eqgkojk cgqr ls Nk=ksa }kjk ^iwtk* ds lUnHkZ esa fy;k x;kA izkr% oUnuk ds vFkZ esa vf/kdkak
Nk=ksa us bl eqgkojs dk vFkZ le>k o okD; cuk;kA
(v) ^yksgs ds pus pckuk*&vf/kdkak Nk=ksa us lgh okD; cuk,A dqN ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa us okD; esa eqgkojs ds vFkZ dk iz;ksx

Question 3
(a)(i) tks dke djks mls iwjk t#j djksA
(ii) firk dk iq= ij fookl gSA
(iii) mls e`R;qn.M feyk gSA
(iv) og xq.korh efgyk gSA
(v) lHkh dk;kZy;ksa esa mifLFkfr de gSA
(b)(i) cgqr [kqk gksukA
okD; % cgqr fnuksa ckn fe= ls feydj jkdsk Qwyk u lek;kA
(ii) pqxyh djuh
okD; % jesk vius ekfyd ds gj le; dku Hkjrk jgrk gS ftlds ifj.kke Lo#i vkWfWQl ds vU;
yksxksa dks MkV [kkuh iM+rh gSA
(iii) kkUr okrkoj.k dks vkkaUr djukA
okD; % ,d minzoh O;fDr ls xko okyksa us dgk fd rqe viuh prqjkbZ fn[kkdj ikuh esa vkx yxkus
dk dke djrs gksA
(iv) dk;Z izkjEHk djukA
okD; % vkt eksgu us viuh ubZ nqdku dk Jh x.ksk dj fn;kA
(v) cgqr dfBu dk;ZA
okD; % thou esa lQyrk ikus ds fy, vdlj yksgs ds pus pckus iM+rs gSAa

dkO; rjax
Question 4
lwjnkl us fofHkUu #iksa esa vius vkjk/; ds izfr viuh Hkkoukvksa dks O;Dr fd;k gSA ^fou; vkSj HkfDr^ [121/2]
ds vk/kkj ij lwjnkl dh HkfDr dk ifjp; mnkgj.k lfgr nhft,A
ijh{kdksa dh fVIif.k;k
v/;kidksa ds fy, lq>ko
bl izu dks ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa us mfpr <+ax ls fy[kus dk iz;kl fd;k
& d{kk esa ftl dfo dks i<+k;k tk; mldk
fdUrq lwjnkl dh HkfDr dk ifjp; nsus esa iw.kZ lQy ugha fn[ksA
laf{kIr ifp; crkrs gq, HkfDr Hkkouk o Hkk"kk
lwj dh HkfDr vkSj muds vkjk/;] nksuksa ij ppkZ de dh x;hA
ij Hkh ppkZ dh tk,A
dqN Nk= in ds vuqlkj HkokFkZ crkrs jgsA izu ds izR;sd i{k
& le;kuqlkj mfpr fof/k ls izu dk mkj
ij ppkZ ugha djh x;hA
fy[kus dk vH;kl d{kk esa djk;k tk,A
& lxq.k&fuxqZ.k] lkdkj&fujkdkj ^l[kkHkko*
;k ^nkL;Hkko*] bl ij Li"V :i ls ppkZ
dh tk,A

Question 4

Lwkjnkl fgUnh lxq.k dkO; /kkjk dh d`".k HkfDr kk[kk ds izeq[k dfo gSAa d`".k HkfDr dk izpkj djus okys
izeq[k :Ik ls pSrU; egkizHkq rFkk oYyHkpk;Z gSAa oYyHkpk;Z us d`".k HkfDr dk cgqr vf/kd izpkj fd;k vkSj
HkfDr ds {ks= esa iqf"VekxZ dh LFkkiuk dh Fkh ftldk vFkZ gS Jh d`".k Hkxoku dh d`ik gh iqf"V gSA lwjnkl
bl kk[kk ds lw;Z ekus tkrs gSaA bUgksaus d`".k dh yhykvksa ls lEcfU/kr cgqr ls in fy[ks gSaA buds dkO;
esa Hkxoku ds yksdjatd :Ik dk o.kZu gSA lwjnkl us lxq.k HkfDr ds ego dks izdV fd;k gSA d`".k ds
lkFk l[kk Hkko dks iznfkZr fd;k gSA lwj k`axkj vkSj okRlY; jl ds dfo gSA buds dkO; dh Hkk"kk ljl
cztHkk"kk gSA lwjnkl dk dkO; xhfrdkO; gS tks eqDrd kSyh dk vn~Hkqr laxe gSA lwj izkjEHk esa fujkdkj
czk dh mikluk djrs Fks ijUrq vxkspj gksus ds dkj.k ;g mikluk bUgsa yqHkk ugha ikbZA
Lkwjnkl th dgrs gSa fd ftl ij bZoj dh d`ik gksrh gS og vlaHko dkeksa dks laHko dj nsrk gSA
blhfy, lwjnkl Jhd`".k dh HkfDr dks vius thou dk vk/kkj ekurs gSAa
**tkdh d`ik iaxq fxfj yk?kSS] va/ks dw lc dqN njlkbZA
cfgjkss lquS ewd iafu cksys] jsd pys flj N= /kjkbZAA
bl in esa lwjnkl us ;g ckr cM+s vPNs <ax ls nkkZ;h gS fd HkDr vius Lokeh dh HkfDr esa tc lc
dqN vfiZr dj nsrk gS rks mls peRdkfjd ykHk igqprk gSA os Jhd`".k ds pj.kksa dh oUnuk djus ds fy,
dgrs gSaA muds pj.kksa dh oUnuk dk izrki bruk vf/kd gS fd yaxM+k O;fDr Hkh ioZr dks ikj dj ldrk
gSA va/kk O;fDr vk[ksa ikdj lc dqN ns[k ldrk gSA cgjs esa bruh kfDr vk tkrh gS fd og lc dqN
lquus yxrk gSA xwxk O;fDr cksyus yxrk gSA mUgksaus Jhd`".k ds izfr viuk vuU; HkfDr Hkko izdV fd;k
gSA uo/kk HkfDr dks bZoj izkfIr dk vk/kkj crk;k gS ftlesa bZoj ds pj.kksa dh lsok djuk Hkh gSA blhfy,
dgrs gSa &
**pj.k dey cankS gfjjkbZA
Lkwjnkl us fujkdkj ck dh HkfDr dh rqyuk xwxs ds ehBs Qy ls dh gSA xwxs dks ehBk Qy f[kyk
nks rks og mlds Lokn dks vuqHko rks djrk gS ysfdu crk ugha ldrkA
**T;ksa xwxs ehBs Qy dks jl varjxr gh HkkoSA
lwjnkl lxq.k HkfDr ds mikld Fks blfy, mUgksaus bZoj ds :i;qDr vkdkj] vorkj vkSj yhykvksa dk
o.kZu fd;k gSA budh HkfDr iw.kZ :Ik ls izse ij vk/kkfjr gSA buds er esa dksjk Kku bZoj dks izkIr ugha
dj ldrkA tks eu vkSj ok.kh ls vxkspj gS mldk o.kZu djuk cgqr dfBu gSA lwj dgrs gSa &
**vfoxr&xfr dNq dgr u vkoSA
ftls tkuk gh u tk lds mldk o.kZu djuk vR;Ur dfBu gSA fuxqZ.k ck dh mikluk mikld dks
lUrks"k vkSj vkuan rks ns ldrh gS ij og mls eu ls le> ugha ldrk vkSj ok.kh ls izdV ugha dj ldrkA
fuxqZ.k dkO; /kkjk ds yksx bZoj ds vorkj dks ekU;rk ugha nsrsA mUgksaus bZoj dks bfUnz;ksa ds vuqHko dh
oLrq u ekudj mls Kku ds }kjk vuqHko dh tkus okyh oLrq dgk gSA bZoj dks Kku vkSj vuqHko ls izkIr
fd;k tk ldrk gS A mls :Ik vkSj xq.k ls jfgsr ekuk gSA blh er dk [k.Mu lwj us vius in esa fd;k
**:i&js[k&xqu&tkfr&tqxfr fcuq] fujkyEc fdr /kkoSA
Eku ftldh dYiuk ugha dj ldrk rFkk ok.kh ftldh vfHkO;fDr ugha dj ldrh ml ck dh
mikluk dSls dh tk,\ mlesa bfUnz;k ,dkxz gksdj mikluk esa yhu ugha gks ldrhA lkalkfjd thou esa
vius mkjnkf;Ro dks fuHkkrs gq, fujkdkj ck dh mikluk cgqr dfBu gSA fujkdkj ck dh vuqHkwfr
dsoy Kkuh yksx gh dj ldrs gS] lk/kkj.k O;fDr ughaA fujkdkj ck dh mikluk esa dbZ tfVyrk, Hkh

**lc fof/k vxe fopkjfg rkrsa] lwj lxqu&in xkoSA
blfy, lwj us fujkdkj ck dh mikluk dh vis{kk lkdkj ck dh mikluk ij cy fn;k gSA
izse] HkfDr vkSj fouez izkFkZuk gh bZoj rd igqpk ldrh gSA
lwjnkl d`".kkJ;h kk[kk ds izeq[k dfo FksA blfy, os dgrs gSa fd mudk eu d`".k HkfDr djus ds vfrfjDr
dgha ls Hkh lq[k izkfIr ugha dj ldrkA d`".k dh kj.k gh mUgsa lq[k vkSj kkfUr iznku dj ldrh gSA
**esjks eu vur dgk lq[k ikoSA
tSls Js"B oLrq ik ysus ij dkssbZ Hkh rqPN oLrq dh bPNk ugha djrk oSls gh Hkxoku d`".k dh HkfDr dks
NksM+dj mUgsa dgha lUrks"k ugha feyrkA mUgksaus vius eu dh rqyuk tgkt ij cSBs i{kh ls dh gSA vFkkg
lkxj esa tc ikuh dk tgkt tk jgk gS] ml ij cSBk i{kh dgha ij Hkh tk, ij pkjksa vksj vikj ty
ns[kdj iqu% tgkt ij vkdj cSB tkrk gSA blh izdkj ;g lalkj ,d vFkkg lkxj gS ftlesa tho dke]
dzks/k] yksHk] eksg vkfn ls vkPNkfnr gksdj Mwc tkrk gSA vxj og Hkxoku :ih tgkt dk vkJ; ys ysrk
gS rks rj tkrk gSA dfo dk ekuuk gS fd vxj lalkj lkxj esa eSa HkVd Hkh tk] vUr esa vki Jhd`".k
ds ikl gh vkxkA
**ije&xaxk dks NkfM fi;klkS] nqjefr dwi [kukoSA
bl iafDr ds ek/;e ls dfo us bl rF; dh vksj ladsr fd;k gS fd xaxk ds fdukjs jgdj nqcqZf/nxzLr
O;fDr gh I;kl cq>kus ds fy,] dqvk [kksnsxkA dey tSls us=ksa okys Jhd`".k dh HkfDr dks NksM+dj vU;
nsoh&nsorkvksa dh vkjk/kuk D;ksa dh tk,A dey dk jliku djus okys Hkojsa dks dM+os Qy D;ksa vPNs yxsaxs!
izHkq :ih dke/ksuq dks NksM+dj vU; nsoh&nsorkvksa :ih cdjh dk nw/k dkSu nqgkosxkA
bl izdkj d`".k HkDr dfo;ksa esa lwjnkl th dk egoiw.kZ LFkku gSA
i) fofHkUu :iksa esa vkjk/; ds izfr vfHko;fDr
ii) HkfDr ifjp; l[kkHkko ,oa iqf"V ekxhZ

Question 5
nkl th nSfud thou ls mnkgj.k ysdj uhfr dh xw<+ ckr dks vklkuh ls le>k nsrs gSaA ^& [121/2]
bl vk/kkj ij jghe ds nksgksa dh foks"krk crkrs gq, mudh dkO; 'kSyh ij izdkk Mkfy,A
ijh{kdksa dh fVIif.k;k
jghenkl ds fo"k; esa ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa us mfpr rjhds ls fy[kkA izu v/;kidksa ds fy, lq>ko
esa Li"V iwNk x;k Fkk fd ^jghe ds nksgksa dh foks"krk, o dkO;
'kSyh + + + + + +dqN Nk=&Nk=kvksa us nksgksa dh foks"krk,sa fy[kh ij & d{kk esa dfo ifjp; ds lkFk Hkk"kk&kSyh ,oa
dkO; 'kSyh ugha le>k ik,A jpukvksa dh foks"krk,sa Hkh le>k,saA
dfoRo Hkkx ij /;ku ugha fn;kA mnkgj.k fy[kus ds & Hkk"kk&kSyh dk Li"Vhdj.k d{kk esa fn;k
lkFk&lkFk O;k[;k Hkkx fy[kuk vko;d gksrk gSA tkuk vko;d gSA
& Ikzu ds izR;sd Hkkx dks vge eku dj ml
ij fopkjkfHkO;fDr djus dk vH;kl d{kk
esa djk;k tk,A dkO; ds izu esa dfork
Hkkx fy[kuk vko;d crk;k tk;A

Question 5
jghe vius uhfrijd nksgksa ds fy, fo[;kr gSaA jghe dk iwjk uke vCnqjZghe [k+ku[k+kuk FkkA os thoui;ZUr
vdcj ds njckj esa jgsA eqlyeku gksrs gq, Hkh fgUnq /keZ ds izfr mudk n`f"Vdks.k mnkj FkkA jghe us thou
esa vusd mrkj&p<+ko ns[ks Fks] blfy, mUgsa lalkj dk xgu vuqHko FkkA muds nksgs dgkorksa vkSj yksdksfDr;ksa
dk :Ik xzg.k dj pqds gSaA vkt Hkh yksx mudks mnkgj.kksa ds :Ik esa iz;ksx dj viuh ckr dks vf/kd
izHkkokkyh cukrs gSAa jghe dks yksd laLd`fr] yksd O;ogkj vkSj kkL=ksa dk xgjk Kku FkkA mUgksusa bl Kku
dks lkekU; Hkk"kk esa cM+h lgtrk ds lkFk vius nksgkas esa O;Dr fd;k gSA os lk/kkj.k euq"; ds nSfud thou
ls mnkgj.k ysdj uhfr dh xw<+ ckr dks vklkuh ls le>k nsrs gSaA muds nksgksa esa thou dh ,slh lPpkb;k
fNih gqbZ gSa ftudk ix&ix ij tu ekul dks vuqHko gksrk gSA jkepUnz kqDy ds kCnksa eas & **jghe ds
nksgksa esa ekfeZdrk gSA muds Hkhrj ls ,d lPpk n; >kd jgk gSA
jghe us viuh ckr le>kus ds fy, lVhd n`"VkUrksa dk iz;ksx fd;k gSA os dgrs gSa fd uhp yksxksa dk lkFk
djus ls vPNs vkSj cM+s yksxksa dh Hkh cnukeh gksrh gSA ftl izdkj ,d efnjk cspus okyh ds gkFk esa ;fn
nw/k dk ik= gks rks yskx mls Hkh efnjk gh le>rs gSAa
jfgeu uhpu lax cfl] yxr dyad u dkfgA
nw/k dykfju gkFk yf[k; en leq>S lc rkfgAA
cqjk djus dk Qy cqjk gh gksrk gSA nwljs dk cqjk pkgdj lq[k dh dkeuk djuk O;FkZ gS D;ksafd cqjkbZ
ds cnys cqjkbZ gh feyrh gSA euq"; nwljs dk cqjk djds mlls vPNkbZ dh bPNk j[krk gS] ij ;g vlEHko
gS & ;fn ge uhe dk isM+ yxk,xs rks mlesa vke dk Qy dgk ls yxsxk\
;fn O;fDr esa fo|k] cqf/n] /keZ] ;k vkSj nku tSls xq.k ugha gSa rks mldk bl i`Foh ij tUe ysuk
O;FkZ gSA og fcuk iwN vkSj lhax ds Ikkq ds leku gSA dfo dgrs gSa fd gj O;fDr dk le; vkrk gS tc
mldh iwN gksrh gSA o"kkZ _rq esa dks;y dh ehBh ok.kh dk ego u gksus ds dkj.k og ekSu /kkj.k dj ysrh
o"kkZ _rq esa esa<d viuh VjZ&VjZ dh /ofu dks pkjksa vksj QSykrs gS D;ksafd vc mudk le; gS A
isM+ dh tM+ dks lhapus ls gh iwjk isM+ flap tkrk gS] ;fn ge isM+ dh tM+ dks u lhapdj mlds
vyx&vyx Hkkxksa dks lhapsxs rks iwjs isM+ dks ykHk ugh igqpk Lkdrk A blh izdkj fdlh Hkh dk;Z ds eq[;
vk/kkj dh ns[k&Hkky djus ls ml dk;Z esa lQyrk vo; feyrh gSA
,dS lk/ks lc l/kS] lc lk/ks lc tk;A
jfgeu ewyfg lhafpcks] QwyS QyS v?kk;AA
jghe us gj pht dh vfr dks cqjk crk;k gS A vfr gksus ls oLrq vkSj O;fDr dk ego de gks tkrk
gS A ;fn fdlh ls vf/kd ifjp; gks tkrk gS rks vR;f/kd esytksy ds dkj.k ,d nwljs ds izfr vuknj
rFkk v#fp iSnk gksus yxrh gS A ey; ioZr ij pUnu ds cgqr ls o`{k yxs jgrs gS A panu dh ydM+h
dherh ekuh tkrh gS ij ey; ioZr ij jgus okyh Hkhyuh dks mlds ego dk Kku ugha A og mlls vU;
ydfM+;ksa dh Hkkfr tykus dk dke ysrh gS A
vfr ijpS rs gksr gS] v#fp ] vuknj Hkk;A
ey;kfxfj dh Hkhyuh] panu nsr tyk;AA
jghe us vius lw{e voyksdu dks fuEufyf[kr nksgs esa izdV fd;k gSA [kSfj;r] [kwu] [kklh] [kqkh]
nqeuh] izse vkSj efnjkiku dks euq"; fNikuk Hkh pkgsa rks fNi ugha ldrs cfYd os vkSj T+;knk izdV gksdj

lkeus vkrs gSa ftlls lHkh mUgsa tku ysrs gSaA [kSfj;r ekywe gks tkrh gS] [kwu ,d u ,d fnu izdV gks
tkrk gSA efnjkiku dks Hkh euq"; fNik ugha ldrkA
[kSj [kwu [kklh] cSj izhfr enikuA jfgeu nkcS u ncS]a tkur ldy tgkuAA
uhp O;fDr ;fn fdlh dkj.kok vius xq.k vkSj lkeF;Z ls vf/kd dqN ik ysrk gS rks og ?keaMh gks
tkrk gSA og vius ewy lh/ks vkSj frjNs [kkuksa esa Hkh fdruh Hkh nwj py ldrk gSA I;knk tc vkf[kjh [kkus
esa igqp tkrk gS rks ml [kkus ds ewy :Ik essa jgus okys eksgjs ds cjkcj gks tkrk gS vkSj mlh dh pky
pyus yxrk gSA ;fn I;knk ot+hj ds [kkus rd vk tkrk gS rks mlh ds led{k gks tkrk gSA
Tkks jghe vksNks c<+S] rks vfr gh brjk;A
I;knk lkSa Qjth Hk;kS] Vs<+ks&Vs<+ks tk;AA
fdlh lk/kkj.k O;fDr dks pk in feyus ij mlesa ?keaM vk tkrk gSA
jghe ds nksgksa esa vusd uSfrd fk{kk, gSa tks gekjs nSfud thou esa dke vkrh gSA jghe us ijksidkjh
euq"; dh izkalk dh gSA ijksidkjh euq"; nwljksa dk Hkyk djus ds lkFk&lkFk vius vki dks Hkh /kU; djrk
gS] ftl izdkj esagnh ckVus okys ds gkFk vuk;kl gh esagnh ls jp tkrs gSaA bl izdkj ijksidkj ds n~okjk
euq"; nwljksa dk Hkyk djus ds lkFk&lkFk viuk Hkh Hkyk djrk gSA
Oks jghe uj /kU; gS] ij midkjh vax A
ckVuokjs dks yxS] T;ksa esagnh dks jax AA
jghe ds dFkukuqlkj dqlax dk izHkko vPNs yksxksa ij ugha iM+rkA vxj gekjk LoHkko vPNk gS rks ml
ij cqjs yksxksa dh laxfr dk izHkko ugha iM+rk] ftl izdkj panu ds o`{k ij lkIk fyiVs jgrs gSa ijarq panu
viuh lqxa/k vkSj khryrk ugha NksM+rkA mke izd`fr ds yksx fdlh Hkh ifjfLFkfr esa vius vPNs LoHkko dks
ugha NksM+rsA
tks jghe mke izd`fr] dk dfj ldr dqlaxA
panu fo"k O;kir ugha] fyiVs jgr HkqtaxAA
dfo dgrs gSa fpUrk vkSj r`".kk lc ijskkfu;ksa dh tM+ gSA vxj euq"; fparkeqDr gks tk, rks og lcls cM+k
lkgwdkj dgyk,xkA fuEufyf[kr nksgs esa jghe us blh ckr dks Li"V fd;k gS %
pkg xbZ fpark feVh] euqvk csijokgA
ftudks dNq u pkfg,] os lkgu ds lkgAA
jghe dh dfork esa mudh izfrHkk] Kku] fo"k; fokkyrk vkSj fofo/krk ds nkZu gksrs gSAa uhfr] Ja`xkj vkSj
HkfDr muds dkO; ds fo"k; FksA vius nksgksa esa jghe us ykSfdd] vykSfdd rFkk thou ds O;kogkfjd i{kksa
dks nkkZ;k gSA jghe dh Hkk"kk czt vkSj vo/kh gSA blds vfrfjDr mUgsa dbZ Hkk"kkvksa dk Kku FkkA os ;ksX;rk
ds lPps ikj[kh FksA mUgksaus ekuo O;ogkj vkSj izd`fr O;ogkj dk xgu fujh{k.k fd;k FkkA lw{e voyksdu]
kkL=Kku vkSj lgt vfHkO;fDr mudh futh foks"krk, gSAa muds O;fDrRo esa mnkjrk] lgtrk] lPpfj=rk
vkSj fouezrk ds xq.k FksA jghe dk le; HkfDrdky vkSj jhfrdky ds chp dh dM+h gSA jghe ds nksgksa dh
lPpkbZ ikBdksa ds n; ij xgjk izHkko NksM+rh gSA mUgksaus thou ds [kV~Vs&ehBs vuqHkoksa dks viuh jpukvksa
esa mrkjk gS blfy, muds nksgksa esa gesa thou ds fofo/k fp= feyrs gSAa fgUnh ds uhfrdkjksa esa jghe dk
LFkku loksZifj gSA
i) nksgksa dh foks"krk %& ljl] ikf.MR; iw.kZ] fk{kk izn] loZ tufgrk; vFkZ xkEHkh;Z ;qDr] vrqHkotU;
lPpkbZ] uSfrdrk vkfn ij izdkk MkyukA
ii) dkO; 'kSyh & ljl ,oa lqcks/k

Question 6
^^drZO;ksavkSj mRrjnkf;Roksa dks fuHkkus okyk O;fDr Js"B gksrk gS rFkk ,slk gh O;fDr bZoj dks fiz; [121/2]
Hkh gksrk gSA*^ fujkyk th }kjk jfpr ^fiz;re^ dfork ds vk/kkj ij fl) fdft, A

ijh{kdksa dh fVIif.k;k
^fiz;re* dfork ij vk/kkfjr bl izu dks Nk=&Nk=kvksa }kjk v/;kidksa ds fy, lq>ko
lokZf/kd fy[kk x;kA dfork Hkkx vklku gksus ds dkj.k mnkgj.k
ds lkFk fy[kk x;kA & d{kk esa le;lhek ds vuqlkj mkj fy[kus
fdlh&fdlh ijh{kkFkhZ us vko;drk ls vf/kd foLr`r dk vH;kl djk;k tk,A
mkj fy[kkA & v/;kid dfork&Hkkx dks daBLFk djk dj
dgha&dgha ek=kxr vkqf);k feyh ftls d{kk esa lq/kkjk Hkh Lej.k djuk fl[kk ldrs gSaA
tk ldrk gSA & dfork dk HkkokFkZ] mkj esa fy[kuk fl[kk;k
tk,A dfork dh lh[k vo; 'kkfey dh
& Nk=ksa dks crk,sa fd dfo dk foLr`r ifjp;
iwNus ij gh fn;k tk,A

Question 6
Ckgqeq[kh izfrHkk ds /kuh dfo fujkyk th Nk;koknh dkO;/kkjk ds izeq[k dfo;ksa esa ,d fofk"V LFkku j[krs gSAa
budh ckn dh jpukvksa esa izxfrokn ds Loj QwVrs fn[kkbZ nsrs gSaA egkdfo ^fujkyk* us fgUnh lkfgR; dks
,d uohu vkHkk iznku dhA bUgksaus eqDr Nan dh kq#vkr dh rFkk bl izdkj fgUnh dfork dks NUn vkSj
rqd ds cU/ku ls eqDr fd;k] NUn ls eqDr gksus ij Hkh budh dfork esa laxhr ds ek/kq;Z dh vuqHkwfr gksrh
gSA ^fiz;re* budh blh izdkj dh jpuk gSA
fujkyk th us laLd`rfu"B [kM+h cksyh dk iz;ksx fd;k gSA Hkkjrh; laLd`fr ds izfr dfo iw.kZr% lefiZr
gSA izLrqr dfork ^fiz;re* esa dfo us fo".kq Hkxoku vkSj ukjn th ls lEcfU/kr ,d ikSjkf.kd izlax ds ek/;e
ls ;g fl/n djus dk iz;kl fd;k gS fd thou esa vius dkZO;ksa vkSj mkjnkf;Roksa dks fuHkkus okyk O;fDr
gh Js"B gksrk gS vkSj ,slk gh O;fDr bZoj dks fiz; gSA
,d ckj ukjn th cSdq.B /kke esa fo".kq Hkxoku ds ikl igqps vkSj iwNus yxs & gs Hkxou~! e`R;qyksd
esa vkidk lcls fiz; HkDr dkSu gS\ blds mkj esa Hkxoku fo".kq us ukjn th ls dgk fd eq>s vius izk.kksa
ls Hkh fiz; ,d fdlku gSA ukjn th dgrs gSa &
**e`R;qyksd esa dkSu gS iq.;yksd
HkDr rqEgkjk iz/kku\
fo".kq Hkxoku us dgk &&**,d lTtu fdlku gS izk.kksa ls fiz;reA
ukjn th fo".kq Hkxoku ds bl mkj ls pfdr jg x, vkSj lkspus yxs fd Hkxoku us fdl vk/kkj ij
,d lk/kkj.k fdlku dks viuk loZfiz; HkDr eku fy;k tcfd og Lo;a jkr&fnu Hkxoku ds uke dk tki
djrs jgrs gSa **ukjk;.k ukjk;.kA vr% ;g ckr muds xys ugha mrjhA os cksys **mldh ijh{kk ywxkA

fo".kq Hkxoku ;g lqudj glus yxsA os le> x, fd ukjn th dks ;g ckr vPNh ughA yxh vr%
mUgksaus ukjn th ls dgkA
**ys ldrs gksA
Ukkjn th cSdq.B /kke ls e`R;qyksd esa pys vk, vkSj fdlku dh ijh{kk ysus mlds ikl igqpsA ogk
igqp dj mUgksaus ns[kk fd og fdlku nksigj dks gy tksrdj tc vius ?kj igqpk rks mlus njokts ij
igqpdj *jke th * dk uke fy;kA fQj og Luku djds rFkk Hkkstu djds vius [ksrksa es dke ij pyk
x;kA kke dks ykSVdj mlus njokts ds ikl gh [kM+s gksdj jke dk uke fy;k rFkk izkr%dky [ksr esa dke
ij tkrs gq, ml fdlku us ,d ckj fQj Hkxoku jke dk uke fy;kA ;g ns[kdj ukjn th pdjk x,
vkSj lkspus yxs & bl fdlku us fnu&Hkj esa dsoy rhu ckj gh Hkxoku dk uke fy;k fQj Hkh Hkxoku dks
;gh HkDr ;kn jgk! dfo ds kCnksa esa &
izkr% dky pyrs le;
,d ckj fQj mlus
e/kqj uke Lej.k fd;kA
**cl dsoy rhu ckj\
Ukkjn pdjk x, &
fdUrq Hkxoku dks ;g fdlku gh ;kn vk;k\
ukjn th viuh blh my>u dks ysdj fo".kq yksd pys x, vkSj Hkxoku ls cksys &
**ns[kk fdlku dks
fnu Hkj esa rhu ckj
Ukke mlus fy;k gSA
fQj Hkh vkidks ogh fdlku fiz; gS\
fo".kq Hkxoku us rRdky bl izu dk mkj nsuk mfpr u le>kA blds fy, mUgksaus ukjn th dh
ijh{kk ysuh pkgh ftlls muds izu dk mkj izkIr gks tk,A fo".kq Hkxoku us ukjn th dks ,d dk;Z lksaik
vkSj dgk &
**ukjn th] vko;d nwljk
,d dke vk;k gS]
rqEgsa NksM+dj dksbZ
vkSj ugh dj ldrkA
fo".kq Hkxoku us ukjn th dks rsy ls Hkjk gqvk ,d ik= fn;k vkSj dgk fd bls gkFk esa ysdj HkweaMy
dh iznf{k.kk dj vkb,A ,d ckr dk foks"k /;ku j[kuk gS fd rsy dk ik= ys tkrs le; mlesa ls ,d Hkh
cwn tehu ij u fxjsA fo".kq th cksys &
**rSy&iw.kZ ik= ;g
Yksdj iznf{k.kk dj vkb, HkweaMy dhA
/;ku jgs lfoks"k
,d cwn Hkh blls
rSy u fxjus ik,A
Ukkjn th rsy&ik= gkFk esa ysdj Hkwe.My dh iznf{k.kk djds tc cSdq.B dks ykSVs rks mudk eu
cgqr izQqfYyr Fkk fd mUgksaus fo".kq Hkxoku dh vkKk dk iw.kZr% ikyu fd;k vkSj rsy dh ,d cwn Hkh /kjrh

ij fxjus u ikbZA lkFk gh ukjn th ;g lksp&lksp dj vkSj Hkh izlUu gks jgs Fks fd rsy ds ckjs esa vkt
,d u;k jgL; irk pysxkA ukjn th dks mYyflr ns[kdj fo".kq Hkxoku us Lusg ls cSBkdj dgk&
**;g mkj rqEgkjk ;gha vk x;k]
Ckrykvks] ik= ysdj tkrs le; fdruh ckj
Ukke b"V dk fy;k \
fo".kq Hkxoku ds bl izu dks lqudj ukjn th kafdr gks x, vkSj Hkxoku ls cksys & gs Hkxou~! vkius gh
;g dk;Z eq>s lkSaik Fkk vr% eSa iw.kZ euks;ksx ls mls gh iw.kZ djus esa yxk Fkk fQj vkidk uke dc ysrk\
fo".kq Hkxoku us ukjn th dks le>krs gq, dgk fd gs ukjn! ml fdlku dk Hkh og dk;Z esjk gh fn;k
gqvk gSA og vius dk;Z dks iwjs eu ds lkFk iw.kZ fu"Bk ls djrk gSA blds vfrfjDr vius ifjokj ds izfr
vU; mkjnkf;Ro Hkh fuHkkrk gS vkSj viuh ftEesnkfj;k iw.kZ djrs gq, og fdlku esjk uke Hkh ysrk gSA ;gh
dkj.k gS fd og fdlku esjk lcls fiz; HkDr gS &
**ukjn ml fdlku dk Hkh dke
Eksjk fn;k gqvk gSA
mkjnkf;Ro dbZ ykns gSa ,d lkFk
lcdks fuHkkrk vkSj
dke djrk gqvk
uke Hkh og ysrk gS
blh ls gS fiz;reA
ukjn th ;g mkj ikdj yfTtr gks x,A mudh le> esa vk x;k fd lPph iwtk viuk dkZO; djus esa
gSA tks O;fDr yxu o fu"Bk ls vius dkZO; iw.kZ djrk gS vkSj vius mRrjnkf;Ro Hkh fuHkkrk gS] bZoj
mlls izlUu jgrs gSaA vdeZ.; jgdj dsoy bZoj Hktu esa yhu jgus esa dksbZ le>nkjh ugha gS vkSj u
bZoj gh ml HkDr dks viuk fiz; ik= le>rsa gSaA ukjn th bl lR; dks le> x, vkSj cksys & **;g
lR; gSA

Question 7
fueZyk miU;kl dk m/ns; lekt esa QSyh cgqr lh leL;kvksa dks mtkxj djuk gS A Li"V [121/2]
ijh{kdksa dh fVIif.k;k v/;kidksa ds fy, lq>ko
^fueZyk* miU;kl ij vk/kkfjr bl izu dks vf/kdrj ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa & fueZyk miU;kl esa of.kZr leL;kvksa dks
}kjk fy[kk x;kA O;ogkfjd thou ls tksM+ dj le>k,saA
dqN ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa us u dsoy eq[; leL;kvksa dk o.kZu fd;k miU;kl esa of.kZr izR;sd leL;k dks foLr`r
cfYd lHkh leL;kvksa dks foLrkj ls crk;kA :i ls rRdkyhu ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds ifjizs{; esa
dqN Nk=ksa us foLr`r :i ls ys[kd izsepan dk ifjp; fy[kk le>k;k tk,A
tks vko;d ugha FkkA & ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa esa ekSfyd fopkjksa dh mRifk o
dFkk dks izu ds lkFk lekfgr djds fy[kus dk vH;kl fn, x, fo"k; ij lksp dks fodflr djus
djk;k tk, ftldk dqN ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa esa vHkko fn[kkbZ fn;kA dk iz;kl fd;k tk,A
& Nk=ksa dks crk,sa fd dfo ;k ys[kd ifjp;
cgqr laf{kIr :i ls fy[kk tk,A

Question 7

eqakh izsepan n~~okjk fyf[kr ^fueZyk* miU;kl ,d ,slh jpuk gS] tks dsoy euksjatu ds fy, ugha fy[kh xbZ]
vfirq lekt esa QSyh dqN dqjhfr;ksa vkSj cqjkb;ksa ij pksV djus rFkk bu cqjkb;kas dks nwj djus dh izsj.kk
nsus ds mn~ns; ls jfpr gSA
vkt ds lekt esa ^ngst izFkk* ,d ,slh Hkh"k.k leL;k gS] ftlds dkj.k fujkk ekrk&firk ngst ds
vHkko es viuh lqkhy ,oa ;ksX; dU;k dk fookg v;ksX; nqgktw O;fDr;ksa ls djus dks ck/; gksrs gSAa fueZyk
dgkuh esa izsepan th us blh leL;k ij izgkj fd;k gSA fueZyk tSlh lqanj] lqkhy ,oa fonq"kh dU;k dk
fookg mldh ek dks eqakh rksrkjke tSls O;fDr ls blhfy, djuk iM+k] D;ksafd mlds firk dh vlkef;d
e`R;q ds dkj.k ngst dks ysdj flUgk ifjokj us mls viuh iq=o/kw cukus ls lkQ badkj dj fn;k FkkA
fueZyk dks vius firk dh leku vk;q okys dq:Ik O;fDr dks viuk ifr Lohdkj djuk iM+k] blls cM+k
vfHkkki vkSj D;k gks ldrk gSA nksuksa dh vk;q esa varj ds dkj.k fueZyk dks ekufld d"V feys] ogha mldk
cw<+k ifr geskk mls lansg dh ut+jksa ls ns[krk jgkA blls cM+h uhprk D;k gks ldrh gS fd vius gh iq=
vkSj iRuh ds Lusg iw.kZ O;ogkj dks mlus lansg dh n`f"V ls ns[kkA ftlds dkj.k u dsoy mls vius toku
iq= ls gkFk /kksuk iM+k] cfYd ifjokj dh kakfr Hkax djus rFkk varr% mlds loZukk dk dkj.k cukA
vuesy fookg ds dkj.k dU;k dk ;kSou] :Ik vkSj mez lc u"V gks tkrs gSaA fueZy ds ek/;e ls izsepan th
us ukjh dh varosZnuk] ihM+k rFkk ekufld O;Fkk dks mtkxj djus dk iz;kl fd;k gSA lkFk gh MkW Hkqou
eksgu flUgk rFkk mlds ekrk&firk dks vkM+s gkFkksa fy;k gS] tks dU;k dh Js"Brk mlds khy] lnkpkj]
pfj= ,oa lkSan;Z ls ugha vkdrs] cfYd ngst esa feyus okyh jde ls vkdrs gSAa
^fueZyk* miU;kl esa ngst izFkk rFkk vuesy fookg ds vykok dbZ vU; leL;kvksa dh vskj Hkh ikBdksa
dk /;ku vkd`"V fd;k x;k gSA bl miU;kl esa foekrk dh leL;k dh vksj Hkh izdkk Mkyk x;k gSA ;g
vke /kkj.kk gS fd foekrk vius lkSrsys cPpksa ls I;kj djuk rks nwj] mUgsa QwVh vk[k Hkh ugha ns[k ldrh]
tc fd miU;kl esa bl izpfyr /kkj.kk dk [kaMu fd;k x;k gSA fueZyk eqakh rksrkjke ds rhuksa cPpksa ls
fuNy Lusg djrh gS] ijarq ;g mldk nqHkZkX; fd mls lkSrsyh ekrk le> dj ml ij rjg&rjg ds ykaNu
,oa nks"kkjksi.k fd, tkrs gSAa
Ckspkjh fueZyk rks ckr&ckr esa ;g lko/kkuh cjrrh gS fd fdlh izdkj vius ifr] viuh uun vkSj
lkSrsys cPpksa dk fookl thr ldsA blhfy, og vusd ckj vieku ds dM+os ?kwV ihdj Hkh pqi jg tkrh
gSA ft;k dks xgus pqjkrs ns[k ysus ij Hkh mlus vius ifr ls mldk uke ugha fy;kA ;gh ugha mls iqfyl
ls cpkus ds fy, ,d gtkj #i;s Hkh nsrh gSA iszepan lekt dh bl /kkj.kk dks fuewZy fln~/k djuk pkgrs
Fks] fd gj lkSrsyh ek vius lkSrsys cPpksa dh nqeu gksrh gSA ^fueZyk* miU;kl esa dqN vU; leL;kvksa dh
vksj Hkh ladsr fd;k x;k gS] ftuesa fL=;ksa dh fjor [kksjh rFkk iznkZu fiz;rk] uun&Hkkot ds >xM+s vkfn
eq[; gSsA buesa uun&Hkkot ds >xM+s vke ifjokj esa ns[ks tk ldrs gSaA tSls] uun&Hkkot dh uksad&>ksad]
,d&nwljs ij kd&lansg] pqxyh&fkdk;r] Vhdk&fVIi.kh] yM+kbZz&>xMk gksuk vke ckr gSA
eqakh rksrkjke dh cgu #fDe.kh dks vius HkkbZ dh nwljh iRuh fueZyk QwVh vk[k Hkh ugh lqgkrhA og
mls uhpk fn[kkus rFkk rax djus dk dksbZ Hkh ekSdk ugh xokrhA og dHkh vius HkkbZ eqakh rksrkjke dks vkM+s
gkFkksa ysrh gS] rks dHkh mlds rhuks cPpksa dks fueZyk ds fo#n~/k djus esa dksbZ dlj ugh NksM+rhA
iszepan us #fDe.kh ds ek/;e ls fo/kok dh leL;k dks Hkh mtkxj fd;k gSaA eqakh rksrkjke dh fo/kok
cgu mlds ikl dsoy blhfy, jgus dks fook gS] D;ksafd mlds ifjokj esa mlds fy, dksbZ txg ugha gSAa
og vieku lgdj Hkh vius HkkbZ ds ;gk iM+h jgrh gSA rksrkjke Lo;a fueZyk ls dgrk gS & **eSaus lkspk

Fkk] fo/kok gS] vukFk gS] iko Hkj vkVk [kk,xh] iM+h jgsxhA tc ukSdj&pkdj [kk jgs gSa] rks og viuh cgu
gh gS] yM+dkas dh ns[kHky ds fy, t:jr Fkh] j[k fy;kA
^lq/kk* pfj= ds ek/;e ls izsepan dk mn~ns; vkt dh fkf{kr ukjh rFkk mlds LokfHkeku dks mtkxj djuk
gSA lq/kk dks tc ;g irk pyrk gS fd mlds ifr us fueZyk ds fookg lca/k dks dsoy blhfy, Bqdjk fn;k
fd mlds firk dh e`R;q ds ckn ogk ls ngst feyus dh dksbZ mEehn u jgh Fkh] rks mlus vius ifr dks
vkM+s gkFkksa fy;k vkSj izk;fpr Lo:Ik fueZyk dh NksVh cgu dk fookg vius ifr ds NksVs HkkbZ ls fcuk
ngst fy, djok fn;kA
fueZyk ls nqO;Zogkj djus ij Hkh mlus vius ifr dks ugha NksM+kA mls ,slk yrkM+k fd og vkRegR;k
djus ij fook gks x;kA orZeku ;qx dh LokfHkekuh ukjh ds vuq:Ik mldk dFku & **bZoj dks tks eatwj
Fkk] og gqvk] ,sls lkSHkkX; ls eSa oS/kO; dks cqjk ugh le>rhA ys[kd ds bl mn~ns; dh vksj ladsr djrk
gS fd ukjh ds LokfHkeku dh j{kk djuh pkfg, rFkk fuHkhZd gksdj viuh ckr dguh pkfg,A
lq/kk ugh tkurh Fkh fd mldh HkRlZuk lqudj mlds ifr vkRegR;k dj ysaxAs ij og ukjh ds vieku
dks lg Hkh ugh ldrh FkhA lq/kk vkSj MkW Hkqoueksgu ds ek/;e ls izsepan th lekt esa O;kIr pfj=ghurk
ij izgkj djrs gSAa
HkkypUnzz flUgk ds ek/;e ls lekt esa O;kIr en~;eku] fjor[kksjh rFkk Hkz"Vkpkj dk inkZQkk fd;k
x;k gSA Hkkypanz flUgk vR;ar dzwj] okpky vkSj /ku ds yksHkh FksA os lekt ds .sls oxZ ds izfrfuf/k gS] tks
fjor rFkk /kks[kk&?kM+h ls /ku dekdj ekuoh; Hkkoukvksa dks frykatfy ns nsrs gSAa mudk csVk MkW Hkqoueksgu
Hkh firk ds infpg~uksa ij pyus okyk ,slk ;qod fn[kk;k c;k gS] ftls fookg esa dU;k pkgs tSlh feys] ij
vf/kd ls vf/kd ngst vo; feyuk pkfg,A
bl izdkj fueZyk miU;kl dk mn~ns; lekt esa QSyh cgqr lh lEkL;kvksa dks mtkxj djuk gS
tSls &
ngst izFkk] vuesy fookg] lekt esa O;kIr Hkz"Vkpkj rFkk fjor[kksjh]
pfj=ghurk] fo/kok dh leL;k] e/;oxhZ; ifjokjksa dh vkarfjd dyg]
foekrk dh leL;k] rFkk ukjh tkfr dh fookrk vkfn A
fuZeyk miU;kl esa of.kZr leL;k, %&
a) i) ngst izFkk ii) vuesy fookg iii) iznkZu dh Hkkouk

iv) iq=&iq=h esa Hksn v) fo/kok thou

b) ?kwl[kksjh] ;qokvksa esa dq"Bk] foekrk dh fLFkfr

Question 8
fl;kjke lk/kq dh ckrksa ls D;ksa vkSj dSls izHkkfor gks x;k\ nksuksa dh HksaV dk o.kZu dhft,A [121/2]

ijh{kdksa dh fVIif.k;k
^fueZyk* miU;kl dk ;g izu fl;kjke o lk/kq ls tqM+k FkkA bls v/;kidksa ds fy, lq>ko
cgqr vf/kd Nk=ksa us fy[kkA & Nk=ksa dks crk,s fd vxj iwNk uk x;k gks
nksuksa dh HksaV dk o.kZu cgqr :fp ds lkFk fd;k x;kA rks ys[kd dk foLr`r ifjp; nsuk mkj esa
;= r= ek=kvksa dh vkqf);k feyhA miU;kl ds vak ls mkj vko;d ugha gSA tks iwNk gS ml ij gh
dks Hkh izekf.kd djrs gq, fy[kus dk iz;kl fd;k x;kA foLr`r ppkZ gksA
dqN Nk=ksa us mkj esa ys[kd dk foLr`r ifjp; fn;k & miU;k; ds vak dks ljykFkZ djds le>k;k
tks vko;d ugha FkkA
tk,A ?kVukdze le>krs le; miU;kl ds
vak nsdj fy[kus dk vH;kl djk,A
& miU;kl i<+krs le; izR;sd igyw ij fopkj
foekZ vko; fd;k tk,A

Question 8

Xkgus pksjh gks tkus rFkk ft;kjke dh e`R;q dh ?kVuk ds ckn ls fueZyk ds O;ogkj esa vpkud ifjorZu
vk x;k A Hkfo"; dh fpUrk ds dkj.k og fpM+fpM+h gks xbZA og bdykSrs cps fl;kjke ij Hkh /;ku u nsrh]
mlds ikl Ldwy tkus ds fy, twrs Hkh u gksrsA #fDe.kh vkSj mldh vkil esa jkst gh >M+Ik gks tkrh A
og ,d&,d dkSM+h dks nkr ls idM+us yxh vr% ?kj dh t:jrksa dks Vky tkrhA ;gk rd fd Lo;a dh
/kksrh Hkh tc rd rkj&rkj u gks tkrh ubZ u [kjhnrhA
,d fnu mlus fl;kjke dks ?kh ykus ds fy, ckt+kj Hkstk D;ksafd mls Hkwxh ij fookl u FkkA fl;kjke
fdlh pht+ esa gsjkQsjh ugha djrk FkkA og ,d&,d pht+ dks rkSyrh] de gksus ij okil djok nsrhA vkt
tc og ?kh yk;k rks mlus lw?kdj dg fn;k &**?kh [kjkc gS YkkSVk vkvksA fl;kjke us dgk fd ;g ?kh
lcls vPNk gS] nqdkunkj us dgk Fkk fd eky okil u gksxk] Bhd ls ns[kdj ys tkvksA fueZyk us dgk &
**?kh esa lkQ pchZ feyh gqbZ gSA vkSj og ?kh dh gkMh NksM+dj pyh xbZA fl;kjke dzks/k o {kksHk ls Hkj x;k]
fdl eqg ls ykSVkus tk,A
fl;kjke cgqr nq%[kh gks x;kA mls viuh ek dh ;kn vk xbZA og lkspus yxk & ealk Hkb;k] ft;k
Hkb;k rks pys x, eSa gh nq%[k Hkskxus dks D;ksa cp x;k\ jksr&s jksrs og ek dks ;kn dj cksyk & **vEek! rqe
eq>s D;ksa Hkwy xbZ\ eq>s D;ksa ugha cqyk ysrh\
fl;kjke dks ogha cSBk ns[k fueZyk dzksf/kr gksdj cksyh & rqe vHkh rd ;gha cSBs gks\ [kkuk dc cusxk\
fl;kjke us Ldwy dk okLrk fn;k fd og jkst gh le; ij Ldwy ugha igqp ikrk] ij fueZyk us mls nks
pkj ckrsa vkSj lquk nh] dgus yxh & **foekrk dk uke gh cqjk gksrk gSA viuh ek fo"k Hkh f[kyk, rks ve`r
gS eSa ve`r Hkh fiyk rks fo"k gks tk,xkA
bruk dgdj og jksus yxhA ckyd fl;kjke lge x;k fd u tkus vc dkSu lk naM feys\ vr% og
?kh okil djus py fn;k ij cfu, us ?kh YkSkVkus ls euk dj fn;kA
cfu, dh nqdku ij gh ,d lk/kq ;g rekkk ns[k jgk Fkk vkSj fl;kjke ls cksyk & ?kh rks cgqr vPNk
gSA fl;kjke jks iM+k fd vc dSls dgs fd ?kh vPNk ugha gSA cksyk & **ogh rks dgrh gS] ?kh vPNk ugh gS]
YkkSVk vkvksA cfu, us **lkSrsyh ek gS u! dgdj ckyd dks vkSj HkM+dk fn;k A fQj lk/kq Hkh n;k fn[kkrs
gq, cksyk & Hkxoku~ rqe fdruk cM+k vuFkZ djrs gks! bl ckyd dks ekr`izse ls oafpr dj fn;kA jk{klh

foekrk ds xys Mky fn;kA vkSj mlus lkg th ls ?kh YkkSVkus dk vuqjks/k fd;kA lk/kq dh n;kyqrk dk ckyd
ij xgjk izHkko iM+ x;kA
fl;kjke ?kh ysdj ykSVk rks jkLrs esa lk/kq mlls ehBh&ehBh ckrsa djus yxkA
og mldh nq[krh jx ij gkFk j[krs gq, cksyk & esjh ek Hkh eq>s rhu lky dk NksM+dj ijyksd fl/kkj
xbZ Fkh] rHkh rks ekr`foghu ckydksa dks ns[kdj esjk n; QV iM+rk gS A esjs firk us Hkh nwljk fookg dj
fy;k Fkk] foekrk cM+h dBksj Fkh] [kkuk u nsrh] ekjrh] ,d fnu eSa ?kj ls fudy x;kA mlh fnu ls esjs
lkjs d"Vksa dk vUr gks x;kA
lk/kq dh ckr lqudj fl;kjke ds Lo;a ds Hkkxus ds fopkj dks cy feykA lk/kq us mls crk;k fd
Lokeh ijekuUn ds ikl vkdj mlus ;ksxfo|k lh[kh ftlls og viuh ek ds nkZu dj ysrk gSA
ckyd vkp;Z ls cksyk & e`r ek dks dSls ns[k ikrs gSa\ rc lk/kq us mls crk;k fd ;ksX; xq# ds
ikl vH;kl djus ls lc lEHko gSA fl;kjke us mldh ckrksa ls izHkkfor gksdj ml lk/kq dk LFkku tkuuk
pkgkA og mlh le; mlds lkFk tkuk pkgrk Fkk ij lk/kq us fQj nksckjk vkus ds fy, dgkA fl;kjke
izlUu gks x;k vkSj mlls vius ?kj vkus dks dgkA vkt og cgqr izlUu FkkA mlus lk/kq ls iwNk & **dy
fdl oDr vkb,xk\ lk/kq us dgk & **fup; ls ugh dg ldrkA fdlh le; vk tkxkA
bl izdkj lk/kq dh ckrksa ls vR;f/kd izHkkfor gqvk ckyd mlds tky esa Qal x;k A og ckyd I;kj
dks ikus ds fy, ?kj ij rjl jgk Fkk] lk/kq ds nks ehBs cukoVh cksyksa us mlds O;fFkr n; ij ejge dk
dke fd;k vkSj vUr esa mlls iqu% feyus dk ok;nk dj og ?kj pyk x;kA
foekrk ds O;ogkj ls nq[kh] iqu%&iqu% cktkj nkSMuk lkSnk ysus tkuk vkSj okil djus tkuk vkfn]
cfu;s dh nwdku ij lk?kw diVh osk /kkjh ls HksaV] ?kh ykSVkus dh flQkfjl] cfu;s vkSj lk?kw }kjk foekrk
dh vkykspuk] lk/kw ds diV iw.kZ e/kqj O;ogkj vkfn ij izdkk MkyukA

Question 9
fueZyk miU;kl ds kh"kZd dh lkFkZdrk ij izdkk Mkyrs gq, vius mkj dh lrdZ iqf"V dhft, A [121/2]

ijh{kdksa dh fVIif.k;k
vf/kdrj ijh{kkfFZk;ksa }kjk 'kh"kZd dh lkFkZdrk dks fl) djus gsrq v/;kidksa ds fy, lq>ko
cgqr de fy[kk x;kA dFkk] D;k gS] ;s vf/kd le>k;k x;kA
vf/kdkak Nk=ksa us fueZyk dh dFkk crkrs gw, ^fueZyk* dh & fueZyk dh izR;sd ?kVuk dks d{kk esa foLrkj
?kVukvksa dks of.kZr fd;k o ^fueZyk* miU;kl dk 'kh"kZd fueZyk ls le>k;k tk,A
ls tksM+ fn;kA & miU;kl i<+krs le; izR;sd igyw ij
okLro esa 'kh"kZd dh lkFkZdrk iw.kZ gS ;k ugha ls Li"V fopkj&foekZ djsaA
fu.kZ; ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa us ugha fn;kA

Question 9

izzsepan th dk fueZyk miU;kl ukf;dk iz/kku miU;kl gSA miU;kl esa fueZyk dh d#.kk Hkjh dgkuh dk
fp=.k gqvk gSA miU;kl dh izR;sd ?kVuk miU;kl dh ukf;dk fueZyk ls vo; tqMh gS rFkk miU;kl dk
dFkkud fueZyk ds bnZ&fxnZ ?kwerk gSA
fdlh Hkh dgkuh vFkok miU;kl ds kh"kZd dk laca/k mlds dFkkud dh egRoiw.kZ ?kVukvksa ls vo;
gksrk gSA kh"kZd dh ;g foks"krk gksrh gS fd mls i<+rs gh IkkBd ds eu esa dFkkud rFkk egRoiw.kZ ?kVukvksa
,oa ik=ksa ds lanHkZ esa ;g ftKklk tkxzr gksrh gS fd ^kh"kZd* dk muls D;k laca/k gSA fdlh Hkh miU;kl
dk kh"kZd bruk izHkkokkyh gksuk pkkfg, fd og vius varj esa miU;kl dk laf{kIr dysoj lesVs gq, gksA
^fueZyk* kh"kZd dks i<+rs gh ikBd ds eu esa ^fueZyk* uked ik= ds laca/k esa ftKklk mRiUu gksuk LokHkkfod
gSA miU;kl dk vkn~;ksaikar iBu djus ds ckn ikBd dks Hkyh&HkkWfr ;g le> esa vk tkrk gS fd bl
miU;kl dk blls vPNk kh"kZd gks ugha ldrk Fkk] D;ksafd miU;kl dk lkjk rkuk&ckuk fueZyk dks /;ku
esa j[kdj gh cquk x;k gSA
miU;kl i<+rs le; ikBd fueZyk ds izfr xgjh lgkuqHkwfr O;Dr djrk gS A mlds dk#f.kd thou
ls og nzfor gks mBrk gS] mlds nnZ ls mldk eu NViVkus yxrk gS] mldh O;Fkk ikBdksa ds eu dks Hkh
O;fFkr djrh gS A mlds R;kx] cfynku ,oa leiZ.k ikBdksa dks izHkkfor fd, fcuk ugha jg ikrk] ngst ,oa
vuesy fookg ds dkj.k bqbZ mldh n;uh; nkk ls ikBd fog~oy gks mBrk gSA funksZ"k] fu"dyad rFkk
lPpfj= fueZyk ij mlds ifr n~okjk yxk, x, vkjksi ls ikBdksa dk n; {kksHk ls Hkj tkrk gSA
izsepan th us bl miU;kl esa fueZyk ds ek/;e ls ukjh thou dk ftruk ekfeZd rFkk euksoSKkfud
fp=.k fd;k gS] oSlk kk;n gh vU;= feysxkA
mi;qZDr ckrksa ls ;g Hkyh&Hkkfr Li"V gks tkrk gS fd miU;kl dk kh"kZd ^fueZyk* loZFkk mi;qDr]
izHkkokkyh rFkk lkFkZd gSA miU;kl dk dFkkud izkjaHk ls gh fueZyk ds thou dh ?kVukvksa ls lacaf/kr gSA
dFkkud dk izkjaHk ^fueZyk* ds cpiu dh gh ,d ?kVuk ls gksrk gSA mlds firk dh e`R;q ds dkj.k mlds
ykyph rFkk ngst yksHkh llqj n~okjk fookg laca/k rksM+uk] ngst ds vHkko esa mldh ekrk n~okjk mldk
fookg mlds firk dh vk;q ds nqgktw eaqkh rksrkjke ls fd;k tkuk] llqjky vkrs gh mldk eqakh rksrkjke
dh iwoZ iRuh ds rhu iq=ksa dh ekrk cuuk] vius ifr rksrkjke rFkk viuh vk;q dh xgjh [kkbZ ds mijkar
mldk vius HkkX; ls le>kkSrk djuk] fo/kok uun ds rkuksa rFkk ifr n~okjk mlds vkSj Eaklkjke ds ifo=
laca/kksa ij lansg fd;k tkuk] ealkjke rFkk ft;kjke dh e`R;q rFkk fl;kjke ds ?kj NksM+dj pys tkus ds
ckn fueZyk dh ekufld fLFkfr] ihM+k ,oa varn~Zoan~o ,oa var esa ifr ds x`g&R;kx ds dkj.k nsgkar&;s lc
?kVuk, fueZyk ls gh tqM+h gSAa
vr% Li"V gS fd vkn~;ksikar miU;kl dh ?kVuk, u dsoy fueZyk ls tqM+h gSa] vfirq bu ?kVukvksa dh
izsjd Hkh fueZyk gh gS A bUgha dkj.kksa ls izsepan th us vius bl miU;kl dk ukedj.k fueZyk ds uke ij
fd;k gSA
'kh"kZd NksVk] dkSrwgy o/kZd] leLr ?kVukvksa dk dsUnzfcUnq la{ksi@lw= esa lEiw.kZ dFkk lesVs gq, vkfn
fcUnqvksa ij lrdZ izdkk Mkyuk vkfnA

dFkk lqjfHk
Question 10

^lEeku j{kk ds fy, vkfrF; Hkkst ds LFkku ij vius cM+ksa dk lEeku djuk vf/kd csgrj gS A [121/2]
dFku dks fl/n djrs gq, ^cw<+h dkdh^ dgkuh dk m/ns; fyf[k, A
ijh{kdksa dh fVIif.k;k
^dFkk lqjfHk* ls ^cw<+h dkdh* ij vk/kkfjr bl izu dks vf/kdrj v/;kidksa ds fy, lq>ko
Nk=&Nk=kvksa us fy[kkA
& v/;kid d{kk esa dFkk ds lkjys[ku ds
dqN Nk=&Nk=kvksa us ^cw<+h dkdh* dk laf{kIr lkj fy[kk o
lkFk&lkFk ewy m)s; o dFkk dh lh[k
dgkuh dk m)s; esa izu dh Hkk"kk gh fy[kh D;ksafd ;gha m)s;
Li"Vr% le>k,saA
Hkh gSA
& dgkuh esa vk, dfBu 'kCnkFkZ Hkh le>k,
& gj izu ds mkj esa dsoy dFkk&lkj u
fy[kdj izR;sd igyw ij ppkZ djuk
fl[kk;k tk,A

Question 10

fgUnh lkfgR; lezkV eqakh izsepUn }kjk jfpr cw<+h dkdh dgkuh ,d Hkkouk iz/kku lkekftd leL;k
ij vk/kkfjr dgkuh gS A izsepUn us blesa ,d loZdkyhu leL;k dks mBk;k gS A vkt dk ekuo vkRedsfUnzr
gksrk tk jgk gS ftlesa la;qDr ifjokj ds fy, dksbZ LFkku ugha gS A vk/kqfud o izxfrkhy dgs tkus okys
bl ;qx esa euq"; n;ghu o LokFkhZ gks x;k gS A mldk n; ,d cqtqxZ dh vkRe&O;Fkk lquus dks rS;kj
ugha gS A dgkuhdkj us cw<+h dkdh ds ek/;e ls lekt }kjk misf{kr ,d o`) L=h ds n;LFk Hkkoksa dk
euksoSKkfud fp=.k fd;k gS A
dkdh dks ifr o nksuksa iq=ksa dh e`R;q gks tkus ls Hkrhts cqf)jke dk gh vkljk [kkstuk iM+k A mUgksaus
viuh lkjh lEifk cqf)jke ds uke dj nh A cqf)jke us ml le; rks dkdh dks jaxhu [okc fn[kk,] ij
ckn eas jksVh&jksVh dks Hkh eksgrkt dj fn;kA dkdh Hkw[k ls O;kdqy gksdj jksus yxrh] ij muds larki vkSj
vkkZukn ij dksbZ /;ku ugha nsrk FkkA
cqf)jke ds ?kj ij csVs ds fryd dk mRlo euk;k tk jgk FkkA fofo/k O;atu cuk, tk jgs FksA
esgekuksa ds Lokxr dh rS;kfj;k py jgh FkhaA ij cw<+h dkdh bl pgy&igy ls nwj viuh dksBjh esa
kksdeXu cSBh gqbZ FkhA mUgsa yxk fd lc yksx Hkkstu dj pqds gSaA mudk eu jksus dks gqvk ij vikdqu
ds Mj ls jks Hkh u ikbZA
:Ikk esgekuksa ds Lokxr lRdkj esa yxh gqbZ Fkh & dkdh dh fdlh dks lq/k ugha FkhA og mnkl gksdj
dgrh gS &vkgk! dSlh lqxaf/k gS\ vc eq>s dkSu iwNrk gS\ tc jksfV;ksa gh ds ykys iM+s gS rc ,sls HkkX;
dgk fd HkjisV iwfM+;k feysa\ dkdh ls jgk ugha x;kA og jsx a rh gqbZ dM+kg ds ikl igqp xbZA :ik us dkdh
dks ns[kk rks og dkdh ij >iV iM+h vkSj mUgsa [kjh&[kksVh lqukus yxh D;ksafd mls viuh >wBh izfr"Bk ij
vkp vkrh fn[kkbzZ ns jgh FkhA og dkdh ls cksyh &
**rqe dksbZ nsoh ugha gks fd pkgs fdlh ds eqg esa ikuh u tk,] ijUrq rqEgkjh iwtk igys gh gks tk,A

Lkc ds lc esgeku Hkkstu dj jgs Fks] rc Hkh ?kj ds fdlh lnL; dks dkdh dk ?;ku ugha vk;kA
dkdh mdMw cSBdj gkFkksa ds cy ljdrh vkxu esa vkbZ ij esgekuksa us dkdh dks ns[kdj nqRdkj fn;k &**vjs
;g cqf<+;k dkSu gS\ ;g dgk ls vk xbZ\ ns[kks fdlh dks Nw u ysA
lH; dgykus okys gekjs lekt dh ,d cqtqxZ ds fy, eu esa ,slh fud`"V Hkkouk!
;g gesa lkspus dks fook dj nsrh gS bruk gh ugha dkdh dk Hkrhtk] tks vkt dkdh dh lEifk ds cy
ij bruk mNy jgk gS] og Hkh dkdh dk lEeku u dj ldk cfYd mlus Hkjh lHkk esa dkdh dks ?klhVrs
gq, tkdj v/ksjh dksBjh esa iVd fn;kA dkdh csgkskh dh gkyr esa iM+h jghA jkr dks tc mUgsa gksk vk;k
rks dksbZ vkgV u ikdj lkspus yxh &
**lc yksx [kk&ihdj lks x, vkSj muds lkFk esjh rdnhj Hkh lks xbZA dSls dVsxh\ jke! D;k [kk\
dkdh ds ;s okD; Hkhrj rd n; dks phj dj j[k nsrs gSaA mUgsa esgekuksa ds chp vius gh lxs csVs
rFkk cgw }kjk dh xbZ nqxZfr o vieku dh ckr ;kn vkbZ] os lkspus yxh & ;fn vkxu esa pyh xbZ rks D;k
cqf<+;k ls bruk dgrs u curk Fkk fd dkdh vHkh yksx [kk jgs gSa] fQj Hkh eq>s ?klhVk] iVdk! mUgha iwfM+;ksa
ds fy, :ik us lcds lkeus xkfy;k nhA
bl izdkj ys[kd us ikBdksa ds lkeus bl izu dks j[kk gS fd D;k cqtqxksZ ds lkFk ,slk orkZo mfpr
gS\ lkFk gh mUgkasus :ik dk n; ifjorZu dj ,d vkkk dh fdj.k Hkh NksM+h gS fd ekuo Hkhrj ls bruk
dBksj ugha gS] dgha mldh lqIr dksey Hkkouk, Hkh gSA ys[kd mUgsa txkuk pkgrs gSaA tc dkdh ls Hkw[k
vlgu gks mBh rks og ykMyh ds lgkjs twBs ikyksa rd igqp xbZ vkSj twBh ikyksa esa iM+h iwfM+;ksa ds VqdM
[kkus yxhA Bhd mlh le; :ik dh vk[k [kqyh rFkk og bl n`; dks ns[kdj lUu jg xbZ vkSj Lo;a dks
nks"kh ekudj Hkyk&cqjk dgus yxhA vUr esa dkdh ls {kek ;kpuk djrs gq, mudks Hkkstu dk Fkky nsrs gq,
dgrh gS & **dkdh mBks] Hkkstu dj yks] eq>ls vkt cM+h Hkwy gqbZ] mldk cqjk u ekuukA ijekRek ls izkFkZuk
dj ysuk fd og esjk vijk/k {kek dj nsAa
bl izdkj dgkuhdkj bl dgkuh }kjk izsj.kk nsrs gSa fd gesa >wBh lkekftd eku&izfr"Bk ds LFkku ij
igys vius cM+ksa dk lEeku djuk pkfg,A yksx ckr lekt esa vius uke o ;k ds fy, iwjs ds iwjs xko o
'kgj ds yksxksa dks Hkkstu djkrs gSa ysfdu vius ?kj ds cM+s izk.kh dks rqPN le> dj ,d dksus esa iVd nsrs
gSa tks muds izfr vU;k; gSA ys[kd lekt esa tkx`fr iSnk djuk pkgrs gSa D;ksafd dbZ ifjokjksa esa] tgk cqtqxZ
gksrs gSa] cPps muds izfr mis{kk dk Hkko j[krs gSa tks mfpr ugha gSAa
vkt O;fDr >wBh eku&izfr"Bk ds fy, vius laLdkj o laLd`fr [kksrk tk jgk gSA ubZ ih<+h iqjkuh
ih<h dks misf{kr ekudj mldk vieku djrh jgrh gSA ys[kd us ykMyh o dkdh ds ek/;e ls ckyeu o
izkS<+eu ds vUrj dks fn[kk;k gSA ys[kd vkkkoknh vkSj vknkZoknh gSaA :ik ds n; ifjorZu }kjk og
lekt esa tkx:drk iSnk djuk pkgrs gSa vkSj og vius m)s; esa lQy jgs gSaA
i) dFku dh lkFkZdrk ij izdkk

ii) m)s;

Question 11
^fpfdRlk kkL= ds bfrgkl esa ,slk jksx vc rd ns[kk&lquk ugha x;k A ,sls jktjksx dks dksbZ [121/2]
lk/kkj.k vkneh >sy Hkh dSls ldrk Fkk A dgkuh esa fufgr O;aX; dks Li"V dhft, A

ijh{kdksa dh fVIif.k;k
bl izu esa vf/kdkak ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa us dsoy dFkk dk lkj fy[kkA v/;kidksa ds fy, lq>ko
ek=kxr vkqf);k vf/kd ikbZ xbZA dgha&dgha vaxzsth esa & ys[kd us D;k dgus dk] le>kus dk iz;kl
Hkh 'kCn fy[ks x,A fd;k gS] v/;kid Li"V :i ls d{kk esa
dgkuh ds vak fy[kdj O;aX;&Hkko le>kuk FkkA le>k,A
Nk=&Nk=kvksa us lEokn fy[kdj [kukiwfrZ dhA & LFkku o O;fDr ds uke lgh fy[kus dk
vH;kl djk;k tk,A

Question 11

^egkjktk dk bykt* dgkuh ds ys[kd Jh ;kiky ekDlZoknh fopkjksa ds dgkuhdkj gSaA budh dgkuh
oxZ la?k"kZ rFkk lekt dh fofo/k fLFkfr;ksa dks lkeus j[k nsrh gSA budh lHkh dgkfu;ksa o miU;klksa esa thou
dk ;FkkFkZ ,oe~ okLrfod fp=.k feyrk gSA ;FkkFkZoknh gksus ds dkj.k gh bUgkasus lekt esa QSyh gqbZ dqjhfr;ksa
o :f<+;ksa dk [kqydj fojks/k fd;k gSA
izLrqr dgkuh ^egkjktk dk bykt* vk/kqfud lekt dh iwthoknh eukso`fk ij vk/kkfjr gSA mUgksaus
xjhch vkSj vehjh dk HksnHkko rFkk vkfFkZd fo"kerk dks lekt dh leL;kvksa dk ewy dkj.k ekukA egkjktk
eksguk ds ?kqVus vkil esa tqM+ x, FksA fiNys ukS o"kksaZ ls mudk bykt py jgk gSA mudh ns[k&js[k ds fy,
rFkk bykt ds fy, MkWDVjksa dh QkSt rS;kj jgrh gS ysfdu mUgsa tjk Hkh vkjke ughaA egkjktk dh chekjh
dks fpf=r djus ds fy, ys[kd us O;aX;kRed 'kSyh dk iz;ksx fd;k gS] tSls &
**egkjktk tc dHkh dksBh ls fjDkk ij ckgj fudyrs rks fjDkk [khapusokys pkj dqfy;ksa ds lkFk
cnyh ds fy, vU; pkj dqyh Hkh lkFk&lkFk nkSM+rs pyrsA lko/kkuh ds fy, egkjktk ds futh MkWDVj ?kksM+s
ij lokj fjDkk ds ihNs jgrs Fks A
flrEcj ds eghus esa egkjktk tc igkM+ ls viuh fj;klr y[ku ykSVrs rks muds izLFkku ls iwoZ MkWDVjksa
esa gypy ep tkrhA muds fy, dejs cqd gks tkrsA MkWDVjksa ds fy, fjDkk o cf<+;k ?kksM+s lqjf{kr dj
fy, tkrsA yksxksa dks u gksVyksa esa LFkku feyrk vkSj u mUgsa lokfj;k gh feyrh FkhaA ckr QSy tkrh fd
egkjktk eksguk dks ns[kus MkWDVj vk jgs gSaA mi;qZDr dFku esa Hkh ys[kd us O;aX; dk iz;ksx fd;k gS A
ys[kd bls jktjksx dgdj O;aX; djrs gSA egkjktk dh chekjh dh ppkZ ftyk dksVZ dh ckj esa] ftyk
eftLVsV ds ;gk vkSj xouZesaV gkml rd esa FkhA cEcbZ eSfMdy dkWyst ds fizafliy MkWDVj dkSky dks Hkh
MkWDVjksa ds lEesyu esa cqyk;k x;k FkkA
izLrqr dgkuh esa ys[kd us deZ ls iyk;u fn[kk;k gS tks iwthoknh ekufldrk dk izrhd gSA ,d LFkku
ij ys[kd blh fLFkfr dks izdV djrs gS & **lc MkWDVj viuh Qhl] vkus tkus dk fdjk;k vkSj vkfrF;
ikdj ykSV tkrs] ijUrq egkjkt ds LokLF; esa dksbZ lq/kkj u gksrkA
mijksDr okD; ls irk pyrk gS fd thou esa dk;Z djus ls c<+dj izkfLr o vkfrF; ikuk Js;Ldj
gSA ,d vU; LFkku ij ys[kd dgrs gSa & **fpfdRlkkkL= ds bfrgkl esa ,slk jksx vc rd ns[kk&lquk ugha
x;kA ,sls jktjksx dks dksbZ lk/kj.k vkneh >sy Hkh dSls ldrk Fkk!
egkjktk ,d ,sls ejht Fks tks MkWDVjksa dks vknsk fn;k djrs FksA egkjktk ds lsdzsVjh fou; us MkWDVj
la?kkfV;k dks lwpuk nh fd **muls igys vk, MkWDVj egkjktk dh ijh{kk dj ysa rks os Hkh egkjktk dh
ijh{kk djus dh d`ik djsaxAs ckhl MkWDVjksa dh ,d lHkk dk vk;kstu fd;k x;kA ftlds ckn MkWDVjksa ls

vuqjks/k fd;k x;k fd os viuh ijh{kk vkSj funku ds lEcU/k esa ijLij fopkj djds viuk earO; fy[k
ysAa blds Ipkr~ egkjktk lHkk esa mifLFkr gksdj MkWDVjksa dh jk; lqusaxAs
okLro esa egkjktk dh chekjh ekufld O;Fkk Fkh] ekufld tdM+u Fkh ftlds dkj.k muds ?kqVus vkSj
flj ds nnZ dk bykt ugha gks ik jgk FkkA MkWDVj la?kkfV;k us egkjkt ds jksx dk v/;;u fd;kA cqysfVu
dk v/;;u djus ds ipkr~ mUgksaus bls ekufld gh vf/kd crk;kA mUgksus egkjkt ls dgk &
**esjk fopkkj gS fd egkjktk dk ;g jksx lk/kkj.k 'kkjhfjd mipkj }kjk nwj gksuk nqLlk/; gksxk -----A
Ekgkjktk dks ml ;qok MkWDVj dk dFku vPNk yxk vkSj mUgksus viuh xnZu ph dj yhA MkWDVj us
viuh ckr esa fdlh esgrj ds bykt dh ppkZ dh vkSj egkjktk ls mldh rqyuk dj MkyhA bl mnkgj.k
}kjk ys[kd us iwthokn o :f<+okn ij djkjk O;aX; fd;k gSA ;s iwthoknh yksx nksgjh ekufldrk j[krs gSAa
lEiUu yksx viuh rqyuk ,d esgrj ls ugha dj ldrsA MkWDVj la?kkfV;k le> x, Fks fd egkjktk dh
chekjh ekufld vf/kd gSA vr% mUgksus egkjktk ds fy, 'kkWd VhVesaV dk iz;ksx fd;kA viuh chekjh dh
rqyuk ,d esgrj dh chekjh ls gksrs gh egkjktk dks vk?kkr igqpkA og ;g dgrs gq, ph[k iM+s & **fudky
nks ckgj cntkr dks! gedks esgrj ls feykrk gS ------\ fudky nks cntkr dks] MkWDVj cuk gSA vkSj
egkjktk lsodksa }kjk dqlhZ yk, tkus dh izrh{kk fd, fcuk gh dkirs gq, ikoksa ls gkWy ls ckgj pys x,A
MkWDVj la?kkfV;k eqLdjkdj dgrs gSa & **[kSj tks gks] chekjh dk bykt rks gks x;k ------A
bl izdkj ys[kd us bu izHkqrk lEiUu yksxksa dh ekufldrk dks le>dj O;aX;kRed 'kSyh esa buds
bykt dh ckr dg dj viuh ckr lekt ds le{k j[kh gSA
dgkuh esa fufgr O;aX; dks vPNh rjg ls Li"V djuk ;Fkk ;ksX; LFkku ij Li"Vhdj.k ds fy, mi;qDr
mnkgj.k izLrqr djuk Js;"djA

Question 12
^deZukkk dh gkj^ dgkuh ds vk/kkj ij ikaMs th dk pfj= fp=.k djrs gq, Li"V dhft, fd mudk [121/2]
thou vknkZ fl/nkUrksa dh uhao ij [kM+k Fkk A

ijh{kdksa dh fVIif.k;k
^deZukkk dh gkj* ij de Nk=kas us fy[kkA ik.Ms th dk pfj= v/;kidksa ds fy, lq>ko
Li"V :i ls iwNk x;k Fkk ij dqN Nk=&Nk=kvksa us mlesa dgkuh
& d{kk esa dFkk le>krs le; pfj= ds
fy[k dj Li"V fd;kA
xq.k&voxq.k Hkh le>k, tk,saA
Ik.Msth dk pfj= vknZk dSls gS ;g cgqr de Nk=ksa us
& Ek=kxr vkqf);ksa ij /;ku nsaA
li"V fd;kA
& pfj=&fp=.k fy[kus dk vH;kl djk;k
& dFkk dk m)s; o lh[k Hkh d{kk esa Li"V
djk;h tk,A

Question 12

Mk fkoizlkn flag dh dgkuh ^deZukkk dh gkj* ds HkSjksa ikaMs ,d izHkkokkyh pfj= ds O;fDr gSaA os ubZMhg
xko ds iafMr FksA muds izHkko ls xko esa dksbZ fdlh dks lrkus dh fgEer ugha djrk FkkA mudh pkfjf=d
foks"krk, fuEufyf[kr gSa &
ftEesnkj HkkbZ
ekrk&firk nks lky ds NksVs HkkbZ dh ftEesnkjh iSjksa ls iaxq HkSjksa ikaMs dks lkSai dj pys x;sA /ku
ds uke ij firk dtZ NksM+dj x;s FksA HkSjksa ikaMs us da/ks ls fpidk, vius nq/keqgs HkkbZ ds ikyu&iks"k.k esa
dksbZ deh ugha j[khA os #bZ ls fcukSys fudkyrs] lwr dkrrs vkSj lR;ukjk;,k dh dFkk ckprsA blls tks
dqN feyrk Fkk] og dqynhi dh i<+kbZ vkSj diM+s&yks esa [kpZ djrsA dqynhi ds ckjs esa HkSjksa ikaMs dqN
lquuk ugha pkgrs FksA tc eqf[k;k th mlds dkys jax dks ns[kdj dgrs &
**bls HkSjksa ikaMs ds nknk dh ykSNkj iM+h gSA
os eqf[k;k dks eu gh eu dkslrsA
lknk thou
mudk thou lknk FkkA feV~Vh dh cuh iqjkuh c[kjh esa jgrsA ck<+ ds dkj.k mldh gkyr ttZj gks
xbZ FkhA iafMrkbZ ls tks dqN feyrk mlls viuk vkSj vius HkkbZ dk isV ikyrsA HkkbZ ds ikyu&iks"k.k esa
mUgksaus dksbZ deh ugh j[kh FkhA
HkSjksa ikaMs dsoy iqjksfgrkbZ ls gh xqtkjk ugha djrs FksA viax gksrs gq, Hkh o #bZ ls fcukSys fudkyrs]
#bZ dks /kqurs] lwr dkrrs vkSj mlls tus cukrsA ttekuh Hkh djrs FksA
muds vanj vkRe&la;e dh Hkkouk izcy FkhA mudsk vius NksVs HkkbZ dqynhi vkSj Qwyerh ds lEcU/kksa
dh tkudkjh FkhA os dbZ ckj dzks/k ls fryfeyk mBrsA dqynhi dks Vksdrs HkhA tc dqynhi mnkl gks tkrk
rkss os Lo;a Hkh nq%[kh gks tkrsA ij vius ij dkcw j[krsA
Tkc xko ds eqf[k;k dh csVh dh kknh Fkh rc lkjk xko ogk tek FkkA ij dqynhi vkSj Qwyerh
egfQ+y ls nwj vkeksa ds isM+ksa ds uhps ckrsa dj jgs FksA HkSjksa ikaMs us mUgsa jxs gkFkksa idM+ fy;kA Qwyerh rks
Hkkx xbZA mUgksaus dqynhi dks le>k;k] **rqe xyr jkLrs ij iko j[k jgs gks csVk] rqeus dHkh vius cki&nknksa
dh bTT+kr ds ckjs esa Hkh lkspk gS\
dqqynhi QwV&QwV dj jksus yxkA HkSjksa ikaMs Hkh HkkbZ ls fyiV x;s vkSj mldh ihB lgyk jgs FksA
Ikpkkki ds vklw fny dh eSy /kks nsrs gSaA mUgsa fookl Fkk fd dqynhi vc Bhd jkLrs ij vk tk;sxkA
muds oak dh e;kZnk vieku ds rjktw esa p<+us ls cp tk;sxhA mUgksaus dqynhi dks {kek dj fn;kA
ifjokj dh izfr"Bk dk /;ku j[kuss okys
HkSjksa ikaMs us vius cki&nknk dh izfr"Bk dk lnSo /;ku j[kk FkkA muds lk/ku lhfer gksus ij Hkh xko
ds yksx muds ncncs dks ekurs FksA tc mUgksaus fo/kok Qwyerh ds cPpk gksus dh [kcj lquh rks os cM+s nq[kh

gq, vkSj lkspus yxs fd deZukkk dh ck<+ mudh bl tt+Zj c[kjh dks gM+ius ugha] muds firkeg dh vewY;
izfr"Bk dks gM+ius vkbZ gSA
Lkkjh ?kVukvksa ds ckjs esa lksprs gq, mudk eu rhoz O;Fkk ls tyus yxkA os cqncqnk, **ikaMs ds oak esa
,slk igys dHkh ugha gqvk FkkA
Tkc mUgksaus Qwyerh vkSj dqynhi dks vkeksa ds isM+ksa ds uhps jxs gkFkksa idM+k rks mls vius oak dh e;kZnk
dh ;kn fnykrs gq, cksys]
**rqeus dHkh vius cki&nknksa dh bTt+r ds ckjs esa lkspk gS] cM+s iq.; ds ckn bl ?kj esa tUe feyk
gSA --------
va/kfookl dk fojks/k djus okys
Ysk[kd us xzkE;&lekt rFkk mlesa O;kIr dqjhfr;ksa vkSj va/kfookl dk o.kZu fd;k gS ogk ?kksj vKku
vkSj vfk{kk O;kIr FkhA ;s va/kfookl lekt dks [kks[kyk dj nsrs gSaA budk fojks/k djus dh kfDr fdlh
esa ugha gksrhA deZukkk ds ckjs esa Hkh yksxksa esa ,d fookl izpfyr Fkk fd ;fn unh esa ,d ckj ck<+ vk
tk;s rks fcuk euq"; dh cyh fy, ykSVrh ughaA unh esa ikuh vkus ij yksx eqf[k;k ds ?kj bdV~Bs gksrs vkSj
xhr xkrsA ij tc unh viuk Hk;adj :Ik /kkj.k dj ysrh rks mls kkar djus ds fy, iki&kkafr ds
iwtk&ikB gksrsA euq";ksa dh cyh nh tkrhA ,d ckj ,d va/kh yM+dh vkSj ,d vikfgt cqf<+;k dh HksaV nh
xbZA bl ckj xkookys fo/kok Qwyerh vkSj mlds cPps dks unh dh HksaV djuk pkgrs FksA deZukkk dks izk.kksa
dh cfy pkkfg,A fcuk cfy ds ck<+ ugha mrjsxhA mlh dh cfy D;ksa u nh tk, ftlus iki fd;k gS\ bldk
fojks/k djus dk lkgl fdlh esa ugha FkkA HkSjksa ikaMs HkhM+ esa ls vkxs c<+s vkSj vdsys gh cM+h etcwrh ls bldk
fojks/k fd;k vkSj dgk &
^deZukkk dh ck<+ nq/keqgs cPps vkSj ,d vcyk dh cfy nsus ls ugha #dsxh] mlds fy, rqEgsa ilhuk
cgkdj ck/kksa dks Bhd djuk gksxkA
Tkc eqf[k;k th us dgk fd iki dk Qy vkSj lekt dk n.M rks >syuk gksxk] bl ij ikaMs th cksys &
**t:j Hkksxuk gksxk eqf[k;k th ------fdUrq] eSa vkids lekt dks deZukkk ls de ugha le>rkA fdUrq] eSa
,d&,d ds iki fxukus yxw rks ;gk [kM+s lkjs yksxksa dks ifjokj lesr deZukkk ds isV esa tkuk iM+sxkA ----
va/kfooklksa dk vkard rc rd jgrk gS tc rd ge muls Mjs jgrs gSaA va/kfookl dks futh LokFkZ ds
fy, Hkh yksx Lohdkj dj ysrs gSaA buls eqfDr dk mik; va/kfookl ds mRiUu gksus ds dkj.k dh tkudkjh
izkIr djuk gSA
HkSjksa ikaMs us o"kksZ ls QSys xzkeh.kksa ds va/kfookl dks rksM+kA deZukkk ds ckjs eas tks Hkze yksxksa esa izpfyr
Fkk] mls nwj fd;kA bl izdkj HkSjksa IkakMs ds n~okjk deZukkk dh gkj gqbZA bl izdkj ge dg ldrs gSa fd
ikaMs th dk pfj= vknkZ fl/nkUrksa dh uhao ij [kM+k FkkA vr% mudk fojks/k djus dk lkgl fdlh esa Hkh
ugha FkkA
i) pkfjf=d foks"krk, fcUnqokj

ii) vknkZ fl)kUrksa ij izdkk

Tokykeq[kh ds Qwy
Question 13
uUn oak ds foukk ds fy, pk.kD; us pUnzxqIr dks gh D;ksa pquk \ pUnzxqIr dh foks"krkvksa ij [121/2]
izdkk Mkyrs gq, foLrkj ls fyf[k, A
ijh{kdksa dh fVIif.k;k
bl izu dk mkj vf/kdkak ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa us Bhd vkSj mi;qDr v/;kidksa ds fy, lq>ko
fy[kkA dqN Nk=ksa us iwokZ/kZ dks foLrkj ls fy[kk vkSj mkjkFkZ ij
laf{kIr izdkk MkykA orZuh vkfn dh xyfr;k Hkh ns[kus dks feyhaA & dkSu lh ?kVuk D;k crkrh gS bl ij Li"V
:i ls ppkZ dh tk,A
& ek=kxr vkqf);k d{kk esa lq/kkjh tk,aA

Question 13

vk;Z kdVkj }kjk nku ysus ds fy, vkeaaf=r pk.kD; dks nku kkyk essa mlds dq:Ik gksus ds dkj.k Hkjh
lHkk esa lezkV~ uUn us viekfur fd;k FkkA
Hkjs njckj esa pk.kD; us viuh fk[kk [kksydj izfrKk dh Fkh fd eSa] fo".kqqxqIr pk.kD; izfrKk djrk gwa
fd tc rd vfHkekuh uUnksa dk lewy ukk ugha dj nwxk] rc rd fQj ls fk[kk ugha ck/kwxkA
Pkk.kD; ds fy, uUnksa dk foukk djuk dfBu ugha FkkA lezkV~ dh e`R;q ds ckn ex/k dh xn~nh ds fy,
,d okLrfod jktk dh vko;drk Fkh ftlds jkT; esa iztk dks vf/kd ls vf/kd lq[k feys] iztk dks dkbZ
d"V u gksA
dqkk&dkVksa vkSj >kM+&>[kkM+ksa ls ygwyqgku] dq:Ik pk.kD; ,d okLrfod jktk dh [kksst esa ouksa esa
HkVdrk fQj jgk FkkA
,d fnu vpkud uxj dh vksj tkrs le; pk.kD; dks kks.k unh ds eSnku esa jktk dk vfHku; djrs
gq, pUnzxqIr ls lkeuk gks tkrk gSA
fdkksj pjokgs vkSj pUnzxqIr blh LFkku ij viuh lHkk tekrs vkSj [ksy [ksyrsA ml fnu pUnzxqIr ds
xys esa Qwyksa dk cM+k&lk gkj iM+k FkkA ekFks ij pUnu yxk FkkA mlus flj ij Hkh Qwwyksa dk eqdqV igu j[kk
[ksy kq: gqvkA uhps cSBs fdkksjksa us mBdj vknj ls iz.kke fd;kA lkFk gh t;t;dkj xwt mBh] jktk
dh t; gksA
jktk us egkekR; ls iztk dk dqky{kse iwNkA fdkksj egkekR; us mkj fn;k fd fdlesa lkgl gS tks
izrkih jktk pUnzxqIr ekS;Z dh iztk dks nq%[k nsA gekjs cyoku jktk dh iztk ij dkSu vR;kpkj djsxk\
rHkh ,d L=h dh tksj&tksj ls jksus dh vkokt lqukbZ nh
jktk ds lkFk&lkFk lHkh fdkksjksa dh vk[ksa ml vksj mB xbZ && ,d L=h xksn esa NksVk lk cPpk fy,
vkxs&vkxs rsth ls pyh vk jgh Fkh] ihNs&ihNs ,d detksj&lh L=h jksrh gqbZ nkSM+ jgh FkhA og ckj&ckj
vkxs [kM+h gksdj cPps okyh L=h dks jksd ysrh] idM+rh] gkFk tksM+dj fxM+fxM+krh vkSj mlds iko idM+dj
yVd tkrhA ij cPps okyh L=h ckj&ckj /kDdk&eqDdh djds NqM+k ysrh vkSj mls Bksdj ekjdj rsth ls c<+
pyrhA detksj L=h vkSj tksj ls jksus yxrh vkSj fQj yM+[kM+krh gqbZ mlds ihNs yx tkrhA

jktk us vkKk nh fd nksuksa fL=;ksa dks idM+ dj gekjh lHkk esa mifLFkr djksA ge mlds nq%[k dk
dkj.k tkuuk pkgrs gSAa
Ukxj dh vksj tkrs pk.kD; us fdkksj jktk dh vkKk lquhA dkSrqdok pk.kD; jktlHkk ds fudV vk
[kM+k gqvkA
vkxs&vkxs pyrh L=h fp<+dj ?keaM ds lkFk mUgsa /kedkus yxhA ;s dSls fnu vk x, gSAa dy ds Nksdjs
;s pjokgs rd ifFkdksa ij Mkdk Mkyus yxs gSaA eSa jktiq#"kksa ls dgwxhA iztk ij bl rjg dk vR;kpkj -----A
egkekR; cus fdkksj us MiV dj dgk] pqi jgA jktk pUnzxqIr ds gkssrs gq, Hkyk fdlesa bruk lkgl gS
fd iztk ij vR;kpkj djsA
jktk us egkekR; ls dgk fd buls iwNks] D;ksa yM+ jgh gS\a ge U;k; djsaxAs
ek% nksuksa gh fL=;ksa us ;g nkok fd;k fd og cPpk mudk gS A cPpk ,d Fkk] vkSj nkosnkj nks A
egkekR; us flj >qdkdj jktk ls fuosnu fd;k fd U;k; djsAa
pUnzzxqIr ds psgjs ij xgjh js[kk, f[kap xbZ A ikl [kM+k pk.kD; Hkh ijskku gks x;kA Hkyk bl >xM+s
dk fu.kZ; dSls gksxk ] ;g fdkksj jktk D;k U;k; djsxk\ pk.kD; dkSrwgy ds lkFk pUnzxqIr dh vksj ns[kus
pUnzxqIr dh rh[kh n`f"V ckjh&ckjh ls nksuksa fL=;ksa ds psgjs ij nkSM+rh jgh] ij dqN Hkh vuqeku ugha yx
ikrk FkkA nksuksa gh cPpsa ds fy, rM+Ik jgh FkhA nksuksa gh jks jgh FkhaA nksuksa vius&vius gB ij vM+h FkhaA
lglk pUnzzxqIr dks ,d rjdhc lw>hA mlus vkKk nh of/kd dks cqyokvksA [ksy esa dHkh of/kd dh
vko;drk ugha iM+h Fkh] blfy, fdlh fdkksj dks of/kd fu;qDr Hkh ugha fd;k x;k FkkA
fdkksj egkekR; dks lglk mik; lw>k mlus rqjUr gh ikl [kM+s dkys dq:Ik pk.kD; dks ladsr djds
cqyk;kA dksSrqdok pk.kD; of/kd dk vfHku; djus ds fy, izLrqr gks x,A
jktk us of/kd dks vknsk fn;k fd bl cPps dks chp ls phjdj bu nksuksa fL=;ksa dks cjkcj&cjkcj ckV
nwljh L=h ngkM+ ekjdj jks iM+hA cksyh &&esjs yky dks ekjks erA rqe mlh dks ns nksA esjk yky thrk
rks jgsxkA
pUnzxqIr us le> fy;k fd cPpk blh L=h dk gSA mUgkasus egkekR; dks vkKk nh fd cPpk blh L=h
dk gSA ;gh ek gSA cPpk bls ns nksA vkSj ml fueZe L=h dks ys tkdj jktiq#"kksa ds gkFk lkSai nksA mls
mldh djuh dk n.M feysxkA
pk.kD; ml fdkksj jktk ds O;fDrRo] usr`Ro&{kerk vkSj foy{k.k cqf) dks ns[kdj vkp;Zpfdr gks
x,A ftl leL;k dk lek/kku fo}ku~ pk.kD; ugha [kkst ik, Fks] mls fdkksj pUnzxqIr us {k.k Hkj esa [kkst
fy;kA mUgsa fookl gks x;k fd ftl okLrfod jktk dh mUgsa rykk gS og ;gh fdkksj pUnzxqIr gh gSA
[ksy [kRe gksus ij jktk ixMaMh ij vdsyk gh cLrh dh vksj pyk tk jgk FkkA pk.kD; yiddj mlds
ihNs&ihNs pyus yxsA
mlds ?kj igqp dj pk.kD; us pUnz dh ek ls pUnzxqIr ds ckjs esa jktlHkk esa ?kVh nks ?kVukvksa dk
o.kZu lqukA mldh fuHkhZdrk] lkgl rFkk egokdka{kk dks izR;{k ns[kdj pk.kD; us uUnoak ds foukk ds
fy, pUnzxqIr dks pquk FkkA og pkgrs Fks fd pUnzxqIr vius firk ds gR;kjs dk cnyk Lo;a ysA

pUnzxqIr esa jktk ds lHkh xq.kksa dks ns[kdj gh os nsoh eqjk ls dgrs gSa fd eq>s viuh izfrKk dh iwfrZ ds
fy, ,d jktk pkfg,A og jktk gS rsjk iq=A r{kfkyk ds fo|ky; esa eSa Lo;a bls jktuhfr dh fk{kk nwxkA
vFkZkkL= dk Kku djkxkA /kjrh dks tSlk jktk pkfg,] og eSa nwxk] ek rw pUnzxqIr dks esjs lkFk tkus nsA
eSa fo".kqxqIr pk.kD;] vFkZkkL= dk vkpk;Z rq>ls nku ekx jgk gwA /kjrh ds fy, ,d jktk nsA ns ns]
pUnzxqIr dh foks"krk,
pUnzxqIr dk HkO; O;fDrRo FkkA og xEHkhj] LokfHkekuh] fuMj] fuHkhZd] vkRefooklh] /kS;Zoku] ,dkxzfpk]
izfrHkkkkyh] egodka{kh] Li"VoDrk] rdZ cqf) dk /kuh vkSj izR;qRiUuefr rFkk foy{k.k cqf) lEiUu ckyd
FkkA fo}kuksa ds izfr vknj Hkko vkfn mldh izeq[k foks"krk, FkhaA
[ksy O;ogkj esa pUnz xqIr] usr`Ro {kerk] vuqkklu] dqkkxzrk] izHkko] mRlkg] izR;qRiUuefr U;k; lkeF;Z
uhj&{khj foosd j[kus okyk fuHkhZd lkglh vkSj egokdka{kh O;fDrRo lEiUu fdkksj esa jktksfpr lHkh xq.k
vLrq pUnzxqIr dks gh uUn ds foukk ds fy, pqukA

Question 14
^lk> dks ekSdk ns[kdj pUnzxqIr pqipki ckgj fudy iM+k A b/kj m/kj ns[krk] cM+h lko/kkuh ls [121/2]
og lkeUr nsonk ds ;gk igqpk A
pUnzxqIr bl le; dgk ij gS\ og lkeUr nsonk ds ;gk D;ksa x;k gS \ D;k mls vius
m/ns; esa lQyrk feyh \
ijh{kdksa dh fVIif.k;k
cgqr de ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa us bl izu dks fy[kkA v/;kidksa ds fy, lq>ko
Nk=ksa us bl izu esa pUnzxqIr dk lkeUr nsonk ls feyus dh
?kVuk dk o.kZu fd;kA og ogk D;ksa x;k Hkh Li"V fd;k ijUrq & ^Tokykeq[kh ds Qwy* ,d ,sfrgkfld ukVd
D;k ogk og vius m)s; esa lQy jgk&bldk mkj dqN Nk=ksa gSA bldh ?kVukvksa dks tSlk of.kZr gS] oSlk
us ugha fy[kkA ek=kvksa dh =qfV;k ns[kus dks feyhaA gh fy[kus dk iz;kl djkuk pkfg,A Lo;a
ds vuqlkj blesa ifjorZu u fd;k tk,A
& izu ds izR;sd igyq ij fy[kuk vko;d
crk;k tk,A
& lHkh ?kVukvksa ls tqM+h ckrksa ij ppkZ dh

Question 14

pUnzxqIr bl le; r{kfkyk esa gSA

;kstuk ds vuqlkj pUnzxqIr dks r{kfkyk esa rhu fnu #duk FkkA bUgha rhu fnuksa esa mls fdlh
izdkj vius fe=ksa dks vkSj Hkh ?kfu"B cukuk gSA
vkpk;Z dkSfVY; us iapun iznsk ds jktkvksa dks tks vkoklu fn;k gS ml ij ;s yksx pUnzxqIr dh
Lohd`fr pkgrs gSAa lkeUr nsonk ds ek/;e ls mldk mu yksxksa ls feyuk laHko gks ldrk gSA
Pkk.kD; us igys gh lkeUr nsonk dks le>k fn;k gS fd bl dk;Z esa mldh D;k Hkwfedk gS rFkk
pUnzxqIr ls mudks dSls feyokuk gS A
pUnzxqIr vkt blh m)s; dh iwfrZ ds fy, nsonk ds ;gk x;k gSA
pUnzxqIr cM+h lko/kkuh ls lkeUr nsonk ds ;gk igqp x;k gS A pUnz dks ns[krs gh lkeUr nsonk
cgqr izlUu gqvk vkSj mls n; ls yxk fy;kA
lkeUr us lwfpr fd;k fd ;qojkt ey;dsrq r{kfkyk esa gh gSA vkpk;ksZ dk nkZu djds og 'kh?kz gh
viuh jkt/kkuh dh vksj ykSVus okys gSaA muls vPNk ek/;e Hkyk D;k gksxkA
pUnzxqIr izlUu gks x,A cksys] dc nkZu gksax\s brus esa gh jFkksa ds vkus dh /ofu lqukbZ iM+hA lkeUr
nsonk us xok{k ls >kaddj ns[kk] fQj cksys] cl vk gh x,A
nsonk us pUnzxqIr dks le>krs gq, dgk fd rqels mudks feykdj eSa fdlh cgkus ls ;gk ls pyk
tkxkA mruh nsj esa rqe ckr dj ysukA
tc pUnzxqIr us iwNk fd ;gk fdlh izdkj dh vlqfo/kk rks ugha gksxh\ nsonk us glrs gq, dgk] ughaA
Hkxoku~ dkSfVY; dh vkKk ls eSsaus igys gh ;qf dj nh gSA ckgj dk izgjh dqN lqu ugha ldrk vkSj Hkhrj
rqe nksuksa dh lsok esa tks ifjpkfjdk jgsxh] og xwxh vkSj cgjh nksuksa gh gSA vko;drk iM+us ij rqEgha ladsr
djds mls cqykukA dksbZ vkKk nsuh gks rks rqEgha laHkkyukA ;qojkt ey;dsrq dks bldk vkHkkl u gksus ik,
rks vPNk gh gSA dgha og bls viuk vieku le>dj eq> ij #"V u gks tk,A
;qojkt ey;dsrq ds vkus ij lkeUr nsonk us pUnzxqIr ls mudk ifjp; djk;kA
iwoZ ;kstuk ds vuqlkj }kjiky us lkeUr nsonk dks lwpuk nh fd egkjkt vkfEHk us rRdky vkidks
cqyk;k gSA
lkeUr nsonk] ;qojkt vkSj pUnxqIr ls {kek ekx dj mudks ,dkUr esa ckr djus dk volj nsdj
pys x,A
ifjpkfjdk us lqxfU/kr Hkkstu lkexzh ltk nhA ;qojkt cksys] xzg.k djsa] vk;Z pUnxqIrA
pUnzxqIr us vkxzg Lohdkj djrs gq, nw/k ds iq, dk ,d VqdM+k mBk fy;k vkSj [kkus yxsA
okkkZyki ds chp- ey;dsrq ds eqg ls vius fy, *nso* dk lEcks/ku lqudj pUnzxqIr xEHkhj gks x, A
laHkydj ml in ds vuqdwy gh O;ogkj djus yxsA pUnzxqIr dks yxk ekuks fdlh tknw ds cy ls og
lglk gh cgqr ps vklu ij cSB x, gksAa
pUnzxqIr us xEHkhj Loj esa iwNk] ;qojkt dks laokn rks fey gh pqdk gksxk \

gkA fQj cksyk vkt gh firkJh ds Hksts pj us crk;k fd r{kfkyk esa gh nsonkZu dk Hkh lkSHkkX;
feysxkA lkeUr dh vksj ls fuea=.k ikrs gh eSa le> x;k FkkA
D;ksa\ lkeUr ds lkFk D;k esjs lEidZ dh ckr ;gk lHkh tkurs gSa\ pUn dh HkkSags Vs<+h iM+ xbZA
Ukgha] ugha! ;qojkt us viuh xyrh lq/kkjrs gq, dgk fd eq>ls dgus esa =qfV gks xbZA egkjkt ds nwr
us gh eq>s crk;k Fkk fd lkeUr blesa lgk;d gksaxAs
pUnzxqIr us lqxfU/kr ty ihrs gq, dgk fd ;qojkt ,d ckj rqEgkjs euksje iznsk dh ;k=k djus dh
cM+h bPNk gSA
;qojkt us dgk fd dk;Z fl/n gksus ij nso gekjs ;gk vfrfFk cudj rks i/kkjsxas ghA
pUnzxqIr mldh prqjrk dks le> x, A jktk ioZrd rks vius dks mlds cjkcj dk gh kkld le>saxs]
rHkh rks ;g ex/k&lezkV~ dks viuk vfrfFk cuk jgk gSA pUnzxqIr eu gh eu glkA Hkxoku dkSfVY; ds eu
esa irk ugha D;k gS\ dkSu tkus] fdlh fnu [kM~x ysdj mldk jkT; thrus ds fy, Hkh rks ogk tkuk iM+
ldrk gSA
ij ls eqLdjkdj pUnzxqIr us dgk] ge ml fnu dh izrh{kk djsaxAs
ge Hkh djsaxs] nso! ;qojkt us ,slk dgdj tSls lc dqN pUnzxqIr ij gh Mky fn;kA ;qojkt fQj
cksyk] eSa iwtuh; egkjkt ls D;k fuosnu d:xk\
fotsrk dh Hkkfr gkFk c<+kdj pUnzxqIr us dgk] ge viuh vksj ls fn;k x;k gj opu iwjk djus dks
rRij gSa A
pUnzxqIr us ;qojkt ey;dsrq ls fQj iwNk] egkjkt ioZrd ;gh vkoklu pkgrs gSa u \
;qojkt us dgk] dsoy ;gh A vkSj vc egkjkt dh vkKk ls eSa fuosnu djuk pkgrk gw fd tgk] ftl
le; Hkh gekjh vko;drk gksxh] ogk nson`f"V mBkrs gh gesa rRij ik,xs A pUnzxqIr vkSj jktk ioZrd ds
chp ekSf[kd laf/k gks xbZ A
dk;Z iwjk gksrs gh pUnzxqIr mB [kM+k gqvk vkSj fcuk lkEkUr nsonk dh izrh{kk fd, eqLdjkdj ckgj
fudy iM+k A
bl rjg pUnzxqIr ds r{kfkyk vkus dk m/ns; iwjk gks x;k vkSj mls vius m/ns; esa lQyrk fey

i) pUnzxqIr bl le; r{kfkyk esa gS

ii) vkpk;Z pk.kD; dh ;kstukuqlkj fe= jktkvksa ls feydj ?kfu"Brk c<+kus esa lkeUr nsonk dk lg;ksx
visf{kr Fkk vr% vius b"Vdk;Z dks lEikfnr djus ds m)s; ls lkeUr nsonk ds ;gk x;k FkkA
iii) gk mls vius m)s; esa lQyrk feyhA

Question 15
^vfrfFk dh bPNk iwjh djus ds fy, eq>s lcls vkxs jguk iM+sxk A vfrfFk dkSu gS] pUnxqIr us mldh [121/2]
bPNk fdl rjg ls iwjh dh Fkh \ le>kdj fyf[k, A

ijh{kdksa dh fVIif.k;k
Nk=ksa }kjk le; dh lhek ds vuqlkj mkj ugha fy[ks v/;kidksa ds fy, lq>ko
x,A dgha mkj vfr foLr`r Fks rks dgha laf{kIrA ek=kxr vkqf);k
Hkh ns[kus dks feyhaA & ,sfrgkfld i`"BHkwfe ij vk/kkfjr miU;klksa
dks i<+kus esa foks"k :fp ysaA
& iafDr;ksa dk lUnHkZ le>k;k tk,A ewy
i`"BHkwfe vo; le>k;h tk,A rc gh Nk=
izukskj fy[k ldsaxsA
& ek=kxr vkqf);k lq/kkjus ds fy;s d{kk esa
vH;kl djk,saA

Question 15

vfrfFk* lsY;wdl dh iq=h gsysu gSA

lezkV~ pUnzxqIr us pjksa ls lquk Fkk fd ;ouksa dh jktdqekjh gsysu eq>s ns[kuk pkgrh gSA mlh fnu
lezkV~ us fup; dj fy;k Fkk fd og ;q) esa lcls vkxs pydj mls viuk nkZu nsxkA
vkpk;Z dkSfVY;] egkekR; jk{kl rFkk lezkV~ pUnzxqIr ;q/n j.kuhfr ij fopkj dj jgs FksA rHkh jk{kl
us dgk fd Hkxoku~ dkSfVY; dh ;qfDr dk fooj.k Hkh ;Fkkor~ ns pqdk gwA vc lezkV~ dh tSlh vkKk gksA
pUnzxqIr gl iM+k vkSj cksyk] **egkekR; jk{kl dgk jg x,\
**tgk jk{kl dks gksuk pkfg,A jk{kl cksys] **gj ;q/n esa jk{kl lsuk esa lcls vkxs jgrk vk;k gS] bl
ckj Hkh------A
**ugha] ughaA egkekR; rks esjk gh vf/kdkj Nhu jgs gSAa pk.kD; us pUnzxqIr dks le>k;k fd uhfr dk
fu.kZ; djus dk vf/kdkj egkekR; jk{kl dks gh gS] o`"ky!
**uhfr ds nks&nks vkpk;Z feydj eq> lSfud dks ywV jgs gSAa ugha] ughaA ;g vR;kpkj ugha pysxkA
**eSa lezkV~ Hkh gw] vr% esjk dkZO; gS fd vfrfFk dh bPNk iwjh d:A
jk{kl us pfdr gksdj dgk] **;g dSlk rdZ] lezkV~\
**gk] eSa vius i{k dk rdZ ns jgk gwA vfrfFk dh bPNk iwjh djus ds fy, eq>s lcls vkxs jguk iM+sxkA
jk{kl us dgk] **egkizHkq dk rdZ dSls dkV ldrk gw\ vkpk;Z dkSfVY; j{kk djsa esjh!
dkSfVY; gl iM+k] **eSa rks bruk gh dg ldrk gw egkekR;] fd o`"ky cpiu ls gh gBh gS A gk] eq>s
,d ubZ fpUrk gks jgh gSA
**esjs jgrs vkpk;Z dks fpUrk] pUnzxqIr cksykA **rw gh rks fpUrk dk dkj.k gS] o`"kyA ;fn ml vfrfFk
dh ;g bPNk thou Hkj dh bPNk cu xbZ rks\ dgha ;ou jktiq=h gsysu thou&Hkj izrkih ex/k&lezkV~ dk
fuR; nkZu ikus dks O;xz gks mBh rks -----
pUnzxqIr us yfTtr gksdj eqg Qsj fy;kA

pk.kD; us dgk] **vc bl czk.k ls vki yksxksa us vkSj rks lHkh dqN Nhu fy;k gS] dsoy bruk gh
gkFk esa jg x;k gS && ;ou jktdU;k dk fookg ex/k lezkV~ ls djk nw! rks blh {k.k ,d HkO; jktHkou
cuokus dh vkKk ns nhft,A egkekR;] ;g Hkh lghA
lezkV~ us iwNk] **rkss igys fookg gksxk vFkok ;q/n\
**{kf=;ksa dh ijEijk ds vuqlkj igys ;q/n] fQj fookg !
Lkcls igys igkM+ tSls ps xtjkt ij fojkV~ dk; nsork dh rjg [kM+k ex/k&lezkV~ ;q/n{ks= esa
vk;kA gsysu us jFk ij cSBs vius firk dks >d>ksj dj dgk] **tSls Lo;a nsork twfiVj mrj vk;k gks]
**rw tk] eSa bl ikq dks ck/kdj rq>s migkj esa nwxkA lsuk esa ;q/n ds ckts ct mBsA
Bhd mlh le; pUnzxqIr dk ka[k xjt mBkA ;ou lsuk dks Hkkjrh; O;wgksa esa Qlkdj ;ou dkSky
ls dkVk tkus yxkA ml vn~Hqkr ;q/n ds dkj.k lsY;wdl dks dkB&lk ekj x;kA
vk/kh lsuk dVk pqdus ds ckn O;wg esa Qls gq, lsY;wdl dh vk[kksa ij iM+h fnfXot; ds lius dh /kq/k
NV xbZA Fkdk&gkjk lsY;wdl pUnzxqIr ds ikl lfU/k dk izLrko Hkstdj vius ,dkUr fkfoj esa csgky iM+k
Fkk A jktdU;k gsysu dksus eas [kM+h fotsrk dks rM+irs ns[krh jghA
lfU/k gks xbZA lsY;wdl dk lEeku djus ds fy, ex/k lezkV~ us vusd gkFkh] jFk] ?kksM+s rFkk ewY;oku
jRu migkj esa fn,A
lsY;wdl us vius thrs gq, iznsk dk cgqr cM+k Hkkx ex/k lezkV~ dks fn;kA viuh iq=h gsysu dk gkFk
lezkV~ ds gkFkksa esa lkSai fn;kA bl rjg ls lezkV~ us gsysu dks viuh iRuh cukdj mldh bPNk iwjh dj
i) vfrfFk ;ou jktdU;k gsysu lsY;wdl dh iq=h

ii) gsysu lezkV pUnzxqIr dks ns[kuk pkgrh Fkh bl dk;Z lEiknu esa gj lEHko iz;kl }kjk fLFkfr dks
fufoZ?u vkSj fujkin cukus esa vkpk;Z dkSfVY;] vkekR; jk{kl vkSJ lezkV pUnzxqIr dh Hkwfedk ij
lE;d izdkk MkyukA
iii) lezkV pUnzxqIr us ;ou jktdU;k dq gsysu dks nkZu nsus ds lkFk&lkFk viuh iRuh Lohdkj dj bPNk
iwjh dhA

General Comments:
(a) izu i= esa dkSu ls fo"k; ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa dks dfBu yxs\
& thou esa lq[k le`f) gsrq fdlh O;olk; dk pqukoA
& vkt ds VwVrs ifjokjA
& okD; 'kqf)A
& lwjnkl dh HkfDr HkkoukA
& fueZyk esa 9th izu 'kh"kZd dh lkFkZdrkA
& Tokykeq[kh ls izu & 14

(b) izu i= esa dkSu ls fo"k; ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa ds fy, vLi"V jgs\
& fdlh O;olk; dks pquuk & le> u ikus ds dkj.k dkYifud ckrsa fy[kh x;haA
& ^ikuh esa vkx yxkuk* eqgkojk cPpksa dks vLi"V yxkA
& izu 11 esa O;aX;HkkoA

(c) fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds fy, lq>ko %&

izuksa dks /;ku ls i<+dj] lHkh fcUnqvksa ij fopkj&foekZ mijkUr fy[ksA
fucU/k esa i{k&foi{k iwNs tkus ij fdlh ,d igyw ij t+ksj nsaA
ek=kxr 'kqf);ksa ij /;ku nsaA
O;kdj.k Hkkx ij vf/kd t+ksj nsaA
miU;kl dgkuh o dfork ds vak mkj esa lekfgr djsaA
izu dh Hkk"kk i<+dj izR;sd fcUnq ij fy[ksaA
le; lhek dk /;ku j[ksaA
fucU/k esa fo"k;ksfpr mnkgj.k o dfork vak Hkh 'kkfey djsaA



Total Number of students who took the examination 518

Highest Marks Obtained 100
Lowest Marks Obtained 10
Mean Marks Obtained 74.53

Percentage of Candidates according to marks obtained

Details Mark Range

0-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100
Number of Candidates 5 6 107 166 234
Percentage of Candidates 0.97 1.16 20.66 32.05 45.17
Cumulative Number 5 11 118 284 518
Cumulative Percentage 0.97 2.12 22.78 54.83 100.00

Range of Marks Obtained

50.00 45.17
Percentage of Candidates

25.00 20.66
0.97 1.16
0-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100
Marks Obtained



Question 1

What treasures did the knot hole of the oak tree that stood at the edge of the Radley lot [20]
afford Jem and Scout? Describe how the interest in the tree ended. What in your opinion
is the significance of this episode in the novel?

Comments of Examiners
This answer required a thorough knowledge of textual
Suggestions for teachers
detail plus analysis of significance. All items of treasures
Stress upon a thorough knowledge
found in the knot hole were not mentioned by
of the text - if necessary trace the
candidates, some of whom could not critically analyse
sequence or enumerate / list points
the significance of this episode in the novel especially as
necessary to support direct
it was spread across chapters. In other cases, the
questions. Key points could be
interest and the significance were well attempted,
underlined while the text is read in
even if the narrative detail was missing.
Some candidates who wrote a long introduction could Accuracy of detail is a must.
not devote sufficient time and energy to the main point Demand sufficient written practice
of question and despite a lengthy answer, sometimes during the session with adequate
well written, could not score because much of it was training on how to write suitable
irrelevant and only a fraction of the total marks was introductions to long answers and
allotted to an introduction. understand the main point of
Quotes and / or points of critical thinking that enhance questions. The focus should not be
the level of answer were missing in many answers. lost in irrelevant detail.
Supporting key words / phrases that
can be quoted should be identified.

Question 1.
Two oak trees stood at the edge of the Radley lot. One of them had a knot-hole. Well into her school
year, Scout on her way back from school without Jem, as usual was sprinting past the Radley place
when something caught her eye. It was tinfoil glinting in the afternoon sun. When she reached for it,
she found two pieces of chewing gum minus their outer wrappers. Scout quickly ate the gum. Jem
was angry with her for eating something from the Radley place and asked her to spit out the wad and
gargle. The fear of the malevolent phantom was still very much there. After waiting for three days
for someone to claim it, the children pocketed the ball of grey twine lying there the next time, and
considered everything found there their own.
With summer upon them, Scout and Jem found more tinfoil in the tree. Upon opening the package,
they looked at a small box patch-worked with bits of tinfoil collected from chewing-gum wrappers. It

was the kind of box wedding rings came in, purple velvet with a minute catch. Inside were two
scrubbed and polished pennies. They were Indian heads, nineteen six and nineteen hundred. The
children debated what to do with them. Finders were keepers for flowers and a squirt of milk but not
money. The children decided to keep the coins safely and make inquiries later about who the possible
owner could be.
In October, the children discovered two small figures carved in soap, one of a boy and the other of
a girl in a crude dress. Scout afraid of hoo-dooing threw them down but Jem admired the
craftsmanship. Upon closer observation, the children noticed the resemblance to themselves. Jem kept
them away in his trunk.
Next, they found a package of chewing gum and this time Jem forgot about his fear of having
anything close to the Radley place. The knot-hole then surrendered a tarnished medal, an old
spelling medal. The biggest treasure was a pocket watch on an aluminium chain with a knife. The
watch would not run but Atticus said it was worth ten dollars.
The children did not tell Atticus where they had obtained it from, but decided to write a note to thank
their unknown benefactor. When they went the next morning to place the envelope in the knot hole,
they were aghast to see the hole had been cemented. Jem kept a vigil by the tree and finally got to ask
Nathan Radley if he had filled the knot-hole. Nathan Radley admitted he had because the tree was
dying. Jem was silent but later asked Atticus if the tree indeed was dying. Atticus did not think it was.
Jem stayed out the entire evening and when he returned Scout could see he had been crying.
The knot-hole was Boos way of reaching out and trying to establish a connection with the innocence
of childhood, which he had been watching, with amusement and care, over time. The cementing of the
knot-hole was the adult worlds response to this clear-hearted attempt. It was one of the ways that the
adult world with all its prejudices killed a harmless mockingbird that did nothing but spread its
song, which Boo represented. This episode therefore supports the overall theme of prejudice
smothering harmless nobility.
The novel is also a bildungsroman, a novel about coming of age. While Scouts reaction to the knot-
hole is childish, Jems is a change: from fear, scepticism, gradual understanding as he stares in
the direction of the Radley home each time, admiration and great anguish at the blocking of this
channel of communication. His orders to discard anything found there and confusion about the
ethical ramifications of taking things change to acceptance and when the hole is cemented, he stands
there till nightfall, obviously crying at the injustice. It is a precursor to the larger lesson he will
learn at the trial later.

Question 2
Discuss the various mockingbirds in Harper Lees novel To Kill a Mockingbird. [20]

Comments of Examiners
Most candidates gave fairly comprehensive answers to
Suggestions for teachers
this question, addressing all the characters that are
This is an obvious and key aspect
considered the mockingbirds. However, a few
of the novel and teachers must
candidates who referred to Mayella as a mockingbird
communicate the significance
could not provide adequate justification for their opinion.
correctly to students. The link to it
Many candidates who succeeded in presenting the
being a sin to kill a mockingbird
symbolic role of mockingbirds could discuss only the
has to be made and analysed in the
two main ones (Tom and Boo). Where Dill, Jem and
context of each character that may
Dolphus Raymond were mentioned, analysis was often
be considered a mockingbird.
An opinion necessary for such a
In some cases, the candidates misunderstood the meaning question must be supported by
and context of mockingbirds and interpreted the term as justification from the text.
mocking and ridiculing, basing their answers on how Candidates should be discouraged
Tom and Boo were ridiculed by society. from including every character to
A well-substantiated opinion was acceptable. Some be safe such generalisations are
candidates presented Atticus as a mockingbird and marks easily caught out as signs of
were given on the basis of justification of that opinion. insufficient critical thinking and
understanding of text and rarely
score well because in playing safe,
candidates cannot provide
convincing substantiation of the
broad opinion.
Teachers should read text
thoroughly in class and discuss both
major and minor characters and
their symbolic role in the context of
the title.

Question 2.
Atticus philosophy is that it is a .. sin to kill a mockingbird. When Scout and Jem receive airguns
for Christmas, Atticus tells them that although he would prefer that they practise their shooting with
cans, if they must shoot at living things, they must never shoot at mockingbirds. Atticus explains that
it is a sin to kill a mockingbird. Clearly, this is the title scene, but the theme continues throughout
the book. Miss Maudie explains why Atticus is correct mockingbirds never do anyone any harm,
and are not pests in any way. All they do is sing beautifully and live peacefully.
The mockingbird comes to represent true goodness and purity. The sin is in corrupting this.
Tom Robinson is one example of a human mockingbird. He stands accused of raping and beating
Mayella Ewell, but is innocent of the charges. The town commits the ultimate sin by finding him

guilty and sentencing him to death. In effect, they have killed a mockingbird, literally and in
spirit. He was convicted the moment Mayella opened her mouth to scream. Ironically, his kindness
works against him: his offer of help and his feeling sorry for a white woman cause his tragedy. After
Tom Robinson is shot, Mr. Underwood compares his death to the senseless slaughter of
Boo Radley is another example of a human mockingbird. He has spent his entire life as a prisoner
of his own home because his father was overzealous in punishing him for a childhood mistake.
Boo Radley observes the world around him, causing no harm to anyone, and then saves Jem and
Scouts lives when Bob Ewell attacks. The sheriff determines that Ewells death will be ruled an
accident because he does not wish this harmless good soul to be killed by attention. At the end
of the book Scout thinks that hurting Boo Radley would be like shooting a mockingbird.
By presenting the blacks of Maycomb as virtuous victims good people made to suffer Lee makes
her moral condemnation of prejudice direct, emphatic, and explicit. The mockingbird represents true
goodness and innocence that should always be protected. The title of To Kill a Mockingbird has very
little literal connection to the plot, but it carries a great deal of symbolic weight in the book. In this
story of innocents destroyed by evil, the mockingbird comes to represent the idea of innocence. Thus,
to kill a mockingbird is to destroy innocence. Other characters such as Dolphus Raymond too are
considered innocents who have been injured or destroyed through contact with evil.
That Jem and Scouts last name is Finch (another type of small bird) indicates that they are
particularly vulnerable in the racist world of Maycomb, which often treats the fragile innocence
of childhood harshly. Jem is another mockingbird. All the three children are innocent and shocked
by the harsh reality of prejudice and injustice. Dill even breaks down. However, Jem suffers the most.
It becomes his turn to cry. He condemns the system and the people of Maycomb until Atticus explains
gently that he is being unfair. He grows up overnight but, unlike Scout, suffers heartbreak and
Mayella is sometimes considered a mockingbird because of her sorry condition, abusive alcoholic
father and her hidden aspirations symbolised by the neat red geraniums. However, she is not
harmless, and whether out of fear or shame, wrongly accuses an innocent man and causes the
death of a genuine mockingbird.

Question 3
What is your impression of Atticus Finch as a lawyer and a pillar of the community from [20]
the way he handles the trial of Tom Robinson? Substantiate your opinion by narrating
aspects of the Tom Robinson trial that illustrate the point.

Comments of Examiners
Very few attempted this question but many of those Suggestions for teachers
who did, wrote fairly good answers. In some cases, the Students must be given practice in
details of the trial were not given and hence marks were how to read questions and
lost since those details were necessary to prove Atticus understand exactly what their focus
standing as a lawyer. On the other hand, some put down is. Teachers should provide
detailed narration of the entire trial but showed no link sufficient written practice and
to Atticus as a lawyer handling it. feedback on this key skill.
In some centres, candidates did not read the question Guide students on how to
well enough to understand that the answer needed an effectively use the fifteen-minute
opinion of Atticus as a lawyer and as a respected citizen reading time, and how to divide
specifically based on the trial, which includes not just writing time among answers.
the events at the court house but also precursors and Part of the supporting information
aftermath related to it. Answers included a general from the text should consist of key
study of Atticus as a father, outside the trial. words / phrases / lines from text in
the form of accurate quotes

Question 3.
Tom Robinson was a Negro who had been accused of trying to rape Mayella Ewell, a white woman.
Racial prejudice being rampant at the time, the case came to trial with the odds stacked against the
black man even though the white so-called victim belonged to the dregs of Maycomb society.
Atticus Finch was given the task of defending Tom Robinson, for which he was criticised as a nigger
lover by many in Maycomb.
When Scout got into a fight defending her father and questioned him about this, he said he had to take
on the case despite the disapproval because if he did not, he would not be able to hold up his head in
Maycomb, nor represent the county in the legislature. He would not even be able to reprimand
his children or worship at church. This case, which according to him goes to the essence of
mans conscience, affected him personally; and it was important to Atticus to stand by his
principles before expecting others to do so. He was firm that he had to first live with himself and that
conscience did not live by majority rule. He knew there was little chance of victory and that he was
fighting a losing battle, yet he took a stand on grounds of principles, saying
Simply because we were licked a hundred years before we started is no reason for us not to
try to win
Besides the moral courage he displayed at this time, he was brave enough to singlehandedly face a
group of antagonistic citizens and defend Tom Robinson before a lynch mob.
Despite the prejudice, he advocated understanding and tolerance and reminded Scout that no matter
how bitter things became, theyre still our friends and this is still our home. When Bob Ewell spat
on him, Atticus did not condemn him for anything more than chewing tobacco; he explained the action
came from the humiliation Atticus had subjected him to on the stand, destroying his last shred of
credibility. Compassionate, Atticus was willing to suffer if it meant saving Mayella Ewell one extra

Atticus was a competent lawyer and had thought things through clearly. He told his brother that the
jury could not be expected to take Tom Robinsons word against the Ewells, but he had a chance to
jar the jury and have a reasonable chance on the appeal. During the trial he was calm, courteous,
and clear. He cross examined witnesses, asking if a doctor had been called, insisting on detail of
Mayellas injuries. He questioned Bob Ewell, who first thought he would have an easy time with
Atticus, to show he was left-handed and could have beaten up Mayella himself. He questioned
Mayella courteously and slowly built a picture of the home she lived in, her life without friends and
the drunken violence of her father. After questioning her about her testimony about how Tom
Robinson had attacked her, he presented the idea that had he indeed done so, she could have
defended herself better and the beating could have been by Bob Ewell. He then showed Tom
Robinsons left arm was useless and crippled and that the injuries on Mayella therefore could not
have been inflicted by him. While questioning Tom, Atticus brought him out as a decent helpful
man who had been unfairly accused and framed. In his closing address, he said that the case should
never have come to court, and that Mayella had accused Tom out of fear that she had kissed a Negro
whose only fault was that he had the temerity to feel sorry for a white woman. He spoke of equality
and integrity, and appealed to the jury in the name of God to do its duty. At the end, when he left
the courtroom, all those in the gallery upstairs stood for him as a mark of respect for his moral
courage, sincere attempt to do the correct thing and the efficiency with which he went about it.
In the way he handled the trial, he vindicated Judge Taylors faith in him. Miss Maudie explained to
Jem later that Atticus had deliberately been chosen to fight a case that could not be won simply because
he was the only one who could have kept the jury out so long. He was the one Maycomb looked up
to, and was responsible for the baby step in the fight against racism.
Atticus was fair and unbiased. He chafed at Maycombs usual disease:
Why reasonable people go stark raving mad when anything involving a Negro comes up, is
something I dont pretend to understand
Despite his patience with anothers point of view, he explained the bias of the jury in terms of racist
attitude. He told Jem that whether the mob at the prison or the jury, otherwise reasonable men lose
their heads when it came to taking a white mans word against a black mans. He vehemently
disapproved of white men who cheated black men, calling them trash.
Thus, Atticus Finch proved his mettle as an honourable, just and efficient lawyer, citizen and a pillar of
Maycomb society, taking up a battle that he knew was a lost one, making a difference in the attitudes in
his mild, yet courageous, and far sighted manner.


Question 4
Comment on Amitav Ghoshs use of history and myth that surrounded the Sunderbans. [20]

Comments of Examiners
This question was not widely attempted.
Suggestions for teachers
Very few candidates could really do justice to the Ensure that students read the novel
question as it demanded a thorough and detailed in detail and develop the skill to
knowledge of the text. Some gave merely the detailed compress vast information into
narration of the Bon Bibi myth and ignored the use of focussed answers. Adequate written
history and other myths. Quotes did not form an practice against the clock is
appropriately strong part of substantiation in many advised.
answers. Include some challenging
discussion and written assignments
too that call for high order critical
thinking and writing skills.

Question 4.
Amitav Ghosh's greatest gift as a writer may well be his sense of place. A landscape, a city, a village on
the edge of a desert: it is these images that we summon from his novels when we are distanced from
them in memory. Perhaps this is what makes him such a master of the travel narrative, a form whose
contours are shaped by places and their histories. His most recent book, The Hungry Tide, is set in the
Sundarbans, the vast, intermittently submerged archipelago, largely covered by mangrove
forests, that forms the delta of the Ganges as it debouches into the Bay of Bengal. The region is
supposed to derive its name from the sundari tree, as the mangrove is locally called; in his book,
Ghosh speculates on whether the name may not more simply correspond to sundarban, beautiful
forest, as many prefer to believe. Two-thirds of the Sundarbans are in Bangladesh, only one-third in
India: it is a region whose fishing folk easily traverse the imaginary boundaries of the modern nation-
state, crossing, as the wind and the tides take them, the mouths of the many river-channels that set up a
unique turbulence of fresh and salt water washing the islands of the archipelago.
To this land discovered by the ebb-tide, bhatirdesh, as Ghosh calls it in a remarkable and poetic
application of the term used in Mughal land-records, come a young cetologist from the United
States on the trail of a breed of freshwater dolphin, the Orcaellabrevirostris, and a middle-aged linguist
who runs a translation bureau in Delhi. The two are thrown together by chance, and for a time the male
translator, Kanai Dutt, accompanies the female scientist, Piya Roy, as an unofficial interpreter. The
novel is not really about their developing acquaintance. Much more centrally and in a far more extended
way, it is about the many histories of the region they have come to. Kanai's aunt Nilima has lived in
one of the islands for years; she sends for him after the discovery of a diary belonging to her long-
dead husband Nirmal, a Marxist schoolteacher whose withdrawal from political activism had brought
them to settle in a Sundarbans village. As Kanai reads the diary, its narrative of past events, hopes and
disappointments (held together as much by the inexorable flow of historical time as by Nirmal's
constant evocation of lines from Rilke's Duino Elegies), is interwoven with other stories. These include
Kanai's own memories of a visit he paid his uncle and aunt as a child, his present experiences as a guest
at Nilima's hospital, and Piya's search, aided by the fisherman Fokir, for the Orcaella.

At the heart of Nirmal's diary is a historical event: the eviction of refugee settlers from the island of
Morichjhapi in the Sunderbans by the Left Front government of West Bengal in 1979. For the old
Communist in the novel, like many others at the time, this act of state violence was a betrayal of
everything left-wing politics in the post-Partition era had stood for. It was these very leftists who had
declared, in the face of Dr Bidhan Chandra Roy's attempts to find land in neighbouring states for the
successive waves of refugees who crossed over from East Pakistan in the forties and fifties, that they
would not consent to a single one being resettled outside West Bengal. And indeed the conditions of
such resettlement were harsh and alien. In 1978 a group of refugees fled from the Dandakaranya camp
in Madhya Pradesh and came to the island of Morichjhapi in the Sundarbans with the intention of
settling there. They cleared the land for agriculture, and began to fish and farm. But their presence there
alarmed the Left Front ministry, who saw it as the first of a possibly endless series of encroachments on
protected forest land, and the settlers were evicted in a brutal display of state power in May, 1979.
Many, like the girl Kusum in Ghosh's novel, Kanai's childhood playmate who becomes the repository of
Nirmal's idealist hopes, were killed. Nirmal, who stays with the settlers during those final hours, is later
discovered wandering in the port town of Canning; he is shattered by the event and never recovers. As
the last significant expression of the trauma of Bengal's Partition, the story of Morichjhapi occupies a
central place in the novel.
But it is only one of the histories - part fact, part fiction - that the Sundarbans of Ghosh's novel enfolds.
There are others: the life cycle of the Orcaella, the story of its identification and the aquatic history
of which it is part; the story of the port town of Canning, and the folly of its foundation by the
British; the storms, named cyclones by the shipping inspector Henry Piddington, which ravage
the region with irresistible ferocity; the visionary ambition of Sir Daniel Hamilton, who bought
ten thousand acres of land in the Sundarbans and set out to build an ideal community; the tale of
Bon Bibi and her worship, recounted in many folk epics, fusing Muslim and Hindu faith; and of
course the present histories of Kanai, Nilima, Piya, Fokir, Fokir's wife Moyna and their son
Tutul, among others. In a land regularly obliterated, at least in part, by the flood tide or by the
huge tidal waves dredged up by cyclones (one of which marks the novel's climax), Ghosh makes
us aware of the sedimentation of human history, the layers of past knowledge, experience and
memory that constitute our human sense of place.
Ghosh's sense of Bengali social history is, as always, unerring and profound. One of the most moving
things in the novel is the textual tenor, at once perceptive and self-deceived, of Nirmal's diary,
especially as it stands framed by the more robust and enduring social activism of his wife Nilima, and
by the common sense of his companion on his last journey, the fisherman Horen Naskor.
(suitably chosen quotes of candidates choice to be credited)

Question 5
Give an account of what Sir Daniel Hamilton did to achieve his dream in the Sunderbans. [20]
After his death, what was the ultimate outcome of all his efforts?

Comments of Examiners
The first part of the question was attempted well, but the Suggestions for teachers
outcome was left out. A few candidates managed to Teachers must guide students on
write a line or two on it. Despite it being a how to read a question and judge
straightforward question, it was attempted by very few the balance in the answer.
candidates, perhaps because of the depth of textual Quotes from texts must be
knowledge required. strategically placed. They must be
Quotes were lacking in many answers. Teachers must provide practice in
identifying relevant facts from text
and collating them in an organised
manner to address complete

Question 5.
His dream:
Sir Daniel Hamilton (pictured in stockings and knee breeches, wearing buckled shoes and a jacket with
brass buttons) had been schooled in Scotland that lifes most important lesson is Labour conquers
He came to India to seek his fortune, joined MacKinnon and McKenzie in Calcutta and worked hard,
being the only ticket agent selling hundreds of tickets (monipolikapitalist I) land, unlike others, he did
not take his money and leave or spent it all on places and luxuries. Instead, he sailed towards the Bay of
Bengal while other sahebs and mems revelled. He wondered why no one lived here and this valuable
soil was allowed to lie fallow and was told that . People lived here once, but they were driven away by
tempests and tides, tigers and crocodiles.
Since this was no remote or lonely frontier, he asked, But if people lived here once, why shouldnt they
again? Considering this area to be Indias doormat, he envisioned a thriving settlement in this place
and, upon his return to Calcutta, he sought out knowledgeable people to learn about the hazards of
the Sunderbans.
In 1903, he bought ten thousand areas of the tide country from the British sarkar. (Many islands
worth.Gosaba, Rangbelia, Satleja these were all his.) Later, he added Lusibari to these islands and
wanted his newly bought lands to be called Andrewpur, after St. Andew of Scotland. People called it
Hamiltonabad and the population grew. SDaniel gave names like Shobnomoskar (welcome to
all) and Rajat Jubilee (Silver Jubilee of some king or the other) as well as Jamespur I and Emilybari,
after the names of his relatives.
No one came to live in those places in the beginning but started pouring in (by the thousands) later
for the land that was in their own country without having to take a boat to Burma or Malaya or Fiji or
And what was more, it was free.
SDaniel welcomed everyone who was willing to work upon the condition that they could not
bring all their petty little divisions and differences. Here there would be no Brahmins or

People came in boats and dinghieshacked at the forest with their daas slept on the
The tigers, crocodiles and snakes had a feast, killing hundreds of people. SDaniel began to give
rewards to anyone who killed the wild beasts. The purpose of all this, however, was not money.
SDaniel wanted to build a new society, a new kind of country. (run by co-operatives, with no
exploitation). S.Daniel spoke with Mahatma Gandhi, Rabindranath Thakur and many others. He
followed Marxs Labour Theory of Value.
For electricity, there was a huge generator next to the school (now a discoloured wire that ran along
the wall). He also put phones in Gosaba long before there were phones in Kolkata.
According to Kanai, SDaniel ended up with These rat eaten islands. After his death in 1939, the
estate passed into the possession of his nephew, James Hamilton, who lived on the isle of Arran in
Scotland and had never been to India before coming into his inheritance. He had paid a very brief
visit to Gosaba. The estate was practically now entirely in the hands of its management. And
where was the shared wealth of the Republic of Co-operative Credit? What had become of its currency
and banks? Where was the gold The present state was of destitution.

Question 6
What is your assessment of the character Nirmal in the novel The Hungry Tide? [20]

Comments of Examiners
Most candidates merely presented a narrative of events Suggestions for teachers
in which Nirmal was involved. The analysis of Students should be taught to
character with suitable substantiation was missing from analyse a character through an
most answers. insightful presentation of the
personality of the character and his
The question was not read carefully. Nirmal in the or her role in the novel. Character
novel was presented through his profession, marriage, analysis should include physical
fondness for Kusum, leftist intellectualism and so on. description, impact of character on
The assessment was missing. Hence, the character incidents and other characters and
did not emerge. their impact on him / her. Change
The shortcoming was probably because in the novel evidenced in the character as he /
the character of Nirmal is not dealt with in she progresses through the novel
chronological sequence of his life. The novel begins must be brought out clearly. All
with his death and incidents of his life and what they opinion and analysis should be
reveal about him come up not necessarily in the supported by textual illustration.
chronology of when they occurred. While the structure In study of character, both facts and
followed in the answer was the candidates choice, observations (analysis) are
Nirmals life and the assessment of his character had to important.
be complete. The tracking of events in Nirmals
life had to be done without being
confused by the novelists choice of
structure and flow.
Quotes must form a part of the

Question 6.
The first we hear of Nirmal is during Kanais conversation with Piya in which he mentions his first visit
to Lusibari to his uncle and aunt in 1970 as a punishment. Subsequently Kanai recalls his last
encounter with Nirmal in the late 1970s when, as a college student in Calcutta, he was hurrying to get
to a lecture and had collided with someone browsing at one of the stalls displaying old books. It was his
uncle, leafing through a translation of Francois Berniers Travels in the Mughal Empire. Nirmal did not
have the money to pay for the damaged book and Kanai made the payment to ease his uncles
predicament. Later Kanai read that this visit of his had been the result of despondency at the prospect
of superannuation and regret at giving up writing and reading. Nirmal, a school headmaster, was
obviously a book lover although he could scarcely afford to buy books and Kanai often imagined he
would run into his uncle in a book shop and discreetly buy him a book or two. However, two years
later, Nirmal died in Lusibari after a long illness. Incoherent for many months, he had
nevertheless spoken of Kanai and some writings he wanted to give him. Nilima had searched for
them but in vain. About twenty years later, Nilima found a packet addressed to Kanai and had
called him to Lusibari. In death, Nirmal was responsible for Kanais second eventful visit there.
Nirmals presence is felt in Canning as Kanai reaches; and later in Lusibari when he returns to
the Hamilton compound, and hears his uncles words again. His observation on the monument to
excess on the banks of rivers and a recollection of his silhouette like that of a long-legged waterbird,
with his flapping clothes and umbrella strike Kanai, who is unaware of the mysterious conditions
surrounding his uncles final days. Nilima tells him that he was found on the embankment in
Canning, probably out in the rain since he caught pneumonia, and had lived only a couple of months
after that. Nirmals behaviour had become very erratic and he would disappear for days on end. He had
died around the time of the Morichjhapi incident. It was assumed that Nirmal had been put on one of
the buses to the resettlement camps but had been recognised and let off somewhere. No one could tell
what had happened since by then he was talking irrationally, his only lucid moment being his desire to
pass on his writings to Kanai. Later when his journal is revealed, it is clear that the only one he
trusted with his closest secret and passion was Kanai and even in illness and irrationality, he
was particular about that. Nilima cannot erase the image of her muddied husband shouting, The
Matla will rise! seemingly alluding to the story of the prediction that the river would rise and drown
Kanai remembers his uncles fondness for Rainer Maria Rilkes Duino Elegies, and later when he
reads Nirmals journal, he finds translated lines from Rilke, whom Nirmal writes of as the Poet - are
intrinsic to it. Kanai is right when he tells Piya that Nirmal was one of the people who live through
poetry and are hard to understand. The journal was written over two or three days in 1979 a period
when even Nilima thought he had given up writing - and deals entirely with Nirmals experience and
thoughts about Morichjhapi or Pepper Island, encapsulated in interspersed lines such as those about
beauty being the start of terror when he describes the place. The journal also signifies Nirmals
yearning to leave a mark and his strength: he writes he was once a writer and has picked up the pen
again to leave some trace of what happened there. This thought along with the fear that very naturally
preceded it urged him to take up writing again. The vulnerability, courage, belief and ability of
Nirmal emerge in his last days.
Thus, it is through Kanais memories of Nirmal or his reading of Nirmals journal that parts of
the past, background and events are revealed. The story of Sir Daniel Hamilton and the
establishment of an ideal community in the Sunderbans is Kainas recollection of Nirmal telling him the
story. It was a revolutionarys dream: the community at Lusibari is painted as Sir Daniels vision of a

new society, a new kind of country through Nirmals eyes and voice from the past. That Nirmal was
as impassioned as SDaniel is evident from his hurt at Kainis reaction of the futility of getting rat-
eaten islands, and his hope that It may yet come to be.
In keeping with the writers style and technique in this book, Nirmals story is not in chronological
sequence. How he reached Lusibari is revealed only after establishing his presence and role there.
Nirmal and Nilima came to Lusibari in search of a safe haven barely a year after they were married.
Originally from Dhaka, Nirmal was cut off from his family by the Partition and his choice of Calcutta.
He made a name for himself as a leftist intellectual and a writer of promise. Nilima was a
student in his English Literature classes at Ashutosh College. Like many, she was mesmerized by his
fiery lectures and her resolve to marry him did not falter despite her familys opposition. Inquiries
into Nirmals role in a Socialist conference unsettled him and following the advice of Nilimas family,
comrades and Nilima, he left the city. He was of too frail a temperament to be useful to his
comrades anyway. At first horrified at the prospect of associating with an enterprise of a capitalist,
Nirmal was impressed by Sir Daniels attempts to address rural poverty and humbled by the
realisation that in spite of their radical talk, they had no knowledge of life outside the city. The
couple had not expected a utopia but were nonplussed about what was to be done with the settlement.
Nilima was the more dynamic and practical one and drew the union and trust to greater heights. Nirmal
was not fully supportive since he winced at the stigma of social service, but he did give the trust its
name. While there was a sense of caring between husband and wife, particularly from Nilimas side,
Nirmal, wrapped up in his own thoughts caused her pain by withdrawing from her. In the year of
his death, he became a stranger to her, as if she had become his enemy.
Nilimas appraisal of Nirmal is true. He had developed an obsession with Morichjhapi. The cause
had so much appeal for him because he was in love with the idea of revolution. Revolution was the
secret god that ruled his heart. Supporting the settlers was the closest Nirmal would ever come to a
revolutionary moment and perhaps a delaying of acknowledging his age was passing.So caught was he
in this that he became contemptuous of his wifes lifelong achievement. Since Kanai had never
supposed his uncle to be capable of malice or cruelty he found it difficult to believe that the journal had
not been meant for him as a slender connection to the outside world. At the end, Kanai tells
NilimaNirmal did not think she would be sympathetic and she says for Nirmal it had to be all or
nothing, while she was satisfied with a narrower sympathy.
Nilima also admits that there had been rumours about Nirmal and Kusum, which may have
accounted somewhat for his obsession. Kania understands what Kusum meant to Nirmal: holding fast
on to Rilkes life is lived in transformation, he saw Kusum as the embodiment of Rilkes idea of
transformation. His love for poetry also made him recognise what Fokir, unlettered though he was,
was reciting: the story that gave this land its life.
Morichjhapi had a transforming effect on Nirmal, who assumes the personality of a pioneer like Sir
Daniel in recognising the birth of something new, something hitherto unseen in Morichjhapi. The
difference was the while Lusibari was one mans vision, the Morichjhapi dream had been dreamt by
the very people who were trying to make it real. Recognising this gave the listless Nirmal a purpose:
I felt all of existence swelling in my veins. In his married life too, the gulf between the couple who
had married for love was created by this attraction for the settlers and their dream. He kept his visits
there a secret from his disapproving wife once the seed of our mistrust was sown. He was honest
enough to acknowledge the sacrifices Nilima has made for him and that his old mans hallucination
would jeopardise all that she had striven for.
Nirmals is a strong presence throughout the novel, although chronologically he is dead even before it
starts. He is the poet, the revolutionary and the prophet-like figure who predicts the river rising and
the cyclone that strikes the mangroves and devours Fokir and his land.

A DOLLS HOUSE Henrik Ibsen
Question 7

One of the surprises of the play is that Krogstad is not really the central antagonist. Trace [20]
how this transition occurs.
Comments of Examiners
This question was fairly well attempted by some Suggestions for teachers
candidates, except for cases where the transformation Students must be taught to give
was abruptly dealt with. In other cases, character sketch balanced answer after reading all
of Krogstad was drawn without showing how he was or parts of the question.
was not central antagonist. Students to be taught the difference
between a character sketch and
tracing change or transformation in
character when question specifies
the difference.
Quotes must be incorporated well
in answer, especially from a drama
Question 7.
Although on the diabolic side, Nils Krogstad from A Dolls House does not have the same passion for
evil expected of a central antagonist. He seems ruthless at first, but experiences a change of heart
early on in Act Three.
At first it may seem that Krogstad is the plays main antagonist. Nora Helmer is a happy wife. Shes
been out Christmas shopping for her lovely children. Her husband is just about to receive a raise and a
promotion. Then the audience learns that Krogstad, a lawyer who attended school with Torvald and
a co-worker, has the power to blackmail Nora. She forged the signature of her dead father when she
obtained a loan from him, unbeknownst to her husband. Now, Krogstad wants to secure his position at
the bank. If Nora fails to prevent Krogstad from being dismissed, he will reveal her criminal actions and
desecrate Torvalds good name.
When Nora is unable to persuade her husband, Krogstad grows angry and impatient. Throughout
the first two acts, Krogstad serves as a catalyst, initiating the action of the play. He sparks the
flames of conflict, and with each unpleasant visit to the Helmer residence, Noras troubles
escalate. In fact, she even contemplates suicide as a means of escaping her woes. Krogstad senses her
plan and counters it:
Krogstad: So if you are thinking of trying any desperate measures if you happen to be thinking of
running away or anything worse. So you havent the courage either, eh? It would also be very
Krogstad, shares a great deal with Nora Helmer: both have committed the crime of forgery.
Moreover, their motives were out of a desperate desire to save their loved ones. Also like Nora,
Krogstad has contemplated ending his life to eliminate his troubles, but was ultimately too scared to
follow through.

Despite being labelled as corrupt and morally sick, Krogstad has been trying to lead a
legitimate life. He complains, For the last eighteen months Ive gone straight; all the time its been
hard going. I was content to work my way up, step by step. Then he angrily explains to Nora, Dont
forget: its him who is forcing me off the straight and narrow again, your own husband! Thats
something Ill never forgive him for. Although at times Krogstad is vicious, his motivation is for his
motherless children, thus casting a slightly sympathetic light on his otherwise cruel character. He says,
Even money-lenders backs, well, a man like me, can have a little or what you call feeling
Krogstad has his motives, the main being concern that his children are saved from hardship that
comes with losing a job and reputation. He has suffered social stigma for a relatively minor
crime, and was abandoned by the woman he loved. Sympathy for him comes when he is shown as
wronged and a victim of circumstances.
Near the beginning of Act Three, Krogstad has an earnest conversation with his lost love, the widow
Mrs. Linde. They reconcile, and once their romance is reignited, Krogstad no longer wants to deal
with blackmail and extortion. He asks Mrs.Linde if he should tear up the revealing letter that was
intended for Torvalds eyes. Surprisingly, Mrs.Linde decides that he should leave it in the mailbox so
that Nora and Torvald can finally have an honest discussion about things. He agrees to this, but minutes
later he chooses to drop off a second letter explaining that their secret is safe and that the IOU is
theirs to dispose.
Krogstad occasionally lets his compassion shine through his bitterness. Playwright Henrik Ibsen
provides enough hints in the first two acts to convince us that all Krogstad really needed was someone
like Mrs. Linde to love and admire him for him to change from the position of an adversary or hostility.

Question 8
Narrate the confrontation of Mrs. Linde and Krogstad in Act III of the play. What, in your [20]
opinion, is the significance of this confrontation in the play?
Comments of Examiners
The first part of the question was answered fairly well
Suggestions for teachers
and included textual knowledge. The significance was
Ensure that students have a detailed
left incomplete, as for instance, the key point about
knowledge of the text developed by
Mrs. Linde being a foil to Nora and adopting a different
discussion of impact of incidents,
path to self-fulfilment.
characters and relationships. Layers
Lack of use of quotes was observed in many answers. of interpretation and impact on plot
development must be brought out.
They should aim to develop
analytical skills and their
application to questions.
Use of quotes must be encouraged.
Accuracy and relevance to analysis
must be reinforced.

Question 8.
It is the night of the party and dance music can be heard from upstairs. Nora and Torvald are at the party
and Mrs Linde sits alone in their apartment, waiting for someone. Krogstad arrives; it is he whom
she was expecting. He reproaches Mrs. Linde for jilting him, but she says she had no choice; she had
family to support and he was poor. She tells him that only today did she discover that it is his job
that she is due to take. He asks her if she will give it back to him, but she says this would not benefit
him. She needs someone to look after, and suggests that they get back together. He cannot believe
that she can overlook his past life, but she has faith in his essential goodness and believes his previous
claim that he would be a better man if he were with her.
He is delighted. He realises that she knows what steps he has taken with the Helmers, and suggests
that he ask for his letter back. But Mrs. Linde insists that Torvald must know Noras unhappy
secret. They must give up concealment and grow to a full understanding. Krogstad leaves.
Mrs. Linde is overjoyed that at last she will have someone to care for.
Torvald enters, dragging Nora in with him.
Mrs. Linde is a foil (contrast) to Nora in that her route to self-fulfilment is the reverse of Noras.
Nora chooses to leave her family, but Mrs. Linde, who has led just such an independent life as the one
Nora is embarking upon, decides to give it up to look after the man she loves and his children. Some
critics have commented that Mrs. Lindes decision undermines Noras and implies that Nora will come
to regret her course of action. However, Ibsen does not suggest that Noras action in leaving her family
is the only route for a woman to find her true identity. The important thing is that Nora, having lived in
a sham marriage, makes a conscious choice of independence, and that Mrs. Linde, having once given up
the man she loved to support her relations, makes a conscious choice to look after him.
Both are being true to themselves after a period of denying their true natures.
In terms of the plot, Krogstad mellows and shows a noble side to his nature so it appears Nora will
be saved. However, the decision to let the truth be revealed, leads to the clash between Torvald and
Nora, Noras realisation of Torvalds hypocrisy and hollow vows, and her decision to leave him.
Candidates can present any reasonable opinion on significance in terms of plot, character and theme
but it must emerge from confrontation.

Question 9

Write short notes on the symbolism of: [20]

(a) The Christmas tree
(b) The Tarantella

Comments of Examiners
In some cases, short note (a) was written on how a
Christmas tree brings joy and happiness, with no parallel Suggestions for teachers
Teach importance literary concepts,
drawn to Nora or mention of the symbolic role of the
tree. In others, where the decorative aspect was of which symbolism is one.
addressed, the tree becoming decrepit was not Classroom teaching could involve
considered. Noras psychological condition, the situation clues to help students arrive at the
at the Helmer household and the state of Noras marriage concept and use of symbolism by
not brought out. themselves so as to be able to
For short note (b), many wrote a description of the dance recognise it independently.
All parallels / levels of symbols to
and perhaps Noras persuading Torvald to watch her
dance. Symbolism was not addressed. The means of be discerned, not just the most
escape from repression and the connection to morality obvious one.
Short notes can also have quotes,
were some of the salient points missing in the answers of
many candidates. albeit at fewer points than a long

Question 9.
(a) The Christmas tree
The Christmas Tree, a festive object meant to serve a decorative purpose. It symbolises Noras
position in her household as a plaything who is pleasing to look at. It adds charm to the
Parallels can be drawn between Nora and the Christmas tree in the play: Just as Nora instructs
the maid that the children cannot see the tree until it has been decorated, she tells Torvald
that no one can see her in her dress until the evening of the dance. In the beginning of the
second act, after Noras psychological condition has begun to erode, the stage directions
indicate that the Christmas tree is correspondingly dishevelled.
In Norway, Christmas is an important family celebration, but the focus of the festivities and the
opening of presents occur on Christmas Eve. Christmas Day is something of an anti-climax.
At the beginning of the play on Christmas Eve, Nora still believes her marriage to be happy.
We see her ordering the Christmas tree to be brought in and insisting that it is hidden until she
has decorated it. Symbolically, this alerts us to the fact that there are hidden aspects to life
in this household, that a carefully created appearance is what matters, and that Nora is
the keeper of appearances.
Significantly, when she is trying to wheedle Torvald into keeping Krogstad in his job, she
draws his attention to how pretty the flowers on the tree look.
By Christmas Day, the tree is stripped of its ornaments and its candles have burnt out (a
link with the symbol of light).
By this point, Torvald has refused to keep Krogstad in his job and Nora feels sure that Krogstad
will reveal all to him. The carefully maintained appearance of the happy marriage is
disintegrating under the encroachment of truth.

(b) The Tarantella:
The Tarantella was a wild southern Italian dance, generally danced by a couple or line of
couples. The dance was named after the tarantula spider, whose poisonous bite was mistakenly
believed to cause tarantism, an uncontrollable urge for wild dancing. The cure prescribed by
doctors was for the sufferer to dance to exhaustion.
Modern psychologists speculate that the true cause of the disorder, which achieved its highest
profile in the nineteenth century and which involved symptoms of what would not be called
hysteria, was not the spiders bite but the repressed morals of that age. The only outlet for
passionate self-expression, they reason, was the Tarantella.
In this light, it is significant that Torvald tells Nora to practice the Tarantella while he shuts
himself away in his office:
I shall hear nothing; you can make as much noise as you please.
While Torvald is ostensibly being indulgent towards his wife, the image of her practising this
passionate dance alone and unheard emphasizes her isolation within her marriage.
She persuades him to watch her practise the dance in order to prevent him opening
Krogstads letter. He tries to rein in her wildness with his instructions, but she ignores his
comments and dances ever more wildly, her hair coming loose.
The mythology of tarantism suggests that she is dancing in order to rid herself of a deadly
poison. Depending on how we wish to interpret this symbolism, the poison may be the threat
posed by Krogstads revelations, or the poison of deception and hypocrisy that
characterizes the Helmer marriage.


Question 10

With close reference to the dialogue between Willy and Howard in Act II, bring out your [20]
assessment of his subservient relationship with his boss and its significance to the play.
Comments of Examiners
Candidates with strong textual knowledge could answer Suggestions for teachers
the narrative part of the question well. Details of Use classes to discuss impact and
dialogues were also vividly given, although in some significance of scenes in depth.
centres minute details such as Willy picking up the Quotes, although used by some in
lighter, collapsing and accidentally turning on the this answer, can be used with
recorder were omitted. The assessment of the greater effect.
subservient relationship was also done well by some Narrative sequence in such
candidates; some missed the patronising air. However, questions must be reinforced,
the significance of this to the play was not brought out including seemingly minor actions.
very clearly by many candidates. Few candidates Once analysis is discussed, the
mentioned the crucial fact of Willys looking to the past relevance of every detail is
while Howard was the face of things as they were to be. reinforced.

Question 10.
The second act begins with a change in tone from the previous act, as Willy is now cheerful and
optimistic and speaks to Linda about buying a new house in the country; he now believes that after
seeing Howard he will have his job permanently in New York City.
Howard Wagner is Willys boss. Howard inherited the company from his father, whom Willy regarded
as a masterful man and a prince. Though much younger than Willy, Howard treats Willy with
condescension and eventually fires him.
Willy goes to the office with intention of asking Howard for a New York position; however,
Howard makes this difficult. As soon as Willy walks into Howards office he ignores Willys attempt
of discussing his career with him. Many a time Willy asks Howard a question and he simply ignores it
or changes the subject. Howard seems to be fascinated with his new wire recorder. The only
questions that Howard answers are about the recorder. Whats that, Howard? Didnt you ever see
one of these? Wire recorder. After this Willy tries to ignore the recorder, Oh can we talk a minute?
After this Howard continues to be preoccupied with his new gadget. He does not show Willy even
common courtesy.
Howard, still obsessing over the machine then turns it on to let Willy hear his children. Instead of
expressing irritation, Willy does his best to remain calm as he is desperate for Howard to hear him
out. After the recording stops, Howard starts to interrupt Willy mid-sentence.
Howard is a very self-indulgent man who is very materialistic. He patronises Willy slightly, Dont
you have a radio in the car? He says this in a sense that everyone must have a radio. Willy finally
gets his say, but only when he mentions the Christmas party where Howard had promised to give
Willy an in-town job if there were any ever available. Oh, yeah, yeah. I remember. Well, I
couldnt think of anything for you Willy. After Willy hears this he panics, the tables now turn
and Willy interrupts Howard mid-sentence. Willy starts to show emotion, God knows Howard; I
never asked a favour of any man. But I was with the firm when your father used to carry you here in his
arms. Willy is asking for some kind of respect for that.
Willy shows how desperate he is, picking Howards lighter up for him. Willys anger is also starts to
show. Howard is being patronising again, he calls Willy kid, feeling sorry for him. In complete
desperation to convince Howard to change his mind, Willy resorts to old memories of his successful
days working for Howards father. Willy attempts to explain why he became a salesman. He
describes Dave Singleman, a well-respected salesman who made a lasting impression on society when
he died. He describes Dave Singleman to be a man who was remembered and loved and helped by so
many different people. When he died, he died the death of a salesman.
There is certainly a connection between Dave Singleman and Willy Loman. Willy told Howard that
hundreds of salesman and buyers were at his funeral. This of course was a lie, no one came, and Dave
Singleman was to always be a single man.
Howard, now feeling he has heard enough, tries to end their meeting; however, Willy is now angry.
You cant eat the orange and throw the peel away- a man is not a piece of fruit! In the course
of the dialogue, Willys desperation shows as he keeps reducing his demand for salary.
Willy is now angry with himself for getting angry at Howard; he speaks to Howards father, Frank.
Willy is devastated; he collapses and accidentally turns on the screaming noise of Howards
children on the recorder which drives Willy crazy. When Howard comes back in to see what the fuss
is about, he lets Willy know that he no longer wants him for the firm.

Howard realises Willys false pride, as he is still lying, saying how great his sons are, There working
on a very big deal. Howard is so fed up by the end, he wants Willy gone and continues to patronise
him, telling him, pull yourself together. This scene is where Willys misplaced values and delusions
come to a head, and he is left in a state of incredulous collapse.
In this second act, Arthur Miller uses Howard as a symbol of the future. Howards office emphasizes
the technology of the future. Howard is more interested in the future, not the past. In contrast, Willy
speaks not of his future with the company but with his history and past promises. The recorder
symbolizes how Willy is not right for the modern business world. Even his values belong in the past.
Despite being much younger than Willy, Howard patronizes Willy by repeatedly calling him kid.
Willy proves entirely subservient to Howard, as evidenced by the fact that he picks up Howards lighter
and hands it to him, unable to follow his own advice about such office boy jobs. Willys repeated
reminders to Howard that he helped his father name Howard illustrate his psychological reliance on
outmoded and insubstantial concepts of chivalry and nobility incompatible with the reality of the
modern business world.
(any other assessment that addresses question and has justification can be accepted and credit given
for critical thinking)

Question 11

Comment on the title of Arthur Millers play -Death of a Salesman. [20]

Comments of Examiners
This was a challenging question requiring a broad
Suggestions for teachers
perspective of play. It covered physical death, death of
Develop in students the skill to
the American Dream, Willys failures, insurance,
coordinate points from across the
idealised funeral and the real one, Willys collapse. Not
play, so that all threads of a wider
all points were covered by many candidates. In many
aspect are known. Students must
cases, the answers were general explanations without
be taught to look beyond the
reference to the text for substantiation. Without
substantiation and with only limited perspective, many
Textual reference to support
points were repeated in answers. Many answers may
opinion is a must. This includes
have had the length but lacked the content.
Students must plan and revise
answers to ensure flow, structure
and clarity. There is no need to
repeat points. Written practice and
proper correction can help.

Question 11.
The title has several layers of meaning. The most blatantly obvious one is that it refers to Willy
Lomans actual physical death unfortunately by suicide.
It also refers to Willys idealized way of dying; he wants a massive funeral with everyone weeping and
beating their chests and so forth. Willy models this dream funeral on the service held for an old
salesman, Dave Singleman.
Singlemans funeral is in fact part of what inspired Willy to become a salesman in the first place. Willy
says that it was huge and well attended, making it totally obvious to all that Singleman was successful
and well liked. Unfortunately for Willy, his funeral is nothing like the way he describes; had he seen it,
he would be totally devastated. By Willys own standards, his funeral shows that he wasnt very
successful and wasnt particularly liked. The gap between how Willy dreams that his death will
be received and how it actually goes down makes this title sadly ironic.
The title also refers to the death of Willys salesman dream the dream to be financially successful
and a father to successful sons. By the end of the play, Willy is bankrupt and without a job. Willy
hopes, though, that by killing himself he can leave some legacy to his son Biff in the form of life
insurance money. This would give Biff a chance to succeed in the business world. Actually, that
doesnt happen at all. In the funeral scene, its more than clear that all Willys dreams are dead. Biff
has no interest in following in his fathers footsteps. Also, its painfully obvious to everybody that
Willy committed suicide, meaning there will be no life insurance money coming to his family. In the
end, Willys salesman dream is dead.
The title also indicates figurative death: Willys mental collapse before his actual death. His
exhaustion and mental wanderings are clear from the moment he enters. He keeps moving to the past,
re-living it at moments of anxiety. His collapse climaxes at the restaurant where he is left a gibbering
idiot by his sons. His delusions and failure as a salesman, husband, father and provider hasten
this death.
On a larger level, the title could be taking yet another swipe at capitalists and the American Dream.
Willy, being a salesman, in many ways represents American commercialism. The fact that he gets
destroyed by the system may be a comment on the soullessness of the system itself.
(Quotes and textual reference as appropriate)

Question 12
Discuss Biff as a character who is compelled to seek the truth about himself, unlike his [20]
father Willy.

Comments of Examiners
Many candidates performed well in this question. While Suggestions for teachers
a number of candidates analysed Biff and contrasted him Study of character traits, growth
to Willy, some stopped at Biff ignoring the latter half of or change and role in play can help.
question. Students must be asked to ensure
that they address the complete
Discourage students from studying
from free websites and summaries /
guides. The analysis is too
superficial or incomplete and often
without textual reference. Further,
word by word similarity across
centres makes lack of original
thought obvious.

Question 12.
Biff is a catalyst. He drives Willy's actions and thoughts, particularly his memories, throughout the play.
Whenever Willy is unable to accept the present, he retreats to the past, and Biff is usually there.
Prior to his Boston trip, Biff adored Willy. He believed his father's stories and accepted his father's
philosophy that a person will be successful, provided that he is "well-liked." Biff never questioned
Willy, even when it was obvious that Willy was breaking the rules. As a result, Biff grew up
believing that he was not bound by social rules or expectations because Willy did not have to
abide by them, nor did Willy expect Biff to. It is not surprising that Biff's penchant for stealing
continued throughout his adult life because Willy encouraged Biff's "little thefts" while he was
growing up. For example, instead of disciplining Biff for stealing the football, Willy praised his
Biff's perception of Willy as the ideal father is destroyed after Biff's trip to Boston. Once he learns
that Willy is having an affair, Biff rejects Willy and his philosophy. Biff considers Willy to be a
"fake," and he no longer believes in, or goes along with, Willy's grand fantasies of success. Instead, Biff
despises his father and everything he represents.
Biff's problem lies in the fact that, even though he does not want to associate with Willy, he cannot
change the fact that he is his son. And as a result, he cannot change the fact that his father has inevitably
affected him. It is true that Biff is not a womanizer like his brother Happy, but he has incorporated
Willy's tendency to exaggerate and manipulate reality in his favour. For example, Biff truly
believes he was a salesman for Oliver, rather than a shipping clerk. It is only when he confronts Oliver
that Biff realises how wrong he was.
Biff is different from Willy because he does finally accept and embrace the fact that he has been
living a lie all of his life. Biff is relieved once he realizes who he is and what he wants, as opposed
to who Willy thinks he should be and who Biff needs to pretend to be in order to please him. Once
Biff states that "We never told the truth for ten minutes in this house," he severs himself from Willy

because he openly refuses to live by Willy's philosophy any longer. Ironically, Biff reconciles with
Willy almost immediately following this statement. Since he acknowledges that he, too, is a "fake," Biff
can no longer hold a grudge against Willy.
Biff and Happy are richly drawn characters; one realizes who he is and the other is lost, following in the
footsteps of his father.
At the conclusion of the play, Happy is extremely angry at Biff because Biff said that Willy "didn't
know who he was." It is at this very moment in the play that Biff realises who he is; he has
achieved a truth about himself--"I know who I am, kid"--he has the right to express the truth about
Happy, on the other hand, is still like his father and will likely follow in Willy's footsteps. Happy cannot
admit that Willy's dreams were "all, all, wrong."
Biff has certainly won the right to say that and is believable when he says that. Happy is still the one
living in a dreamlike fantasy world and will never grow out of it. That's what makes Happy sad, almost
tragic-like, and Biff, heroic. Biff finally can admit to himself who he is and finally change for the
Unlike Willy and Happy, Biff feels compelled to seek the truth about himself. While his father and
brother are unable to accept the miserable reality of their respective lives, Biff acknowledges his
failure and eventually manages to confront it. Even the difference between his name and theirs
reflects this polarity: whereas Willy and Happy wilfully and happily delude themselves, Biff bristles
stiffly at self-deception. Biffs discovery that Willy has a mistress strips him of his faith in Willy and
Willys ambitions for him. Consequently, Willy sees Biff as an underachiever, while Biff sees himself
as trapped in Willys grandiose fantasies. After his epiphany in Bill Olivers office, Biff determines to
break through the lies surrounding the Loman family in order to come to realistic terms with his own
life. Intent on revealing the simple and humble truth behind Willys fantasy, Biff longs for the territory
(the symbolically free West) obscured by his fathers blind faith in a skewed, materialist version of the
American Dream.


Question 13

Comment on the imagery and theme of The Ship of Death by D.H. Lawrence. [20]

Comments of Examiners
Many candidates did a paraphrase of the poem and dealt
with the theme only as death and preparing for it. The Suggestions for teachers
attempt was a mere summary of the poem and no The poem must be taught with any
specific discussion of images and their effect and literary devices or concepts
themes. involved, in this case, imagery.
In some cases, images were more thoroughly presented, Themes must be elaborated upon as
although the focus was on the major, visual ones with they emerge in the teaching. Mere
the other sensory images such as the smell of ashes and explanation of lines and the most
the palpable fear of the soul omitted. Themes were obvious interpretation is
mentioned but inadequately substantiated by some insufficient.
candidates. Analysis (themes) must be backed
by reference to text and quotes.
Answers must be framed to address
the focus of the question. Teachers
must give a variety of questions on
the same writer / poem to check if
the answers are framed
appropriately. A general summary
or overview for all is not enough.

Question 13.
This poem is a part of Lawrences great collection, Last Poems, released posthumously. It indicates that
he did develop certain intense convictions about death. Dying of tuberculosis at age 35, Lawrence wrote
this. It is considered to be one of the greatest meditations on death in the 20 th century. In April 1927,
Lawrence explored Etruscan Tombs in Haly and wrote how he saw the little bronze ship of
death in one of them.
In The Ship of Death, Lawrence wrestles with the preparations he must make for his own
imminent demise.
He begins by relating his own decay to that of the autumnal world surrounding him. The apples
falling like great drops of dew / To bruise themselves an exit from themselves.
He recognizes that it is time to find an exit from the fallen self, and considers how this should be
He rejects suicide, alluding to Hamlet:
With daggers, bodkins, bullets, man can make / a bruise or break of exit for his life / But is that a
quietus, O tell me, is it quietus?
Lawrence responds with the great exhortation, Build then the ship of death, for you must take / the
longest journey, to oblivion.
Lawrence provides a shadowy but suggestive intimation of the Beyond. Sensing his own disintegration,
he imagines his entire body and mind receding completely into oblivion before a strange resurrection
at the end.
In the end, he sees to the other side of oblivion, to a new life:
Wait, wait! Even so, a flush of yellow / and strangely, O chilled wan soul, a flush of rose. / A flush of
rose, and the whole thing starts again./ The flood subsides, and the body, like a worn sea-shell /

emerges strange and lovely.
(Candidates should be able to bring out the theme of painful and slow death, death and after, and new
life or re-birth. Preparing for death should be a part of the explanation. Images created: apples, smell
of ashes, ship and provision, silence and darkness of voyage, dawn, body as shell, soul as frightened
person, death as rising flood.)

Question 14

As the Teams Head Brass is an account by Edward Thomas of the effects of war on the [20]
simple routine of everyday lives. Comment.
Comments of Examiners
Very few candidates attempted this question.
Suggestions for teachers
Candidates with an in depth textual knowledge could
Teachers should be able to place
do justice to this question since it demanded a detailed
poems in context of the poets life
narration of the poem (the dialogue). Not many
and circumstances, especially when
candidates, however, referred to the poets own
these have a direct bearing on his
involvement in the war and the context of the poem
work. Students could be asked to
which is linked to bringing out the effects of war asked
research and try and find
about. The question hints at a discussion of this poem
connections on their own to
as a war poem.
enhance critical thinking by placing
Analysis of how the effect of war is brought out was
poems in socio-political or
insufficient. Hardly any literary terms were used.
biographical contexts.
A poem has more aspects to it than
just the obvious line by line
explanation. Layers of
interpretation and connections have
to discovered by students.

Question 14.
Edward Thomass wrote his poetry before he embarked for the Front in late January 1917. As opposed
to the recording of the horrors of war from first-hand experience, Thomas writes of the effects of the
First World War upon those whose routines at home continued away from the heat of actual battle. As
the Teams Head Brass was written on May 27, 1916, an account of what Thomas saw of the
countryside that he so loved walking in. The ominous shadow of war is brought out through the
description of its disruptive impact on the peaceful lives in the English countryside.
On the persuasion of good friend Robert Frost, Thomas began writing poetry later on in his literary
career that began with prose writing primarily to earn income. His frustration at being no better than a
hack and his temperament made him susceptible to melancholy, depression and even suicidal thoughts,
much to his wife Helens fear. When the war began, he was still recording every moment and
observation in note books for prose pieces, some of which he re-wrote as poems. Having enlisted with
the Artists Rifles in July 1915 Thomas was based at High Beech in Essex before being moved to
Hare Hall camp where he acted as a map-reading instructor. As the Teams Head Brass was
composed a few weeks before he applied for a commission in the Royal Artillery at a stage in
decision-making about war. Acceptance into it would lead him to France in the early months of the
following year and his death in April 1917 in the Battle of Arras.

He wrote to Helen that he set out from Hare Hall camp on a long walk and sat down at an inn and in
fields, passed the same pair of lovers three or four times, and wrote some lines them and re-wrote them.
He composed this poem using enjambment and iambic pentameter, echoing the rhythmic movement of
the plough across the field of charlock, interspersing the dialogue between the ploughman and the poet-
soldier. This dialogue, deceptively casual, conveys Edward Thomass reflections on the war and his
love for his native countryside. When asked why he had enlisted, it is said he picked up a pinch of earth
and said, Literally, for this. The jagged line turns themselves indicate the intrusion of the war into the
Instead of ignoring the newcomer settled on the branch of a fallen elm, the farmer would lean
across the handle and talk to him as the plough turned at the end. It began as a desultory conversation
about the weather, and then moved on to the war. The ploughman informed the poet that the elm on
whose boughs he sat perched had been felled by a blizzard. When asked when it would be taken away,
he replied, When the wars over. The conversation thus veered to the war. Talk would last a
minute and have an interval of ten as the plough went across and returned to this end of the field. The
interested question Have you been out? was followed by a comment on the soldier perhaps not
wanting to go. The poet replied he would not mind if he returned: he would not mind losing an
arm, would hate to lose a leg and, in a show of dry humour, said if he lost his head, he should
want nothing more. The talk then shifted to the losses, that area of the country having lost a good
few men, including the ploughmans mate who died on his second day in France.
There is a tone of wistfulness as the ploughman said the tree would have been moved had his mate
been there. Then, they discussed how things would have been different and the opportunity for the
soldier to sit there would not have been there:
Would have been different. For it would have been
Another world.
The suggestion that it might have been a better world is quickly dispensed with. At that moment the
lovers who had disappeared into the woods earlier emerged, and the poem ends on the note of
continuity as the ploughman and his stumbling team return to their task.
While there is no direct reference to the brutality of war, the violence is brought out in the farmers
revelation that his area has lost many men, including the mate who died soon after he joined the
fighting in France. War is indifferent and futile and it leaves a void, which is apparent, since Only two
teams work on the farm this year and the elm has been left there for there is no one to help remove it.
Thomas uses his love for and observation of nature to show how the peaceful life of the English
countryside has been disrupted by the war in Europe. The elm, itself a symbol of destruction and
tellingly felled by a blizzard, signifying the tumult and storm of killing miles away, still lies there
serving as a reminder of the harsh truth. Thomas steers clear of denouncing the war-torn world and
does not develop the idea of the world being better without it, possibly because it may be seen as a
blasphemy against the scheme of an all-powerful Creator. Hence,
If we could see all all might seem good.
Without there being a judgement on good or bad, the notion of the world being different is clear.
The poem does not end on the desultoriness with which it begins. The fresh clods of earth turned up
by the plough, the act of ploughing itself and the young lovers who emerge from the woods just as
the discussion has turned to the world being affected by war all signify hope of a new life and

beginning, regeneration and strength to survive the threat to the life as known till then.

Question 15
Analyse W.H. Audens The Unknown Citizen as a socio-political statement. [20]
Comments of Examiners
Many attempted this well, including textual detail and Suggestions for teachers
quotes in answers. The poem has to be carefully taught
While most analyses were well brought out, many keeping awareness of the poets life
omitted to discuss the poem as a critical comment on and beliefs in mind. Incomplete
American Capitalism, instead stopping at the totalitarian teaching is a disadvantage to
state. This proved a major gap in comprehension since it students.
indicated that the clues in the poem (Fudge Motors Inc Reliance on free websites must be
and instalments on refrigerator) had been overlooked. avoided. Regurgitating them
In a few cases, the answer turned out to be a general without comprehension of poem
critical essay on how technology has taken over modern and question needs to be
life. discouraged.

Question 15.

In a mild satirical tone, Auden is critiquing the states determination to define the meaning of a
citizens life in just a few facts collected by technology. He is suggesting that much more
important information about a human life is left uncollected and, therefore, unconsidered by the
state and society. The result of this accumulation of facts is an incomplete picture. These statistics do
not get to the essence of the man.
That there was a time when individuals were known by their names rather than by their social security
numbers seems almost incomprehensible. Neither Auden nor the reader has any sense of who this
modern man is. He is truly unknown to both poet and reader. Auden wrote this twenty-nine line
poem about the nameless, middle-class man in the middle of the twentieth century..
The poem is a dark satire about what can possibly happen if political and bureaucratic principles
corrode the creative and revolutionary spirit of the individual. The poem was also titled after tombs of
the unknown soldiers, tombs that were used to represent soldiers who were impossible to identify since
the end of World War I. Auden wrote the poem shortly after becoming a citizen of the United
States. He came to the U. S. to escape what he thought was the repressive nature of Britain. Before
arriving in the States, Auden left his hometown of Britain for the country Berlin. He said that it was
there that he first experienced the social and political problems that later became a centre-piece for the
majority of the themes of his poetry. After staying in Berlin, he temporarily moved to Spain where he
had a job broadcasting propaganda. This experience made him feel even more morally ambiguous
regarding his typically far-left viewpoints. His background suggests that he provides the character
of the Unknown Citizen as a symbol for many of the people who mythically come to America to
be free, but are later surprised when they learn that capitalism and bureaucracy have been
ineffective systems that enslaved people in greater ways than the dominance of the status quo
might affect issues related to human independence. The Unknown Citizen is given a reference to
be identified by in the beginning epigram of the poem, but the point of reference is not a human
name but a number. The epigram reads, To JS/07/M/378, this Marble Monument is erected by
the State. This is a striking metaphor for the individual being reduced down to a number. Upon
the first read it is difficult to realise the absolute significance of that combination of letters and numbers.
Theres not even a point of reference about whom that identification number belongs to. However, on
closer readings it becomes evident that in this instance the number is part of a slight rhyming scheme
that gracefully sets up the rhythm and meter that follows throughout the stanza that encompasses the
majority of the poem. The only part of the poem that deviates from that one stanza is the question that
concludes the poem. In this sense the poem reads almost like an obituary, especially with its down-
to-earth and conversational rhythm and rhyming scheme.
The protagonist is represented as being a very dull and pitiful person. Hes portrayed as someone who
doesnt take risks such as disobedience or holding his own opinions. Auden writes in one line that
his reactions to advertisements were normal in every way. Also the main character has served in a
recent war from around the time that the poem is set in, but ends up making ends meet by being
employed at an automotive factory. The factory is called Fudge Motors, Inc. in the poem. The pun
on the brand name of a car factory shows even more of Audens attitudes towards capitalism, its
treatment of the downtrodden blue-collar worker, and capitalisms reduction of the working-class
into nullified labourers with less capability for having attitudes or opinions of their own. The
poem says, He held the proper opinions for the time of year.
He also is compared to the modern man in that he has a phonograph, a car, a radio, and a
Frigidaire just like many other people around him do, but he does not have much of any
possessions to call his own. As was the norm at the time, he was aware of the Instalment Plan.
He was no burden on the social security system, since his insurance was paid and his health card
revealed that he was hospitalised once and he left cured. He complied with the Eugenist ideal of
adding five children to the population. He did not interfere with their education, accepting whatever
was provided by the system.
The main character of the poem appears to be trying his best to conform. It appears as if the main
character of the poem actually is not happy. He spends his entire life trying to find approval but he
doesnt look inward to himself for his own opinions and solutions. The biting question at the end that
the poet asks:
Was he free? Was he happy? The question is absurd:
Had anything been wrong, we should certainly have heard.
The poets tone is satiric and ironic, as he paints a picture of a non-descript, unintelligible member of a
legion of such conformists. This is Audens comment on the Capitalist society that he found in

(a) Topics found difficult by candidates in the Question paper:
- Those demanding minute and accurate detail from text
- Those relating to specifics, either of narration or event the focus was not clear and answers
were general therefore irrelevant since detail of the part asked about was incomplete or
- Those that involved keeping a track of events or character spread over chapters, particularly if
not in chronological sequence. Character analysis suffered.
- Those that involved analysis and discussion of title literal and figurative. In depth analytical
skill needs to be polished.
- Those requiring understanding of symbolism, imagery and theme.
- Those demanding context of literary work whether in terms of indirect impact or by way of
direct question on history and myth.
(b) Concepts between which candidates got confused:
- Specific incident and general events leading to that incident
- Characters in literary text in the context of plot (narration of sequence of events / action) and
role in terms of theme: candidates found it difficult to analyse role of characters and relied on
narrating their actions.
- Title of novel: To Kill a Mockingbird (mockingbird and mocking).
- Death of a Salesman literal death and metaphorical death.
- A Dolls House narration / description of Christmas tree and Tarantella and their symbolism.
- Poetry Images and themes versus general explanation of poem.
(c) Suggestions for candidates:
- Every incident or event in a prose or drama text is intrinsic to story its narrative and other
detail, sequence and accurate description must be learnt as also an understanding
developed of what makes that event significant. Students should try and link the event to
plot, theme and character.
- Characters have to be studied in terms of what they do literally in novel or drama and what they
stand for. All character-based questions should consist of a study of the character in terms
of his or her personality traits supported by what he or she does or thinks in the novel to
bring those out, and the role that character plays whether in bringing out theme or other
characters. Any change in the character must be traced. The weightage to each depends on
how the question is phrased.
- The skill to track threads of plot (action and character) spread across chapters and not
always in chronological sequence must be developed. Several novels have narration of
simultaneously occurring events in each chapter, or incidents that move back and forth in time.
The whole has to be understood from such seeming fragments.

- Strategic placing of accurate quotes from the texts is necessary. General overviews without
in depth textual knowledge are to be avoided. Evidence of thorough study of text is appropriate
use of quotes, whether lines, words or phrases; choice and technicalities of quoting are
necessary to a study of English Literature. Students should be able to identify textual detail,
including accurate quotes that will support an opinion or analysis.
- Gaining knowledge about the literary texts background and its writers circumstances helps in
understanding the text better as a direct product of or protest against its context. Students
should look for relevant biographical detail as well as social, political, religious and artistic
- Regular and frequent written practice is essential. Learning to recognise demands of the
question is equally vital. Different questions on the same poem or aspect of play or novel can
be answered to understand how to structure and frame answers. All parts of the question need
to be addressed. Regular practice will also ensure time management improves so that the
candidate can do justice to all five questions in the given three hours.
- Long, irrelevant introduction and conclusion take away from the main point of the answer.
Candidates should learn to write suitable introductions and conclusions that link answer to
question but do not take reader away into lengthy information that the reader is not looking for
in that question.
- Grammar, spelling and syntax need to be polished for accuracy. Simple but correct language
is always preferable to attempted complexities that are confused because of incorrect usage.







Paper 1 2

Paper 2 30


Paper 1 38

Paper 2 63


Paper 1 73

Paper 2 95




This document of the analysis of pupils performance at the ISC Year 12 and ICSE Year 10 Examination is one
of its kind. It has grown and evolved over the years to provide feedback to schools in terms of the strengths and
weaknesses of the candidates in handling the examinations.

We commend the work of Mrs. Poonam Sodhi and the ISC Division of the Council who have painstakingly
prepared this analysis. We are grateful to the examiners who have contributed through their comments on the
performance of the candidates under examination as well as for their suggestions to teachers and students for the
effective transaction of the syllabus.

We hope the schools will find this document useful. We invite comments from schools on its utility and quality.

Gerry Arathoon
November 2015 Chief Executive & Secretary


The Council has consistently been bringing out the Pupil Performance Analysis document since 1994.
This document is reviewed every year and changes incorporated based on suggestions received from various
quarters which include experts in the field of education as well as heads of schools and teachers, in order to make
the study more useful and meaningful.

This document comprises of qualitative analysis of performance of pupils at the ISC examinations. Performance
Analysis has been carried out for the most popular subjects that are largely ascribed to, by the schools.
The purpose of this study is to enable teachers to see at a glance, overall performance of all candidates who
have taken the examination and examiners comments on each question. This would enable the teachers to
understand the assessment of the ISC examinations better and would help them to guide their students more

The qualitative analysis details the assessment criteria followed for evaluation of answer scripts. Once the
process of evaluation of scripts is over, examiners are requested to give detailed comments on the performance
of candidates for each question. This includes the examiners response on what constitutes a good answer;
common errors made by candidates while answering the questions; their popularity with students and overall
performance of students.

Mrs. Shilpi Gupta along with Dr. M.K. Gandhi, Mrs. Desiree Tennent and Ms. Mansi Guleria have done
commendable work in ensuring that this document is prepared well in time, in order to guide students who will
be appearing for the ISC Examination.

Poonam Sodhi
November 2015 Deputy Secretary
Total Number of students who took the examination 36,522
Highest Marks Obtained 100
Lowest Marks Obtained 3
Mean Marks Obtained 66.72

Percentage of Candidates according to marks obtained

Mark Range
0-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100
Number of Candidates 417 936 13833 12209 9127
Percentage of Candidates 1.14 2.56 37.88 33.43 24.99
Cumulative Number 417 1353 15186 27395 36522
Cumulative Percentage 1.14 3.70 41.58 75.01 100.00

Range of Marks Obtained

Percentage of Candidates





5.00 1.14

0-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100
Marks Obtained


PART I (20 Marks)

Answer all questions.

Question 1

A. Choose the correct alternative (a), (b), (c) or (d) for each of the questions given below: [5]
(i) A short electric dipole (which consists of two point charges, +q and q) is placed at
the centre O and inside a large cube (ABCDEFGH) of length L, as shown in
Figure 1. The electric flux, emanating through the cube is:


Figure 1

(a) q/40L
(b) zero
(c) q/20Lm
(d) q/30L
(ii) The equivalent resistance between points a and f of the network shown in Figure 2 is:
10 20
a b c


d 40 e 80 f
Figure 2

(a) 24
(b) 110
(c) 140
(d) 200

(iii) A moving electron enters a uniform and perpendicular magnetic field.
Inside the magnetic field, the electron travels along:
(a) a straight line
(b) a parabola
(c) a circle
(d) a hyperbola
A fish which is at a depth of 12 cm in water ( = ) is viewed by an observer on the
bank of a lake. Its apparent depth as observed by the observer is:
(a) 3 cm
(b) 9 cm
(c) 12 cm
(d) 16 cm
(v) If Ep and Ek represent potential energy and kinetic energy respectively, of an orbital
electron, then, according to Bohrs theory:
(a) Ek = -Ep/2
(b) Ek = -Ep
(c) Ek = -2Ep
(d) Ek = 2Ep

B. Answer all questions given below briefly and to the point:

(i) What is meant by the term Quantization of charge?

(ii) A resistor R is connected to a cell of emf e and internal resistance r.

Potential difference across the resistor R is found to be V.
State the relation between e, V, R and r.
(iii) Three identical cells each of emf 2V and internal resistance 1 are connected in series
to form a battery. The battery is then connected to a parallel combination of two
identical resistors, each of resistance 6. Find the current delivered by the battery.
(iv) State how magnetic susceptibility is different for the three types of magnetic
materials, i.e. diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials.
(v) An emf of 2V is induced in a coil when current in it is changed from 0A to 10A in
040 sec. Find the coefficient of self-inductance of the coil.
(vi) How are electric vector ( ), magnetic vector (
) and velocity vector ( ) oriented in
an electromagnetic wave?
(vii) State any two methods by which ordinary light can be polarised.

(viii) A monochromatic ray of light falls on a regular prism. What is the relation between
angle of incidence and angle of emergence in the case of minimum deviation?

(ix) What type of lens is used to correct long-sightedness?
(x) State any one advantage of using a reflecting telescope in place of a refracting
(xi) State Moseleys law.
(xii) Wavelengths of the first lines of the Lyman series, Paschen series and Balmer series,
in hydrogen spectrum are denoted by L, P, and B, respectively. Arrange these
wavelengths in increasing order.
(xiii) What is the significance of binding energy per nucleon of a nucleus of a radioactive
(xiv) Write any one balanced equation representing nuclear fission.

(xv) What is the difference between analogue signal and digital signal?
Comments of Examiners
(A) (i) Some candidates selected option c. They could
not apply Gauss Law. Suggestions for teachers
(ii) Many candidates thought that the given circuit Train students to read questions
was that of a balanced Wheatstone bridge. carefully, understand what is being
(iii) Very few candidates could answer this question. asked for and then give relevant and
They selected a (wrong) option b i.e. a to the point answers.
parabola. Explain Gauss Law and give
(iv) A few candidates gave option a as they got practice in solving numericals based
confused between apparent depth and upward on it.
displacement. Train student to find equivalent
(v) Many candidates gave wrong options, i.e. c, d, etc. resistance of a few circuits in class.
(B) (i) A number of candidates gave an incomplete Explain the motion of a charged
statement. Some candidates could not identify particle in a uniform and
elementary charge, i.e. charge of a proton (e). perpendicular magnetic field and
(ii) Many candidates could not obtain the correct why it is an arc of a circle.
relation. They wrote two separate equations Explain the concept of real depth (R)
instead of one. and apparent depth (A).
(iii) In this part, several candidates could not find the Derive an expression for total
net emf, while some others were unable to find energy En of an electron in the nth
total internal resistance. A few candidates could orbit to kinetic energy Ek and
not apply ohms law. potential energy Ep of the orbiting
(iv) Many candidates were unable to recall the correct electron.
values of magnetic susceptibility for the three Explain the meaning of the term:
magnetic materials. quantization.
(v) The expression for induced emf was not known to
some candidates.
(vi) Some candidates wrote C E B , which is incorrect. Several others wrote C , which is
also wrong.

(vii) Some candidates gave only one method of
polarization of light instead of two as required. Explain when the formula I=
Several others gave two methods of polarization R
but they meant the same thing. They were unable E
should be used and when I= is
to write two different methods of polarization of Rr
light. to be used. Also emphasize that EV
(viii) Many candidates gave the expression in general. Explain the difference
= i + e - A, instead of the correct answer i.e. between E and V.
i = e. Some candidates gave the prism formula. Explain the concept of cells in series
(ix) Instead of the correct answer i.e. convex lens, a and cells in parallel and how to find
number of candidates gave the answer as net emf and effective internal
concave lens. resistance in each case.
(x) A number of candidates were not able to answer Define diamagnetic, paramagnetic
correctly they gave answers such as, it has and ferromagnetic materials.
greater magnifying power or that it is cheaper or Tabulate the difference in properties
it forms a clearer image. of these materials, with special
(xi) Some candidates could not state Moseleys law reference to susceptibility;
correctly. They did not write K X rays or permeability and effect of
characteristic X rays. temperature.
(xii) Many candidates could not arrange L , P & B Explain the phenomenon of self-
in the correct increasing order. induction, immediately after stating
(xiii) A number of candidates defined binding energy
laws of electromagnetic induction.
Explain with the help of a diagram
per nucleon, instead of giving its physical
significance. that E , B and C are always
(xiv) Quite a few candidates wrote unbalanced perpendicular to each other in an
reactions or imaginary/unrealistic reactions. A electromagnetic wave.
few did not give the left hand side of the In addition to explaining what is
equation. In many cases, incorrect symbols were short sightedness and long
used. sightedness, explain how they can
(xv) Some candidates defined either analogue signal be corrected, preferably with the
or digital signal but did not state the difference help of diagrams.
between the two. Many candidates did not state Ask students to learn and state the
that digital signal has only two values. laws, theorems, principles as they
are and not to distort them.
Explain students the hydrogen
spectrum systematically.
Give practice to students in writing
balanced equations and explain how
atomic number and mass numbers
are balanced.
Explain the differences between
analogue and digital signal with
the help of labelled graphs.

Question 1.
A. (i) (b) OR Zero
(ii) (c) OR 140 ()
(iii) (c) OR circle
(iv) (b) OR 9(cm)
(v) (a) OR Ek = -Ep/2
B. (i) Charge on a body is an integral or exact multiple of the elementary charge OR q =( ) ne
(where n is an integer).
(ii) eR e
V= OR V = e - r OR V = e - .r
r+R R+r
Any other correct relation containing all four quantities, i.e. r, R, e and V.
1A, with some working. i= OR OR circuit with correct values.
+ +
(iv) (Susceptibility) is small and negative for diamagnetic material OR <0
(Susceptibility) is small and positive for paramagnetic material OR >0
(Susceptibility) is very large and positive for ferromagnetic material OR >> 0
(v) 008 H , with correct substitution/formula.
and other correct units
(vi) They are mutually perpendicular (to each other)/ orthogonal
OR ()

E, B & c in any order


(vii) Any two of the following:

(a) Using a polarizer or a Polaroid or a tourmaline lamina/crystal
(b) By reflection (at a surface of a transparent material)
(c) By double refraction / NICOL prism/dichroic/anisotropic/quartz/calcite
(d) Pile of glass plates/refraction
(e) By scattering
(f) Selective absorption

(viii) (They are) equal OR i = e or i1= i2 or by diagram

(ix) A convex lens or converging lens or diagram

(x) Image is free from spherical aberration OR

Image is free from chromatic aberration OR
Image is brighter/sharper/easier to install/less distorted (or free) /better quality.
(xi) z
[Where v : frequency of K X ray or
Frequency of (characteristic) X rays and
z = atomic number. OR
Statement: Square Root of the frequency of (K) X rays varies directly with atomic number
(of the target element)]
(xii) L, B and p OR P > B > L L < B < p
(xiii) It gives us an idea of the stability of the nucleus.

(xiv) 1 235 148 85 1

n+ U (La) + (Br) +3 n
0 92 57 35 0
OR any other correct balanced equation
(xv) V v

Analogue signal
Digital signal

Statement i.e. analogue signal has infinite number of values or many continuously varying
values whereas digital signal has only two values.
OR Analogue sinusoidal wave
Digital square (pulse) or rectangular wave

PART II (50 Marks)
Question 2

(a) Derive an expression for intensity of electric field at a point in broadside position or on [4]
an equatorial line of an electric dipole.
(b) Two point charges of 10C each are kept at a distance of 3m in vacuum. Calculate their [1]
electrostatic potential energy.

Comments of Examiners
(a) Several candidates derived an expression for intensity
Suggestions for teachers
of electric field E at a point in the end-on positon i.e. Explain the meaning of the terms:
axial position, instead of that in the broad side end-on/axial position & broadside
position, as required. Some candidates did not position.
understand/remember which derivation was to be Show students how to draw correct
given, hence, they wrote both the derivations. Many labelled diagrams, specially
candidates could not draw the correct labelled directions of electric field intensity
diagram. A few candidates were not able to reach the E at a point due to charges q and
last step. + q.
(b) Many candidates used wrong formulae. Some used the Make students practice these
formula for force/ intensity/ potential. In several derivations. Instruct students to read
cases the unit of energy i.e. J was not written. the question carefully and write
answer to the point. Self
contradictory answers are not
Ask students to learn the formulae
by heart and practice them at home.
The importance of writing the unit
along with the answer must be

Question 2.
E1cos E1
or E2cos (at one place must be shown)
E E2 r

B-q q A

E1 =

q q
= OR K . 2 2
(r l )
2 2
r l
E2 =
4 2
1 q
= 2 2 OR K . 2 2
4 ( + ) r l
E = E1 cos + E2 cos
OR E1 = E2
E = 2 E1 cos
1 q l
E 2. . 2 2 1/2
4 r l (r l )
2 2

= {q2l = p}
4 ( 2 + 2 )3/2

U= .

Correct substitution (with or without formula) with correct result with proper unit.
i.e. 31011 J

Question 3
(a) Four capacitors, C1, C2, C3 and C4 are connected as shown in Figure 3 below. Calculate [3]
equivalent capacitance of the circuit between points X and Y.

C1=10 F C2=30 F C3=20 F


C4=28 F
Figure 3
(b) Draw labelled graphs to show how electrical resistance varies with temperature for: [2]
(i) a metallic wire.
(ii) a piece of carbon.

Comments of Examiners
(a) Many candidates made conceptual errors, i.e. they were
not clear as to which capacitors were in series and which Suggestions for teachers
were in parallel. Explain clearly the concept of
(b) (i) A number of candidates did not draw a straight line capacitors in series and capacitors
graph. Some did not label the axes or labelled them in parallel. Start with simple circuits
incorrectly. and proceed to more and more
(ii) Several candidates drew a straight line graph instead complex ones.
of a curve. The axes were interchanged by some Tell students that the formulae for
candidates. equivalent capacitors are inverse of
those for resistors.
Explain to students that resistance
of a metallic wire increases
uniformly with the increase in
temperature. So, straight line graph
moves upwards. For non-metals and
semi-conductors, resistance
decreases, and that too
non-uniformly with the rise in
temperature. Hence, a downward
curve is almost like a parabola.
Stress upon correct labelling of the

Question 3.
(a) (i) Equivalent capacitance of C2 and C3, C5 = 12
(ii) Equivalent capacitance of C4 and C5, C6 = 40 (C6 = C4 + C5 )
(iii) Final equivalent capacitance = 8 (C = )
C1 C6
(b) (i)

t t t


t t t

OR any other correct graph (showing correct behaviour)

Question 4
(a) Two resistors R1 = 400 and R2 = 20 are connected in parallel to a battery. If heating [2]
power developed in R1 is 25 W, find the heating power developed in R2.
(b) With the help of a labelled diagram, show that the balancing condition of a Wheatstone [3]
bridge is:

= where the terms have their usual meaning.

Comments of Examiners
(a) Some candidates seemed to have conceptual problems -
instead of taking potential difference same, they took Suggestions for teachers
Tell students that in parallel,
current as same and hence, ended with wrong result. Some
candidates used wrong formulae, e.g. P=V2R instead potential difference across resistors
is same. Therefore, the formula
of P = . V2
R P= is relevant. When resistors
(b) A number of candidates used symbols P, Q, R & S, instead R
of the given symbols i.e. R1, R2, R3 & R4. Ig = 0 in case of are in series, current I is same.
a balanced Wheatstone bridge, was not mentioned by a Therefore P = I2 R is more relevant.
number of candidates. Some candidates did not apply Adequate practice should be given
Kirchoffs laws correctly. in solving such problems in class
and ask students to practice more at
Train students to read questions
slowly and carefully. Advise them to
use data (including symbols) given
in the question bases and not their
Derivations must be learnt by heart
logically by the candidates and
practiced, along with properly
drawn and labelled diagrams.

Question 4.

i.e. = Correct substitution (in formula)

P2 = 500 W
V = OR = 100 V

P= OR = 500 W

Ig R2
A G (Ig= 0) C
R4 (Correct labelled diagram compulsory)

For a balanced bridge

Ig = 0 VB = VD
VA VB = I1 R1
VB VC = I1 R2
VA VD = I2 R3

VD VC = I2 R4

I1 R1 = I2 R3

I1 R2 = I2 R4

On dividing, we get =

(or any other correct method)

Question 5
(a) A 10m long uniform metallic wire having a resistance of 20 is used as a potentiometer [3]
wire. This wire is connected in series with another resistance of 480 and a battery of
emf 5V having neglegible internal resistance. If an unknown emf e is balanced across 6m
of the potentiometer wire, calculate:
(i) the potential gradient across the potentiometer wire.
(ii) the value of the unknown emf e.
(b) (i) Explain the term hysteresis. [2]
(ii) Name three elements of the earths magnetic field which help in defining earths
magnetic field completely.

Comments of Examiners
(a) (i) Many candidates did not take resistance of the wire into
account while calculating current and hence arrived at a Suggestions for teachers
wrong answer for potential gradient (k). Some did not The topic of potentiometer must be
taught highlighting how emf of a
write the correct unit of potential gradient (k).
cell is balanced against a potential
(ii) Many candidates did not realise/know that
difference across the balancing
unknown e = k balancing length. length.
(b) (i) A number of candidates drew the B-H loop i.e. hysteresis Students may be taken to the physics
curve, instead of defining the term hysteresis. laboratory to show the use of
(ii) Instead of giving the three elements, BH, & which potentiometer by making all
define earths magnetic field completely, some connections. They must be taught
candidates gave only two components. A few how to get the balance point.
candidates gave the answer as, geographical meridian, Students must be trained to write
magnetic meridian, etc. relevant answers: writing a correct
answer to the point, is an art which
can gradually be developed amongst
While teaching the chapter of
Earths magnetic field, explain to
students how the knowledge of BH,
& helps us in knowing earths
magnetic field at that place

Question 5.
(a) (i)
+ +

Or = = 001 A
(ii) .
k = or or = 002 Vm-1

e = ( ) kL or 002 6 = 0.12V
(b) (i) The phenomenon in which magnetic flux density /(B) lags behind magnetising field intensity/
(H) is called hysteresis.
(ii) BH (Horizontal component of earths magnetic field)
(angle of dip) and
(angle of declination)

Question 6
(a) Obtain an expression for magnetic flux density B at the centre of a circular coil of radius [3]
R, having N turns and carrying a current I.
(b) A coil of self inductance 25H and resistance 20 is connected to a battery of emf 120V [2]
having internal resistance of 5 . Find:
(i) The time constant of the circuit.
(ii) The current in the circuit in steady state.

Comments of Examiners
(a) Several candidates used Ampere Circuital Law to find
magnetic flux density. Many candidates did not derive Suggestions for teachers
Students should be explained
the expression for magnetic flux density B at the centre
of a circular coil having N turns. Some derived the distinctly the application of Biot
formula of B along the axis and then got B at the centre Savarts Law and Ampere Circuital
of the coil. Law.
While explaining growth of current
(b) (i) Some candidates did not know the formula of time
constant. A few used an incorrect formula. Several or decay of current in an LR circuit;
candidates used the formula of A.C circuits. In specially with their graphs, concept
many cases, the correct unit was not given. of time constant should be
(ii) A number of candidates did not consider internal introduced. It should be defined both
resistance to calculate steady current. In some ways. It may also be shown that
cases, the unit was missing. Several candidates did L
= has unit and dimension of
not understand the meaning of steady state R
current. time.
Tell students that steady state
current i.e. final current can be
found by applying ohms law i.e.
I= .

Question 6.
(a) .
dB = .
4 2

B = or B = B R

B=( ) OR

B = with some working

dl Alternate Method

x dB sin

idl sin
dB = .
4 r2
dB = . (=900)
4 r 2
B = dB sin
2i R 2
4 ( x 2 R 2 )3/2
For centre x=0
(b) 25 2.5
Time constant = / = 0125 s OR / = 0.1s
20 + 25
(Steady state current) I = / = 48 A
+ 20+5

Question 7
(a) Figure 4 below shows a capacitor C, an inductor L and a resistor R, connected in series [4]
to an a.c. supply of 220 V.
C=25 F L=(2)H R=100

220 V
Figure 4
(i) The resonant frequency of the given CLR circuit.
(ii) Current flowing through the circuit.
(iii) Average power consumed by the circuit.
(b) In a series LCR circuit, what is the phase difference between VL and VC where VL is the [1]
potential difference across the inductor and VC is the potential difference across the
Comments of Examiners
(a)(i) A number of candidates found the value of 0 not
Suggestions for teachers
of f0. Some candidates did not convert microfarad to
Explain the difference between
angular frequency and
(ii) Several candidates did not write the current with
frequency f and thus derive
appropriate unit.
formula of fo. Solve a few
(iii) Many candidates used the incomplete/incorrect
numericals based on it.
formula to calculate average power conumed by the
Emphasize that, at resonance,
circuit P = V.I. A few candidates did not write the
impedance (Z) = resistance (R).
unit of power i.e. watt.

(b) Many candidates wrote the answer as 90 as they Hence, I = I= .
thought it was phase difference between I and VL or
Stress upon writing the units.
I and VC. Several candidates used the wrong formula
tan = L C . Some candidates did not give the
correct unit of .

Question 7.
(a) (i) Resonant frequency
fo = Correct substitution with or without formula
2 4
2 25106

fo = 50 Hz correct answer with unit

(ii) 220 V 220 220

I= = = 22 (A) OR I = / /
100 z z ( L C ) 2 R 2
(iii) <P> = VT I or I2 R / (22)2 100=484 (W)
(b) 180o or (radian)
VL & VC shown clearly on phasor diagram.

Answer any three questions.
Question 8
(a) On the basis of Huygens Wave theory of light, show that angle of reflection is equal [4]
to angle of incidence. You must draw a labelled diagram for this derivation.
(b) State any one difference between interference of light and diffraction of light. [1]
Comments of Examiners
(a) Some of the errors made by candidates in this part were
Suggestions for teachers
as follows:
Train the students to draw correct
Correct diagrams were not drawn;
and completely labelled diagrams.
The arrows were not marked;
Tell the students that a ray is
Angles i and r were not marked correctly;
perpendicular to the wavefront.
Wavefronts were not shown or not
Tell students that there are many
methods to prove r = i and
The rays were not perpendicular to the relevant
give them the simplest of all.
wave fronts;
Ask the students to practice these
Congruency of triangles was not proved correctly
diagrams and derivations.
and completely.
Since both interference of light and
Derived the formula of refraction.
diffraction of light involve
(b) Some candidates did not know the correct difference
superposition of waves, the
between interference of light and diffraction of light.
difference between the two must be
brought out clearly.

Question 8.
(a) Correct diagram with at least one arrow, an incident or reflected ray
Or mentioned wave fronts i and r marked
Proof of 2 triangles as congruent (angle between ray and wave front is 90 , either shown on diagram
or written mathematically)
Proving r = i
(b) Any one difference
Interference of light requires two coherent sources (slits), diffraction of light requires only one source.
Many bright and dark fringes are obtained in interference
A few bright and dark fringes are obtained in diffraction OR
All bright fringes are equally bright in interference.
They are of decreasing intensities in diffraction. OR
Intensity curves diagram but axes may not be marked OR
Interference Fringes may or may not be of equal widths
Diffraction Fringe width varies

Question 9
(a) Laser light of wavelength 630 nm is incident on a pair of slits which are separated by [3]
18mm. If the screen is kept 80 cm away from the two slits, calculate:

(i) fringe separation i.e. fringe width.

(ii) distance of 10th bright fringe from the centre of the interference pattern.
(b) Show graphically the intensity distribution in Fraunhofers single slit diffraction [2]
experiment. Label the axes.

Comments of Examiners
(a) (i) A number of candidates used incorrect formula. Some Suggestions for teachers
did not know the correct meaning of the symbols Students must be asked to learn the
i.e. D and d, hence they interchanged them. Some formulae with proper understanding
candidates did not convert nm to m as well as cm of all the symbols used. All
to m. quantities must be brought to SI
(ii) Several candidates used wrong formula to find the system before substituting them in
distance of the 10th bright fringe. Some candidates used the formula.
n for calculating distance. A few did not write the unit, Give adequate practice to students in
along with the answer. solving numerical problems based
(b) Many candidates did not label the graph or labelled it on formula, Xn and .
incorrectly. Some candidates could not draw the correct Students should be taught how to
shape of the graph. In some cases, the height of the draw a correct labelled graph of
secondary maxima was high. relative intensity vs . Tell them that
central maxima has highest peak
(maximum intensity) and secondary
peaks become smaller and smaller.

Question 9.

(a) (i) Fringe width = formula with correct understanding of terms D & d

630109 08
OR =

= 280 10-6 m Correct value of fringe width with other appropriate

units is also acceptable
(ii) X(10) = (10 ) = 10 280 10-6
n D
= 28 10-3 m OR correct substitution in Xn =
(b) I

(correct shape of the graph with proper labelling)

- +
or d or in terms of / e

Question 10
(a) A point object O is placed at a distance of 15cm from a convex lens L of [3]
focal length 10cm as shown in Figure 5 below. On the other side of the lens, a convex
mirror M is placed such that its distance from the lens is equal to the focal length of the
lens. The final image formed by this combination is observed to coincide with the object
O. Find the focal length of the convex mirror.

O L M I1

Figure 5
(b) What is chromatic aberration? How can it be minimised or eliminated? [2]

Comments of Examiners
(a) In the lens portion, some candidates could not apply the
Suggestions for teachers
correct sign convention, hence, they got wrong value of v.
Teach any one sign convention to
In the mirror part, a number of candidates could not
students. Using it, solve as many
identify its centre of curvature. Some were not aware of the
numericals as possible. Then ask
relation R = 2f for a spherical mirror.
them to solve/practice few more
(b) A number of candidates were confused between spherical
problems. (It should be
aberration and chromatic aberration and hence they
accompanied by a proper ray
described the former instead of the latter. While defining
diagram). After solving numericals
chromatic aberration, some candidates did not mention
on spherical mirrors and lenses,
white light as incident light. A few candidates wrote stops
solve a few involving lens- mirror
should be used to reduce chromatic aberration.
Various terms in physics should not
only be defined but also explained
so that students are able to recall
them in the examination.

Question 10.
(a) Using lens formula for convex lens:
1 1 1
+ = (Any sign convention may be followed by the candidate)
15 10
v = 30 (cm) (negative value of v will not be accepted.
2 f = R = v 10
2 f = 30 10
f = 10 cm

(b) It is that defect of image in which coloured images are formed by a lens when an object is illuminated
with white light. OR by diagram with arrows with atleast one incident ray marked with white
/polychromatic light.
It can be minimised by combining a convex lens with a suitable concave lens

OR by satisfying the condition: + =0

OR using achromatic doublet/achromatic combination of lenses.

Question 11
(a) Draw a labelled ray diagram of an image formed by a compound microscope, when the [3]
final image lies at the least distance of distinct vision (D).
(b) With regard to an astronomical telescope of refracting type, state how you will increase [2]
(i) magnifying power
(ii) resolving power
Comments of Examiners
(a) Some candidates could not show the correct formation of Suggestions for Teachers
the final image. In some cases, the diagram was not labelled Give practice to students in drawing
fully, or arrows were not put on the rays of light. ray diagrams of compound
(b) (i) A few candidates used the wrong formula to increase microscope, astronomical telescope.
M of telescope. Putting arrows on the rays must be
(ii) Many candidates did not know how to increase stressed upon.
resolving power of a telescope. Derive the expresion of magnifying
power (M) of an astronomical
telescope i.e. M = o/e. Then
explain to students that M can be
increased by either increasing the
focal length of objective lens(o) or
by decreasing the focal length of
eyepiece lens (e).
After explaining the concept of
resolving power, tell students how it
can be increased/decreased. Factors
affecting resolving power of a
telescope must be stated clearly.

Question 11.
(a) First lens (marked as objective) with at least two rays from an object with an arrow on one of them.
with I1 correctly formed.
Second lens (marked as Eye piece) with two emergent rays with an arrow on one of them, with
I2 correctly formed.
Marking of fo, fe, uo, ue, D, v0 and (any five marked correctly )
(b) (i) Magnifying power can be increased by either increasing focal length.
of objective lens i.e. fo OR
by decreasing focal length of eyepiece i.e. fe
(ii) Resolving power can be increased by increasing the diameter / aperture
Or size of the objective lens

Answer any three questions.

Question 12
(a) In an experiment of photoelectric effect, the graph of maximum kinetic energy EK of the [3]
emitted photoelectrons versus the frequency v of the incident light is a straight line AB
as shown in Figure 6 below:
EK (eV)
10 20 30 1014
-4 v (Hz)

Figure 6

(i) Threshold frequency of the metal.
(ii) Work function of the metal.
(iii) Stopping potential for the photoelectrons emitted by the light of frequency
v = 301014 Hz.

(b) (i) State how de-Broglie wavelength () of moving particles varies with their [2]
linear momentum (p).
(ii) State any one phenomenon in which moving particles exhibit wave nature.

Comments of Examiners
(a)(i) Some candidates did not read the given graph correctly. Suggestions for teachers
Explain the graph of Emax Vs
They thought vo was 10 and not 10 x1014 HZ. Some
frequency ( ) of incident radiation.
calculated the values of vo from the data, instead of just Train students how to read the graph
reading its value from the graph. and use it to determine:
(ii) Many candidates were unaware of the fact that y Threshold frequency
intercept of the graph gives us the value of work function
Work function
of the metal.
Plancks constant.
(iii) Many candidates gave wrong unit of stopping potential.
State and explain the de Broglie
They wrote eVin place of volt.
Hypothesis and give the
(b)(i) A number of candidates gave wrong relationship between
and p. Some drew a wrong graph between and p. mathematical relation . Tell
(ii) Several candidates gave the answer as reflection or p
refraction instead of diffraction and interference. 1
students that when y , graph of y
Vs x is a rectangular hyperbola.

Question 12.
(a) (i) Threshold frequency (vo) = 10 x 1014 Hz
(ii) W = ( hvo)
= 66 10-34 10 1014
= 66 10-19 J = 4.125 eV
(iii) K = 8 16 10-19 J = 8eV

Vs =
Vs = 80V
(b) (i) Either
OR p

(de Broglie) wavelength varies inversely with the linear momentum
(ii) Electron Diffraction /diffraction/G P Thomson/ Davisson-Germer Experiment /Interference.

Question 13
(a) On the basis of Bohrs theory, derive an expression for the radius of the nth orbit of an [3]
electron of hydrogen atom.

(b) Using the constants given on page 8 of this Paper, find the minimum wavelength of the [2]
emitted X rays, when an X ray tube is operated at 50 kV.
Comments of Examiners
(a) Some candidates were unable to recall the correct equations
2 1 2 Suggestions for teachers
i.e. mvr = and =( ) Ask candidates to learn derivations
2 4 2
by heart and also to practice them.
Many candidates derived the correct formula of radius, but Tell students that the answer must be
forgot to write z = 1 for hydrogen atom. written as per the question, so,
(b) A number of candidates did not use the correct formula. reading the questions carefully is
Some did not convert 50kV to volt. A few candidates did very important.
not write the correct unit, after using the short cut formula,
min = .

Question 13.
mv= OR

2 2
2 2 2
mvr = (i)
2 1 2
=( ) (ii)
4 2
2 2
Dividing (i) by (ii) r =
for Z = 1
2 2
(b) hc
min= ( )
= A
Correct result with proper unit
mi = 024810-10 m (or equivalent)
=0.2475 A (or 0.248) A

Question 14
(a) (i) Define half life of a radioactive substance. [3]
(ii) Using the equation N = Noe-t, obtain the relation between half life (T) and decay
constant () of a radioactive substance.
(b) With the help of a suitable example and an equation, explain the term pair production. [2]

Comments of Examiners
(a)(i) Many candidates could not recall the correct definition
Suggestions for teachers
of half-life. Some defined average life instead of half
Tell students that definitions must
be learnt correctly.
(ii) Some candidates derived the formula N=Noe-t which
Derive the relation between T and
was actually given in the question. Some wrote log 2
in class. Tell students that T is a
instead of loge 2 or ln 2. Many candidates used t in
constant whereas t can have any
place of T or T1/2.
value - t cannot be used for half
(b) Some candidates were confused between pair production
and pair annihilation. Many candidates were unable to write
Pair production is a rare
a correct and balanced equation. Some candidates used
phenomenon in which matter is
wrong symbols. Several candidates could not draw the
created from energy. It must be
correct diagram for pair production. Many used a photon,
explained correctly with the help of
instead of gamma ray photon.
a diagram and a balanced equation,
making use of correct symbols.

Question 14.
(a) (i) It is that time in which a quantity of a radioactive substance becomes half.
It is that time in which half of the given number of nuclei disintegrate.
Substitute N = and t = T


= No e-T

T = loge 2 or ln 2
(b) It is that phenomenon in which a pair of an electron and a positron is produced from a gamma ray


Correct Diagram

Question 15
(a) Draw a labelled diagram of a full wave rectifier. Show how output voltage varies with [3]
time, if input voltage is a sinusoidal voltage.
(b) What is a NAND gate? Write its truth table. [2]

Comments of Examiners
(a) Some common errors made by candidates in this part
Suggestions for teachers
were: Working of full wave rectifier must
A.C. input voltage was not shown; be clearly explained with the help of
Complete circuit was not drawn; a labelled circuit diagram. Variation
Resistor in output circuit was not shown; of input and output signals with time
The circuit was not labelled; must also be shown correctly with
Many candidates could not show correctly how output the help of labelled diagrams.
voltage varies with time. Some candidates did not label Students should be asked to practice
the axes of the graph. drawing the diagram and graphs of
(b) Instead of defining what a NAND gate is (a input and output voltages.
Give students correct definition and
combination of AND gate a NOT gate or an AND gate
symbols of various basic gates as
followed by a NOT gate), some candidates simply said
well NOR gate, NAND gate, etc.
that it is a universal gate. A number of candidates gave encourage them to understand the
incomplete truth table whereas some candidates gave truth tables of each one of them
wrong truth table. logically.

Question 15.

(P) (S) RL
(INPUT) ^^^^^^ V(o)

(b) It is a combination of an AND gate and a NOT gate or it is a negated/ inverted or complement of on
AND gate.

TRUTH table of NAND gate

0 0 1
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0

(a) Topics found difficult by candidates in the Question paper:
Equivalent resistance of a circuit.
Equivalent capacitance of a given circuit.
Mosleys law
Time constant of an LR circuit.
Lens mirror combination.
Resolving power of a telescope.
Polarisation of light.
Reflection of light by Huygens theory.
Drawing and use of labelled graphs.
Elements of earths magnetic field.
Derivation of E in broad side position of an electric dipole.
Derivation of B at the Centre of a circular coil of N turns.
Drawing a ray diagram of a compound microscope.

(b) Concepts between which candidates got confused:

Capacitors in series and parallel.
Resistors in series and parallel
Cells in series and parallel
Ordinary electric circuit and Wheatstone bridge.
End on position and broad side position of an electric dipole.
Biot-savarts law and Amperes circuital law.
Long-sightedness and short sightedness.
Reflection of light and refraction of light by Huygenss wave theory.
Spherical aberration and chromatic aberration.
Pair production and pair annihilation.
Interference of light and diffraction of light.
LR dc circuit and LR ac circuit.
Electrostatic potential and potential energy.
Magnetic susceptibility of paramagnetic, ferromagnetic and diamagnetic materials.
Effect of temperature on resistance of metals and nonmetals.

(c) Suggestions for candidates:
Learn various laws, principles, and terms. Try to understand them, rather than learning them by
rote. Build up the concept and develop them with the help of examples, diagrams, numerical, etc.
If need be, take the help of reference books.
Study regularly, not just before the examination.
Practice what you have learnt, theory, graphs, diagrams, numerical etc.
Make a list of all the formulae in each chapter and learn these formulae, along with the meaning
of each and every symbol.
Make a list of derivations in each chapter. Lay more emphasis on understanding the derivations
logically and step wise. Learn them and practice them regularly.
During the Examination, read each and every question carefully and then write the answer to the
In ray optics, arrows must be given to the rays.
While solving a numerical problem, read the question carefully and write the given data. See if
all given quantities are in same system i.e. S.I system. If not, make proper conversions e.g. cm
m, F F & eV to J. Then write the relevant formula, substitute the known
quantities in it and solve for the unknown. Write the answer with proper unit.
Be careful with vector quantities as they have directions.

Answer all questions.
You should not spend more than one and a half hours on each question.

Question 1 [12]
This experiment determines the focal length of the given convex lens by
displacement method.
You are provided with:
(a) A lens holder
(b) A convex lens
(c) Two optical pins
(d) An optical bench
Note: The experiment may be performed on a table top, using a metre scale, in case an
optical bench is not available.
(i) Determine the approximate focal length f of the given convex lens by projecting the
image of a distant object on a wall or a screen. Record the value of f in cm, correct
upto one decimal place.
(ii) Now, arrange the object pin O, the image pin I and the lens L on the optical bench
or table top as shown in Figure 1(a) so that the tips of O and I lie on the principal
axis of the lens.

Figure 1(a)

(iii) Adjust the distance x between O and I to be nearly equal to (4f + 10) cm. Ensure
that this separation is maintained throughout this particular setting.
(iv) Move the lens towards the pin I and adjust its position until the diminished and
inverted image of O coincides with the image pin I.
(v) Read and record the positions of O, L1 and I on the metre scale in cm, correct upto
one decimal place.

(vi) Keeping O and I fixed, move the lens towards the object pin O and adjust its position
as shown in Figure 1(b) until the magnified and inverted image of O coincides with
I. Record the new position L2 of the lens.


L2 d L1
Figure 1(b)
(vii) The difference between the two positions L1 and L2 of the lens is the displacement
d of the lens. Calculate and record the value of d, in cm, correct upto one decimal
(viii) Repeat the experiment to obtain four more sets of x and d, taking values of x in the
range (4f + 10) cm and 100 cm. Note that for each set, the positions of O and I are
maintained constant and the parallax is removed by moving the lens only.
(ix) Show the image position when the parallax has been removed, in any one of the
readings in (viii) above, to the Visiting Examiner.
(x) Tabulate all the five sets of values of x, x2, d, d2, and y = (x2 d2)/100, along with
their units given at each column head. Compute y up to three significant figures.
(xi) Plot a graph of y against x. Draw the line of best fit and determine its slope S using:

S= =

(xii) Calculate the focal length F of the given lens correct up to one decimal place, using:
F = 25 S.
(xiii) Record the value of F in your answer booklet.

Comments of Examiners
Suggestions for teachers
Common errors made by candidates in attempting this Show students different instruments
question were as follows: such as, the metre scale, Vernier
callipers, screw gauge, ammeter,
RECORD: voltmeter, etc. and tell them to write
Proper trend (x proportional to d) was not followed in a the least count. Teach students how
few cases. to write observations in consistence
Many candidates did not express approximate focal with the L.C of the instrument, with
length of convex lens correct upto 1 d.p and with unit. correct unit.
Give special emphasis on
d, x and y were not recorded in a few cases.
measurement, unit, significant
A few candidates obtained the value of d>x because of figures, etc., so that mistakes are
which calculation of y became negative. minimised.
Many candidates took x<(4f+ 10) and many candidate Explain about parallax error and
took 50 cm as a constant value. show students how to remove it.
Some candidates made the mistake of rounding off y Give sufficient practice in graphical
upto three significant figures. skills which include:
(i) Proper labelling with unit,
(ii) Marking of origin with two
A few candidates did not label the graph or labelled coordinates without kink,
wrongly, some used a kink; in several cases, (iii) Choice of a uniform and
non-uniform and inconvenient scale was chosen. convenient scale (tell students about
Many candidates did not plot correctly or marked blobs. inconvenient scale, e.g. 1 div.
A number of candidates were unable to make the best fit
=0.3,0.33,0.67,0.66 etc not to be
taken) (iv) Meaning of correct
plotting (vi) Concept of best fit
DEDUCTION: and how to draw the best fit line.
(vii) Determining the Slope (for
Many candidates took plotted points for finding slope.
slope take two unplotted points on
Many candidates did not record the focal length of the the line that are widely separated.)
lens upto one decimal point. Instruct students to read the
question paper carefully and
underline the important points in

Question 1.
A. Approximate focal length of the lens correct upto 1 dp. with unit.
B. Four correct sets of x and d
Correct set means as x increases, d also increases
Unit of x or d: cm.
d should be recorded upto 1 decimal place in at least three sets.

C. Correct calculation of x2, d2 and y in at least three sets;
Rounded off y upto 3s.f
A. Axes labelled correctly with or without units. The scale should be uniform, convenient,
covering more than 50% of the graph paper. Origin may / may not be marked. Interchange
of axes is allowed but kink is not allowed.
B. Four correct plots
Points must be sharp and encircled. A blob is not a point.
Correct plot means if the plotting points lie within 50% of one of the smallest
divisions on both the scale of actual position.
C. Best fit line (thin and uniform) at least the line passes very close to the four points (even
for blobs) or within five divisions / one cm. perpendicular distance on both sides of the
line drawn. The line should be extended on both sides with respect to the four plots.
A. Correct calculation of slope (S) of the best fit line using two distant points (separated 50%
or more than that of the line drawn, taking at least one unplotted point.
B. Correct calculation of F, with 1dp.
Candidates F= should be in the range 7.5cm F 12.5cm.

Question 2 [6+2]
A. This experiment determines the resistivity of the material of the given wire.
You are provided with a 100 cm long uniform metallic wire AB stretched along a
metre scale and provided with terminals at both ends.
You are also provided with a resistance box R.B., a voltmeter of range 0-3V, an
ammeter of range 0 - 1A, a 4V dc power supply E, a plug key K, a jockey J
and a few connecting wires.

(i) Determine and record the least count of the given voltmeter and the ammeter
with proper units in your answer booklet.
(ii) Set up a circuit as shown in Figure 2 below. Make sure that all connections
are tight. R.B.
( ) A

80 cm C
100 cm
0 cm

Figure 2
(iii) Take out 1 plug from the resistance box R.B. so that R = 1. Ensure that
all other plugs are tightly closed. Place the jockey J at a point C on the wire
AB, such that AC=80 cm. The reading of the voltmeter as well as the ammeter
must be within its range. Read and record the readings of the voltmeter and
the ammeter, i.e. V and I, with proper units.
(iv) Repeat the experiment to obtain four more sets of readings of R, V and I by
increasing the resistance R by 1 each time. Ensure that the jockey is always
kept at the same position C such that AC = 80 cm in all five sets of readings.
(v) Show any one of the readings in (iv) above, to the Visiting Examiner.
(vi) Determine the value of resistance r using:

for each set, correct upto three significant figures.

(vii) Now, tabulate all the five sets of values of R, V, I and r with proper units.
(viii) Find ro, the mean of all the five values of r and record its value in your answer
B. (i) Determine and record the least count of the given micrometer screw gauge
in cm.
(ii) Using it, calculate the diameter d of the given specimen wire X and record
its value in cm in your answer booklet.
(iii) Calculate the resistivity of the material of the wire, using the formula:

= ro

Comments of Examiners
Some errors made by candidates in attempting this question were as follows:
Suggestions for teachers
Least counts of the ammeter and voltmeter were not
Give practice to students in different
recorded correctly by some candidates.
electricity experiments and tell them
The trends of R, V, and I were not correct in many
the aim and trend of the experiment.
Check practical record books of
Several candidates did not record the values of V and
students regularly.
I in consistence with the least counts of the
Give more practice to students in
recording the diameter of a wire
Some candidates measured l and (100-l) instead of V
using a screw gauge.
and I.
Dimensions of different physical
A few candidates recorded absurd values of voltage
quantities must be explained
(e.g. 5V, 7V, 10V, 12V) and current.
Tell students to pay attention to the
DEDUCTION: instructions given in the Question
Many candidates did not write r = V/I correct up to Paper.
three significant figures. Give more practice to students in
In several cases, the mean value of r as r0 was not making calculations.
calculated correctly or not shown at all.
Record of L.C of screw gauge not written in cm.
The value of diameter of the wire was not written in consistence with the L.C of screw gauge and
also at times, without unit.
Resistivity was not calculated in some cases or calculated incorrectly.

Question 2.

L.C. of ammeter and voltmeter with their units.
Any four correct sets of R, V and I
Note: Correct set means:
(i) As R increases, I decreases and V decreases
(ii) V and I recorded correctly in agreement with the L.C. of V and A respectively.
(i) Correct calculation of r in at least 3 sets with unit.
(ii) Correct calculation of mean ro (1d.p.)
B (i) Record of least count in cm and correct calculation of diameter d (The unit cm
should be present either in LC or in diameter.
(ii) Correct calculation of .

(a) Topics found difficult and confusing by candidates:
Removal of parallax error.
Concept of significant figures.
Concept of Decimal place, rounding off upto proper decimal place.
Significant figures, least count of instruments and writing of observations in consistence with the
least count, with proper unit.
Mention of correct unit of physical quantities.
Graphical skills - proper choice of origin, uniform and convenient scale, proper labelling of the
axes, meaning of correct plotting and concept of best fit line.
How to find the slope from best fit line.
(b) Suggestions for candidates:
Read the question carefully and follow the instructions, using only the formula given in the
question paper for all the calculations.
Ensure that all observations are consistent with L.C. of the measuring instrument and recorded in
tabular form with unit. Note down the L.C. of the instruments used before starting the experiment.
All values calculated should be calculated upto the decimal place or significant figures asked for
the in the question.
While doing any optical experiment with lens, always record the positions of object pin, image
pin and the lens.
Scale should be uniform and convenient with axes properly labelled.
Origin should begin from zero if the intercept is to be found. Co-ordinates of the origin must be
given/ marked on graph paper.
Plots should be small encircled dots, correct to the nearest division of the graph sheet.
Line of best fit means the aggregate of all plotted points drawn symmetrically and extended on
both sides of the last plotted points.
Slope calculation should be from two widely separated, unplotted points lying on the best fit line.
The scale of the graph should be such that at least 2/3 of the graph paper is used.

Total Number of students who took the examination 36,423
Highest Marks Obtained 100
Lowest Marks Obtained 4
Mean Marks Obtained 64.21

Percentage of Candidates according to marks obtained

Mark Range
0-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100
Number of Candidates 138 690 17342 11582 6671
Percentage of Candidates 0.38 1.89 47.61 31.80 18.32
Cumulative Number 138 828 18170 29752 36423
Cumulative Percentage 0.38 2.27 49.89 81.68 100.00

Range of Marks Obtained

Percentage of Candidates

5.00 0.38

0-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100
Marks Obtained


PART I (20 Marks)

Answer all questions.
Question 1
(a) Fill in the blanks by choosing the appropriate word/words from those given in the [5]
(increases, decreases, positive, efficient, 68, non-efficient, no -hydrogen, -hydrogen,
negative, Rosenmunds, greater, Cannizzaro, 74, common-ion effect, lesser, buffer
action, diamagnetic, paramagnetic)
(i) The more__________ the standard reduction potential of a metal, the ________ is
its ability to displace hydrogen from acids.
(ii) Both ccp and hcp are ____________ packings and occupy about _________% of
the available space.
(iii) Solubility of silver chloride _____________ in the presence of sodium chloride
because of _____________.
(iv) Benzaldehyde undergoes ___________ reaction on treatment with concentrated
sodium hydroxide because it has ___________ atom.
(v) The transition metals show ______________ character because of the presence of
unpaired electrons and Cu+ is _____________because its electronic configuration
is [Ar]3d10.
(b) Complete the following statements by selecting the correct alternative from the [5]
choices given: [5]
(i) The molal freezing point constant of water is 186 K kg mol -1 . Therefore, the
freezing point of 01M NaCl solution in water is expected to be:
(1) -186oC
(2) -0372oC
(3) -0186oC
(4) +0372oC
(ii) For a first order reaction the rate constant for decomposition of N2O5 is 610-4sec-1.
The half-life period for the decomposition in seconds is:
(1) 1155
(2) 1155
(3) 1155
(4) 1155

(iii) When acetaldehyde is treated with Grignard reagent, followed by hydrolysis the
product formed is:
(1) Primary alcohol
(2) Secondary alcohol
(3) Carboxylic acid
(4) Tertiary alcohol
(iv) The geometry of XeF6 molecule and the hybridization of Xe atom in the molecule is:
(1) Distorted octahedral and sp3d3
(2) Square planar and sp3d2
(3) Pyramidal and sp3
(4) Octahedral and sp3d3
(v) In the complexes [Fe(CN)6]3- and [Pt(en) (H2O)2(NO2)(Cl)]2+ the respective
oxidation numbers of central metal atoms are :
(1) + 3 and +4
(2) +6 and +4
(3) +6 and +3
(4) +3 and +3
(c) Answer the following questions: [5]
(i) What is the effect of temperature on the ionic product of water? How will it change
the pH value of a neutral solution?
(ii) How many hours does it take to reduce 3 moles of Fe3+to Fe2+ with 20 A current
(iii) How is urea prepared by Wohler synthesis?
(iv) Two liquids A and B form type II non ideal solution which shows a minimum in its
temperature -mole fraction plot (T- diagram). Can the two liquids be completely
separated by fractional distillation?
(v) The aqueous solution of sodium acetate is basic. Explain.
(d) Match the following: [5]
(i) Disaccharide (a) Lucas reagent
(ii) Carbylamine (b) Condensation polymer
(iii) Dacron (c) Obnoxious smell
(iv) Low spin complex, d2sp3 (d) Sucrose
(v) Anhydrous ZnCl2 + conc. HCl (e) Hexaamminecobalt(III)ion

Comments of Examiners
(a) (i) Instead of writing negative and greater many
candidates wrote positive and lesser. Suggestions for teachers
Electro chemical series should be
(ii) In place of efficient and 74 which was the
correct answer, some candidates wrote inefficient explained properly with reasons.
and 68. The selection of cathode and anode
(iii) The concept of common ion effect was not very on the basis of standard electrode
clear to the candidates. A few candidates wrote potential must be explained to
increases in place of decreases. Many candidates.
Packing fraction in cubic solids
candidates wrote buffer action in place of
common ion effect. should be explained clearly.
Students must be explained how the
(iv) In the first blank, a few candidates wrote
Rosenmunds reaction in place of Cannizzaros presence of common ion in a
reaction. For the second blank, instead of no solution decreases the dissociation
hydrogen many candidates wrote hydrogen of weak electrolyte. Suitable
which was not correct. examples must be used.
Emphasis should be laid upon the
(v) Several candidates reversed the order i.e.
diamagnetic and paramagnetic instead of named organic reactions. The
paramagnetic and diamagnetic. conditions for reaction must be
(b) (i) Most of the candidates chose the wrong alternative explained clearly.
Vant Hoff factor must be explained
i.e. -0.186oC instead of -0.372oC which was the
correct answer. Vant Hoff factor (i) was ignored clearly to students.
The relationship between the rate
by the candidates.
(ii) Many candidates were unaware of the formula constant and half-life period must
and hence gave wrong answers. be explained clearly.
Chemical properties of Grignards
(iii)A number of candidates were unaware that the
reactions between acetaldehyde and Grignards reagent, for the preparation of
reagent, followed by hydrolysis, gives secondary various organic compounds must be
alcohol. properly explained.
Geometry and hybridization of
(iv) A number of candidates wrote the geometry and
hybridization of XeF6 molecule as octahedral and compounds of inert gases must be
sp3d3 instead of distorted octahedral and sp3d3. discussed in class. The shape and
(v) The oxidation numbers of central metal atom geometry depends on both the
were reported correctly by many candidates but bonding and non-bonding electrons
some candidates choose option +3 and +3. of central atoms.
The calculation of oxidation state of
(c) (i) Many candidates wrote incomplete answers. The
ionic product of water is directly proportional to the central metal atom in
temperature. Many candidates were not sure how coordination compounds should be
the pH value of neutral solution changes with taught in detail.
The relationship between the
increase in temperature.
(ii) Several candidates were unable to calculate the concentration of H+ and OH- and
time period in hours and reported the answer in pH value should be explained to
seconds or minutes. Some candidates did not take students. Variation of ionic product
into account that 3 moles of Fe3+ should be reduced of water with temperature must be
to Fe2+. discussed

(iii) For preparation of urea by Wohler synthesis,
many candidates did not mention the proper Discuss Faradays law of
conditions. Unbalanced equations were given by electrolysis and explain the
many candidates. following concepts :
(iv) Instead of writing that the two liquids cannot be 1F = 96,500 coulomb = 1 mole of e-
separated completely by fractional distillation, Students must be told to express the
some candidates wrote that they can be separated. answer in hours if asked in question
In some cases, conditions were not mentioned - paper.
that liquid A and B will form a constant boiling Stress upon writing balanced
azeotropic mixture. equations with correct conditions.
(v) The concept of salt hydrolysis was not clear to The salt hydrolysis of all the four
some candidates. Anionic hydrolysis was not types of salts must be explained
mentioned by several candidates. with suitable examples.
(d) Most of the candidates matched the answers
Question 1
(a) (i) negative, greater
(ii) efficient, 74
(iii) decreases, common-ion effect
(iv) Cannizzaro, no - hydrogen
(v) paramagnetic, diamagnetic
(b) (i) (2) -0372oC
(ii) (3) 1155
(iii) (2) secondary alcohol
(iv) (1) distorted octahedral and sp3d3
(v) (1) +3 and +4
(c) (i) Ionic product increases with increase in temperature because the dissociation of water
increases with increase of temperature. With increase in concentration of H3O+ ions,
pH of the neutral solution will decrease.
(ii) Reduction of 1mol of Fe3+ requires = 96500 C
Reduction of 3 mol of Fe3+ require = 3 x 96500 C = 2.895 X 105C
2.895 x 105 1.4475 x 105
Time = ___________ = 1.4475 x 105sec. = ______________ = 40.21 hours
2 60 x60
2 KCNO + (NH4)2SO4 2NH4CNO + K2SO4
Molecular arrangement

(iv) The two liquids cannot be separated completely by fractional distillation because they
form a constant boiling azeotropic mixture, therefore at a definite composition both the
liquids will distil over without any change in composition.
(v) Sodium acetate undergoes anionic hydrolysis and forms weakly dissociated CH3COOH
and highly dissociated NaOH.
(d) (i) Disaccharide (d) sucrose
(ii) carbylamine (c) obnoxious smell
(iii) Dacron (b) condensation polymer
(iv) 2 3
Low spin complex, d sp (e) hexaamminecobalt(III) ion
(v) anhydrous ZnCl2+conc.HCl (a) Lucas reagent

PART II (50 Marks)

Answer six questions choosing two from Section A, two from
Section B and two from Section C.
Answer any two questions.
Question 2
(a) (i) A solution containing 05 g of KCl dissolves in 100 g of water and freezes [3]
at 024oC. Calculate the degree of dissociation of the salt. (Kf for water = 1.86oC)
Atomic weights [K = 39, Cl = 355]
(ii) If 171 g of sugar (molar mass = 342) are dissolved in 500 ml of an aqueous [1]
solution at 300 K, what will be its osmotic pressure?
(iii) 070g of an organic compound when dissolved in 32g of acetone produces an [1]
elevation of 025oC in the boiling point. Calculate the molecular mass of organic
compound (Kb for acetone = 172 K kg mol-1).
(b) (i) What is the difference between order of a reaction and the molecularity of a [2]
(ii) A substance decomposes by following first order kinetics. If 50% of the compound [2]
is decomposed in 120 minutes, how long will it take for 90% of the compound to
(c) Name the crystal structure of the copper metal. [1]

Comments of Examiners
(a)(i) Some candidates did the calculations upto vant Hoff
Suggestions for teachers
factor but the degree of dissociation of salt was not
Give practice to students in doing
calculated. The relationship between degree of
numericals. Numerical problems
dissociation () and vant Hoff factor (i) was not clear
based on abnormal molecular
to a few candidates.
weights, calculation of degree of
(ii) Some candidates did not mention the unit i.e. atm
dissociation and association
along with the answer. Several candidates used the
should be given.
incorrect value of R, instead of 0.0821 Lit-atm K-1
Students must be told that while
mole-1 the value used was R=8.314 J K-1mole-1.
solving numerical problems, they
(iii)The molecular weight of organic compound was
must write the formula, substitute
calculated correctly by most of the candidates. In
correctly and write the answer
some cases wrong unit for molecular weight was
with the correct unit.
Order of reaction and
(b)(i)Some candidates just defined the terms. In a number of
molecularity of reaction should be
cases, all the differences were not given. The concept
explained with examples.
of rate law for order of reaction was not clear to many
More practice must be given in
candidates. A few candidates interchanged the
solving problems based on half-
life period of radioactive
(ii) Time taken for 90% decay was calculated correctly by
substances. The answer should be
many candidates. Some candidates took the value of
given with the same unit as
[A] as 90 instead of [A] = 10, if [Ao] =100 and thus
mentioned in the question paper.
got wrong answer. Some candidates failed to write the
Crystal structure of all types of
correct unit.
crystalline solids must be
(c) Some candidates wrote hexagonal close packing or
explained to students.
body centered cubic instead of face centered cubic or
cubic closed packing'.
Question 2
(a) (i) (i) Observed molecular mass
Kf x w x 1000
m = _____________________
Tf x W

= 1.86 x 0.5 x 1000 = 38.75

0.24 x 100

Normal molecular mass of KCl = 74.5

Vant Hoff factor, i = normal molar mass / observed molar mass
= 74.5 / 38.75 = 1.92

KCl dissociates as
KCl K+ + Cl-
Moles after dissociation 1
Total no. of moles after dissociation = 1+

Observed moles of solute

i = _______________________ = 1+
normal moles of solute 1

1+ ___ = 1.92 = 1.92 1 = 0.92

Degree of dissociation = 92 %
(ii) = CRT
= n / V RT = w RT / m V
= 1.71 x 0.082 x 300 / 342 x 500/1000
= 0.246 atm

m= or

= 1505 g mol-1
(b) (i) Difference between order of reaction and molecularity of a reaction:

S.NO. Order of reaction Molecularity of reaction

1. It is equal to the sum of the It is equal to the total number of molecules
powers of the molar of the reactants which take part in a single
concentrations of the reactants step chemical reaction.
in the rate law.
2. It may be in fractions or may It is always a positive whole number value.
be zero or negative.
3. It is for the overall reaction and It is theoretical concept and depends on the
an experimentally determined rate determining step in the reaction
quantity. mechanism because overall molecularity of
a complex reaction has no significance.

(any two of the above)

(ii) k = 0.6930 / t
k = 0.6930 / 120 = 5.77 x 10-3 min-1
Now for the first order reaction,
t = 2.303 / k log [A]O / [A]
= 2.303 / 5.77 x 10-3log 10 = 399 minutes
(c) Face centered cubic (fcc) or Cubic close packing (ccp)

Question 3
(a) (i) Chromium metal crystallises with a body centered cubic lattice. The edge [2]
length of the unit cell is found to be 287 pm. Calculate the atomic radius. What
would be the density of chromium in g / cm3? (atomic mass of Cr = 5299)
(ii) Why does sodium chloride on heating with sodium vapours acquire yellow [1]
(iii) The equilibrium constant for the reaction: [1]
N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) at 715 K, is 60 10-2.
If, in a particular reaction, there are 025 mol L-1 of H2 and 006 mol L-1 of NH3
present, calculate the concentration of N2 at equilibrium.
(iv) Calculate the concentration of OH- ions in solution when [H+] = 6.2 x 10- [1]
(v) State the Le-Chateliers principle. [1]
(b) For a crystal of sodium chloride, state: [2]
(i) The type of lattice in which it crystallises.
(ii) The coordination number of each sodium ion and chloride ion in the crystal
(iii) The number of sodium ions and chloride ions present in a unit cell of sodium
(iv) The structural arrangement of the sodium chloride crystal.
(c) Consider the following reaction: [2]
N2O4(g) + Heat 2NO2(g)
How is the composition of equilibrium mixture affected by:
(i) a change in temperature
(ii) a change in pressure
(iii) a change in concentration of N2O4
(iv) the removal of NO2 from the reaction mixture

Comments of Examiners
(a)(i) The value of Z (no. of particles) was not taken Suggestions for teachers
correctly by some candidates. Instead of 2 the The value of Z changes with the
value taken was 4. The edge length a was not type of unit cell. The density must
converted to centimetre in some cases. The be reported in gm/cm3. Students
density of chromium and atomic radius were not must be told to calculate the radius
calculated correctly by a few candidates. of atoms of different types of unit
(ii) This part was not answered well by many cell.
candidates. The imperfections in solids must be
(iii)The concentration of N2 (g) at equilibrium was clearly explained to students.
calculated correctly by many candidates but some
Chemical equilibrium and its
did not mentioned the correct unit.
(iv) In this part, some candidates calculated pOH characteristics must be explained to
value instead of OH- ion concentration. The value the students. More practice must be
of Kw was taken as 1014 instead of 10-14. given in equilibrium constant (Kc)
(v) In this part, a few candidates failed to write the and its calculation.
term equilibrium. More practice must be given in
(b) (i) A few candidates wrote the type of lattice of NaCl numerical problems based on pH
as octahedral or hcp instead of fcc or ccp. value and ionic products of water.
(ii) Most candidates were able to attempt this part Students should be asked to learn
correctly. definitions with proper key words.
(iii)Some candidates reported the wrong value of Explain the crystal lattice of sodium
number of sodium and chloride ions present in a
chloride with the help of proper
unit cell of sodium chloride.
(iv)Most of the candidates could not write the
structural arrangement correctly. Some wrote fcc Coordination number of each ion in
instead of octahedral structure. sodium chloride should be clearly
(c)(i)Many candidates considered the reaction as explained.
exothermic although it was an endothermic Calculation of number of atoms
reaction. Increase in temperature favours the present in a unit cell must be
forward reaction. Many candidate wrote - favours explained clearly. The corner atom
forward reaction with the change in temperature, contributes (1/8), face centered
without mentioning increase in temperature. atom (1/2) body centered (1) and
(ii) Increase in pressure favours the backward edge center (1/4) to the unit cell.
reaction. Some candidates wrote - equilibrium While teaching chemical
changes with change in pressure.
equilibrium, the Le Chateliers
(iii)Increase in concentration of N2O4 shifts the
equilibrium in forward direction. Some principle should be explained
candidates wrote, with change in concentration clearly. Practice must be given in
of N2O4 without mentioning increase and shifting of equilibrium under all
decrease. conditions of temperature, pressure
(iv)The removal of NO2 favours the forward reaction. and concentration.
Some candidates wrote that rate of backward
reaction will increase.

Question 3
For bcc crystal, atomic radius, r =
a= edge length

r = 3 / 4 x 287 = 124.27 pm

density = mass of unit cell / volume of the unit cell

= Z x atomic mass / NA x a3

Here Z = 2 ( for bcc)

Volume of the unit cell = a3 = (287 pm)3 = ( 287 x 10 -10cm3)3

Density = 2 x 52.99 / 6.023 x 1023 x (2.87 x 10 -10 cm3) 3

= 7.44 g cm-3

(ii) On heating sodium chloride with sodium vapours, the chloride ions diffuse to the surface of the
crystals and combine with Na atoms which get ionized to Na+ ions by losing electrons. These
electrons get trapped in anion vacancies and act as F- centres which impart colour to the

(iii) For the reaction

N2 (g) + 3 H2(g) === 2 NH3(g)

k = [NH3]2 / [N2] [H2]3 = 6.0 x 10-2

k = (0.06)2 / (0.25)3 [N2] = 6.0 x 10-2

[N2] = ( 0.06)2 / (0.25)3 ( 6.0 x 10-2) = 3.84 (mol L-1)-2

(iv) KW = [H+] [OH-]

[OH-] = KW / [H+] = 10-14 / 6.2 x 10-2 = 1.6 x 10 -11 mol L-1

(v) If an equilibrium is subjected to a stress (change in concentration, pressure or temperature etc.)

equilibrium shifts in such a way so as to undo or decrease the effect of stress imposed.

(b)(i) Face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) (or) cubic close-packing(ccp)

(ii) Coordination number of each Na+ ion as well as Cl- ion is 6.
(iii) The unit cell of sodium chloride possess 4 sodium ions and 4 chloride ions.
(iv) Octahedral.

(c)(i) Increase in temperature favors the forward reaction, concentration of NO 2 increases and vice
(ii) Increase in pressure favors backward reaction and vice versa.
(iii) Addition of N2O4 favors the forward reaction and vice versa.
(iv) Removal of NO2 increases the rate of forward reaction or equilibrium will shift to the
forward direction.

Question 4
(a) The specific conductance of a 0.01 M solution of acetic acid at 298 K is [3]
1.65 x 10-4 ohm-1 cm-1.The molar conductance at infinite dilution for H+ ion and
CH3COO ion are 349.1 ohm-1 cm2mol-1 and 40.9 ohm-1 cm2mol-1 respectively.
(i) Molar conductance of the solution.
(ii) Degree of dissociation of CH3COOH.
(iii) Dissociation constant for acetic acid.
(b) (i) Calculate the e.m.f. of the following cell reaction at 298 K: [2]
Mg (s) + Cu2+ (0.0001 M) Mg2+ (0.001M) + Cu (s)
The standard potential (E0) of the cell is 2.71 V.
(ii) The solubility product (Ksp) of BaSO4 is 1.5 x 10-9.Calculate the solubility of [2]
barium sulphate in pure water and in 0.1 M BaCl2.
(c) Explain the following :
(i) When NH4 Cl and NH4OH are added to a solution containing both, Fe3+ and Ca2+ [2]
ions, which ion is precipitated first and why?
(ii) Dissociation of H2S is suppressed in acidic medium. [1]
Comments of Examiners
(a)(i) Some candidates were unable to do this part correctly.
They used wrong formula to calculate the molar Suggestions for teachers
conductance at infinite dilution. A few candidates wrote Calculation of molar conductance,
wrong units or did not write the unit at all. specific conductance, degree of
(ii) The correct value of degree of dissociation was not dissociation and dissociation
calculated by some candidates. constant along with their
(iii)Since parts (i) and (ii) were not answered correctly by relationship must be explained
some candidates, the dissociation constant (k) was also clearly to students.
not calculated correctly. Give more practice in calculation
(b)(i) Most of the candidates answered this part correctly. Some of E0cell and Ecell for
candidates did not give Nernst equation correctly and got electrochemical cell.
wrong e.m.f. value. In some cases the unit was not

(ii)Solubility of BaSO4 in pure water was reported
correctly by most of the candidates, but the solubility Suggestions for teachers
of BaSO4 in 0.1 M BaCl2 solution was not reported Numericals based on solubility
correctly by many candidates. product, solubility and their
(c)(i) A number of candidates were able to give the correct relationship for different kinds of
answer i.e. Fe3+ will be precipitated first. Some wrote sparingly soluble electrolytes
that Ca2+ will be precipitated first. The explanation should be explained clearly.
given by candidates did not match with the correct Explain the concept of solubility
answer. product (Ksp) and ionic
(ii)The answers given by candidates were correct in concentration product (ICP) in the
most of the cases. A few candidates did not mention practical class. Explain that the
that it is due to common ion effect. precipitation occur when ICP > Ksp.
How common ion affects the
dissociation of weak electrolyte
must be explained by giving

Question 4
(a) (i) Molar conductance = x 1000 = 1.65 x 10-4 x 1000 = 16.5 ohm-1cm2mol-1
(^m) C 0.01

(ii) Degree of dissociation

^c m
= _________


^m = 16.5ohm-1cm2mol-1

^m (CH3COOH) = (H+) + (CH3COO-)

= 349.1 + 40.9 = 390 ohm-1cm2mol-1

= 16.5 / 390 = 0.0423

(iii) Dissociation constant (K)

Acetic acid dissociates as

CH3COOH ===== CH3COO- + H+

Initial concentration c 0 0
Equilibrium conc. c(1-) c c

[CH3COO-] [H+] c x c 0.01 x (0.0423)2
K = ___________________ = ______________ = _________________
[CH3COOH] c(1-) 1 0.0423

= 1.86 x 10 -5

(b) (i) Ecell = EOcell 0.0591 log [Mg2+] [Cu]

2 [Mg] [Cu2+]

= 2.71 - 0.0591 log 0.001

2 0.0001
= 2.71 - 0.0295

= 2.6805 V
(ii) Solubility of Ba SO4 in water

BaSO4 Ba2+ + SO42-

s mol s mol s mol

Ksp = [Ba2+] [SO42- ]

Ksp = s . s = s2

s = 1.5 x 10-9 = 3.87 x 10 -5 mol L-1

solubility of BaSO4 in 0.1 M BaCl2

[Ba2+] = 0.1 + s , [SO42-] = s

Ksp = [Ba2+] [SO42-]

= [0.1 + s] [s] = 0.1 s

0.1 s = 1.5 x 10-9

s = 1.5 x 10 -8 mol L-1

(c) (i) Fe3+ ion will precipitate out first.

NH4OH NH4+ + OH-
NH4Cl NH4+ Cl- (eq. or common ion effect)
Due to common ion effect less OH- ions are produced, which are large enough to cause
the precipitation of Fe3+ ions. As its solubility product is less (Ksp is less for Fe(OH)3 and
Ksp is more for Ca(OH)2).
(ii) This is due to common ion effect. The suppression of degree of dissociation of a weak
electrolyte by (H2S) the addition of a strong electrolyte (HCl) having a common ion with
the weak electrolyte (H2S).

Answer any two questions
Question 5
(a) Write the IUPAC names of the following coordination compounds: [1]
(i) [Cr(NH3)4(H2O)2]Cl3
(ii) [PtCl2(NH3)4] [PtCl4]
(b) State the hybridization and magnetic property of [Fe(CN)6]3- ion according to the [1]
valence bond theory.
(c) (i) What type of isomers are [Co(NH3)5Br]SO4 and [Co(NH3)5SO4]Br.? Give a [2]
chemical test to distinguish between them.
(ii) Write the structures of optical isomers of the complex ion [Co(en)2Cl2]+ [1]

Comments of Examiners
(a) (i) Many candidates wrote amine instead of
ammine for NH3. Oxidation state was reported Suggestions for teachers
wrongly in some cases while some others did not More practice should be given in
give the order of ligands alphabetically. naming coordination compounds.
(ii) Many candidates wrote wrong oxidation states Calculation of oxidation state of the
of central metal atom. central metal atom/ ion should be
(b) Many candidates reported sp3d2 and diamagnetic explained clearly. While writing
whereas the correct answer was d2sp3 hybridization names of the ligands, alphabetical
and paramagnetic. order must be followed.
(c) (i) The type of isomerism was reported correctly by Explain the valence bond theory in
most of the candidates. The chemical test to detail and give enough practice
distinguish between the isomers was not given using different examples.
correctly in a few cases. Explain all the types of isomerism
(ii) The structure of optical isomers of complex ion shown by coordination compounds.
[Co(en)2Cl2]+ was not given correctly. More practice should be given in
the structure of optical isomers by
using mirror image.
Question 5
(a) (i) tetraamminediaquachromium(III)chloride
(ii) tetraamminedichloroplatinum(IV)tetrachloroplatinate(II)
(b) d2sp3hybridisation and paramagnetic
(c) (i) Ionisation isomers
One of these is red-violet and forms a precipitate with BaCl2indicating that sulphate ion is
outside the coordination sphere. The second one is red and does not form ppt. with BaCl2
but forms a ppt. of AgBr with AgNO3 indicating that bromide ion is outside the
coordination sphere. (or any other correct chemical test)

(ii) en
+ en +

Cl------------------------------ .-------------------- ------------Cl

Co Co

Cl--------------------------- ------------------------------- Cl

en en

d- form (cis) mirror l-form ( cis)

Question 6
(a) Give balanced chemical equations for the following reactions: [3]
(i) Fluorine is passed through cold, dilute NaOH solution.
(ii) Hydrogen peroxide is treated with acidified KMnO4 solution.
(iii) Sulphuric acid is treated with hydrogen sulphide.
(b) Draw the structure of xenon tetrafluoride molecule and state the hybridization of the [2]
central atom and the geometry of the molecule.

Comments of Examiners
Suggestions for teachers
(a) A number of candidates gave unbalanced equations. Teach the chemical reactions of
In some cases, all the products were not mentioned. inorganic chemistry in detail and
Some candidates wrote wrong products. give practice in balancing
(b) The structure of XeF4 was drawn correctly but some equations.
candidates failed to show the lone pairs of electrons. Explain the shape, hybridization
The hybridization and geometry was given correctly and the structure of compounds of
by most of the candidates. A few candidates gave inert gases diagrammatically.
wrong hybridization. Instead of sp3d2 they
wrote d2sp3.

Question 6
(a) (i) 2 F2 + 2 NaOH 2NaF + H2O + OF2
(cold & dilute) (oxygen difluoride)

(ii) 2KMnO4 + 3 H2SO4 + 5 H2O2 K2SO4 + 2 MnSO4+ 8 H2O + 5O2

(iii) H2SO4 + H2S S + SO2 + 2H2O
(b) XeF4 molecules a square planar geometry and is formed by the sp3d2 hybridisation.

. . lone pair of electrons

F --------------------------F


F-------------------------- F

Question 7
(a) Name the important ore of silver. Write all the steps and reactions involved in the [3]
Cyanide process for the extraction of silver from its ore.
(b) Explain the following: [2]
(i) Why do transition metal ions possess a great tendency to form complexes?
(ii) The paramagnetic character in 3d-transition series elements increases up to Mn and
then decreases.

Comments of Examiners
(a) The formula of ore of silver was given instead of
Suggestions for teachers
name of the ore by many candidates. Proper reactions
The extraction of metals must be
and steps of metallurgy were not given in many cases.
taught in detail. All the steps must
Electrolytic refining of silver was not shown by some
be shown in proper order with
balanced chemical equations.
(b) (i) Most of the candidates did not write presence of
Explain the role of vacant
vacant d orbital, instead they mentioned
d orbital in the formation of
(n-1) d orbital, partially filled d orbital, etc.
complexes. Important properties of
Candidates seemed to be unaware of the
d block elements must be told to
significance of vacant d orbital in the formation
of complexes.
Reason for paramagnetism,
(ii) Relationship between unpaired/paired electrons
electronic configuration of elements
and magnetic behaviour was not understood by
should be explained in detail.
many candidates.

Question 7
(a) Argentite ( silver glance), Ag2S or Horn silver
Concentration The sulphide ore is crushed, powdered and then concentrated by the
Froth flotation process.
Treatment with sodium cyanide
The concentrated ore is agitated with dilute solution of NaCN in the presence of air
When soluble sodium argentocyanide is obtained.

Ag2S + 4 NaCN 2 Na[Ag(CN)2] + Na2S

Na2S + 2O2 Na2SO4
Ag2S + 4 NaCN + 2O2 2 Na[Ag(CN)2] + Na2SO4

Precipitation of silver
2Na[Ag(CN)2] + Zn Na2[Zn(CN)4] + 2 Ag

Silver thus obtained is in the form of dark amorphous mass.

The precipitated silver is filtered, pressed, dried and fused with borax when a bright
Compact mass is obtained.

Electrolytic refining process

Silver thus obtained usually contain impurities of Zn, Cu and gold.
Thin sheet of pure silver cathode
A block of impure silver anode
K[Ag(CN)2] or a solution of silver nitrate containing 1% HNO3is used as a electrolyte.
On passing electricity pure silver gets deposited on the cathode.

(b) (i) Due to small size, high nuclear charge, availability of vacant d- orbitals of suitable
energy to accommodate lone pairs of electrons donated by the ligands.

(ii) On moving from Sc to Mn, the number of unpaired electrons increases and hence
Paramagnetic character increases. But after Mn, the pairing of electrons in the
d-subshell starts and the number of unpaired electrons and hence paramagnetic
character decreases.

Answer any two questions.
Question 8
(a) How can the following conversions be brought about:
(i) Glycerol to formic acid [1]
(ii) Chlorobenzene to phenol [1]
(iii) Diethyl ether to ethanol [1]
(iv) Phenol to aniline. [2]
(b) (i) How is iodoform prepared from ethanol? Give balanced equation. [1]
(ii) What will be the product formed when chlorobenzene is heated with sodium metal [1]
in the presence of dry ether?
(c) Identify the compounds A, B, C , D, E and F: [3]

Conc.HNO3 SOCl2 NH3 LiAlH4


Comments of Examiners
(a) (i) In the conversion of glycerol to formic acid by Suggestions for teachers
using oxalic acid, the temperature was not Stress should be laid upon giving
mentioned by many candidates. the correct conditions and catalysts.
(ii) The conditions required for the conversion of Insist that candidates learn all
chlorobenzene to phenol were not given by many important name reactions. Stress
candidates. upon writing complete balanced
(iii) The condition that HI used for the conversion of equations. Explain iodoform
diethyl ether to ethanol should be cold or hot was reaction in one step with I2 and
not mentioned by many candidates. Acid catalysis NaOH.
was not mentioned by many candidates. Explain Wurtz- Fittig reaction in
(iv) The steps shown by candidates for the conversion detail with proper conditions.
of phenol to aniline were mostly correct but in a
few cases, the conditions were missing.
(b)(i) The conversion of ethanol to iodoform was done correctly by many candidates but in some
cases, instead of iodoform reaction, candidates first converted C2H5OH to CH3CHO then
formed iodoform.
(ii)Chlorobenzene when heated with sodium metal in presence of dry ether gives diphenyl but
some candidates gave incorrect answers.
(c) Most of the candidates identified the compounds A, B, C, D and E correctly. Some were not able
to identify compound F. Instead of CH3COOC2H5 they identified compound F as C2H5-

Question 8
(a) (i) Glycerol to formic acid
383K +H2O



(ii) Chlorobenzene to phenol
573 623 K + HCl
C6H5Cl + NaOH C6H5ONa C6H5OH
200 atm. - NaCl

(iii) Diethyl ether to ethanol

C2H5 O C2H5 + HI C2H5I + C2H5OH
heat NaOH
C2H5 O C2H5 + HI C2H5I C2H5OH

(or any other correct method)

(iv) Phenol to aniline

Zn dust, conc.HNO3 & conc. H2SO4

Benzene 60OC Nitrobenzene

Sn/ HCl 6 [H]

(any other correct method)

(b) (i)
(b) (i) CH3CH2OH + 4I2 + 6 NaOH CHI3 + HCOONa + 5NaI + 5 H2O


CH3CH2OH + 4I2 + 3 Na2CO3 CHI3 + HCOONa + 5 NaI + 3 CO2 + 2 H2O

(ii) dry ether

(ii) C6H5Cl + 2 Na + C6H5Cl C6H5-C6H5 + 2 NaCl
heat (diphenyl)

(c) A CH3COOH (Acetic acid)

B CH3COCl (Acetyl chloride)

C - CH3CONH2 (Acetamide)

D CH3CH2NH2 (Ethylamine)

E CH3CH2OH ( Ethyl alcohol)

F CH3COOC2H5( Ethyl acetate)

Question 9
(a) Give balanced equations for the following name reactions: [3]
(i) Reimer-Tiemann reaction.
(ii) Rosenmund reaction
(iii) Hoffmanns degradation reaction
(b) Give one chemical test to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds: [3]
(i) Ethylamine and diethylamine.
(ii) Acetaldehyde and benzaldehyde
(c) (i) Arrange the following compounds in the ascending order of their basic strength and [2]
give reasons for your answer:
Methylamine, Aniline, Ethylamine, Diethyl ether
(ii) Name the monomers and the type of polymerization in each of the following [2]
(a) Polyester
(b) Bakelite

Comments of Examiners
(a)(i) Reimer-Tiemann reaction: the reactants and the
Suggestions for teachers
products given in the chemical equation were
The named organic reactions must be
correct in most cases but equation was not balanced
taught in detail. The following points
in many cases.
must be stressed upon:
(ii) Rosenmund reaction: correct equations were given
by most candidates. Some candidates failed to Reactants and conditions of
mention the catalyst i.e. Pd and BaSO4 while a few named reactions;
used 2[H] for reduction instead of H2. Balancing of equations.
(iii) Hoffmanns degradation reaction: some candidates Students must be told to give the
were not able to write this equation correctly. On reagent used, observations made and
the product side, only methyl amine was written in one positive test for each compound.
several cases; all the products formed were not Reaction mechanism must be taught
mentioned by candidates. properly with suitable examples.
(b)(i)To distinguish between ethyl amine and diethyl Polymerisation should be taught in
amine, some candidates only mentioned the name detail and the monomers for different
of the test but the observations were not given. polymers explained to students.
(ii) To distinguish between acetaldehyde and Teach monomers, polymers, type of
benzaldehyde, candidates used Tollens reagent polymerisation and uses in a tabular
which is given by both the compounds. form.
(c)(i)The order was given incorrectly in most cases.
Aniline was shown as the most basic compound. Many candidates were unable to explain the
correct reasons for basicity, i.e. +I effect, steric effect.
(ii)(a) The monomers given were wrong in several cases. The type of polymerization given by some
candidates was addition polymerization instead of condensation polymerization.
(b) Most candidates wrote cross linked polymerization instead of condensation polymerization.

Question 9
(a) (i) Reimer-Tiemann reaction

C6H5OH + CHCl3 + 3KOH C6H4(OH)CHO + 3KCl + 2H2O

(ohydroxyl benzaldehyde)
(ii) Rosenmund reaction
O Pd / BaSO4 O
+ H2
+ HCl
R C Cl R C H
Boiling xylene

(iii) Hoffmanns degradation reaction

CH3CONH2 + Br2 + 4KOH CH3NH2 + K2CO3 + 2KBr + 2H2O
Acetamide methylamine

(b) Chemical test to distinguish between the following pairs:

(i) Ethyl amine and diethylamine

Hinsbergs test

Ethylamine when shaken with benzene sulphonyl chloride and aqueous KOH solution,
ethyl amine gives a clear solution.
- +
[C6H5SO2-N -CH2CH3]K + H2O
Potassium salt
(soluble in KOH)
Clear solution
Diethylamine on similar treatment forms an insoluble substance.
C6H5SO2Cl + C2H5NHC2H5 C6H5 SO2N(C2H5)2 + HCl
( N,N- diethylbenzenesulphonamide)
Insoluble in KOH
(or any other correct test)
(ii) Acetaldehyde to Benzaldehyde

Acetaldehyde gives iodoform test with Iodine and alkali, benzaldehyde does not give
iodoform test. (or any other correct test)
(c) Increasing order of basic strength
(i) Diethyl ether < Aniline < methylamine < ethylamine
Reason- + I effect of the alkyl groups
Steric effects of alkyl groups
Aromatic amines are weaker bases than aliphatic amines.
(ii)(a) Polyester
Monomer ethylene glycol + terephthalic acid (or formulae of monomers)
Condensation polymer/ polymerisation
(b) Bakelite
Monomer Phenol + Formaldehyde
Condensation polymer / polymerisation

Question 10
(a) An organic compound A with molecular formula C2H7N on reaction with nitrous acid [3]
gives a compound B. B on controlled oxidation gives compound C. C reduces Tollens
reagent to give silver mirror and D. B reacts with D in the presence of concentrated
sulphuric acid to give sweet smelling compound E. Identify A, B, C, D and E. Give the
reaction of C with ammonia.
(b) Give balanced equations for the following reactions: [4]
(i) How will you convert ethyl amine to methyl amine?
(ii) What is the effect of denaturation on the structure of proteins?
(iii) Name the nitrogen base residues present in DNA.
(c) Give balanced equations for the following reactions: [3]
(i) Aniline is treated with nitrous acid and HCl at low temperature.
(ii) Acetyl chloride is treated with ethyl alcohol.
(iii) Formaldehyde is treated with ammonia
Comments of Examiners
(a) The identification of compounds A, B, C, D and E Suggestions for teachers
was done correctly by most of the candidates. Many Give practice to students in solving
candidates were not able to write the reaction such type of problems in which the
between compound C and ammonia. In some cases, identification of compounds is
D was identified as HCOOH instead of CH3COOH. based on different chemical
(b) (i) Conversion of ethylamine to methylamine was reactions.
done correctly by a number of candidates. In Explain denaturation of proteins by
some cases, correct conditions were not shown. explaining the changes in structure
(ii) During denaturation of protein, secondary and of proteins.
tertiary structures are destroyed but primary Structure of DNA and RNA must
structures remains unchanged. Some candidates be explained with the help of
wrote primary structure changes. The point that
Give sufficient practice in writing
globular proteins are converted into fibrous
organic reactions with correct
protein was not reported by many candidates.
(iii) The nitrogenous base residues adenine, guanine, Formula and structure of urotropine
cytosine and thymine present in DNA were should be explained.
named correctly by many candidates. Some
candidates reported uracil which was not correct.
(c) (i) In a number of cases, the equation was not balanced and by product i.e. H2O was not given.
(ii) This part was answered correctly by most of the candidates. Some candidates forgot to write
(iii) Many candidates were not able to write this reaction correctly. The main product given by
some of the candidates was wrong. The equation given was unbalanced in some cases.

Question 10
(a) Identify A, B, C, D and E
A = C2H5NH2
B = C2H5OH

CH3CHO + NH3 CH3C NH2 or CH3 C = NH + H2O

(b) (i) Ethylamine to methylamine

HONO K2Cr2O7/H2SO4 (O)


NH3 heat Br2 / KOH

(ii) During denaturation, secondary and tertiary structures of proteins are destroyed but
primary structures remain as such. Again, the globular proteins are converted into fibrous
proteins and their biological activity is lost.
(iii) Adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine
(c) Balanced equations for the following:
0 5oC
(i) C6H5NH2 + HNO2 + HCl C6H5N2+Cl- + 2H2O
Aniline Benzene diazonium chloride

(ii) CH3COCl + C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5 + HCl

Acetyl chloride Ethyl acetate
(iii) 6 HCHO + 4 NH3 (CH2)6N4 + 6H2O
Formaldehyde Urotropine

(a) Topics found difficult by candidates in the Question paper:
Relative molecular mass and mole (numerical problems), abnormal molecular weights.
Solid state, voids and defects in solid state.
Ionic equilibria (numerical problems) concept of solubility product, ionic product and common
ion effect.
Electrolytic conductance, electrode potential and Nernst equation.
Nomenclature, isomerism, hybridization and geometry of coordination compounds.
Balancing of equations for inorganic compounds.
Organic conversions, named reactions and balancing of equations.
Bio molecules.
(b) Concepts between which candidates got confused:
Vant Hoff factor, calculation of degree of dissociation.
Azeotropic mixtures, ideal and non-ideal solutions.
Order and molecularity of reaction, calculation of time period for the decomposition of
radioactive elements by 1st order kinetics.
Le Chateliers principle, change in equilibrium with change in pressure and temperature.
Electrolytic conductance, numerical problems, calculation of Eocell and Ecell by using Nernst
Calculation of solubility from solubility product, common ion effect and buffer solution.
Nomenclature, isomerism, hybridization and geometry of coordination compounds.
Conversion of organic compounds, conditions and catalyst, named organic reactions.
Polymerisation, biomolecules.
(c) Suggestions for candidates:
Avoid selective study, give equal importance to all the topics.
Practice writing the IUPAC names for coordination compounds as well as organic compounds.
Practice more numerical problems. Solve the problems step-wise with correct formula and
Learn both positive and negative chemical tests in organic reactions as it will help in
distinguishing between organic compounds.
Learn the reactions both organic and inorganic with proper conditions. Always write the correct
balanced equations.
Learn the shapes and hybridization of molecules with diagram.
Read questions carefully and understand what is required before attempting the question.
While solving numerical problems, proper steps should be followed, i.e. formula, substitution
and correct answer with units.
Do not give dual statements for any answer.
Learn to write the key words in the answer.

Attempt all questions.

Question 1 [8]
You are provided with two solutions as follows:
C-10 is a solution prepared by dissolving 35 gms of impure sample of potassium
manganate(VII), KMnO4 per litre.
C-11 is a solution prepared by dissolving 65 gms of oxalic acid, H2C2O4.2H2O per

Rinse and fill the burette with potassium manganate(VII) solution C-10 (KMnO4).
Pipette out 20 ml or 25 ml of the oxalic acid solution C-11 (H2C2O4.2H2O) in a clean
conical flask. To this, add 20 ml of dilute H2SO4, C-12, specially provided for this
purpose. Warm the contents of the flask to 60oC 70oC. The heating should be
continued till the first bubble appears at the bottom of the flask.
Remove the conical flask from fire and titrate this solution by running solution C-10
from the burette. Shake the solution constantly till a permanent pale pink colour is
obtained. Ensure that the pink colour obtained does not disappear on shaking the
contents of the conical flask.
Repeat the above procedure to get at least two concordant readings.
Tabulate your readings.
(a) The capacity of the pipette used.
(b) The titre value you intend to use in your calculations.
Show the titre value to the Visiting Examiner.
The equations for the above reactions are as follows:
2KMnO4 + 3H2SO4 + 5H2C2O4 K2SO4 + 2MnSO4+ 8H2O + 10CO2
2MnO + 5C2O + 16H+ 2Mn2+ + 10CO2 + 8H2O
Relative atomic masses:
K = 39 Mn = 55 C = 12 O = 16 H=1
Calculate the following:
(i) The molarity of oxalic acid solution C-11.
(ii) The molarity of potassium manganate (VII) solution C-10.
(iii) The strength of potassium manganate(VII) solution in gms per litre.
(iv) The percentage purity of the sample of potassium manganate (VII) solution.
Note: Molarity must be calculated upto at least 4 decimal places.

Comments of Examiners
A number of candidates did not seem to be aware of
Suggestions for teachers
the significance of tabulating the readings and All students at a centre must be
giving the size of the pipette. given pipettes of the same size.
Some candidates did not write the initial and final Insist that students tabulate the titre
readings. value correctly. Teach them the
tabular form and explain the
Many candidates just gave one titre value - they had
significance of each column. Insist
no concept of concordant values. on one trial run and two concordant
Some candidates used average value with a readings. Tell them that the average
difference between two readings of more than 0.2. should not be taken and overwriting
They also calculated the average up to two decimal in the readings should be strictly
avoided. Instruct students to
places. complete all work in ink.
A few candidates did not read the question paper Give sufficient practice in
carefully and used wrong solutions in the burette calculating molarity, percentage
and pipette. purity, water of crystallization for
all oxidation/ reduction titrations in
Overwriting in the titre value was observed in a
the syllabus.
number of cases. In some cases, the readings were Tell students it is absolutely
recorded in pencil instead of ink. imperative to write up to at least
Many candidates used wrong formula to calculate four decimal places in the
molarity of potassium permanganate i.e. calculation of molarities, and at
least two decimal places for
M1V1/M2V2 = n1/n2 instead of gms per litre / molecular weight and percentage
molecular weight. purity.
Some candidates rounded off the value of molarity Students should be told that water
in questions (i) and (ii) and used only two places of crystallization must be a whole
after the decimal instead of four, although the number.
Instruct students to read the
question paper required molarity to be calculated question paper carefully, refer to
upto at least four decimal places. the formula of the substances,
In some cases, molecular weight of oxalic acid was chemical equation and atomic
calculated without water of crystallization. weights, as given in the question
Explain that for only pure
compounds with complete
molecular formula given, students
can use molarity = weight dissolved
per liter/ molecular weight.

Question 1.
Let the titre value be 245 ml
(i) Molarity of the solution C 11(Oxalic Acid H2C2O4.2H2O)

Molarity = .
= = 00515 M
(ii) Molarity of the solution , C-10 (KMnO4)

= M1 Molarity of C-10

V1 Volume of C-10
n1 Number of moles of C-10
M2 Molarity of C-11
V2 Volume of C-11
n2 Number of moles of C-11


Let the titre value be 245ml

M1 = 00210M
(iii) Strength in grams per litre of KMnO4
= molarity mol. Wt.

= 00210 158 = 331 gms / lit.

% purity of KMnO4= 100 = 100


Question 2 [5]
(a) Substance C13 is an organic compound. Perform the experiments given below.
Record the changes taking place at each step of the experiment.
Note the smell of the substance formed, the colour of the substance obtained, the
colour of the precipitate produced, changes on heating and cooling and any other
observations you may have. State the identity of the compound on the basis of
the experiments and observational changes.

Substance C13
(i) Take 2 ml of C-13 in a test tube. To this, add 1 ml of Tollens reagent.
Warm the contents in a water bath.
(ii) Take 2 ml of C-13 in a test tube and add 1 ml of freshly prepared pyrogallol
solution. Shake the contents. Add 2 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid
and warm the contents in a water bath.
(iii) Take 2 ml of C-13 in a test tube and add a few crystals of resorcinol, shake
the contents. Slowly add 1 ml of concentrated sulphuric acid along the sides
of the test tube.
(b) Substance C-14 is an unknown sample of either carbohydrate or protein. Carry
out the following experiments and record all your observations. State the identity
of the compound as carbohydrate or protein on the basis of the experiments and
observational changes.
Substance C-14
Take the sample C-14 in a test tube. Dissolve it in 10 ml of distilled water in
order to obtain saturated solution. Divide the solution into three parts.
(i) To the first part of C-14, add 2 drops of alcoholic -naphthol solution
followed by 1 ml of concentrated H2SO4 carefully by the side of the test
(ii) To the second part of C-14, add 1 ml of lead acetate solution, heat to boil.
Now, add 5 ml of ammonium hydroxide solution and heat to boil again.
(iii) To the third part of C-14, add 1 ml of copper sulphate solution, followed by
3 ml of sodium hydroxide solution.
Comments of Examiners
(a) Many candidates made mistakes in the
observation of ring/mirror. Sequential Suggestions for teachers
observations were not listed in many cases. The chemistry of the organic tests,
Though the question clearly stated write down along with the physical properties
all changes, taking place at each step of the of the organic substances should be
experiment, some candidates tended to give a taught to students. This is to ensure
summary. Common errors made by the that they do not work mechanically.
candidates were as follows: Emphasize upon the use of correct
(i) Instead of silver mirror, candidates reported quantity of reagent and explain
black mass, precipitate and solution. what can occur with use of excess.
(ii) Incomplete observation was given i.e. Also tell students why adding drop
changes to pink or red instead of white wise is very important, so that
precipitate changes to pink and finally red. changes can be seen at every step.

(iii) Red ring was reported as colour/precipitate
and the second part i.e. white precipitate is Advise students to write the
formed in the aqueous layer was left out by experiment, observations and
many candidates. inferences in a tabular form, so that
(b) Candidates did not seem to have adequate they may answer sequentially,
practice in performing food tests and recording instead of just reporting the final
the observations. They did not understand or read observation.
the question paper carefully and gave extra Teach students to write complete
observations for glucose. Some reported observations with correct changes
glucose instead of carbohydrate when the instead of incomplete and incorrect
question paper clearly stated carbohydrate or observations. They also need to
protein. Some common errors made by know difference between precipitate
/colouration or solid/liquid state.
candidates were as follows:
Emphasize the importance of
(i) Instead of violet ring precipitate/colour was
indentifying correct colours and
mentioned. giving correct inferences.
(ii) White solution was reported instead of white Practice the tests with proper
precipitate changes to salmon pink. instructions. Do not do things
(iii) Instead of no change or blue colouration, which are not asked for in the
several candidates heated without being question paper.
asked and gave incorrect observations.

Question 2.
Identification of organic compounds
(a) Substance C-13
(i) Silver mirror/deposit/ coating is formed
(ii) White precipitate/ residue/ solid which changes to pink or deep red
(iii) A red ring/layer at the junction of the two liquids
and a white precipitate is formed in the aqueous layer
Deduction: Substance C-13 is formaldehyde
(Should be based on any two correct tests)
(b) Substance C-14:
A purple/ violet ring/layer/ band is formed at the junction of two liquids
A white ppt is formed on boiling, which turns to salmon pink on boiling with ammonium
No change / blue colouration or precipitate
Deduction - Substance C-14 is a sample of carbohydrate (Glucose)
(Should be based on any two correct tests)

Question 3 [7]
Analyse qualitatively the substance C-15 which contains two anions and two cations. Identify
these ions.

(a) While testing for anions you must mention:

(i) How the solution/soda extract was prepared.

(ii) How the gases were identified.

(iii) The confirmatory test for each anion.

Show the results as required to the Visiting Examiner.
(b) While testing for cations you must mention:

(i) How the original solution for group analysis was prepared.
(ii) The formal group analysis with pertinent group reagents.
(iii) The confirmatory test for each cation.
Show the results as required to the Visiting Examiner.

Note: Use of qualitative analysis booklet/table is not allowed.

Comments of Examiners
(a) Wet tests for anions were performed by many Suggestions for teachers
candidates using either the aqueous solution or soda Teach students the steps for
extract, instead of neutralized soda extract. preparing the original solution.
Common errors made by candidates were as Insist that the wet tests for the anion
follows: should be performed with
For the acetate ion test, ferric chloride was used neutralized sodium carbonate
which is incorrect (neutral ferric chloride should extract, even if the salt mixture is
have been used). more or less soluble in water.
Concepts of formal group analysis
Alternate test for acetate ion using salt mixture,
like common ion, buffer and
ethanol, concentrated sulphuric acid and heat solubility product must be taught
was incorrectly done with salt solution dilute thoroughly before doing salt
sulphuric acid and without heat. \ analysis. The concept of group
The sulphate ion test was performed with separation and group analysis must
aqueous solution instead of neutralised sodium be clearly explained.
carbonate extract. Practice mixture analysis and guide
The white precipitate obtained in the barium student on how to record formal
chloride test, which should be insoluble in group analysis correctly and
mineral acid to confirm the presence of sulphate meaningfully with pertinent group
ion was omitted by many candidates. reagents.

(b) Preparation of original solution for cation
Ask students to use reagents and
detection was not done correctly by many
tests that are acceptable.
candidates. Solubility of mixture was reported
Explain to students the importance
in dilute HCl instead of distilled water.
of adding concentrated nitric acid
Common errors made by candidates were as
and boiling to convert ferrous to
Formal group reagents for zero group like,
Removal of H2S before group III
salt, NaOH and heat were not used. Instead,
and V must be taught clearly.
test for zero group was performed with
Students do the test for the
original solution and without heat.
respective groups but forget to
Nesslers reagent was added to ammonia gas
mention whether the group is
instead of passing ammonia gas through
present or absent. They must be
Nesslers reagent.
cautioned against this.
Absence of group I & II was not reported.
Formal group separation must be
Most of the candidates did not add
adhered to even though Group I to
concentrated nitric acid in group III and did
V are absent.
not boil off H2S gas.
The order of preparing the buffer medium in
group III was incorrect.
Absence of group IV & V was not reported.
H2S was not boiled off before group V reagents were added.
For separation of group VI, original solution was used instead of filtrate after group V.

Question 3.
Substance C-15
Mixture C-15 contains ammonium acetate and magnesium sulphate in the ratio (1:1) by
Preparation of original solution
Acetate ion
Sulphate ion
Identification of Group Zero
Confirmation of ammonium ion
Presence of group VI
Confirmation of magnesium ion.
Details of tests:
Original solution is made in distilled water
Test for sulphate:
To the neutral Na2CO3 extract acidified with (dil HCl / acetic acid / HNO3)
BaCl2 solution is added a white precipitate insoluble in all mineral
acids SO42- ion confirmed

To the neutral Na2CO3 extract acidified with (dil. HCl / H2SO4 / HNO3,) neutral FeCl3 is added
a wine red colour is obtained. On heating it changes to reddish brown ppt. Confirms acetate ion.
Salt mixture is heated with ethyl alcohol and concentrated H2SO4 A fruity odour/ sweet smell of
ethyl acetate is obtained. Confirms acetate ion.
Group Zero:
Salt Mixture + NaOH and heat a pungent smelling gas evolved which turns red litmus blue /
gives dense white fumes with a rod dipped in conc. HCl Group 0 present.
Confirmatory test for NH4+ :
The gas is passed through Nesslers reagent/ paper dipped in Nesslers reagent it turns brown
NH4+ confirmed.
Group VI:
Formal group separation must be carried out from Group I to Group V with pertinent reagents and
written as being absent. Proceed with the solution of group V and show the presence of group VI.

OS + dilute HCl no ppt Group I absent

Solution after group I/filtrate

Pass H2S gas no ppt Group II absent

Solution after group II/ filtrate

boil off H2S gas (add conc. HNO3 no ppt Group III absent
and boil). Cool add
NH4Cl solid NH4OH

Pass H2S gas through the no ppt Group IV absent

above solution/filtrate

Boil off H2S gas add no ppt Group V absent

NH4Cl solid NH4OH solution and
(NH4)2CO3 solution to the above solution/ filtrate

Solution after group V white ppt Group VI

present add NH4Cl solid NH4OH
solution and NaH2PO4 *

To the Group V solution, add a pinch of solid NH4Cl, NH4OH solution and excess of disodium
hydrogen phosphate / *ammonium phosphate / sodium dihydrogen phosphate solution. Shake
well and scratch the inner walls of the test tube with a glass rod A white crystalline precipitate
on standing Confirms Mg2+

(a) Topics found difficult by candidates in the Question paper:
Concepts of molarity based on (grams/liter)/ molecular weight for pure substances and molarity
based on titer value.
Principles of formal group analysis.
(b) Concepts between which candidates got confused:
Confusion between precipitate/coloration/solution/ring/mirror while reporting organic
Solubility of mixture/neutralized sodium carbonate extract.
Distinguishing between carbohydrate and protein.
(c) Suggestions for candidates:
Listen to the teachers instructions carefully, read the experiment thoroughly and then perform
Develop a habit of observation and note them down correctly and to the point.
Practice makes perfect, hence practice as many salt mixtures as possible.
Learn all the tests and the observations for organic detection. Make sure that the correct amount
of reagent is added and wait for the changes to take place.
Plan before writing formal group analysis.
Do not perform any additional test outside the question paper.
Remember to tabulate your readings neatly, keeping in mind concordant readings and avoid
overwriting in the tabular column and do not leave your tabulation in pencil.
Do not round off molarity values, report to minimum four decimal places (check scope of
Follow the molecular formula given in the question paper, whether it is hydrated or anhydrous.
Do not forget the use of concentrated nitric acid in group III. Also understand why it is being
Group VI must be reported with the filtrate after group V is reported absent and not with the
original solution.

Total Number of students who took the examination 13,570
Highest Marks Obtained 100
Lowest Marks Obtained 10
Mean Marks Obtained 70.74

Percentage of Candidates according to marks obtained

Mark Range
0-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100
Number of Candidates 43 249 3814 5476 3988
Percentage of Candidates 0.32 1.83 28.11 40.35 29.39
Cumulative Number 43 292 4106 9582 13570
Cumulative Percentage 0.32 2.15 30.26 70.61 100.00

Range of Marks Obtained

45.00 40.35
Percentage of Candidates






5.00 0.32

0-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100
Marks Obtained

PART I (20 Marks)
Answer all questions.
Question 1

(a) Give a brief answer for each of the following: [4]

(i) What is heterosis?
(ii) Why is non-cyclic photo phosphorylation considered as a non-cyclic pathway?
(iii) Define test cross.
(iv) What are introns?
(b) Each of the following question(s)/statement(s) has four suggested answers. Choose [4]
the correct option in each case.
1. Triple Fusion involves:
(i) Fusion of one male gamete with female gamete
(ii) Fusion of tube nucleus with generative nucleus
(iii) Fusion of two polar nuclei
(iv) Fusion of second male gamete with two polar nuclei
2. An EEG represents spontaneous electrical activity of the:
(i) Kidney
(ii) Spinal cord
(iii) Heart
(iv) Brain
3. The genotype of a person with Turners syndrome will be:
(i) 44+XXY
(ii) 44+XYY
(iii) 44+XO
(iv) 44+XXYY
4. Transcription is the transfer of genetic code from a DNA molecule to:
(i) RNA molecule
(ii) Second DNA molecule
(iii) Ribosomal sub unit
(iv) Sequence of amino acids in a protein molecule
(c) Give a scientific term for each of the following: [4]
(i) The first formed category of photosynthetic organisms.

(ii) The surgical removal of a section of fallopian tube.
(iii) An animal behaviour which benefits others but is of no advantage to itself.
(iv) The hydrostatic pressure developed inside the cell on the cell wall due to
(d) Expand the following abbreviations: [4]
(i) STD
(ii) NADP
(iii) MRI
(iv) DDT
(e) Name the scientists who are associated with the following: [4]
(i) Discovered the fossil of Australopithecus
(ii) Microspheres
(iii) Coined the term Diffusion Pressure Deficit
(iv) Invented the CT scan

Comments of Examiners
(a) (i) This part was attempted correctly by most of the
candidates. Some candidates wrote only hybrid Suggestions for teachers
vigour without any explanation. In heterosis, the point that
(ii) A number of candidates answered this part offsprings exhibit superiority over
incorrectly. They did not mention that the parents should be emphasized.
electrons do not return back. Cyclic and non-cyclic photo
(iii) Several candidates seemed to be confused phosphorylation should be
between test cross and back cross. Some explained with diagrams and
mentioned only offspring and parent but did not arrows to show the flow of
write cross of F1 hybrid with recessive parent. electrons.
(iv) A number of candidates did not attempt this part Back cross and test cross should be
correctly. Some wrote opposite answers. A few discussed with suitable examples
candidates got confused between introns and
interferons. and appropriate crosses using
(b) (i) Most candidates answered this part correctly. checker boards.
Some candidates got confused with fertilisation. For introns, stress should be laid on
(ii) A few candidates confused with EEG with ECG. splicing of non-coding segments.
Events between pollination and
(iii)Most candidates attempted this part correctly.
fertilisation should be taught. The
(iv)This part was answered well by majority of the
candidates. terms fertilisation, double
fertilisation and triple fusion should
(c) (i) Some candidates gave the answer as green
plants and a few wrote coacervates. be explained clearly.
Name of the instrument and
(ii) A few candidates gave the answer as
vasectomy. application to the related organ
(iii)Some candidates wrote communalism instead of should be taught.
commensalism. Written practice of abbreviations is
(iv) A few candidates gave the answer as wall a must.

(d) (i) Most candidates answered this part correctly.
Normal Karyotype and
(ii) In place of Dinucleotide phosphate some
candidates wrote Diphosphate. Some wrote chromosomal abnormality should be
Adenosine instead of Adenine. explained with symptoms and name
(iii) A few candidates wrote magnet instead of of the disease.
magnetic and resonant instead of Terms like protobionts, coacervates,
resonance. microspheres should be thoroughly
(iv) Many candidates wrote Tetra instead of Tri discussed.
and ethylene/methane in place of ethane. Teachers should stress upon
(e) Candidates made mistakes in naming the scientists important terms and their correct
correctly. In some cases, the first name was spellings.
written correctly but the second name Names of scientists given in the
was wrongly mentioned. Spelling mistakes were syllabus and their contributions
should be studied with correct
Question 1.
(a) (i) Heterosis or hybrid vigour is the exhibition of superiority of the hybrid/F1/offspring over
both of its parents in one or more traits such as the ability to give higher yield or disease
or pest resistance (or explained).
(ii) In non-cyclic photo phosphorylation the electrons ejected from PS II do not return back,
but instead are used by PS I (or explained diagrammatically).
(iii) Test cross: A test cross is when the F1 hybrid is crossed with the double recessive
parent/homozygous recessive/Tt x tt
(iv) Introns are the non-coding segments of eukaryotic chromosomes./DNA/gene/Non coding
sequences/sequences removed/spliced/intervening sequences/segments not expressed.
(b) 1. (iv) fusion of second male gamete with two polar nuclei
2. (iv) brain
3. (iii) 44+XO
4. (i) RNA molecule
(c) (i) Protobionts/photoautotrophs/cyanobacteria/blue green algae/ chemosynthetic/
Archaebacteria/sulphur bacteria
(ii) Tubectomy
(iii) Altruism/Commensalism
(iv) Turgor pressure
(d) (i) STD - Sexually Transmitted Disease
(ii) NADP - Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate
(iii) MRI - Magnetic Resonance Imaging
(iv) DDT Di-chloro Diphenyl Tri-chloro ethane

(e) (i) Raymond Dart
(ii) Sydney Fox
(iii) Meyer
(iv) Godfrey Hounsfield

PART II (50 Marks)

Answer any two questions.

Question 2
(a) Give any three characters that have developed during human evolution. [3]
(b) Explain the term chemogeny. [1]
(c) Give any two distinctive features of Dryopithecus. [1]

Comments of Examiners
(a) This part was well attempted by most candidates Suggestions for teachers
except for a few who gave vague answers such as, Differences between the features of
change in posture, change in cranial capacity, ancestors and modern man should be
dentition, etc. discussed in class. Comparison
(b) While explaining the term chemogeny, some between ape and man should be also
candidates wrote formation of chemicals or be discussed.
origin of chemicals without mentioning during The steps of origin of life -
evolution. A few candidates did not mention chemogeny biogeny cognogeny
complex organic molecules. should be taught in the proper
(c) Distinctive features of Dryopithecus were not context and not in isolation.
mentioned by many candidates. Vague Specific distinguishing characters of
answers like, presence of hair, walking on four legs, the fossils of human ancestors
tree dwellers, were given by a number of candidates. mentioned in the syllabus should be
learnt. It should be correlated with
the trend of evolution during the
course of evolution of present day

Question 2.
(a) 1. Distinct lumber curve
2. Hind limbs to support weight/Hind limbs longer than fore limbs.
3. Forelimbs for grasping / opposable thumb

4. Pelvis broadened to balance trunk / Development of broad basin-shaped iliac bones in the
pelvic girdle.
5. Skull shifted on upper end
6. Stereoscopic vision/binocular vision/3D vision.
7. Large size of brain/High cranial capacity/1400 to 1500 cc.
8. Ability to learn
9. Unspecialized teeth
10. Low fertility rate
11. Bipedal locomotion
12. Straight posture
13. Acetabular cavities shifted inward to give straight posture/erect
14. Flattening of face/orthognathus
15. Loss of supraorbital ridges/brow ridges not distinct.
16. Straightening of forehead/flattening/prominent
17. Formation of chin/jutting out
18. Sparse body hair
19. Narrowing of nose/elevated nose/nose bridge.
20. Thinning of jawbones
21. Reduction in the size of canines/small canines.
22. Increase in intelligence
23. Social and cultural organization/communication.
24. Foramen magnum shifted downward.
25. Simian gap/Diastema absent.
26. Parabolic denture
27. Loss of tail.
28. Curvature of sole/plantigrade/sub plantigrade locomotion/heel formation.
29. Flattening of sternum. (any three)

(b) Chemogeny: chemical origin of life/ abiotic synthesis of macromolecules/chemical evolution
Formation of various simple and complex organic molecules from ammonia, methane, water and
vapours/ Formation of chemicals/biomolecules (during origin of life) in the primitive
(c) Distinctive features of Dryopithecus:
1. Their arms and legs were of almost equal length
2. They had a semi erect posture
3. Large canines like those of modern apes
4. Frontally broadened jaws/large jaws.
5. No brow ridges
6. 4 ft. tall
7. Cranial capacity (500 to 700cc)

Question 3
(a) Explain the evolution of giraffes neck according to Lamarcks theory of evolution. [3]
(b) Give two chromosomal similarities between man and apes. [1]
(c) Name any two temporary embryonic structures in vertebrates which provide evidence [1]
for evolution.

Comments of Examiners
(a) Some explained the basic postulates of Lamarckism
and some gave the explanation on the basis of Suggestions for teachers
Darwinism. A number of candidates did not mention The elongation of giraffes neck
about the loss of vegetation from the ground. They should be explained according to
only mentioned that small sized giraffe had to stretch Lamarck as well as Darwin.
the neck to reach the branches of trees but the reason Importance of reading the question
was not mentioned. properly should be stressed upon.
(b) Some candidates gave other similarities between man The exact chromosome number of
and apes instead of chromosomal similarities as asked. apes and man should be given.
Several candidates mentioned that the number of Banding pattern of 3rd and 6th
chromosomes is same (instead of similar). In banding chromosome must also be
pattern many candidates did not make a mention of 3rd mentioned.
and 6th chromosome number. While discussing Theory of
(c) Instead of naming temporary embryonic structures, Recapitulation suitable examples
some candidates mentioned vestigial structures such as should be given which can be taken
vermiform appendix, last molar, pinna muscles, etc. as embryological evidences in
favour of evolution.

Question 3.
(a) Giraffes have evolved from deer-like ancestors/goat like/small height
Had short neck and forelimbs
Grazed on grass
Ground vegetation disappeared /grass disappeared/ replaced by high trees
Stretched their neck continuously to feed upon branches/leaves of trees
Resulted in gradual elongation of neck and forelimbs
Increase was transmitted to the next generation/acquired by descendants.
(b) Chromosomal similarities between man and apes:
Close similarities in chromosome number. (apes = 24 pairs, humans = 23 pairs.
Banding patterns of chromosome 3 and 6 are similar
Similarity in DNA sequences./amount/content. (any two)
(c) Temporary embryonic structures:
Visceral clefts or gill clefts develop in all land vertebrates, but are not present in the adult.
They are only useful to fish. / Gill slits functional in fishes only but of no use for land
Tooth buds develop in embryos of toothless whales and birds, which are absent in adults.
Embryos of all vertebrates develop a notochord which is replaced by a vertebral column in
Post anal tail (any two)

Question 4
(a) Persons suffering from sickle cell anaemia are at an advantage in Malaria infested [3]
areas. Explain.
(b) Define the term gene flow. [1]
(c) What are analogous organs? Describe with one example from the plant kingdom. [1]

Comments of Examiners
(a) A number of candidates got confused with G6PD Suggestions for teachers
deficiency. The concept of homozygous and Homozygous and heterozygous
heterozygous condition was not clear to many condition effects must be discussed.
candidates. Some candidates wrote sickle shaped The basic concept that due to sickle
haemoglobin instead of Red Blood Cell. shape of RBC, surface area is
(b) While defining gene flow, many candidates wrote reduced for oxygen transport and
flow of gene from one place malarial parasite cannot multiply,
to another place instead of one population to should be explained.
another population. Difference between homologous
(c) The question asked was examples of plants having and analogous organs must be
analogous organs, but many candidates gave examples taught with at least two examples
of animals instead. each of plants as well as animals

Question 4.
(a) Sickle cell anaemia is a genetic disorder/autosomal/recessive where normal haemoglobin
HbA is replaced by HbS, reducing the oxygen carrying capacity.
RBCs become sickle shaped/malaria parasite cannot multiply and rupture at low
concentration of oxygen/hypoxia leading to severe haaemolytic anaemia.
Homozygous individuals die (HbS/HbS), but heterozygotes (HbA/HbS) remain normal.
Natural selection has allowed this condition to remain in Africa, where the heterozygous
individuals are able to cope with malarial infection, better than the persons with normal
(b) Movement/ transfer/ migration of alleles/ genes from one population to another as a result of
interbreeding between members of the two populations./Transfer of genes from generation to
generation/transfer of genes among members of the same species/population.
(c) Analogous organs:
Analogous structures are those structures which perform the same function but have different
origin/internal structure/basic plan/. Organs which reflect or show convergent evolution/
adaptive convergence.
e.g. Plant leaves and ruscus cladode/asparagus both photosynthesise but are of different origin.
Sweet potato and potato have same function but different origin.
Tendrils help in climbing but have different origins like modified stipules in smilax petioles in
Nepenthes, leaflets in pea and axillary bud in Passiflora.

Answer any two questions.
Question 5
(a) With the help of diagrams, name and describe the different types of placentation [4]
seen in angiosperms.
(b) Give four points of anatomical differences between a monocot stem and a dicot [4]
(c) Define the following terms: [2]
(i) Racemose inflorescence
(ii) Osmotic pressure

Comments of Examiners
(a) Few candidates attempted this question correctly.
Some candidates did not write all the four types of Suggestions for teachers
Types of placentation and their
placenta; several candidates discussed different types
of ovules instead of placentation. In many cases, the diagrams should be given
importance in the practical class.
diagrams were not drawn accurately.
Morphological as well as
(b) Some candidates wrote morphological differences
anatomical differences must be
between a monocot stem and a dicot stem instead of
explained separately. Students must
anatomical differences as required. Some others
be taught to write differences in a
wrote opposite answers.
tabular form. The differences
(c) (i) Many candidates wrote about acropetal
written must be compatible.
succession but did not mention the very
Different types of inflorescence
important point of indeterminate growth.
should be explained with diagrams.
Correct diagram was not drawn in several cases.
Definitions mentioned in the scope
(ii) This part was generally well attempted by most must be explained. Key words in
candidates except for a few who defined definitions must be highlighted and
osmosis/turgor pressure/osmotic potential students must be asked to learn
instead. definition with the key words.
Question 5.
(a) Types of placentation:
1. Marginal: In monocarpellary, unilocular ovary, placenta is borne on the fused margins of
the same carpel. The ovules are present along the ventral suture of the carpel./Placenta
forms a ridge along the ventral suture of the ovary and ovules are attached on this ridge
side by side in two alternating rows e.g. Pea
2. Axile: Multicarpellary, syncarpous multilocular gynoecium. Placenta is borne on fused
margins of the same carpel. The ovules are borne on confluent margins which meet on the
central axis./ovary is divided into several chambers or locules and placentae are borne
along the septa of the ovary e.g. Tomato/China rose
3. Parietal: Multicarpellary, syncarpous unilocular ovary. Placenta is borne on the fused
margin of the same carpel./ovules develop on the inner wall of the ovary or on the
peripheral part e.g. Cruciferae (mustard)
4. Free central: Multicarpellary, syncarpous, unilocular ovary. Ovules appear to arise from
the central column/Ovules are borne on the central axis and septa are absent e.g.
5. Basal: Unilocular ovary, with a solitary ovule which appears to arise from the base of the
ovary./The placenta with one ovule attached to it, lies at the base of the ovary e.g.
6. Superficial: multicarpellary, sycarpous ovary. Most of the internal surface of the ovary
wall is covered with ovules/Any portion of the inner wall of the ovary may serve as a
placenta e.g. Water Lily
7. Pendulous: Placenta at the top of the ovary and ovule hanging down.
8. Lamellar: Placenta enlarges considerably and extends towards the centre. (any four)


(any four)
Hair/ Trichomes are absent Trichomes present
Hypodermis is sclerenchymatous Hypodermis is collenchymatous
Ground tissue is uniform/undifferentiated Ground tissue differentiated into cortex,
endodermis and pericycle
Numerous vascular bundles scattered in Fewer vascular bundles arranged in a ring
the ground tissue
Cambium absent and closed Cambium present and open vascular bundles
Xylem arranged in the form of a Y/V Xylem vessels arranged in radial rows,
polygonal in shape
Lysigenous cavity present No lysigenous cavity
Vascular bundles surrounded by No bundle sheath
sclerenchymatous bundle sheath
Medullary rays and pith absent Medullary rays and pith present
Vascular bundles are smaller and near the They are of uniform size.
periphery and bigger in the centre
Resin ducts are absent Resin ducts are present
(any four)

(c) (i) Racemose inflorescence: The floral axis shows indeterminate growth, main axis is
elongated and unbranched with older flowers at the bottom and younger flowers at the top
(acropetal succession)./Main axis does not end in flower/unlimited growth
E.g. Gladiolus, Triticum, etc. (diagram accepted but tip should not have flower)
(ii) Osmotic pressure: Maximum pressure developed in a solution when separated from pure
water by a semipermeable membrane/pressure required to prevent osmosis.

Question 6
(a) Draw a diagram of the internal structure of the human ovary. [4]
(b) Define the term water potential. What are its components? Explain. [4]
(c) Give definition and importance of: [2]
(i) Imbibition
(ii) Parturition

Comments of Examiners
(a) Some candidates drew the ovule of plants.
Suggestions for teachers
Several others drew the female reproductive system.
Sufficient practice must be given in
The correct sequence of follicular growth was not
drawing correct labelled diagrams.
shown by many candidates.
Definition of water potential and its
(b) The concept of water potential was not clear to many
components should be taught
candidates. Several candidates attempted only the
emphasising why these terms are
definition of water potential. Relevant points were
preferred over DPD, OP or TP.
not given in many answers. Components of water
Their inter-relationship should be
potential were not mentioned by a number of
expressed in the form of
mathematical equation
(c) (i) While defining imbibition, several candidates
(w = m + s + p). m should
did not mention adsorption or surface
not be ignored.
absorption. Some also failed to mention in non-
Importance of using correct key
living hydrophilic substances.
words must be highlighted.
(ii) A few candidates used the word babies instead
of foetus while defining parturition.

Question 6.

Germinal epithelium/ epithelium/ peritoneum
Primary follicles/primordial follicle
Secondary follicle
Tertiary follicle
Graphian follicle
Ovum released
Corpus luteum
Corpus albicans
Corpus hemorrhagium
Blood clot
Stroma/ connective tissue
Egg nest
Atretic follicle
(Any eight)

(b) Water potential: The difference in the free energy/kinetic energy of water molecules in the
solution and that of pure water at the same temperature and pressure. Kinetic energy per mole of
water/ the tendency of water to leave the system/sum of matrix potential, solute (osmotic)
potential & pressure potential. (equation accepted)
1. Matrix potential: the hydrophillic colloidal particles to which water is adsorbed/
component of WP affected due to presence of hydrophilic substances/decrease in the WP
due to the presence of matrix
2. Solute potential/Osmotic potential: the decrease in chemical potential of pure water or
solvent due to the presence of solute particles/ the component of WP affected due to
presence of solutes.
3. Pressure potential: Pressure which governs the movement of water into a cell, developed
due to turgor and wall pressure/ the hydrostatic pressure applied by the cell contents on the
cell wall in a turgid cell.
(c) (i) Imbibition: Surface adsorption of water by non-living hydrophilic substances like
cellulose/colloids due to surface attraction
Initial stages of absorption of water.
Initial stages of germination of seeds.
(ii) Parturition Act of expelling the full term foetus from mothers uterus at the end of

Question 7
(a) Give four adaptations in flowers pollinated by insects. [4]
(b) Describe the mass flow hypothesis for translocation of organic solutes (food) in [4]
(c) Write a brief note on the causes of infertility. [2]

Comments of Examiners
(a) This question was well attempted by most
Suggestions for teachers
candidates. A few candidates wrote adaptations for
Different types of adaptations for
wind pollination.
pollination should be taught with
(b) Very few candidates gave correct and coherent
specific examples.
explanation in proper sequence. Some candidates
Translocation of food should be
mentioned the movement of water directly from
explained by a diagram
xylem to phloem. They did not mention source or
highlighting source, supply end,
sink. Some of those who tried to explain with the
xylem, phloem. The point that
help of diagram did not show arrows.
movement of food occurs along
(c) Some candidates mentioned causes of infertility of
turgor pressure gradient and not
according to osmotic gradient alone
must be stressed upon. Name of the
scientist Munch must be mentioned.
Students should be advised to go
through the syllabus carefully and
limit their answers to the scope of
the syllabus.
Question 7.
(a) Large conspicuous
Brightly coloured
Sweet smell/Fragrant
Nectar secreting
Pollen grains are rough and sticky/spiny
Stigma is sticky
Guidelines on petals
Arranged in inflorescence
Lever mechanism or mimics the female
(Any four)
(b) The transport of food along the conc. gradient/TP gradient/enmass movement.)
- Munch
- Sugar prepared in the mesophyll cells of leaf increases the osmotic pressure
- Water from xylem elements and neighbouring cells increases the TP. This forces some of the
dissolved food into sieve tube
- The cells of the root and storage organ have low osmotic and turgor pressure due to low food

- This creates TP gradient between leaf and phloem
- As a result of this mass flow of water containing dissolved organic food takes place from the
upper end to the lower end of the plant through phloem
- The source of supply is the leaf and the storage organ is the root.
- This theory could not explain the bidirectional movement of metabolites.

(i) Sugar added

(ii) Entry of sugar into Bulb A
(iii) Movement to Bulb B through P
(iv) Exit from Bulb B
(v) Removal of sugar
(vi) Movement of water from X vessel to Y vessel through T
(Diagram with arrows drawn may be accepted)

(c) Causes of infertility:
Cryptorchidism: failure of testes to descend into the scrotum
Hyperthermia: higher temperature of the scrotal sac
Blockage of vas deferens /sperm duct Blockage of the fallopian tube
Age related
DNA damage
Genetic factors
Diabetes mellitus / thyroid disorders
Hypothalamic pituitary factors (hyperprolactinemia and hypopituitarism)
Low sperm count/oligospermia/ azospermia/ abnormal sperm structure/ poor sperm motility
Irregular or no ovulation/ less egg production
Defect in the genital tract
Defective endometrium, cervix, vaginal growth
Deficiency of sex hormones/hormonal imbalance
Hostile response to sperm by the production of antibodies by the womans blood.
Overweight / underweight females.
Improper fertilization
Inability of meeting of sperm and egg
Polycystic ovary

Answer any two questions.
Question 8
(a) Give any four reasons for Mendels success. [4]
(b) Briefly describe the technique employed in DNA fingerprinting. [4]
(c) Give any two features of Genetic Code. [2]
Comments of Examiners
(a) Correct reasons were not mentioned by a number of Suggestions for teachers
candidates. Some candidates wrote about Laws of Discuss the reasons for Mendels
Mendel. Several candidates wrote reasons success, his reasons for choosing
behind selecting pea plant by Mendel. pea plant and the laws separately.
(b) This part was not attempted properly by Steps for DNA fingerprinting should
many candidates. Most candidates were be taught pointwise and importance
aware of the applications of DNA of correct sequence should be
fingerprinting but not of its technique. In some cases,
correct sequence was not written. Some key words stressed upon.
like, VNTR and RFLP were missing in many answers. Features of genetic code should be
(c) This part was well attempted by most candidates. discussed with proper explanation.

Question 8.
(a) Mendel selected the pea plant in which:
Concentrated at a time only on one particular trait/one character at a time
Maintained accurate record of observations/ used statistical/ mathematical analysis
Several varieties available
Easy to cultivate
Artificial cross breeding between varieties was possible so hybrids were totally fertile.
Genes coding for seven pairs of contrasting characters were on different chromosomes. /
Fortunate in choosing seven pairs of characters
The characters he chose did not show any interaction / linkage.
Used pure varieties
Short life span
Large sample size/high yield
(Any four)
(b) DNA fingerprinting technique: Alec Jeffery
Isolation of DNA by high speed centrifugation.
DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction in case the sample is very small.
Fragmentation of amplified DNA into segments of variable lengths by digesting with
restriction endonuclease enzymes.
Separation of DNA fragments by electrophoresis over agarose gel. The separated segments
are called restriction fragment length polymorphism.
Denaturation of DNA fragments by alkali treatment.
Transfer of single stranded DNA fragments from gel onto a synthetic membrane such as
nitrocellulose or nylon by southern blotting method.
Fixation of separated DNA fragments to the membrane by exposing to UV light.
Hybridisation of single stranded DNA with radio labeled VNTR probes.
Exposure of membrane containing hybrids of radioactive DNA probes and VNTR to X rays,
so that the hybridized VNTRs appear as dark bands. The film provides DNA profile and is
called autoradiogram.
(c) It is always triplet
Non overlapping

No punctuations
Degenerative / Redundant
Initiator codon AUG
Non sense codons / termination codons

Question 9
(a) Explain the mechanism of action of T cells to antigens. [4]
(b) Explain how insulin can be produced using recombinant DNA technology. [4]
(c) What is pisiculture? Give one advantage. [2]
Comments of Examiners
(a) Some candidates mentioned the role of
T. Lymphocytes as phagocytosis without specifying Suggestions for teachers
different subtypes of T-cells and their specific Specific role of different
function. components of immune system
(b) Steps of rDT to make insulin were not written should be discussed separately
in proper sequence by many candidates. under the headings of Cell mediated
Key terms like vector, host, use of and Humoral immunity.
restriction enzymes, ligase, etc. were missing in many Steps of rDT should be discussed in
answers. Most of the candidates did not mention proper sequence, e.g. selection of
separate polypeptide chains-A and B and cloning of host, vector, selection of
their respective genes. recombinants, cloning etc.
(c) Some candidates confused Pisciculture with Key words should be highlighted in
Ichthyology i.e. instead of writing rearing of fish definitions.
they wrote study of fish.

Question 9.
(a) Mechanism of action of T cells to antigens:
T cells provide cell mediated immunity recognize specific antigens.
The T lymphocyte divides rapidly/differentiate to form a clone of T cells of 4 types:
Killer cells/CT cells: destroy infected cells having the foreign antigen attached to their
Memory T cells: are sensitized by antigens and retain their sensitization for the
future/remember the nature of antigen for future (secondary) response.
Suppressor T cells: inhibit immune response by releasing cytokines that suppress activity of
other T and B cells.
Helper T cells: secrete substances that enhance or activate immune response./stimulate
antibody production of B cells.

(b) Using recombinant DNA to make Insulin:
Two polypeptide chains (Chain A with 21 amino acids, Chain B with 30 amino acids
interlinked through disulphide bridges)
Restriction enzymes used to produce nicks in insulin gene in E.coli plasmid at the same
restriction sites producing sticky ends
Mutant strains of E.coli used to avoid bacteria attacking foreign genes
Insert insulin gene next to E.coli galactosidase gene which controls transcription
Bacterial cells replicate and make copies of insulin gene
Insulin protein is purified (beta-galactosidase removed)
Chains are mixed and disulphide bridges formed
Final product insulin is chemically identical to human insulin
The Rhesus Factor
(c) Pisiculture: The process of fish farming in isolated water bodies./rearing of fish
Advantage: - Provide income and employment to fisherman/economic, helps to enhance food
production/nutrition/fish oil (cod liver oil), leather (shagreen).
- Increase in organic fertilisation by fish excreta.
- Better tilling of rice seedlings.
- Reduction in number of harmful insects whose larvae are eaten by fish.
(any one advantage)

Question 10
(a) Name the causative organism and preventive measures for each of the following: [4]
(i) Swine flu
(ii) Typhoid
(iii) Filariasis
(iv) Syphilis
(b) State four causes and four consequences of population growth. [4]
(c) Differentiate between: [2]
(i) Cannabinoids and Barbiturates
(ii) Biotic potential and Carrying capacity

Comments of Examiners
(a) (i) Most of the candidates were able to attempt this Suggestions for teachers
part correctly. A few candidates wrote wrong Causative organisms should be
preventive measures. written with correct generic name
(ii) Some candidates wrote causative agent correctly and specific name.
but instead of mentioning TAB vaccine wrote Method of prevention and specific
Vaccination only. Some wrote more water symptoms of diseases should be
instead of clean water. taught.
(iii) Scientific name with wrong spelling was written Instruct students to read the
by a number candidates. Several candidates did question properly and answer to the
not mention mosquito but wrote insects in point.
general. For preventive measures, some
candidates wrote keep clean instead of mentioning destruction of breeding ground.
(iv) Some candidates made spelling mistakes in this part. A number of candidates confused it with
AIDS. Some candidates wrote preventive measures but did not mention multiple partners.
(b) A number of candidates wrote only the causes of population growth and omitted writing the
consequences. Some explained the same point for cause as well as for consequence. A few wrote
migration/immigration under causes.
(c) (i) Many candidates did not have any idea about cannabinoids. Vague answers were given by
many. Some defined cannibalism instead of cannabinoids. In many cases, the differences
given were not compatible.
(ii) In the definition of Biotic Potential, key words such as, inherent power/population/ideal
conditions, etc. were found to be missing in many answers. Some candidates were confused
between biotic potential and carrying capacity.

Question 10.
(a) Name the causative organism and preventive measures for each of the following:
Disease Causative Organism Preventive Measure
(i) Swine flu Virus/H1N1 Personal hygiene and
sanitation/cover nose/mouth
(ii) Typhoid Salmonella typhii Sanitation, personal cleanliness,
clean food and water/TAB
(iii) Filariasis Wuchereria/Filaria Destruction of mosquitoes and
bancrofti their breeding places, protection
against mosquito bites
(iv) Syphilis Treponemapallidum Avoid sexual intercourse with
multiple partners, use of condom

(b) Causes:
Advancement in agriculture
Control of famines
Better public health
Control of diseases
Better storage facilities
More children reach reproductive age
Low mortality rate
Illiteracy/lack of education/lack of awareness.
Desire for a male child
Better socio economic conditions/more children more money
Religious beliefs
Early marriage
Lack of use of contraceptives/lack of family planning.
Poverty/lack of recreation.
Food crisis/economic crises.
Acute clothing shortage/shelter/poverty/housing.
Shortage of drinking water
Danger of epidemics
Lack of educational facilities
Acute shortage of natural resources/deforestation.
Poor health of mother and child
(c) Difference:
(i) Cannabinoids:
Obtained from Cannabis sativa/Natural
Intoxicating and hallucinogenic/mood swings/loss of memory/loss of motor
Interact with cannabinoid receptors present principally in the brain.
Generally inhaled or ingested orally
Derivatives of barbituric acid/synthetic
Used as sedative/induce sleep/narcotic effect
Moderate doses produce relaxing effect and relieve stress
Larger doses impair ones physical, psychological or psychological functions/cause
Taken orally

(ii) Biotic potential
Biotic potential refers to the inherent power of a population to increase in numbers when
all environmental conditions are favourable/physiological capacity to produce offsprings
under ideal conditions
Carrying capacity
Carrying capacity refers to the maximum population size that a given environment can

(a) Topics found difficult by candidates in the Question paper:
Water Potential and its components.
DNA finger printing technique.
Action of T cells to antigens.
Placentation in angiosperms.
Cannabinoids and Barbiturates
Mass flow hypothesis.
Characteristics of Dryopithecus
(b) Concepts between which candidates got confused:
Gene flow and genetic drift/genetic erosion
Types of placenta and types of ovules.
DNA finger printing and finger printing
Pisciculture and Ichthyology
Cannabinoids and Cannibalism
Biotic potential and carrying capacity
Chromosomal and anatomical features of apes and man.
Infertility in humans and infertility in soil
Features of pea plant and laws of Mendel
(c) Suggestions for candidates:
Read the chapter thoroughly and prepare notes taking care of key concepts and important
Practice through flow charts and diagrams with correct labelling.
Learn the process or phenomenon in sequence.
Read the question carefully.
Learn definitions with the key words. Underline the key words.
Names of scientists and abbreviations when elaborated should have correct spellings.

Question 1 [5]
(a) Carefully examine the two flower specimens D-41 and D-42 provided. Describe the
floral characteristics of each in semi-technical terms. (Details of individual whorls
are not required.)
(b) Cut a longitudinal section of the specimen D-41 with a sharp razor blade. Arrange
one of the cut surfaces on a moist filter paper so that all the parts are clearly visible.
Draw a neat and labelled diagram of the cut surface.
(c) Similarly, with the help of a sharp razor blade, cut a longitudinal section of
specimen D-42. Place one of the cut surfaces on a moist filter paper. Draw a neat
and labelled diagram of this cut surface.
(d) With the hand lens provided, carefully observe the cut surfaces of D-41 and D-42.
Record your observation as per the table given below:
Androecium: D-41 D-42
(i) Relation of stamens to each other
(ii) Nature of anthers
(iii) Relation of stamens to petals
(i) Nature of stigma
(ii) Type of placentation

(e) Take a fresh specimen D-41 and with the help of forceps, remove the calyx. Now,
detach each petal carefully and arrange the whorl on a moist filter paper. Draw a
labelled diagram of the arrangement of petals.
(f) Remove the stamens from this specimen D-41 and expose the gynoecium. Cut a
longitudinal section of the gynoecium. Draw a neat labelled diagram of this
longitudinal section.
(g) Draw the floral diagram of specimen D-42.
(h) Name the families to which each specimen, D-41 and D-42 belong respectively.
(i) Write two characteristics of each family mentioned in (h) above.
(j) Write the floral formula of each specimen, D-41 and D-42.
(k) Mention one economically important plant of each family you have mentioned in (h)
above. (write the botanical name only)

Comments of Examiners
(a)Spelling errors were made by candidates in describing
the semi-technical terms. Many candidates described Suggestions for teachers
Explain semi-technical terms by
all floral whorls. Some used contrasting terms such
as, zygomorphic / actinomorphic for the same flower. showing examples.
Ask students to follow the
(b) Some candidates did not understand the term L.S..
In some cases, ovules were not attached to upper instructions given in the Question
margin of ovary wall. Spelling errors were observed Paper.
Explain concepts of T.S, L.S. C.S.
in labelling words like keel/carina were misspelt. In
some cases, very thick ovary was drawn. etc.
Ask students to refrain from using
(c) Some mistakes made by candidates in drawing the
diagram were as follows: epicalyx missing in the text book diagrams. Students must
diagram; polypetalous/ gamopetalous condition be encouraged to draw from the
wrongly represented; reniform anthers not shown; actual sample.
Explain all relevant terms. Students
style passing through staminal tube not drawn;
locules and ovules not well represented. must be made aware that spellings
(d) A number of candidates made mistakes in spelling the errors of technical terms lead to
terms. In some cases, tabular form was not used by loss of, marks.
Dissection of flower and
(e) Many candidates did not understand the concept of arrangement of whorls on a fitter
arranging the whorl. In some cases, standard, wing paper must be practised during
and keel were not drawn with reference to each other. practical classes.
Relevance of the mother axis in a
In a few cases, the broad standard was not drawn or
keel not joined. floral diagram must be highlighted.
(f) Many candidates drew a T.S of the ovary instead of Orientation of whorls with respect
the L.S. Many drew the entire gynoecium and not the to the M.A. must be explained.
Make students aware of scientific
L.S. In several cases, feathery stigma was not drawn/
swollen ovary was drawn instead of a narrow ovary. names.
Specific characteristics must be
(g) In the floral diagrams drawn by many candidates, the
mother axis was missing or wrongly placed. In some taught by demonstrating relevant
cases, orientation of whorls was incorrect. In a few live specimens of the family.
More practice must be given in
diagrams, petals were attached to the gynoecium
instead of the androecium or locules, ovules and writing the floral formula.
Students must be made aware of the
placentation was shown incorrectly.
(h) Spelling errors were made by many candidates while rules of binomial nomenclature.
naming the family. Some candidates used a small
letter for family name.
(i) In several cases, characteristics solely pertinent to the family were not written by candidates.
(j) Several candidates were confused regarding br/ebr with reference to the supplied specimen. Epik
was not used by many. Epipetalous condition not shown in a few cases.
(k) In several cases, the Genus and species name were both capitalised. Spelling mistakes were also
observed. Underling was not done correctly in many cases.

Question 1.
(a) Description of flower D 41 in semi-technical terms: Ebracteate, ebracteolate, complete,
pedicillate, hermaphrodite (bisexual), zygomorphic (irregular), pentamerous, hypogynous
(sometimes perigynous), papilionaceous, acyclic.
(Bracteate if Clitoria is given)
Description of flower D 42 in semi-technical terms:
Bracteolate (bracteoles form epicalyx), ebracteate, complete, pedicillate, hermaphrodite
(bisexual), actinomorphic (regular), pentamerous, hypogynous, cyclic.

Drawing: Labelling:
1. 2 sepals shown 1. Sepal
2. Broad Standard shown 2. Standard/ Vexillum
3. Smaller wing is shown on the 3. Wing/ Ala
standard 4. Keel/ Carina
4. Much smaller keel on wing 5. Anther/ Stamen
5. More than 2 stamens shown 6. Filament
6. Elongated ovary shown 7. Stigma
7. Bent style 8. Style
8. One chambered ovary 9. Ovary
9. 2-3 ovules attached to the 10. Ovule
10. Upper margin of the ovary 11. Pedicel/ Stalk
12. Locule


Drawing: Labelling:
1. 2 epicalyx shown 1. Stigmatic lobe/Stigma
2. 2 sepals shown 2. Style
3. 2 3 free petals shown 3. Staminal tube
4. Staminal tube shown 4. Anther/ Stamen
5. Thin long style passing through 5. Petal
staminal tube
6. 2-many reniform anthers shown 6. Sepal
7. Ovary
7. 2 3 capitate stigma shown 8. Ovule
8. 2 locules visible in the ovary 9. Epicalyx/ Episepal
9. 2 rows of ovules attached 10. Pedicel/ Stalk
to the placenta 11. Thalamus / Receptacle
12. Placenta
13. Locule

(d) Floral Whorls D 41 Sesbania D 42 Hibiscus

Relation of stamens to Diadelphous(9+1) or Monadelphous or explained
each other explained

Nature of anther Dithecous/ introrse, Monothecous/ extrorse

Relation of stamen to Free from petals/ Not Epipetalous /Petals adnate to the
petals adnate with petals base of the staminal tube
Nature of stigma Hairy/ indistinct/ Pentafid/ capitate / Discoid
Type of placentation Marginal Axile


Drawing: Labelling:
1. Broad standard petal shown 1. Standard / Vexillum
2. Two wing petals drawn perpendicular 2. Wing / Ala
to standard
3. Two small keel petal drawn (fused) 3. Keel / Carina


Drawing: (any five) Labelling: (any five)

1. Narrow elongated ovary 1. Stigma
2. One locule 2. Style
3. 3-6 ovules attached to the upper 3. Ovary
Margin of the ovary 4. Locule
4. Bent style 5. Ovule
5. Small / feathery/plain stigma 6. Pedicel/ stalk
6. Pedicel shown

Floral diagram of D42

Mother axis shown
Epicalyx shown
Five joined sepals in correct orientation
Five separate petals in correct orientation

Epipetalous stamens
Monadelphous androecium
Pentalocular ovary
Two ovules in each locule
Axile placentation (any eight)
(h) Family of Specimen D - 41
Family: Leguminosae/ Fabaceae
Family of Specimen D 42
Family: Malvaceae
(i) Family characters of Specimen D 41 (Any two)
1. Papilionaceous corolla
2. Vexillary aestivation
3. Diadelphous stamen Or stamen in two bundles
4. Marginal placentation
5. Feathery stigma / hairy Stigma
6. Bent style
7. Zygomorphic flower
Family characters of Specimen D 42 (Any two)
1. Monadelphous stamen
2. Reniform or kidney shaped anther
3. Mucilaginous flower
4. Style passes through staminal tube
5. Epicalyx present
(j) Floral Formula of Specimen D - 41


Floral diagram of Specimen D 42


(k) Scientific name of economically important plant belonging to the same family as
Specimen D - 41
Lens esculenta
Vigna radiata
Clitoria ternatea
Abrus, Acacia Arachis
Bauhinia Butea Cajanus
Calliandra Calliandropsis Cassia
Cicer Clitoria Dalbergia
Desmodium Glycine Halimodendron
Indigofera Inga Jacksonia
Lablab Lathyrus Lens
Leucaena Parkinsonia Patagonium
Peltiera Phaca Phaseolus
Pisum Sesbania Vicia
Vigna Zornia

Scientific name of economically important plant belonging to the same family as

Specimen D - 42
Gossypium herbaceum
Abelmoschus esculentus
Abelmoschus Abroma Abutilon
Acropogon Adansonia Alcea
Althaea Bombax Bombycidendron
Ceiba Cenocentrum Corchorus
Gossypium Lavatera Lecanophora
Octolobus Peltaea Phymosia

Question 2 [5]

You are provided with glassware and twigs of plant D-43 to set up an experiment to
demonstrate photosynthesis. Set up the experiment using one or two twigs of D-43 and tap
water. Keep the apparatus near a light source.
(a) Draw a labelled diagram of the experimental set-up.
(b) When gas bubbles start emerging from the cut ends of the twig(s), show the set-up to
the Visiting Examiner.
(c) Count the number of bubbles evolved in one minute and record it. Repeat your
observation for two more readings. Tabulate the three readings and calculate the
average number of bubbles (x) evolved in one minute.
(d) Prepare 10% solution of NaHCO3 (Sodium bicarbonate). Add 10 ml of this solution
to the experimental set-up. Stir the water with the glass rod. Wait for three minutes.
Count the number of bubbles evolved in one minute. Repeat your observation for two
more readings. Tabulate the three consecutive readings and calculate the average
number of bubbles evolved in one minute (y).
(e) Add another 10 ml of freshly prepared NaHCO3 solution to the set-up and stir the
water with the glass rod. Wait for three minutes. Count the number of bubbles
evolved in one minute. Take two more readings and calculate the average number of
bubbles evolved in one minute (z).
Tabulate your observations as follows:

Experimental set-up Number of bubbles evolved per Average Value

Initial set-up: tap (i)
water. (ii) x:
After adding 10 ml of (i)
10% NaHCO3 solution (ii) y:
After adding another (i)
10 ml of 10% (ii) z:
NaHCO3 solution (iii)

(f) Name the plant specimen D-43.
(g) Comment briefly on the observations made by you regarding the recorded average
values (x, y and z) of the bubbles evolved per minute.
(h) What do you conclude from this experiment?
(i) Mention any two precautions you have taken while performing this experiment.

Comments of Examiners
(a) Some common mistakes made by candidates while Suggestions for teachers
drawing the diagram were: Tell students that the number of
the stem of the aquatic plant was not directed bubbles cannot be represented in
towards the neck of the funnel; decimals.
the funnel not placed at the base of the beaker; Stress upon the importance of
the stem of the funnel was above the level of spelling scientific names correctly.
water in the beaker; Explain the importance of dealing
the test tube was not resting on the funnel; with each observation separately
the light source was missing. with relevant conditions.
(c) & (d) Some candidates calculated the bubbles in Theoretical and practical work on
decimals. photosynthesis should be
(e) The observation table was not filled up properly by a correlated. Factors influencing rate
number of candidates. of photosynthesis should be
(f) The name of the aquatic plant specimen was spelt explained.
incorrectly by many candidates.
(g) In a number of cases, the explanation of x, y and
z was not given individually but in a general manner. The fact that NaHCO3 increases
CO2 concentration was not mentioned by some candidates. The rate of photosynthesis was not
mentioned. Initial condition of tap water (with low CO2) was ignored in a few cases.
(h) Several candidates did not correlate the CO2 concentration with the rate of photosynthesis. They
failed to mention that the other factors should remain constant. Unnecessary explanation of
Blackmans Law of Limiting factors was given by some candidates.

Question 2.

Drawing points: Labelling points:

1. Stem of the twig pointed towards 1. Light
the neck of the funnel
2. Test tube rests on the funnel 2. Test tube
3. Stem of the funnel in beaker under water 3. Water
4. Light source 4. Beaker
5. Bubbles shown in the test tube under water. 5. Funnel
6. Hydrilla / Aquatic plant
7. Air bubble/ Gas bubble
8. Collected gas


x, y, z in increasing order
(f) Hydrilla / Elodea / Ceratophyllum demersum
(g) X
Initially in tap water (or in low / normal carbon dioxide concentration, number of bubbles is
minimum or low (or value stated) because (rate) of photosynthesis is low or minimum
(accept photosynthesis is low or slow).
(On addition of 10ml of 10% solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate) the carbon dioxide
concentration increases. So (rate) of photosynthesis increases and hence (rate) of bubble
evolution increases / number of bubbles increases (or value given).
(On addition of another 10ml of 10% solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate) the carbon
dioxide concentration increases further. So (rate) of photosynthesis increases (further) and
hence (rate) of bubble evolution increases further (or more that y)/ number of bubbles further
increases (or value given).
(h) All other factors (light, temperature, water) remaining constant, the rate of photosynthesis
increases (rate of evolution of bubbles increases) with the increase in concentration of carbon
(i) Precautions: (Any two)
Hydrilla should be fresh
Hydrilla twig should be obliquely cut
Cut end of the twig should face towards the stem of the funnel
Test tube should be filled with water/ there should be no air bubbles.
Adequate light source
Stem of funnel should be under the water level of beaker.
Sodium bicarbonate should be freshly prepared
Distilled water should not be used

Question 3 [5]
(a) With a sharp razor blade, cut several transverse sections of the specimen D-44
provided. Select a good section and stain with safranin. Mount the stained section
in glycerine. Show your slide to the Visiting Examiner under low power of
(b) Draw a neat labelled diagram of the mount as seen under the microscope.
(microscopic details are not required)
(c) (i) Identify the specimen.
(ii) Give two reasons to support your answer in (c)(i) above.

Comments of Examiners
(b) Most candidates drew diagrams with cellular details.
Suggestions for teachers
In many cases, trichrome/stem hair were missing.
More practice must be given in
Differentiation of epidermis, hypodermis and cortex
cutting T.S. of specimen with
was not clear in several cases. A thick hypodermis
emphasis on the characteristic
was drawn by some candidates. Vascular bundles
features of each layer.
were not clear with relevant endarch xylem. Labelling
Students should be made aware of
lines intersected each other.
the fact that labelling lines should
(c) (i) A few candidates wrote sunflower stem instead
not intersect each other.
of T.S. of dicot stem.
The concept of open/closed
(ii) Reasons were given incorrectly by several
vascular bundle must be clarified.
candidates, e.g. vascular bundles are conjoint and
Conceptual errors should be
open (incorrect); vascular bundles are endarch
clarified while teaching theoretical
(incorrect) it is xylem which is endarch.
concepts in class.

Question 3.

Drawing Points Labelling Points
1. Trichome/ multicellular hair 1.Trichome/ multicellular hair/stem hair
2. Single layered epidermis 2. Epidermis
3. Hypodermis 3. Hypodermis
4. General Cortex (thick) 4. Cortex
5. Endodermis 5.Endodermis/ Starch Sheath
6. Pericycle (in patches) 6. Pericycle
7. Vascular bundles arranged in a ring 7. Xylem
8. Conjoint, collateral, open vascular bundles 8. Pith
9. Endarch xylem 9. Phloem
10. Distinct pith 10. Vascular bundle (instead of Xylem
and phloem)

(i) The given specimen is Dicot Stem.

(ii) Reasons of identification: (Any two)

Vascular bundles are conjoint, collateral and open (operative).
Vascular bundles arranged in a ring.
Xylem endarch - (Protoxylem towards the centre and metaxylem towards the periphery).
Cortex differentiated into hypodermis general cortex, endodermis.
Pericycle consists of (semi-lunar) patches (of sclerenchyma and intervening masses of
Distinct pith

Question 4 [5]
Identify the given specimens A to E. For specimen D, identify the type of inflorescence.
Give two reasons to support your answer in each case. Draw a neat labelled diagram of each
specimen. You are not allowed to spend more than three minutes for each spot.
Note: Hand over your continuation booklet to the Supervising Examiner after you finish answering
this question.

Comments of Examiners
(a) In the identification, the term T.S of mammalian Suggestions for teachers
was missing in many cases. Some common mistakes Theoretical concepts must be
made by candidates in the diagrams drawn were as clarified.
follows: follicles of different sizes were not shown in Practice must be given in drawing
the cortex; Graafian follicle did not contain an ovum; non-cellular diagrams in the
germinal epithelium was not labelled; labelling of stipulated time.
cortex/medulla was interchanged; corpus luteum and The different stages in embryonic
empty follicle were indistinguishable; incomplete development must be explained
labelling was done. clearly.
(b) In many cases, identification mentioned T.S. instead Theoretical concepts of
of whole mount of specimen. The scientific name was inflorescence must be made clear
spelt incorrectly. In the diagrams, ectoplasm/ with specimens.
endoplasm was labelled as ectoderm/ endoderm; It must be clarified that the need for
many pseudopodia drawn instead of one; single food CO2 in photosynthesis is
vacuole was drawn instead of many. demonstrated by the KOH
(c) Identification did not mention the term experiment not by the hydrilla set
T.S/mammalian. Some candidates mentioned frog up.
blastula. In some of the diagrams, inner cell mass
was not attached to trophoblast.
(d) The specimen was wrongly identified as gladiolus/capitulum/cymose inflorescence. In some of the
diagrams drawn by candidates, bracts were not shown; there was no difference in size between
younger and older flowers; sessile flowers were not drawn.
(e) Many candidates identified this spot as Molls half-leaf experiment. Some centres drew the evolution
of O2 by Hydrilla. In the diagrams drawn by a few candidates, sunlight was not drawn and labelled.
No support was drawn for the conical flask containing KOH.

Question 4.
Identification: (Slide showing) T.S. of Mammalian Ovary
Reasons for Identification: (Any two)
(The outer surface is covered by) germinal epithelium is visible/present (composed of single
layer of cubical cells).
The cortex contains numerous ovarian follicles of different sizes at different stages of
maturation and (Graafian follicles).
The matured Graafian follicles (containing centrally placed) with ovum surrounded by
several layers of granular cells, visible.
Corpus luteum present
Primordial/ primary follicle are seen near the germinal epithelium

Drawing: Labelling:
1. Follicles of different sizes shown 1. Germinal epithelium
2. Germinal epithelium present 2. Maturing follicle/Graffian follicle
3. Ovum seen in mature follicle 3. Primordial follicle
4. Empty follicle visible 4. Ovum
5. Corpus luteum 5. Medulla
6. Cortex
7. Corpus Luteum

Identification: (Slide showing) Entamoeba histolytica
Reasons for Identification: (Any two)
Unicellular microorganism
Pseudopodium visible
Cytoplasm/ Endoplasm is granular and contains a spherical nucleus, Red Blood Cells,
Leucocytes and tissue debris.
Many (dark) food vacuoles present.
Cytoplasm is differentiated into ecto and endoplasm

Drawing: Labelling:
1. Unicellular organism 1. Ectoplasm/
2. Ectoplasm/ Endoplasm/ Cytoplasm
cytoplasm 2. Plasma membrane /Cell Membrane
3. Nucleus 3. Nucleus
4. Food vacuole 4. Food vacuole
5. Ingested Red Blood Cells 5. Ingested Red Blood Cells
6. Endoplasm
7. Cytoplasm (instead of ecto and endoplasm
8. Pseudopodium
Identification: Slide showing T.S. of mammalian blastula
Reasons for Identification: (Any two)
The trophoblast or trophoectoderm visible.
Embryonal knob/ inner mass of cell is visible.
(Fluid filled cavity called) blastocoel present.

Drawing: Labelling:
1. Trophoblast 1. Trophoblast
2. Blastocoel 2. Blastocoel
3. Embryonal knob / or spherical 3. Embryonal knob/ inner mass of cell
mass of cell on one side / inner cell mass
Identification: (Twig of Gladioli showing) Racemose inflorescence/ Spike

Reasons for Identification: (Any two)

Main axis or rachis or /or floral axis is elongated/ unbranched /grows indefinitely
Flowers are arranged in acropetal manner, older flowers are borne at the base and younger
flowers towards the apex.
Flowers are sessile

Drawing: Labelling:
1. Main axis 1. Main axis/ rachis/ penduncle
2. Younger flower at the top 2. Older flower/Big
3. Older flower at the bottom 3. Younger flower/Small
4. Sessile flower 4. Bract
5. Bracteate flowers/ bract

Identification: (Experimental set up to show that) CO2 is necessary for photosynthesis.
Reasons for Identification: (Any two)
Experimental leaf is kept in a conical flask
KOH (pellets) in the bottle/flask (for absorbing carbon dioxide).
On performing starch test control leaf turns blue black due to presence of starch and
experimental leaf does not turn blue black due to absence of starch as photosynthesis did
not occur in the experimental leaf due to absence of CO2 which was absorbed by KOH
pellets/ Experimental leaf gives ive result for starch test.

Drawing: Labelling:
1. Leaf connected to potted plant 1. Leaf
2. One whole leaf inside the bottle 2. KOH
3. KOH present in the bottle 3. Conical flask/ bottle/ jar
4. Bottle is balanced by support 4. Light
5. Light source

(a) Topics found difficult by candidates in the Question Paper:
The L.S. of gynoecium- Q.1 (f)
Floral diagram- Q.1 (g)
A comprehensive explanation of the observation of Q.2 (g)
Spot E with relevant reasons. (Q.no. 4)
(b) Suggestions for candidates:
Learn semi-technical terms with correct spellings
Practice drawing all diagrams through observation. Draw neat well labelled diagrams.
Correlate theoretical concepts with the practicals.
Conceptual understanding is important.

Total Number of students who took the examination 44659
Highest Marks Obtained 100
Lowest Marks Obtained 2
Mean Marks Obtained 68.13

Percentage of Candidates according to marks obtained

Mark Range
0-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100
Number of Candidates 1516 2083 12743 14622 13695
Percentage of Candidates 3.39 4.66 28.53 32.74 30.67
Cumulative Number 1516 3599 16342 30964 44659
Cumulative Percentage 3.39 8.06 36.59 69.33 100.00

Range of Marks Obtained

35.00 30.67
Percentage of Candidates






0-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100
Marks Obtained


Question 1 [10 3]
1 2
(i) Find the value of k if M = and M2 k M I2 = 0
2 3

(ii) Find the equation of an ellipse whose latus rectum is 8 and eccentricity is .
(iii) Solve: cos-1(sin cos-1x) =

(iv) x sin x
Using LHospitals rule, evaluate: lim
x0 x 2 sin x
2 y2
(v) Evaluate: y2 4

2 ,0
(vi) Evaluate: , where f(x) =
3, 3
(vii) The two lines of regressions are 4x + 2y 3 = 0 and 3x + 6y + 5 = 0. Find the
correlation co-efficient between x and y.
(viii) A card is drawn from a well shuffled pack of playing cards. What is the probability
that it is either a spade or an ace or both?

(ix) If 1, and 2
are the cube roots of unity, prove that =

(x) Solve the differential equation: sin-1 = +

Comments of Examiners Suggestions for teachers

1 4 Revise all matrix operations in the
(i) A number of candidates wrote M2 as instead of
4 9
class. Pay heed to matrix
5 8
8 13 . Some candidates took k as matrix instead Identity matrix, null matrix and their
order should be explained
of k as scalar value while some candidates wrote thoroughly.
2 0 The topic of ellipse and hyperbola
I2 as which was not correct. I2 was an identity
0 2
should be taught separately and then
matrix of the order 22. their properties should be compared.
Horizontal and vertical ellipse
(ii) Some candidates took the length of latus rectum as 4a
should be explained thoroughly.
2b 2
instead of . A few candidates wrote the equation Relation b2=a2(1-e2) where e<1
a should be explained.

x2 y2
of hyperbola in place of ellipse i.e. 1 instead Teach students derivations of
a2 b2 inverse Trigonometric functions.
x2 y2 0
of 1 . A few candidates used eccentricity Indeterminate forms i.e. , etc.
a2 b2 0
formula, which was incorrect. should be explained properly and
(iii) Many candidates did this question well but a few used revision of differentiation chapter

wrong value of cos , while some wrote incorrect must be done for practice.
conversion of cos x in terms of sin-1 x. A few candidates
-1 L Hospitals rule must be taught
wrote cos-1x in terms of tan-1x which made the expression giving appropriate conditions to deal
complicated. with different indeterminate forms.
Teach students the properties of
(iv) Some candidates wrote incorrect differentiation of
definite integrals properly and their
numerator and denominator. They wrote differentiation
use in area.
of 1-cosx as 1-sinx which was not correct. Some Coefficient of regression of lines y
wrote the differentiation of sinx as (-cosx). on x and x on y should be explained
(v) The power of numerator and denominator was equal in by explaining r = byx bxy and that the
the given integral so division was a must or addition and
subtraction of constant could also work but many value of r should be less than 1;
byx and bxy both positive, r will be
candidates forgot and tried to solve it as it was.
positive otherwise negative.
(vi) Candidates were able to score marks in this question. Theorem either or and theorem
(vii) Many candidates answered this question correctly. AND should be explained properly
However, a few candidates wrote incorrect regression to students. Number of outcomes
coefficient. and number of favourable outcomes
(viii) Many candidates found this topic difficult. Some did not should be explained properly.
understand the meaning of either or term in the P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A B);
question. P(A B)= P (A). P(B) and P (A/B)=
(ix) Many candidates wrote the formula but were not able to P( A B)
apply it correctly. They put the value of w = -1-w 2 and P( B)
w2 = -1-w, which made the equation very complicated. Complex numbers should be divided
(x) A number of candidates wrote sin (x + y) as, into different parts then explained
sin x + sin y which was incorrect. On the other hand, step by step. Application of cube
roots of unity needs to be explained
some candidates were not able to substitute x + y = t. A thoroughly. Stress upon the
few candidates made calculation mistakes in this techniques of solving such
question questions.
Differential equations and various
forms i.e. separation of variables,
homogenous, linear differential
equations and their reducible forms
need to be revised by doing different
types of questions based on them.

Question 1.

(i) M 2 kM I 2 = 0
1 2 1 2 k 2k 1 0
- - 0
2 3 2 3 2k 3k 0 1

5 8 k 2k 1 0
= 0
8 13 2k 3k 0 1
5 k 8 2k 1 0
8 2k 13 3k 0 1

5 k = 1, 8 2k = 0, 13 3k = 1
k = 4
(ii) 2b 2
8; e =
a 3
b2 = 4a
b2 = a2

4a = a2
b2 = 18.
Equation of an ellipse:
4 x2 y2
+ = 1 or 8x2 + 9y2 = 162
81 18
cos-1(sin cos-1x)

sin(cos-1x) = cos = =
6 2

3 1
1-x2 = x2 =
4 4


sin x 1
Lt 0
6x 6
2 y2
(v) y2 4

y2 4 4
2 dy
y2 4
1 y
= 2y - 8. tan 1 c
2 2
2y - 4 tan 1 c

f ( x) dx

= +

(0 0) + 3 3 -
(vii) Let the line of regression of x on y be
4x + 2y - 3 = 0
1 3
x= y+
2 4
bxy =

let the line of regression of y on x be

3x + 6y + 5 = 0
1 5
y= x-
2 6

byx =
1 1 1
r2 = byx bxy = =
2 2 4

r= , since bxy and byx are negative.

(viii) P(E) =


Multiplying numerator and denominator by


(x) sin-1 =x+y


Question 2
(a) Using properties of determinants, prove that: [5]
1 2 2
2 1 2 = (1 + a2 + b2)3
2 2 1
(b) Given two matrices A and B [5]
1 2 3 11 5 14
A 1 4 1 and B = 1 1 2 ,
1 3 2 7 1 6
find AB and use this result to solve the following system of equations:
x 2y + 3z = 6, x + 4y + z = 12, x 3y + 2z = 1

Comments of Examiners
(a) Properties of determinants were not correctly
Suggestions for teachers
implemented by several candidates. A few expanded the
Plenty of practice must be given in
determinants directly without applying any property. They
using determinant properties. The
were not able to get zeroes in row or column. Some
idea of obtaining two zeroes in a row
applied useless properties which did not lead to result.
or a column is to be taught for
Rows and columns were not correctly identified by several
easiest simplification.
Inverse of a square matrix needs to
(b) A few candidates found the product of AB incorrectly.
be taught step by step. Utilisation of
Many did not use the product of AB to solve the equation
the inverse to correctly find the
system. They found A-1 by using matrix inverse method.
unknown matrix needs to be grasped
Several candidates found incorrect cofactors hence their
properly. Product of two matrices
values of x, y, z were incorrect. Some candidates could not
needs attention. Sufficient practice
obtain adjoint and inverse of a matrix correctly.
is a must.
Question 2.
(a) Replace C1 C1 bC3, C2 C2 +aC3 and take

Replace R3 by R3 bR1 to get

Expanding by C1, we get


AB= -8 I

Question 3
(a) Solve the equation for x: , x 0 [5]
(b) A, B and C represent switches in on position and A', B' and C' represent them in [5]
off position. Construct a switching circuit representing the polynomial ABC +
ABC + ABC. Using Boolean Algebra, prove that the given polynomial can be
simplified to C(A + B). Construct an equivalent switching circuit.

Comments of Examiners
(a) Some candidates made mistakes while converting
Suggestions for teachers
sin-1 to cos-1 or vice versa. Many candidates got
All algebraic and trigonometric laws
incorrect algebraic equation independent from inverse
need to be revised thoroughly before
function. As a result they could not solve the equation
learning inverse trigonometric
further. Some candidates applied sin-1 formula but they
functions and their operations.
could not solve further.
Application of formula for inverse
(b) A few candidates made errors while constructing a
trigonometric functions needs
switching circuit. They made mistakes while
attention. Domains and range needs
simplifying the given polynomial. They were not able
to be explained properly.
to write distributive law at this step (AB + AB +
All properties of Boolean algebra
AB)C while a few wrote B + B = 0 which was need to be well understood before
incorrect. Some candidates made simplification errors application. Sufficient practice is a
while expanding the Boolean function by applying
incorrect properties of Boolean algebra.

Question 3.

squaring on both sides

x = 13 is the required answer


=AC ( B+B) + ABC (B+B =1)
= AC + ABC
= (A+AB)C
=(A+A)(A+B) C
= (A+B) C

Question 4
(a) Verify Lagranges Mean Value Theorem for the following function:
f(x) = 2 sin x + sin2x on [0, ]
(b) Find the equation of the hyperbola whose foci are (0, 10) and passing through [5]
the point (2, 3).

Comments of Examiners Suggestions for teachers

Help students enumerate the criteria
(a) Many candidates failed to state all the criteria for application for mean value theorem correctly.
of Lagranges theorem correctly. The concept of closed or Firstly, the given function has to be
open was not clear to many candidates. A few candidates got continuous in the closed
confused with Rolles theorem condition f (a) = f (h). interval, secondly, the derivation of
(b) Some candidates did not have proper knowledge of given function needs to exist in open
hyperbola and conjugate hyperbola. They wrote incorrect interval and thirdly,
equation of hyperbola, hence got incorrect answer; a few f (b) f (a)
took 2ae = 10 which was incorrect (where 2ae is the f (c) = where c
distance between the two foci). A few candidates found the exists in open interval. Explanation
value of a & b correctly but substituted incorrectly. of geometrical interpretation of
mean value theorem with the help of
figure is a must.
Stress upon conics noting details
with regard to their sketching and
derivation of their equations for
standard form as well as for other
modified forms. Regular practice of
conics is a must.

Question 4.
(a) f(x) =(2 sinx + sin 2x) is continuous in [ 0,]
f '(x) exists in (0,)
f '(x) =2cos x + 2cos2x f(0) =0, f() =0
All the conditions of Lagranges Mean Value theorem are satisfied
there exist ' c ' in ( 0, )
( )- ( )
such that f (c)=
2cosc + 2cos2c = 0
2cos2c + cosc -1=0
cos c = -1, cos c = cos c = (not possible)

or cos c = cos

c= 0,

c = /3 which lies between 0 to , hence, LMV theorem is verified.
(b) Foci 0, 10
be = 10
a2 = b2(e2 1) = b2e2 b2
a2 = 10 b2

let the equation be: - =1

1 9 a2 40 + 4 a2 = 10 a2 a4
a4 + 3a2 40 = 0
(a2 + 8) (a2 5) = 0 a2 = -8 or a2 = 5, (a2 can't be negative)
a2 = 5, b2 = 5
the required equation is

y2 x2 = 5

Question 5

If y = , prove that:
(b) Show that the rectangle of maximum perimeter which can be inscribed in a circle [5]
of radius 10 cm is a square of side 102 cm.

Comments of Examiners
(a) Some candidates wrote differentiation of
Suggestions for teachers
cos-1 x incorrectly. Many candidates did not place
Differentiation rules for different
as y after first differentiation. Second order functions and terms need attention.
derivation was incorrectly shown by several A through revision is a must.
candidates. Some made calculation mistakes while Explain to students the importance
simplifying the equation. of finding the second derivative.
(b) Many candidates were not able to write the expression They must show the condition of
in mathematical form. They were not able to express maxima or minima as per the
the equation in one variable. A number of candidates requirement.
made calculation mistakes while differentiating.

Question 5.
(a) y=
dy m
e m cos -1 x
dx 1 x2
1 - x2 - my differentiating again wrt x.

= -m

1 - x
2 d y
dx 2
= -m
1 x2

= - m (-my)

= m2y

(b) AB = 2x; BC = 2y
x2 + y2 = 102 4x2+ 4y2 = 400
2 x 2 y 20
2 2 2

P = 4x + 4y
= 4x + 4100- x D C
4 =0 52 0

4 = 0

Hence, perimeter is maximum when x = 52

y = 52 x = y
ABCD is square of side 102 cm

Question 6
(a) Evaluate: [5]


(b) Find the smaller area enclosed by the circle x2 + y2 and the line x + y = 2. [5]

Comments of Examiners
(a) Many candidates were not able to integrate the given
Suggestions for teachers
expression. Some candidates could not decompose the
Partial fraction rule need to be
problem into partial fraction. Errors were also made while
understood and applied correctly.
integrating factors.
Methods of proper substitution need
(b) Many candidates attempted this part correctly by taking
arbitrary value of the radius of the circle.
A lot of practice of such problems
must be given by the teachers.

Question 6.
(a) sec x
I= 1 cos ec x dx

= dx

Put t = sin x
dt = cos x dx



t = A(1+t)2 + B(1 t2) + c(1 t A(1 2t t 2 ) B Bt 2 C Ct

t t 2 ( A B) t (2 A C ) ( A B C )
A B 0, 2 A C 1, A B C 0
Solving equations we get
A = , ,


= |1 | |1 |


(b) The required area: y

= 4 2 2
= 4 2 0 x

= 2 4+2 = 2 sq. units

Question 7
(a) Given that the observations are: [5]
(9, 4), (10, 3), (11, 1), (12, 0), (13, 1), (14, 3), (15, 5), (16, 8).
Find the two lines of regression and estimate the value of y when x = 135.

(b) In a contest the competitors are awarded marks out of 20 by two judges. The [5]
scores of the 10 competitors are given below. Calculate Spearmans rank
Competitors A B C D E F G H I J
Judge A 2 11 11 18 6 5 8 16 13 15
Judge B 6 11 16 9 14 20 4 3 13 17

Comments of Examiners
(a) Many candidates found byx and bxy incorrectly, as a
Suggestions for teachers
result, the two regression lines were incorrect. Some
Various methods of finding byx and
candidates found the value of y from given value of x
bxy should be taught giving
by using regression equation of x on y instead of y on
examples. Students should be
x. Several candidates were unable to calculate the
careful about the formulae for byx
correct values of xy, x2, y2, byx and bxy which led
and bxy as well as the regression
to wrong results.
equation of x on y and that of y on x.
(b) Some candidates calculated the ranks incorrectly.
Students should be given adequate
Correction factor for d2 was either incorrect or
practice to understand which
applied incorrectly in the formula for r. Some
formula is to be applied when ranks
candidates wrote incorrect formula for spearmans
are repeated and when ranks are not
rank correlation.

Question 7.
(a) x y xy x2 y2
9 -4 -36 81 16
10 -3 -30 100 9 = = 125
11 -1 -11 121 1 = = 1125
12 0 0 144 0
byx =
13 1 13 169 1 ( )

14 3 42 196 9 =
( )
15 5 75 225 25
16 8 128 256 64
= 163
= = 1292 = 125
= 100 = 9

( )

= = = 0596
( )
Line of regression of y on x
y = 163 (x 125)

Line of regression of x on y

x 125 = 0596 (y )

x = 0596 y + 1183

y, when x = 135

y = 163 x - 1925

y = 163 135 - 1925

= 2755 = 276

(b) Judge A Judge B

2 6 10 8 2 4
11 11 5.5 6 -0.5 0.25
11 16 5.5 3 2.5 6.25
18 9 1 7 -6 36
6 14 8 4 4 16
5 20 9 1 8 64
8 4 7 9 -2 4
16 3 2 10 -8 64
13 13 4 5 -1 1
15 17 3 2 1 1
d =1965


= 1-

=1- 0 194

Question 8

(a) An urn contains 2 white and 2 black balls. A ball is drawn at random. If it is white, [5]
it is not replaced into the urn. Otherwise, it is replaced with another ball of the same
colour. The process is repeated. Find the probability that the third ball drawn is

(b) Three persons A, B and C shoot to hit a target. If A hits the target four times in five [5]
trials, B hits it three times in four trials and C hits it two times in three trials, find
the probability that:
(i) Exactly two persons hit the target.
(ii) At least two persons hit the target.
(iii) None hit the target.

Comments of Examiners
(a) Many candidates handled this problem well but some Suggestions for teachers
could not understand the underlying principle. Explain the correct interpretation of
(b) In some cases, the probability of hitting the target were not such problems.
found correctly. In part (ii), several candidates could not Laws of probability should be taught
understand the meaning of at least while some did not in detail with plenty of examples and
apply AND theorem. illustrations.
Terms such as at least, at most,
exact, none should be discussed
and problems based on them

Question 8.
(a) P(E) = P(WWB) + P(WBB) + P(BWB) + P(BBB)

Alternate solution:
P(E) = P(WWB) + P(WBB) + P(BWB) + P(BBB)

(b) P(A) = , P(B) = , P(C) =


= =


= = =
(iii) P ABC

Question 9
(a) If z = x + iy, = and | |=1, find the locus of z and illustrate it in the [5]
Argand Plane.

(b) Solve the differential equation: [5]

1 + 1 0 when x = 0, y = 1

Comments of Examiners
(a) Most of the candidates made mistakes while finding the Suggestions for teachers
modulus as well as in the simplification to find the Interpret the locus of a complex
correct values of z. Illustration of z in the Argand plane number clearly. Explain the concept
was incorrectly shown by some candidates. of Argand plane. The procedure for
(b) Many candidates substituted y = vx and proceeded finding modulus must be revised
further to solve the given equation using the rules of thoroughly.
All forms of integration need
homogeneous equation, which was an incorrect
approach. The subsequent integrals were not correctly rigorous practice. The constant of
understood by some. A few candidates did not find the integration should not be ignored.
value of C (constant) under the given condition i.e. x=0,
Question 9.
(a) =1

im (z)
Squaring 0, 4/3
4 + 4y + y2 + x2 = 4x2 + 4y2 -4y + 1 Type equation here.
3x2 + 3y2 8y 3 = 0 Re (z)
x2+ y2 y 1 = 0

Circle, Centre 0, and r = 1






Question 10
(a) Using vectors, prove that angle in a semicircle is a right angle. [5]
(b) Find the volume of a parallelopiped whose edges are represented by the vectors: [5]

a 2i 3 j 4k , b i 2 j k , and c 3i j 2k .

Comments of Examiners
(a) Most of the candidates were unable to proceed with the Suggestions for teachers
solution for a vector based geometrical question.
Vector symbols were not used by many candidates. Dot product and cross product
Some candidates did not show the arrow in the diagram should be explained well to students.
drawn by them. The dot product of vectors was found Students must be told to give proper
incorrectly by some candidates. direction to the vectors.
Vector algebra in totality needs to be
(b) The concept of scalar triple product was clear to most explained well to students,
of the candidates but some wrote dot product first and especially the properties of scalar
then cross product, which was incorrect. Some wrote [ triple product. Combination of dot
a b c ] in determinant form and made mistakes in and cross product in scalar triple
product needs thorough
calculation. understanding as well as rigorous

Question 10.
(a) Let O be the centre of the circle and AB be the diameter. C is a point on the circumference. Take O as

the origin and let OA a and OC c C

Therefore, OB a


= = 0, Where r is radius
Therefore, angle ACB is a right angle.

(b) The volume of the parallolepiped is:

2 1 1 1 1 2
=2 3 4
1 2 3 2 3 1
= 25 + 35 - 4(-5)
= 25 + 35 4 (-5)
= 45 cubic units

Question 11
(a) Find the equation of the plane passing through the intersection of the planes: [5]
x + y + z +1 = 0 and 2x 3y + 5z 2 = 0 and the point ( 1, 2, 1).
(b) Find the shortest distance between the lines = + 2 + 3 + (2 + 3 + 4 [5]
and = 2 + 4 + 5 + (4 + 6 + 8
Comments of Examiners
(a) A number of candidates wrote incorrect equation of
Suggestions for teachers
the plane passing through the intersection of planes.
Teach the equation of plane
Some made mistakes in calculating the value of . A
thoroughly. Cartesian and vector of
few candidates applied the condition of
plane should be revised by
perpendicularity in this question which was incorrect.
practicing different types of
(b) A number of candidates were unable to calculate the questions.
correct values of a1 , a2 andb . Some made mistakes in The concept of parallel and non-
parallel lines needs to be explained
calculating ( a2 a ). The concepts of skew lines and clearly to students.
parallel lines were not clear to many candidates.
Some candidates calculated b1 b 0 . They were unable to understand that the given lines are
parallel. A few candidates applied wrong formula to calculate the shortest distance between the given

Question 11.
(a) Equation of plane passing through the intersection of the given planes is:
(x + y + z + 1) +k (2x -3y + 5z- 2)=0
If this plane passes through (-1,2,1) then
( -1+2+1+1) +k ( -2 6 + 5 -2) =0
3 =5k
5(x+y+z+1)+ 3(2x-3y+5z -2)=0

11x- 4y + 20z -1 =0 Or equivalent form

(b) Here, a1 + 2 + 3 and a2 = 2 + 4+ 5

shortest distance = 0.415

Question 12
(a) Box I contains two white and three black balls. Box II contains four white and one [5]
black balls and box III contains three white and four black balls. A dice having three
red, two yellow and one green face, is thrown to select the box. If red face turns up,
we pick up box I, if a yellow face turns up we pick up box II, otherwise, we pick up
box III. Then, we draw a ball from the selected box. If the ball drawn is white, what
is the probability that the dice had turned up with a red face?
(b) Five dice are thrown simultaneously. If the occurrence of an odd number in a single [5]
dice is considered a success, find the probability of maximum three successes.

Comments of Examiners
(a) The concept of Bayes theorem was clear to most Suggestions for teachers
candidates but some candidates found incorrect Teach Bayes theorem with proper
probability. While some candidates found conditional explanation and illustration. Pay
probability for the happening of an event incorrectly, even heed to the laws of total probability.
probability of a specific known event was found wrongly Give adequate practice of Bayes
by a few candidates. theorem.
(b) Many candidates were unable to understand the problem Revise Binomial theorem in the
correctly. The concept of P (x 3) was not clear to many class thoroughly before teaching the
candidates. Probability distribution theory was incorrectly probability distribution theory.
applied by some candidates. Explain each term in the expansion.
Train students about the situation of
maximum three successes and
minimum three successes.

Question 12.
(a) P(A) = 3/6 , P(B) = 2/6,P(C) =1/6
Let D be the probability of drawing a white ball.
P ( D/A) =2/5, P(D/B) = 4/ 5, P(D /C) = 3/7

P( A/D) = P(A) P(D/A)

P(A)P(D/A) +P(B)P(D/B) +P(C) P(D/C)

= 3/6 2/5
(3/6 2/5+ 2/6 4/5 + 1/6 3/7)

= ( 6/30 )x(210/113)
= 42/113 = 0.37
(b) n = 5, p = , q =
p(x ) = 1 p(x=4,5)


=1 = 0.81


Question 13
(a) Mr. Nirav borrowed 50,000 from the bank for 5 years. The rate of interest is [5]
9% per annum compounded monthly. Find the payment he makes monthly if he pays
back at the beginning of each month.
(b) A dietician wishes to mix two kinds of food X and Y in such a way that the mixture [5]
contains at least 10 units of vitamin A, 12 units of vitamin B and 8 units of vitamin
C. The vitamin contents of one kg food is given below:
Food Vitamin A Vitamin B Vitamin C
X 1unit 2 units 3 units
Y 2 units 2 units 1 unit

One kg of food X costs 24 and one kg of food Y costs 36. Using Linear
Programming, find the least cost of the total mixture which will contain the required

Comments of Examiners
(a) Instead of present value of an annuity due, some Suggestions for teachers
candidates used the formula for present value of an Explain the difference between
ordinary Annuity. Number of instalments (n) was not annuities due and ordinary
calculated in terms of months, even rate of interest was not annuities by giving examples.
Train students to read the
calculated per month by a few candidates. Many question carefully, understand
candidates used wrong formulae. the meaning of the question and
apply the formula accordingly.
(b) Many candidates took incorrect inequality sign, hence
A thorough and regular practice
they got incorrect feasible region and their corner points is a must.
were also incorrect. Some candidates did not show any Give practice to students in
graphical representation of the inequalities. In some cases, sketching of lines. They should
be asked to express the line in
the representation of the problem was not up to the mark,
intercept form i.e. x/a+ y/b =1,
and the work was not systematic resulting in candidates so that sketching is easy. Correct
missing the point of minimum cost. feasible region and its plotting is

Question 13.
(a) Here, P = 50000, i = 0.0075 and n = 60

Now, P = (1+i)[1-(1+i)-n]

50000 = (1+0.0075)[1-(1+0.0075)-60]

50000 = (1.0075)[1-(1.0075)-60]


= 1030.2
Thus, monthly installment should be Rs.1,030.2

(b) Let there be x units of food x and y units of food y.

Min z = 24x + 36y
Subject to the constraints
x + 2y 10
2x + 2y 12
3x+ y 8 X
x 0, y 0 0

x y Z(cost)
10 0 240
0 8 288
1 5 204
2 4 192 (Min. cost)

Question 14
(a) A bill for 7,650 was drawn on 8th March, 2013, at 7 months. It was discounted [5]
on 18th May, 2013 and the holder of the bill received 7,497. What is the rate of
interest charged by the bank?
(b) [5]
The average cost function, AC for a commodity is given by AC = x + 5 + ,
in terms of output x. Find:
(i) The total cost, C and marginal cost, MC as a function of x.
(ii) The outputs for which AC increases.

Comments of Examiners
(a) A number of candidates calculated discounted days Suggestions for teachers
incorrectly. They were not able to calculate the rate of Explain Bills of exchange in detail.
interest. Some tried to find r by using B.G. while others Differentiate the B.D, T.D and B.G.
used T.D. A few candidates took the difference of Rs. 7650 The procedure for calculating the
and Rs. 7497 as interest and applied the present worth due date should be taught clearly.
formula which was not correct. Some candidates used The concepts of Marginal Cost,
formula T.D = A ni instead of B.D = Ani. Total Cost and Average Cost should
1 ni be taught in depth for increasing and
(b) Some candidates wrote incorrect formula of cost function, decreasing functions by giving
so their marginal cost was incorrect. Some wrote incorrect sufficient examples.
differentiation of the expression. Many candidates were Familiarize students with the
not able to answer the second part of the question. They different terms used in this question
were confused with the maximum minimum condition. by giving adequate practice.
They found the derivative and put it equal to zero.
Question 14.
(a) Face value of the bill= 7650 = A
Discounted value of the bill = 7497
Bankers discount=( 7650 -7497)
= 153
Nominal due date is 8th October (8th October + 3 days of grace).
Legal due date of the bill is 11October
Number of unexpired days from 8 May to 11 October is 146 days n =(2/5)year
Bankers discount =Ani
153 = 7650 r (2/5)
r =(1/20) = 0.05 r = 5%

(b) Cost function C = AC x = (x + 5 + + 5x + 36

also, 5 1

For AC to be increasing > 0 1- 0

Hence, average cost increases if the output x is > 6.

Question 15
(a) Calculate the index number for the year 2014, with 2010 as the base year by the [5]
weighted aggregate method from the following data:
Commodity Price in Weight
2010 2014
A 2 4 8
B 5 6 10
C 4 5 14
D 2 2 19

(b) The quarterly profits of a small scale industry (in thousands of rupees) is as follows : [5]

Year Quarter Quarter Quarter Quarter

1 2 3 4
2012 39 47 20 56
2013 68 59 66 72
2014 88 60 60 67

Calculate four quarterly moving averages. Display these and the original figures
graphically on the same graph sheet.
Comments of Examiners
(a) Some candidates used the weighted average of price Suggestions for teachers
relative method instead of weighted aggregate method A thorough and comprehensive
to calculate the index number. A number of candidates practice for calculation of Index
wrote incorrect formula of weighted aggregate number by various method is a must.
method. Students must be advised to read the
(b) Some candidates did not calculate centered moving question carefully so as to work out
average. Several candidates made mistakes while the question using the correct
finding the four yearly moving averages as well as method.
centered moving averages. Plotting of the centered Students must be advised to practice
average was inaccurate in a few cases. various methods for finding moving
averages rigorously. They must be
taught to plot a neat graph for both
actual and trend.

Question 15.
Commodity 2010 2014 p1w pow
po w p1 w
A 2 8 4 8 32 16
B 5 10 6 10 60 50
C 4 14 5 14 70 56
D 2 19 2 19 38 38
200 160

The index number for the year 2014 with 2010 as the base year is 100 = 125
(b) Year Quarter Quarterly 4 yearly moving 4 yearly average 4 yearly centered
profits total moving average
2012 1 39

2 47
162 40.5
3 20 44.125
191 47.75
4 56 49.25
203 50.75
2013 1 68 56.5
249 62.25
2 59 64.25
265 66.25
3 66 68.75
285 71.25
4 72 71.375
286 71.5
2014 1 88 70.75
280 70
2 60 69.375
275 68.75
3 60

4 67
Correct Graph

Note: For questions having more than one correct solution, alternate correct solutions, apart from
those given in the marking scheme, have also been accepted.

(a) Topics found difficult by candidates in the Question Paper:
Determinant properties and their use.
Conics (parabola, ellipse, hyperbola)
Application of L Hospitals rule.
Indefinite Integrals, Definite Integrals.
Inverse trigonometric functions.
Area of curves.
Probability (Both sections) and probability distribution.
Differential equations.
Complex numbers.
3D plane & straight-line.
Linear programming.
Regression lines.
(b) Concepts between which candidates got confused:
Conics (parabola, ellipse, hyperbola)
Open & closed intervals for Mean value theorem.
Conversion of inverse trigonometric functions.
Regression coefficient byx & bxy and r.
Differential equations (Linear & Homogeneous form)
Geometrical problem in vectors.
Annuity due & ordinary annuity.
Bankers discount & bankers gain.
Price relative and aggregate method in Index No.
Shortest distance between skew lines and parallel lines.
Probability distribution (conceptual problem)
(c) Suggestions for candidates:
Learn to use the easiest method with correct formula for solving a problem.
Theorem, rules and laws to be well understood.
In each chapter, go through the theory and concepts thoroughly followed by solving the
illustrations, examples without looking at their solutions.
Revise and practice from previous years question paper and sample papers.
Question paper needs to be read carefully and answered accordingly.
Wise choices should be made from the options available.
All steps of calculation need to be simplified before proceeding to the next step.
Take sufficient rest before the examination.
Utilize the reading time properly.

Total Number of students who took the examination 18,375
Highest Marks Obtained 100
Lowest Marks Obtained 1
Mean Marks Obtained 86.23

Percentage of Candidates according to marks obtained

Mark Range
0-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100
Number of Candidates 16 59 1156 4352 12792
Percentage of Candidates 0.09 0.32 6.29 23.68 69.62
Cumulative Number 16 75 1231 5583 18375
Cumulative Percentage 0.09 0.41 6.70 30.38 100.00

Range of Marks Obtained

Percentage of Candidates




30.00 23.68

0.09 0.32

0-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100

Marks Obtained

Answer all questions.
While answering questions in this Part, indicate briefly your working and reasoning,
wherever required.
Question 1
(a) Simplify: (A + C)(A+ AD) + AC + C [2]
(b) Draw a logic circuit for (A + B)(C + D)C [2]
(c) Verify the following proposition with the help of a truth table: [2] [2]
P (~P Q) = P Q
(d) State De Morgans law and verify it, using a truth table. [2]

(e) Answer the questions related to the circuit given below: [2]


(i) Give the output if, X=1 and Y=0

(ii) Name the basic gate represented by the above diagram.

Comments of Examiners
(a) Most of the candidates answered well. Some
Suggestions for teachers
reduced the expression in one step without showing
Students should be told to show the
the working. In a few cases, the laws were used
incorrectly. Some candidates were unable to open working and mention the laws, if
the brackets in the expression necessary in such type of questions.
(b) Some candidates interchanged the gates. i.e. OR Knowledge of the laws and practice
gate with AND gate and vice versa. in their application is important.
(c) This part was well answered by most candidates. Logic gates and logic circuits must
Some were confused with symbols and V and be practiced with almost every
interchanged them in the truth table. Some solved expression.
algebraically instead of using the truth table. Propositional logic should be taught
(d) A number of candidates proved both the laws of De using all terms that are required.
Morgan. A few candidates mentioned some other The symbols used in propositions
law. Some wrote Break the line and change the must be explained.
sign which is not the law, but a way to remember All the laws of Boolean algebra
the law. must be practiced and proved with
(e) (i) Most of the candidates attempted this part well the help of truth table.
except for a few who gave the answer as 0. Logic circuits with objective type
(ii) A few candidates mentioned the name of the
expression must be done.
gate used in the circuit instead of the basic
More practice must be given for
gate the circuit represents. i.e NOR gate
instead of OR gate. Universal Gates.

Question 1.
(a) Simplify: (A + C) (A + AD) + AC + C
(A + C) A + AC + C
A + AC +AC + C
(b) Logic circuit for ( A+B ) . ( C+D) . C

(c) Proving of P ~P Q = P Q
P Q ~P ~P Q P ~P Q PQ
0 0 1 0 0 0
0 1 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 1 1
1 1 0 0 1 1

(d) De Morgans law states that the complement of sum of the variables is same as product
of the individual complements of the variables and vice-versa.
(A.B)' = A' + B' (A+B)' = A' . B'

A B A.B (A.B) A+B

0 0 0 1 1
0 1 0 1 1
1 0 0 1 1
1 1 1 0 0
(e) (i) 1
(ii) OR gate

Question 2
(a) Define computational complexity. Calculate the complexity using BigO notation [2]
for the following code segment:
for(int k=0;k<n;k++)
(b) Convert the following infix notation into postfix form: [2] [2]
X + ( Y Z ) +(( W + E) * F ) / J
(c) Differentiate between this keyword and super key word. [2]
(d) The array D[-210][38] contains double type elements. If the base address is [2]
4110, find the address of D[4][5], when the array is stored in Column Major Wise.
(e) State any two characteristics of a Binary tree. [2]

Comments of Examiners
(a) This part was answered well by most of the candidates.
Several candidates used examples to illustrate the Suggestions for teachers
answer. A few candidates found it difficult to provide More practice must be given in
appropriate definition. Some candidates wrote k complexity of a code or a segment.
instead of n for complexity All definitions related to
(b) Most candidates were able to solve this problem complexity must be covered.
correctly. Some candidates wrote the correct answer Examples need to be practiced with
without showing the working. Some applied the conversion of Infix to Postfix
postfix correctly, but could not derive the final answer. notation using direct method or the
Order of precedence was not clear and the placement stack method. The order of
of + sign was improper in several cases. precedence must be explained.
(c) Examples were used by a number of candidates to Java keywords must be explained
show the difference. In some cases, only super and practiced in programs for better
keyword was explained. understanding.
(d) A number of candidates were confused with the width Size of various data types must be
of the cell and assumed different values. Some wrote explained as it is necessary in such
the answer directly without showing the working or type of questions. Formula and
mentioning the formula. working should also be shown.
(e) Various answers were given by candidates. Some More practice must be given in
explained with the help of a diagram. Binary Tree, its parts and

Question 2.
(a) Computational complexity is the growth rate or measurement of an algorithm. The level in difficulty in
solving mathematically posed problems as measured by the time, number of steps or arithmetic operations,
or memory space required (called time complexity, computational complexity, and space complexity,
Complexity of the segment = O(n)
(b) = X+ ( Y Z ) +( ( W + E) * F ) / J

= X + Y Z - + ( W E + * F) / J
=X+ YZ-+WE+F* /J
=X+YZ-+ WE+F* J/
=XYZ +WE+F*J/+
(c) this ( ) is used to refer to the instance variables of the class.
super ( ) is used to invoke the super classs constructor/ instance variable/methods
(d) The given values are:
B = 4110, W = 8 bytes or 64 bits for double type , I = 4, J = 5, Lr = -2, Lc = 3,
M = (10- (-2)+1 = 10+2+1 = 13
Address of A [ I ][ J ] = B + W * [ ( I - Lr ) + M * ( J - Lc ) ]
= 4110 + 8 * [(4 - (-2)) + 13 * (5 - 3)]
= 4110 + 8 * [6 + 13*2]
= 4110 + 8 * [6+26]
= 4110 + 8 * [32] = 4110 + 256 OR = 4110 + 64 * [32] = 4110 + 2048
= 4366 (Ans) = 6158 (Ans)
(e) 1. It is acyclic
2. No two node can be similar or identical
3. It is recursive
4. There is only one unique path between two nodes.
5. Rooted data structure OR Linear data structure OR Dynamic data structure
6. Every node has a maximum of two sub nodes ( or maximum degree 2 )

Question 3
(a) The following function is a part of some class. Assume x and y are positive
integers, greater than 0. Answer the given questions along with dry run / working.
void someFun(int x, int y)
{ if(x%y==0)
{ System.out.print(y+ );
someFun(x/y, y);
someFun(x, y+1);

(i) What will be returned bysomeFun(24,2)? [2]
(ii) What will be returned bysomeFun(84,2)? [2]
(iii) State in one line what does the function someFun( )do, apart from [1]
(b) The following is a function of some class which checks if a positive integer is an
Armstrong number by returning true or false. (A number is said to be Armstrong if
the sum of the cubes of all its digits is equal to the original number.)The function
does not use modulus (%) operator to extract digit. There are some places in the
code marked by ?1?, ?2?, ?3?, ?4?, ?5?which may be replaced by a
statement/expression so that the function works properly.

boolean ArmstrongNum( int N )

int sum= ?1?;
int num=N;
while( num>0)
int f= num/10;
int s = ?2?;
int digit = num s;
sum+= ?3?;
num = ?4?;
if(?5? )
return true;
return false;
(i) What is the statement or expression at ?1? [1]
(ii) What is the statement or expression at ?2? [1]
(iii) What is the statement or expression at ?3? [1]
(iv) What is the statement or expression at ?4? [1]
(v) What is the statement or expression at ?5? [1]

Comments of Examiners
(a) Some candidates used examples to illustrate the Suggestions for teachers
answer. A number of candidates found it difficult to Students should be asked to show
provide an appropriate definition. A few candidates the working and explain with
wrote k instead of n for complexity memory blocks. More practice
(b) Most candidates were able to solve this problem must be given in Recursive
correctly. Some candidates wrote the correct answer techniques.
without showing the working. Some applied the Practice should be given to
understand the program line by line
postfix correctly, but could not derive the final
and derive at a conclusion of what
answer. The order of precedence was not clear and the function is doing.
the placement of + sign was improper in several More practice should be given on
cases. A few candidates interpreted the expression as programs using conditions / looping
sum = = num instead of sum = = N. and other output related programs.
Teachers are expected to show the
dry run/ working of program and
emphasize that working is
necessary to get full credit. More
practice must be given in standard

Question 3.
(a) (i) someFun(24, 2)
24>1 true 24%2==0 true output 2
someFun(24/2, 2)
12>1 true 12%2==0 true output 2
someFun(12/2, 2)
6>1 true 6%2==0 true output 2
someFun(6/2, 2)
3>1 true 3%2==0 false call someFun(3, 3)
someFun(3, 3)
3>1 true 3%3==0 true output 3
someFun(3/3, 3) 1>1 false

OUTPUT: 2 2 2 3
(ii)someFun(84, 2)
84>1 true 84%2==0 true output 2
someFun(42/2, 2)
42>1 true 42%2==0 true output 2
someFun(42/2, 2)
21>1 true 21%2==0 false call someFun(21, 3)
someFun(21, 3)
21>1 true 21%3==0 true output 3
someFun(7/3, 3)

7>1 true 7%3==0 false call someFun(7, 4)
someFun(7, 4)
7>1 true 7%4==0 false call someFun(7, 5)
someFun(7, 5)
7>1 true 7%5==0 false call someFun(7, 6)
someFun(7, 6)
7>1 true 7%6==0 false call someFun(7, 7)
someFun(7, 7)
7>1 true 7%7==0 true output 7
someFun(7/7, 7) 1>1 false

OUTPUT: 2 2 3 7
(iii) Generating Prime factors.
(b) (i) 0
(ii) f * 10;
(iii) digit*digit*digit; OR Math.pow(digit,3)) ;
(iv) num / 10; OR f;
(v) sum = = N OR N= = sum

Answer seven questions in this part, choosing three questions from
Section A, two from Section B and two from Section C.
Answer any three questions.
Question 4
(a) Given the Boolean function F(A, B, C, D) = (0,1,2,3,5,7,8,9,10,11).
(i) Reduce the above expression by using 4-variable Karnaugh map, showing [4]
the various groups (i.e. octal, quads and pairs).
(ii) Draw the logic gate diagram for the reduced expression. Assume that the [1]
variables and their complements are available as inputs.
(b) Given the Boolean function:
P(A, B, C, D) = ABC'D' + A'BC'D' + A'BC'D + ABC'D + A'BCD + ABCD
(i) Reduce the above expression by using 4-variable Karnaugh map, showing [4]
the various groups (i.e. octal, quads and pairs).
(ii) Draw the logic gate diagram for the reduced expression. Assume that the [1]
variables and their complements are available as inputs.

Comments of Examiners
(a) (i) Most candidates fared well in this part. Some Suggestions for teachers
candidates were not able to draw the K-Map Make students reduce POS and
for the POS expression correctly. For a number SOP expressions using K-Map
of candidates the Map rolling concept was simultaneously. Students should be
not very clear. Grey coding and labelling the told not to include the redundant
K-Map was not clear to a number of group in the final expression.
candidates. Reducing the groups by laws is not
(ii) Some candidates drew the logic circuit using needed. Only direct answer for the
NOR gates while some others drew vague groups to be written in the reduced
diagrams. expression.
(b) (i) Many candidates made errors in place value More and more practice should be
and putting variables in K-Map. In other cases, given in drawing logic circuits
the groups were reduced by laws. Several using basic gates and also with
candidates drew the K-Map incorrectly. Some universal gates.
converted the canonical form to cardinal form Emphasize on arranging the
and then reduced it. Many candidates included variables in proper order and the
the redundant group in the final expression importance of cell values
(ii) Some candidates drew the logic circuit using corresponding with the variables.
NAND gates while some others drew vague Explain clearly how the group are
diagrams. framed and reduced. Redundant
groups are not to be included in the
final reduced expression.
More practice should be given in
drawing logic circuits using basic
gates and also with universal gates.

Question 4.
(a) F (A,B,C,D) = (0 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 )


0 1 3 2
A+B 0 0 0 0
4 5 7 6
A+B 1 0 0 1

12 13 15 14
A+B 1 1 1 1

8 9 11 10
A+B 0 0 0 0

There is one Octal and one Quad :

Octal : ( M0 M1 M2 M3 M8 M9 M10 M11) = B

Quad : ( M1 M3 M5 M7) = A + D

Hence F (A,B,C,D) = B . (A + D)



0 1 3 2
4 5 7 6
AB 1 1 1

12 13 15 14
AB 1 1 1

8 9 11 10

There are two quads :

Quad1 (m4+ m5+ m12+ m13) = BC Quad 2 (m5+ m7+ m13+ m15 ) = BD

Hence P (A, B, C, D) = BC + BD

Question 5
A person is allowed to travel in a reserved coach of the train, if he/she satisfies the [10]
criteria given below:
The person has a valid reservation ticket and a valid ID proof.
The person does not have a valid reservation ticket, but holds a valid pass
issued by the Railway department with a valid ID proof.
The person is a disabled person and holds a valid pass issued by the Railway
department along with a valid ID proof.
The inputs are:
R The person has a valid reservation ticket.
P The person holds a valid pass issued by the Railway department.
D The person has a valid ID proof.
H The person is a disabled person.
(In all the above cases 1 indicates yes and 0indicatesno).
Output : T Denotes allowed to travel (1 indicates yes and 0 indicates no in all the
(a) Draw the truth table for the inputs and outputs given above and write the POS [5]
expression for T(R, P, D, H).
(b) Reduce T(R, P, D, H) using Karnaugh map. [5]
Draw the logic gate diagram for the reduced POS expression for T(R, P, D, H)
using only NOR gates. You may use gates with two or more inputs. Assume that
the variable and their complements are available as inputs.

Comments of Examiners
(a) A number of candidates were able to attempt this part Suggestions for teachers
satisfactorily. Some candidates did not mention the Students should be told to read the
final expression. Some were confused with the POS question carefully and answer
expression and took the output with 1s instead of accordingly so that no part is left
0s. A few candidates took 0s as outputs but wrote unanswered. More practice should
the minterms instead of maxterms. be given to derive SOP and POS
(b) Many candidates fared well in this part. However, expression from any given
some candidates were not able to draw the K-Map for truth table (i.e. Minterms and
the POS expression correctly. For a number of Maxterms )
candidates the map rolling concept was not very Make students reduce POS and
clear. Some converted the canonical form to cardinal SOP expressions using K-Map
form and then reduced it. NOR gates in the circuit simultaneously. Students should be
was ignored by a few candidates. told not to include the redundant
group in the final expression. The
circuit diagram for the reduced
expression must be practiced both
with basic gates and universal

Question 5.
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 1 0
0 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0 1
0 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 1
1 0 1 1 1
1 1 0 0 0
1 1 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1 1

POS Expression: T (R ,P, D , H) = (0 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 8 , 9 , 12 , 13)



0 1 3 2
R+P 0 0 0 0
4 5 7 6
R+P 0 0 1 1

12 13 15 14
R+P 0 0 1 1

8 9 11 10
R+P 0 0 1 1

There is one Octal and one Quad :

Octal : ( M0 M1 M4 M5 M8 M9 M12 M13) = D

Quad : ( M0 M1 M2 M3) = R+P

Hence T (R,P,D,H) = D . (R + P)
P [(R+P)+D]

Question 6
(a) Draw the truth table and logic gate diagram for an Octal to Binary encoder. [4]
(b) What is a Multiplexer? State an application of a Multiplexer. Also, draw the logic [4]
diagram of a 4:1 Multiplexer.
(c) Verify the following expression using Boolean laws. Also, mention the law used at [2]
each step of simplification. [3]
XYZ + XY'Z + XYZ' = X ( Y + Z )

Comments of Examiners
Suggestions for teachers
(a) Most of the candidates answered this part correctly. A few More practice should be given in
candidates drew the decimal encoder while some others drawing encoder and decoder. Use
drew the gates wrong. of proper connector and gates must
(b) Some candidates wrote the definition instead of application be explained.
and in some cases block diagrams were used instead. Some More practice must be given in
candidates interchanged the gates in the circuit diagram. drawing of multiplexer.
(c) While most candidates answered this part correctly, some Explanation of various gates and
did not mentioned the laws. A few candidates wrote the their use must be emphasized
answer directly in one step. Tell students that laws must be
mentioned while reducing,
minimizing or proving an

Question 6.
(a) Truth table for Octal to Binary Encoder : Input Output
Octal number B2 B1 B0
0 0 0 0
1 0 0 1
2 0 1 0
3 0 1 1
4 1 0 0
5 1 0 1
6 1 1 0
7 1 1 1
Logic Diagram for Octal to Binary Encoder :

B2 B1 B0

(b) Multiplexer: It is a combinational circuit which inputs parallel data and outputs one serial

Application: (1) It is used as data selector.

(2) Routing of signals
(3) Data transmission
(4) Telephone exchange ,Tv etc.

(c) X.Y.Z + X.Y.Z + X.Y.Z = X .( Y + Z )
= X.Y.Z + X.Y.Z + X.Y.Z
= X.Y.(Z + Z ) + X.Y.Z Complimentary law: Z+Z=1
= X.Y + X.Y.Z
= X.(Y + Y.Z ) Distributive law: A + B.C = (A+B).(A+C)
= X.[ (Y + Y) .( Y+Z ) ] Complimentary law: Y+Y=1
= X.( Y+Z )

Question 7
(a) Derive a Boolean expression for the logic circuit given below and reduce the derived [3]
expression, using Boolean laws:
A o
B o o
C o X

(b) What are universal gates? Construct a logic circuit using NAND gates only for the [3]
expression: A (B + C)
(c) Define Half Adders. Draw the circuit diagram and the truth table for a Half Adder. [4]

Comments of Examiners
Suggestions for teachers
(a) Most of the candidates answered this part correctly. More practice should be given in
Some candidates gave incomplete answers. A few deriving expression for any circuit
candidates could not reduce the expression. Some diagram and then reducing it.
wrote the answer directly without mentioning the Drawing of logic circuits using
intermediate points. universal gates must be explained
(b) Some candidates used basic gates in drawing the clearly. Proving of universality of
logic circuit instead of NAND gates. The concept of gates must be explained.
Universal gates not clear to a number of candidates. More practice should be given in
(c) Some candidates drew wrong circuit diagrams. The drawing half adder and full adder
circuits for partial sum and carry were done and also the truth table and
expression of both adders. Students
separately and not as one circuit in some cases.
must be told that Half Adder is one
circuit and not two different

Question 7.

(a) 1. (A.B.C)
2. (A.B.C)
3. (A.B.C) . C
4. (A.B.C) . C + ( A.B.C)
(A+B+C) . C + (A+B+C)
(A+B+C) . (C+1)

(b) Universal gates are derived gates which can perform the function of all basic gates. NAND gate
and NOR gate are Universal gates.

(c) Half adders are combinational circuits which adds two input binary bits and output two binary
bits. (Partial Sum and Carry).

Truth table of half adder :

A B Partial Sum Carry

0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1


Answer any two questions.
Each program should be written in such a way that it clearly depicts the logic of the problem.
This can be achieved by using mnemonic names and comments in the program.
(Flowcharts and Algorithms are not required.)
The programs must be written in Java.
Question 8
A class Admission contains the admission numbers of 100 students. Some of the data [10]
members / member functions are given below:
Class na