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History of manga

society in which publishing giants like Kodansha could

shape popular taste.* [1]

1 Before World War II

Writers such as Takashi Murakami have stressed events
after WWII, but Murakami sees Japan's defeat and the
Chj-giga (12th century), traditionally attributed to a monk-
atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as having
artist Kakuy (Toba Sjo)
created long-lasting scars on the Japanese artistic psyche,
which, in this view, lost its previously virile condence in
itself and sought solace in harmless and cute (kawaii) im-
ages.* [6] However, Takayumi Tatsumi sees a special role
for a transpacic economic and cultural transnationalism
that created a postmodern and shared international youth
culture of cartooning, lm, television, music, and related
popular arts, which was, for Tatsumi the crucible in which
modern manga have developed.* [7]
For Murakami and Tatsumi, trans-nationalism (or global-
ization) refers specically to the ow of cultural and sub-
cultural material from one nation to another.* [6]* [7] In
their usage, the term does not refer to international corpo-
rate expansion, nor to international tourism, nor to cross-
Image of bathers from the Hokusai manga.
border international personal friendships, but to ways in
which artistic, aesthetic, and intellectual traditions inu-
The history of manga is said to originate from scrolls ence each other across national boundaries.* [6]* [7] An
dating back to the 12th century; however, whether these example of cultural trans-nationalism is the creation of
scrolls are actually manga is still disputed, though it's be- Star Wars lms in the US, their transformation into manga
lieved they represent the basis for the right-to-left reading by Japanese artists, and the marketing of Star Wars manga
style. Other authors report origins closer to the 18th cen- to the US.* [8] Another example is the transfer of hip-
tury. Manga is a Japanese term that can be translated as hop culture from the US to Japan.* [9] Wong also sees a
comic"; Historians and writers on manga history have major role for trans-nationalism in the recent history of
described two broad and complementary processes shap- manga.* [10]
ing modern manga. Their views dier in the relative im-
portance they attribute to the role of cultural and histori-
cal events following World War II versus the role of pre-
war, Meiji, and pre-Meiji Japanese culture and art.
One view emphasizes events occurring during and after
the Allied occupation of Japan (19451952), and stresses
that manga was strongly shaped by United States cul-
tural inuences, including US comics brought to Japan
by the GIs and by images and themes from US television,
lm, and cartoons (especially Disney).* [1]* [2] The other
view, represented by other writers such as Frederik L.
Schodt, Kinko Ito, and Adam L. Kern, stress continuity of
Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions, including pre-
war, Meiji, and pre-Meiji culture and art.* [2]* [3]* [4]* [5]
According to Sharon Kinsella, the booming Japanese
publishing industry helped create a consumer-oriented Japanese wood block illustration from 19th century


However, other writers stress continuity of Japanese cul- with manga dates back to shjo magazine illustrations
tural and aesthetic traditions as central to the history of during the late 19th to early 20th centuries. The most im-
manga. They include Frederik L. Schodt,* [2]* [11] Kinko portant illustrators associated with this style at the time
Ito,* [3] Adam L. Kern,* [4]* [5] and Eric Peter Nash.* [12] were Yumeji Takehisa and particularly Jun'ichi Naka-
Schodt points to the existence in the 13th century of hara, who, inuenced by his work as a doll creator, fre-
illustrated picture scrolls like Chj-jinbutsu-giga that quently drew female characters with big eyes in the early
told stories in sequential images with humor and wit.* [2] 20th century. This had a signicant inuence on early
Schodt also stresses continuities of aesthetic style and vi- manga, particularly shjo manga, evident in the work of
sion between ukiyo-e and shunga woodblock prints and inuential manga artists such as Makoto Takahashi and
modern manga (all three fulll Eisner's criteria for se- Riyoko Ikeda.* [19]
quential art).* [13] While there are disputes over whether
Thus, these scholars see the history of manga as involv-
Chj-jinbutsu-giga or Shigisan-engi was the rst manga, ing historical continuities and discontinuities between the
both scrolls date back to about the same time period.
aesthetic and cultural past as it interacts with post-WWII
However others like Isao Takahata, Studio Ghibli co- innovation and trans-nationalism.
founder and director, contends there is no linkage with
the scrolls and modern manga.* [14]
Schodt and Nash also see a particularly signicant role
for kamishibai, a form of street theater where itinerant
2 After World War II
artists displayed pictures in a light box while narrating
the story to audiences in the street.* [2]* [12] Torrance Modern manga originates in the occupation (1945
has pointed to similarities between modern manga and 1952) and post-occupation years (1952-early 1960s),
the Osaka popular novel between the 1890s and 1940, when a previously militaristic and ultranationalist Japan
and argues that the development of widespread literacy was rebuilding its political and economic infrastruc-
in Meiji and post-Meiji Japan helped create audiences ture.* [2]* [Note 1] Although Allied occupation censor-
for stories told in words and pictures.* [15] Kinko Ito also ship policies specically prohibited art and writing that
roots manga historically in aesthetic continuity with pre- gloried war and Japanese militarism,* [2] those policies
Meiji art, but she sees its post-WWII history as driven did not prevent the publication of other kinds of mate-
in part by consumer enthusiasm for the rich imagery and rial, including manga. Furthermore, the 1947 Japanese
narrative of the newly developing manga tradition. Ito de- Constitution (Article 21) prohibited all forms of censor-
scribes how this tradition has steadily produced new gen- ship.* [20] One result was the growth of artistic creativity
res and markets, e.g., for girls' (shjo) manga in the late in this period.* [2]
1960s and for Ladies Comics (redisu) in the 1980s.* [3] In the forefront of this period are two manga series and
Kern has suggested that kibyoshi, picture books from the characters that inuenced much of the future history of
late 18th century, may have been the world's rst comic manga. These are Osamu Tezuka's Mighty Atom (Astro
books.* [4] These graphical narratives share with modern Boy in the United States; begun in 1951) and Machiko
manga humorous, satirical, and romantic themes.* [4] Al- Hasegawa's Sazae-san (begun in 1946).
though Kern does not believe that kibyoshi were a direct Astro Boy was both a superpowered robot and a naive lit-
forerunner of manga, for Kern the existence of kibyoshi tle boy.* [21] Tezuka never explained why Astro Boy had
nonetheless points to a Japanese willingness to mix words such a highly developed social conscience nor what kind
and pictures in a popular story-telling medium.* [5] The of robot programming could make him so deeply alia-
rst recorded use of the termmangato meanwhim- tive.* [21] Both seem innate to Astro Boy, and represent
sical or impromptu picturescomes from this tradition a Japanese sociality and community-oriented masculinity
in 1798, which, Kern points out, predates Katsushika diering very much from the Emperor-worship and mil-
Hokusai's better known Hokusai Manga usage by several itaristic obedience enforced during the previous period
decades.* [16]* [17] of Japanese imperialism.* [21] Astro Boy quickly became
Similarly, Inoue sees manga as being a mixture of image- (and remains) immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere
and word-centered elements, each pre-dating the Al- as an icon and hero of a new world of peace and the renun-
lied occupation of Japan. In his view, Japanese image- ciation of war, as also seen in Article 9 of the Japanese
centered or pictocentricart ultimately derives from constitution.* [20]* [21] Similar themes occur in Tezuka's
Japan's long history of engagement with Chinese graphic New World and Metropolis.* [2]* [21]
art, whereas word-centered orlogocentricart, like the
By contrast, Sazae-san (meaning Ms. Sazae) was
novel, was stimulated by social and economic needs of
drawn starting in 1946 by Machiko Hasegawa, a young
Meiji and pre-war Japanese nationalism for a populace
woman artist who made her heroine a stand-in for mil-
unied by a common written language. Both fuse in what
lions of Japanese men and especially women rendered
Inoue sees as a symbiosis in manga.* [18] homeless by the war.* [2]* [22] Sazae-san does not face
The roots of the wide-eyed look commonly associated an easy or simple life, but, like Astro Boy, she too is
highly aliative and is deeply involved with her immedi-
2.1 Shjo manga 3

ate and extended family. She is also a very strong charac- 2.1 Shjo manga
ter, in striking contrast to the ocially sanctioned Neo-
Confucianist principles of feminine meekness and obe- In 1969, a group of women manga artists later called
dience to the "good wife, wise mother" (rysai kenbo, the Year 24 Group (also known as Magnicent 24s)
; ) ideal taught by the pre- made their shjo manga debut (year 24 comes from the
vious military regime.* [23]* [24]* [25] Sazae-san faces Japanese name for 1949, when many of these artists
the world with cheerful resilience,* [22]* [26] what Hayao were born).* [34]* [35] The group included Hagio Moto,
Kawai calls a woman of endurance.* [27] Sazae-san Riyoko Ikeda, Yumiko Oshima, Keiko Takemiya, and
sold more than 62 million copies over the next half cen- Ryoko Yamagishi* [22] and they marked the rst major
tury.* [28] entry of women artists into manga.* [2]* [22] Thereafter,
Tezuka and Hasegawa were also both stylistic innovators. shjo manga would be drawn primarily by*women *
In Tezuka'scinematographictechnique, the panels are for an audience of girls and young women. [2] [30] [31]
like a motion picture that reveals details of action border- In 1971, Ikeda began her immensely popular shjo manga
ing on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance Berusaiyu no Bara (The Rose of Versailles), a story
to close-up shots.* [2] More critically, Tezuka synchro- of Oscar Franois de Jarjayes, a cross-dressing woman
nised the placement of panel with the reader's viewing who was a Captain in Marie Antoinette's Palace Guards
speed to simulate moving pictures. Hence in manga pro- in pre-Revolutionary France.* [2]* [22]* [36]* [37] In the
duction as in lm production, the person who decides end, Oscar dies as a revolutionary leading a charge of
the allocation of panels (Komawari) is credited as the her troops against the Bastille. Likewise, Hagio Moto's
author while most drawing are done by assistants. This work challenged Neo-Confucianist limits on women's
kind of visual dynamism was widely adopted by later roles and activities * [23]* [24]* [25] as in her 1975 They
manga artists.* [2] Hasegawa's focus on daily life and on Were Eleven, a shjo science ction story about a young
women's experience also came to characterize later shjo woman cadet in a future space academy.* [38]
manga.* [22]* [26]* [29]
These women artists also created considerable stylistic in-
Between 1950 and 1969, increasingly large audiences for novations. In its focus on the heroine's inner experiences
manga emerged in Japan with the solidication of its two and feelings, shjo manga arepicture poems* [39] with
main marketing genres, shnen manga aimed at boys and delicate and complex designs that often eliminate panel
shjo manga aimed at girls.* [2]* [30] Up to 1969, shjo borders completely to create prolonged, non-narrative ex-
manga was drawn primarily by adult men for young fe- tensions of time.* [2]* [22]* [30]* [31]* [40] All of these in-
male readers.* [2]* [31] novations strong and independent female characters, in-
Two very popular and inuential male-authored manga tense emotionality, and complex design remain *
for girls from this period were Tezuka's 1953-1956 Ri- teristic of shjo manga up to the present day. [29] [36]
bon no Kishi (Princess Knight or Knight in Ribbons) and
Mitsuteru Yokoyama 1966 Mahtsukai Sarii (Little Witch
Sally).* [2] Ribon no Kishi dealt with the adventures of 2.2 Shjo manga and ladies' Comics from
Princess Sapphire of a fantasy kingdom who had been 1975 to today
born with male and female souls, and whose sword-
swinging battles and romances blurred the boundaries In the following decades (1975present), shjo manga
of otherwise rigid gender roles.* [2] Sarii, the pre-teen continued to develop stylistically while simultaneously
princess heroine of Mahtsukai Sarii,* [Note 2] came evolving dierent but overlapping subgenres.* [41] Ma-
from her home in the magical lands to live on Earth, jor subgenres have included romance, superheroines,
go to school, and perform a variety of magical good and Ladies Comics(in Japanese, redisu
deeds for her friends and schoolmates.* [32] Yokoyama's , redikomi , and josei ),
Mahtsukai Sarii was inuenced by the US TV sitcom whose boundaries are sometimes indistinguishable from
Bewitched,* [33] but unlike Samantha, the main character each other and from shnen manga.* [11]* [22]
of Bewitched, a married woman with her own daughter, In modern shjo manga romance, love is a major
Sarii is a pre-teenager who faces the problems of grow- theme set into emotionally intense narratives of self-
ing up and mastering the responsibilities of forthcoming realization.* [42] Japanese manga/anime critic Eri Izawa
adulthood. Mahtsukai Sarii helped create the now very denes romance as symbolizing the emotional, the
popular mah shjo or "magical girl" subgenre of later grand, the epic; the taste of heroism, fantastic adven-
manga.* [32] Both series were and still are very popu- ture, and the melancholy; passionate love, personal strug-
lar.* [2]* [32] gle, and eternal longingset into imaginative, individu-
alistic, and passionate narrative frameworks.* [43] These
romances are sometimes long narratives that can deal
with distinguishing between false and true love, coping
with sexual intercourse, and growing up in a complex
world, themes inherited by subsequent animated versions

of the story.* [30]* [42]* [44] These coming of ageor Comicor redisu-josei subgenre has dealt with themes
Bildungsroman themes occur in both shjo and shnen of young adulthood: jobs, the emotions and problems
manga.* [Note 3]* [Note 4]* [46] of sexual intercourse, and friendships or love among
* * * * *
In the Bildungsroman, the protagonist must deal with ad- women. [41] [68] [69] [70] [71]
versity and conict,* [46] and examples in shjo manga Redisu manga retains many of the narrative stylistics
of romantic conict are common. They include Miwa of shjo manga but has been drawn by and written for
Ueda's Peach Girl,* [47]* [48] Fuyumi Soryo's Mars,* [49] adult women.* [72] Redisu manga and art has been of-
and, for mature readers, Moyoco Anno's Happy Ma- ten, but not always, sexually explicit, but sexuality has
nia,* [31]* [50] Yayoi Ogawa's Tramps Like Us, and characteristically been set into complex narratives of
Ai Yazawa's Nana.* [51]* [52] In another shjo manga pleasure and erotic arousal combined with emotional
Bildungsroman narrative device, the young heroine is risk.* [11]* [68]* [69] Examples include Ry Ramiya's Lu-
transported to an alien place or time where she meets minous Girls,* [73] Masako Watanabe's Kinpeibai* [74]
strangers and must survive on her own (including Hagio and the work of Shungicu Uchida* [75] Another subgenre
Moto's They Were Eleven,* [53] Kyoko Hikawa's From of shjo-redisu manga deals with emotional and sexual
Far Away,* [54] Y Watase's Fushigi Ygi: The Mys- relationships among women (akogare and yuri),* [76] in
terious Play, and Chiho Saito's The World Exists For work by Erica Sakurazawa,* [77] Ebine Yamaji,* [78] and
Me* [55]). Chiho Saito.* [79] Other subgenres of shjo-redisu manga
Yet another such device involves meeting unusual or have also developed, e.g., fashion (oshare) manga, like Ai
strange people and beings, for example, Natsuki Takaya's Yazawa's Paradise Kiss* [80]* [81] and horror-vampire-
Fruits Basket* [56]one of the most popular shjo manga gothic manga, like Matsuri Hino's Vampire Knight,* [82]
in the United States* [57] whose orphaned heroine Kaori Yuki's Cain Saga,* [83] and Mitsukazu Mihara's
Tohru must survive living in the woods in a house lled DOLL,* [84] which interact with street fashions, costume
with people who can transform into the animals of the play ("cosplay"), J-Pop music, and goth subcultures in
Chinese zodiac. In Harako Iida's Crescent Moon, heroine complex ways.* [85]* [86]* [87]
Mahiru meets a group of supernatural beings, nally to By the start of the 21st century, manga for women and
discover that she herself too has a supernatural ancestry girls thus represented a broad spectrum of material for
when she and a young tengu demon fall in love.* [58] pre- and early teenagers to material for adult women.
With the superheroines, shjo manga continued to break
away from neo-Confucianist norms of female meekness
2.3 Shnen, seinen, and seijin manga
and obedience.* [11]* [30] Naoko Takeuchi's Sailor Moon
(Bishjo Senshi Sramn: Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon
Manga for male readers can be characterized in dierent
) is a sustained, 18-volume narrative about a group of
ways. One is by the age of its intended audience: boys
young heroines simultaneously heroic and introspective,
up to 18 years old (shnen manga) and young men 18 to
active and emotional, dutiful and ambitious.* [59]* [60]
30 years old (seinen manga).* [88] Another approach is by
The combination proved extremely successful, and Sailor
content, including action-adventure often involving male
Moon became internationally popular in both manga and
heroes, slapstick humor, themes of honor, and some-
anime formats.* [59]* [61] Another example is CLAMP's
times explicit sexuality.* [89]* [Note 5] Japanese uses dif-
Magic Knight Rayearth, whose three young heroines,
ferent kanji for two closely allied meanings ofseinen
Hikaru, Umi, and Fuu, are magically transported to the
for youth, young manand for adult,
world of Cephiro to become armed magical warriors in
majoritythe second referring to sexually overt manga
the service of saving Cephiro from internal and external
aimed at grown men and also called seijin (adult,
enemies.* [62]
) manga.* [90]* [Note 6]* [91] Shnen, seinen, and seijin
The superheroine subgenre also extensively developed the manga share many features in common.
notion of teams (sentai) of girls working together,* [63]
Boys and young men were among the earliest readers
like the Sailor Senshi in Sailor Moon, the Magic Knights
of manga after World War II.* [92] From the 1950s
in Magic Knight Rayearth, and the Mew Mew girls
on, shnen manga focused on topics thought to interest
from Mia Ikumi's Tokyo Mew Mew.* [64] By today, the
the archetypical boy: sci-tech subjects like robots and
superheroine narrative template has been widely used
space travel, and heroic action-adventure.* [93]* [94] Sh-
and parodied within the shjo manga tradition (e.g.,
nen and seinen manga narratives often portray challenges
Nao Yazawa's Wedding Peach* [65] and Hyper Rune by
to the protagonists abilities, skills, and maturity, stress-
Tamayo Akiyama* [66]) and outside that tradition, e.g.,
* ing self-perfection, austere self-discipline, sacrice in the
in bishjo comedies like Kanan's Galaxy Angel. [67]
cause of duty, and honorable service to society, commu-
In the mid-1980s and thereafter, as girls who had nity, family, and friends.* [92]* [95]
read shjo manga as teenagers matured and entered the
Manga with solitary costumed superheroes like
job market, shjo manga elaborated subgenres directed
Superman, Batman, and Spider-Man did not be-
at women in their 20s and 30s.* [41] This Ladies
come popular as a shnen genre.* [92] An exception is
2.3 Shnen, seinen, and seijin manga 5

Kia Asamiya's Batman: Child of Dreams, released in the toire.* [92] Nonetheless, stories about fantasy or histor-
US by DC Comics and in Japan by Kodansha. However, ical military adventure were not stigmatized, and manga
lone heroes occur in Takao Saito's Golgo 13 and Koike about heroic warriors and martial artists have been ex-
and Kojima's Lone Wolf and Cub. Golgo 13 is about tremely popular.* [92] Some are serious dramas, like
an assassin who puts his skills to the service of world Sanpei Shirato's The Legend of Kamui and Rurouni Ken-
peace and other social goals,* [96] and Ogami Itto, the shin by Nobuhiro Watsuki, but others contain strongly hu-
swordsman-hero of Lone Wolf and Cub, is a widower morous elements, like Akira Toriyama's Dragon Ball.
caring for his son Daigoro while he seeks vengeance Although stories about modern war and its weapons do
against his wife's murderers. However, Golgo and Itto
exist, they deal as much or more with the psychological
remain men throughout and neither hero ever displays and moral problems of war as they do with sheer shoot-
superpowers. Instead, these stories journey into the
'em-up adventure.* [92] Examples include Seiho Tak-
hearts and minds of menby remaining on the plane of izawa's Who Fighter, a retelling of Joseph Conrad's story
human psychology and motivation.* [97]
Heart of Darkness about a renegade Japanese colonel
Many shnen manga have science ction and technol- set in WWII Burma, Kaiji Kawaguchi's The Silent Ser-
ogy themes. Early examples in the robot subgenre in- vice, about a Japanese nuclear submarine, and Motofumi
cluded Tezukas Astro Boy (see above) and Fujiko F. Kobayashi's Apocalypse Meow, about the Vietnam War
Fujios 1969 Doraemon, about a robot cat and the boy told in talking animal format. Other battle and ght-
he lives with, which was aimed at younger boys.* [98] oriented manga are complex stories of criminal and es-
The robot theme evolved extensively, from Mitsuteru pionage conspiracies to be overcome by the protagonist,
Yokoyama's 1956 Tetsujin 28-go to later, more complex such as City Hunter by Hojo Tsukasa, Fist of the North Star
stories where the protagonist must not only defeat ene- by Tetsuo Hara, and in the shjo manga From Eroica with
mies, but learn to master himself and cooperate with the Love by Yasuko Aoike, a long-running crime-espionage
mecha he controls.* [99] Thus, in Neon Genesis Evange- story combining adventure, action, and humor (and an-
lion by Yoshiyuki Sadamoto, Shinji struggles against the other example of how these themes occur across genres).
enemy and against his father, and in Vision of Escaowne For manga critics Koji Aihara and Kentaro
by Katsu Aki, Van not only makes war against Dornkirk Takekuma,* [102] such battle stories endlessly re-
s empire but must deal with his complex feelings for Hit- peat the same mindless themes of violence, which
omi, the heroine. they sardonically label the Shonen Manga Plot Shish
Sports themes are also popular in manga for male read- Kebob, where ghts follow ghts like meat skewered
ers.* [92] These stories stress self-discipline, depicting on a stick.* [103] Other commentators suggest that ght
not only the excitement of sports competition but also sequences and violence in comics serve as a social outlet
character traits the hero needs to transcend his limi- for otherwise dangerous impulses.* [104] Shnen manga
tations and to triumph.* [92] Examples include boxing and its extreme warriorship have been parodied, for
(Tetsuya Chibas 1968-1973 Tomorrow's Joe* [100] and example, in Mine Yoshizaki's screwball comedy Sgt.
Rumiko Takahashi's 1987 One-Pound Gospel) and bas- Frog (Keroro Gunso), about a platoon of slacker alien
ketball (Takehiko Inoues 1990 Slam Dunk* [101]). frogs who invade the Earth and end up free-loading o
Supernatural settings have been another source of action- the Hinata family in Tokyo. [105]
adventure plots in shnen and some shjo manga in which
the hero must master challenges. Sometimes the pro-
tagonist fails, as in Tsugumi Ohba and Takeshi Obata's 2.3.1 Sex and women's roles in manga for males
Death Note, where protagonist Light Yagami receives a
notebook from a Death God (shinigami) that kills anyone In early shnen manga, men and boys played all the major
whose name is written in it, and, in a shjo manga exam- roles, with women and girls having only auxiliary places
ple, Hakase Mizuki's The Demon Ororon, whose protag- as sisters, mothers, and occasionally girlfriends. Of the
onist abandons his demonic kingship of Hell to live and nine cyborgs in Shotaro Ishinomori's 1964 Cyborg 009,
die on earth. Sometimes the protagonist himself is su- only one is female, and she soon vanishes from the ac-
pernatural, like Kohta Hirano's Hellsing, whose vampire tion. Some recent shnen manga virtually omit women,
hero Alucard battles reborn Nazis hellbent on conquer- e.g., the martial arts story Baki the Grappler by Itagaki
ing England, but the hero may also be (or was) human, Keisuke and the supernatural fantasy Sand Land by Akira
battling an ever-escalating series of supernatural enemies Toriyama. However, by the 1980s, girls and women be-
(Hiromu Arakawa's Fullmetal Alchemist, Nobuyuki An- gan to play increasingly important roles in shnen manga,
zai's Flame of Recca, and Tite Kubo's Bleach). for example, Toriyama's 1980 Dr. Slump, whose main
character is the mischievous and powerful girl robot Arale
Military action-adventure stories set in the modern world,
for example, about WWII, remained under suspicion of
glorifying Japans Imperial history* [92] and have not The role of girls and women in manga for male readers
become a signicant part of the shnen manga reper- has evolved considerably since Arale. One class is the
pretty girl (bishjo).* [Note 7] Sometimes the woman is

unattainable, but she is always an object of the hero's and rape.* [115] In some cases, rape and lust mur-
emotional and sexual interest, like Belldandy from Oh der themes came to the forefront, as in Urotsukidoji
My Goddess! by Ksuke Fujishima and Shao-lin from by Toshio Maeda* [116] and Blue Catalyst from 1994
Guardian Angel Getten by Minene Sakurano.* [106] In by Kei Taniguchi,* [117] but these extreme themes are
other stories, the hero is surrounded by such girls and not commonplace in either untranslated or translated
women, as in Negima by Ken Akamatsu and Hanaukyo manga.* [91]* [118]
Maid Team by Morishige.* [107] The male protagonist
does not always succeed in forming a relationship with
the woman, for example when Bright Honda and Aimi 2.4 Gekiga
Komori fail to bond in Shadow Lady by Masakazu Kat-
sura. In other cases, a successful couple's sexual activities Main article: Gekiga
are depicted or implied, like Outlanders by Johji Man-
abe.* [108] In still other cases, the initially naive and im-
Gekiga literally means drama picturesand refers to a
mature hero grows up to become a man by learning how
form of aesthetic realism in manga.* [119]* [120] Gekiga
to deal and live with women emotionally and sexually, like
style drawing is emotionally dark, often starkly realis-
Yota in Video Girl Ai by Masakazu Katsura, Train Man in
tic, sometimes very violent, and focuses on the day-in,
Train Man: Densha Otoko by Hidenori Hara, and Makoto
day-out grim realities of life, often drawn in gritty and
in Futari Ecchi by Katsu Aki.* [109]* [110] In poruno- and
unpretty fashions.* [119]* [121] Gekiga arose in the late
eromanga (seijin manga), often called hentai manga in the
1950s and 1960s partly from left-wing student and work-
US, a sexual relationship is taken for granted and depicted
ing class political activism* [119]* [122] and partly from
explicitly, as in work by Toshiki Yui * [111] and in Were-
the aesthetic dissatisfaction of young manga artists like
Slut by Jiro Chiba and Slut Girl by Isutoshi.* [112] The re-
Yoshihiro Tatsumi with existing manga.* [123]* [124] Ex-
sult is a range of depictions of boys and men from naive
amples include Sampei Shirato's 1959-1962 Chronicles
to very experienced sexually.
of a Ninja's Military Accomplishments (Ninja Bugeich),
Heavily armed female warriors (sent bishjo) represent the story of Kagemaru, the leader of a peasant rebellion
another class of girls and women in manga for male read- in the 16th century, which dealt directly with oppression
ers.* [Note 8] Some sent bishjo are battle cyborgs, like and class struggle,* [125] and Hiroshi Hirata's Satsuma
Alita from Battle Angel Alita by Yukito Kishiro, Motoko Gishiden, about uprisings against the Tokugawa shogu-
Kusanagi from Masamune Shirow's Ghost in the Shell, nate.* [126]
and Chise from Shin Takahashi's Saikano. Others are hu-
As the social protest of these early years waned, gekiga
man, like Attim M-Zak from Hiroyuki Utatane's Seraphic
shifted in meaning towards socially conscious, mature
Feather, Johji Manabe's Karula Olzen from Drakuun,
drama and towards the avant-garde.* [120]* [124]* [127]
and Alita Forland (Falis) from Sekihiko Inui's Murder
Examples include Koike and Kojima's Lone Wolf and
Princess.* [113]
Cub* [128] and Akira, an apocalyptic tale of motorcycle
As of 2013 national censorship laws and local ordinances gangs, street war, and inexplicable transformations of the
remain in Japan and the public response to the publication children of a future Tokyo. Another example is Osamu
of manga with sexual content or the depiction of nudity Tezuka's 1976 manga MW, a bitter story of the aftermath
has been mixed. Series have an audience and sell well but of the storage and possibly deliberate release of poison
their publication also encounters opposition. In the early gas by U.S. armed forces based in Okinawa years after
1990s the opposition resulted in the creation of Harm- World War II.* [129] Gekiga and the social conscious-
ful manga lists and a shift in the publishing industry. By ness it embodies remain alive in modern-day manga. An
this time large publishers had created a general manga example is Ikebukuro West Gate Park from 2001 by Ira
demand but the corollary is that they were also suscepti- Ishida and Sena Aritou, a story of street thugs, rape,
ble to public opinion in their markets. Faced with crit- and vengeance set on the social margins of the wealthy
icism from certain segments of the population and un- Ikebukuro district of Tokyo.* [130]
der pressure from industry groups to self-regulate, ma-
jor publishing houses discontinued series, such as Angel
and 1+2=Paradise, while smaller publication companies,
not as susceptible to these forces, were able to ll the 3 See also
void.* [1]* [114]
History of comics
With the relaxation of censorship in Japan after the early
1990s, a wide variety of explicitly drawn sexual themes
appeared in manga intended for male readers that cor-
respondingly occur in English translations.* [91] These 4 Notes
depictions range from mild partial nudity through im-
plied and explicit sexual intercourse through bondage [1] This section draws primarily on the work of Fred-
and sadomasochism (SM), zoophilia (bestiality), incest, erik Schodt (1986, 1996, 2007) and of Paul Gravett

(2004). Time-lines for manga history are available in [6] Murakami, Takashi (2005). Little Boy: the Arts of Japan's
Mechademia, Gravett, and in articles by Go Tchiei 1998. Exploding Subculture. New York: Japan Society. ISBN 0-
[2] Sarii is the Japanese spelling and pronunciation of the
English-language name Sally.The word mahtsukai [7] Tatsumi, Takayumi (2006). Full Metal Apache: Trans-
literally means magic operator,someone who can use actions between Cyberpunk Japan and Avant-Pop Amer-
and control magic. It does not meanwitchormagical ica. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-
girl(which is mah shjo in Japanese), because tsukai is 3774-6.
not a gendered word in Japanese. This use of an English-
language name with a Japanese descriptive word is an ex- [8] Phantom Goes Manga. StarWars.com. January 5,
ample of transnationalism in Tatsumi's sense. 2000. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007.
Retrieved 2007-09-18.
[3]The transformation into a superhero is in fact an allegory
of becoming an adult.* [45] [9] Condry, Ian (2006). Hip-Hop Japan: Rap and the Path
of Cultural Globalization. Durham, NC: Duke University
[4] In German, Bildung meanseducationand Roman means Press. ISBN 0-8223-3892-0.
novel,hence a Bildungsroman is a novel about the edu-
cation of the protagonist in the ways of the world. [10] Wong, Wendy Siuyi (2006). Globalizing manga: From
Japan to Hong Kong and beyond. Mechademia: an An-
[5] In another system of classication, shnen, seinen, and nual Forum for Anime, Manga, and the Fan Arts. 1: 23
seijin mangaindeed, all genres of mangaare dened 45.
by the intended audience or demographic of the mag-
azine where the manga originally appeared, regardless [11] Schodt (1996)
of content of the specic manga. This magazine-of-
origin system is used by the English-language Wikipedia [12] Nash, Eric Peter. 2009. Manga kamishibai: the art of
in its Template:Infobox animanga when assigning de- Japanese paper theater. Abrams. ISBN 081095303X.
mographic labels to manga. For a list of magazine [13] Eisner, Will. 1985. Comics & Sequential Art. Tamarac,
demographics, see http://users.skynet.be/mangaguide/ Fl: Poorhouse Press. ISBN 978-0-9614728-1-8.
magazines.html, but note that that website does not use
magazine audience or demographic for classifying manga, [14] "Yomiuri Newspaper Discusses History's First Manga.
nor is this approach discussed by either Thompson (2007) Yomiuri Shimbun. Anime News Network. 2008-01-03.
or Brenner (2007). Retrieved 2009-01-20.
[6] The French Wikipedia manga article uses the terms seinen [15] Torrance, Richard. 2005. Literacy and
and seijin to denote manga for adult men. Accessed 2007- literature in Osaka, 1890-1940.Journal of
12-28. Japanese Studies, 31(1):27-60. Web version:
[7] For multiple meanings of bishjo, see Perper & Cornog
japanese_studies/v031/31.1torrance.html Accessed
(2002), pp. 6063.
[8] For the sent bishjo, translated asbattling beauty,see
[16] Bouquillard, Jocelyn and Christophe Marquet. 2007.
Kotani, Mari. 2006. Metamorphosis of the Japanese
Hokusai: First Manga Master. New York: Abrams.
girl: The girl, the hyper-girl, and the battling beauty.
Mechademia: An Annual Forum for Anime, Manga, and [17] Kern (2006), pp. 139-144, Fig. 3.3
the Fan Arts, 1:162-170. See also William O. Gard-
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Tamaki. Sent bishjo no seishin bunseki (Fighting Beau- a source of Japanese modernity.In Sumie Jones, edi-
ties: A Psychoanalysis). Tokyo: ta Shuppan, 2000. tor. 1996. Imaging/Reading Eros. Bloomington, IN: East
at http://www.depauw.edu/sfs/review_essays/gardner88. Asian Studies Center, Indiana University. pp. 148-152.
htm. Accessed 2007-12-28. ISBN 0-9653281-0-4.

[19] https://books.google.com/books?id=
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Toku, Masami, ed. (2005). Shojo Manga: Girl

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6 External links
A History of Manga

A complete Hokusai Book, Hokusai Manga Vol 12

in Touch & Turn format

Junichi Nakahara from Shjo Manga to Fashion (

Junichi Nakahara the godfather of manga?

Manga's story starts with kamishibai


7 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

7.1 Text
History of manga Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_manga?oldid=775886908 Contributors: Emperor, Enochlau,
DocWatson42, D6, Discospinster, Vapour, LordAmeth, Stemonitis, Kasuga~enwiki, Gerbrant, KyuuA4, BD2412, Ketiltrout, Rjwilmsi,
SchuminWeb, Bgwhite, Wavelength, Phorque, K.C. Tang, Iron Ghost, That Guy, From That Show!, SmackBot, Nihonjoe, Malkinann,
Wakuran, Yamaguchi , Hmains, Cattus, Squilibob, OrphanBot, Wizardman, Curly Turkey, Jinnai, TheFarix, Tawkerbot2, Head-
bomb, Marek69, Kazu-kun, Masamage, LittleOldMe, VoABot II, Aka042, KConWiki, Mwvandersteen, 1549bcp, The Light6, Stealthound,
Paracel63, J.delanoy, Nohansen, Jackaranga, ACSE, Anna Lincoln, Beyond silence, ILIKECEREALX, Chihuong bk~enwiki, ImageRe-
movalBot, Jump Guru, Martarius, Timothy Perper, ClueBot, Drmies, Versus22, DumZiBoT, Wilhelm lagercrantz, Ost316, KinHikari,
Addbot, SpellingBot, Tide rolls, Xenobot, KrebMarkt, Luckas-bot, Yobot, AnomieBOT, Keithbob, Citation bot, LilHelpa, Omnipaedista,
Macheychoul, Citation bot 1, Moscow Connection, Duoduoduo, PleaseStand, GoingBatty, Dcirovic, K6ka, ZroBot, JeyHOT, H3llBot,
Jj98, ClueBot NG, Widr, Helpful Pixie Bot, Mark Arsten, Argento Surfer, Madeleined2, Cpt.a.haddock, Retroverbe, Rainbow Shifter,
Verso.Sciolto, Monkbot, Opencooper, Knife-in-the-drawer, Chuckdoesdbz12, JasonV69, Samwightt, InternetArchiveBot, Suuzaku, Ben-
der the Bot and Anonymous: 68

7.2 Images
File:Chouju_thief.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ee/Chouju_thief.jpg License: Public do-
main Contributors: suntory.com Original artist: Unknown<a href='https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:
Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.
svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
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