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_'-- ,, J J , , _ t i m t ,

M crphne Arrays Opim,zedfer

Music Becrdinga
Wieslaw R. Woszczyk, AESMember
Graduate Program tn Sound Recording
McGill University. Montreal, Canada H3A I E3

Microphone arrays have directional capabilities which allow them to extract coherent components from sound fields
while dispersing (smearing) incoherent components depending on the direction of sound incidence. Detailed measure-
ments of a number of mono and stereo arrays are presented emphasizing their on-axis and off-axis performance. Mono
arrays can be considered as elements of stereo arrays and their stereo performance can be predicted for various sound
fields from mono measurements. Optimizing the use of mono and stereo arrays can lead to excellent results in record-
lng, particularly in situations where the directivity of single microphones is insufficient. Arrays can also be used to syn-
thesize microphones with improved characteristics.

tPI_I_F[_IIa&I_C_ the array (inter-element spacing) must phases at each microphone are random,
C_{_dD'E_S_C$ OF be smaller than a half wavelength of and the output of a two-microphone ar-
_C_IOPHONE ARRAYS the highest frequency otherwise "grat- ray is an uncorrelated sum (a 3-dB in-
The purpose of combining individual lng lobes" appear--they are side lobes crease in level). If the inter-element
microphones into arrays is threefold: to thatcreate multiple beams and interfere spacing is much smaller than the wave-
obtain increased directivity due to co- with the main beam. Side lobes mtro- length, the sound is received in phase
herent reinforcement of axial signals, to duce spectral colorations and spoil tim- and produces a correlated sum (a 6-dB
modify the coherence of received sig~ bral definition of direct sounds because increase). If direct sound reaches the
hals, and to create hybrid microphones amplitude differences can exceed 40 array from the broad side (on axis m
which combine characteristics of dif- dB at some frequencies depending on the array) the sound is received in
ferent microphones, the position of the source. Side lobes phase regardless of frequency and the
An array is a wave-type device and can be reduced by weighting (through output is also a correlated sum. The dif-
its performance is wavelength depen- attenuation or filtering) the contribu- ference between the correlated and un-
dent. A typical array consists of a hum- tions of individual microphone outputs: correlated sum increases by 3 dB for
bet of microphone elements arranged however, this also broadens directivity, each doubling of the number of micro-
in line, in a vertical or horizontal col- If the inter-element spacing is much phones in the array, so for a two-micro-
umn, their outputs combined electrical- larger than the wavelength, the relative phone array the uncorrelated sum is 3
ly in phase (Fig. 1). Due to phase can- , r m

cellation of microphone signals for

sounds arriving at an angle to the main

axis, a vertical array produces a highly
Config uration of Microphone Array

plane, and a response
horizontal inarray
the produces
vertical sound wave J/ 0 % axis I sound wave
on axis [ M= 5

directional response in the horizontal off axis /,m ono
It isdifficult
toachieve goodperfor- + L
mance over a wide bandwidth using a
single array, because the directional array width
performance of arrays is frequency de- {aperture)
pendent and limited by the size and the /_

configuration of the array. Single arrays _ 7'_ /7'/_'"_

range of frequencies without severe
performance compromises.
Thespacing between microphones in
cannot function optimally over a wide __'J _j /m_en__t
/_ s
_ out

* Presented at the 92nd Convention of the Figur '_

Audio Engineering Society, Vienna, 1992
March 24-27. ,._ ........

926 J.AudioEng,Soc.,Vol.40,No.11,1992November
dB lower than the correlated sum, for sponsible for this effect which can be computer simulation of this array con-
four microphones the difference is 6 partly corrected by arcing the micro- sisted of 64 omnidirectional micro-
dB. for eight microphones it is 9 dB, phones away from the straight line [1]. phones, not compensated in frequency,
and so forth. Since directionalselectivity of arrays is and the width of the array was 3.46 m.
The width of the array (aperture) achieved by phase cancellation, their Its directional performance at low fre-
must be comparable to the wavelength performance is sensitive to positional quencies below 250 Hz was not better
in order for the array m have a direc- misalignment of the microphone ele- than that of a single figure-of-eight mi-
tional effect. If the wavelength is much ments. Tight positional tolerances must crophone. In this study, the arrays em-
larger (4 times or more) than the width, be maintained for broadcast quality ploying unidirectional microphones
then all microphonesreceive the sound sound, were not investigated. The authors of
in phase regardless of the direction of When the number of microphones in the report [2] concluded that if the ar-
incidence, and no directional selectivity the array is fixed, optimal performance ray is to be as selective at 3 m from a
is possible. Low-frequency reverbera- at high frequencies requires narrow speaking person as a cardioid micro-
tion cannot be rejected by a small width spacing and narrow width of the array; phone at 0.75 m distance, then at least
array when wavelengths are more than whereas to achieve optimal perfor- 50 microphones are needed, and may
four times the width of the array, The mance at low frequencies requires a be twice that number if satisfactory
rejection of reverberation increases wide array with large spacings. Optimal wide-band operation is required.
with frequency and reaches maximum performance can only be achieved with-
when inter-element spacing is equal or in a narrow band at a time. These con-
larger than half of the wavelength. The flicting requirements make it impracti- PC_I_5'llC_L_t_V$
maximum attenuation depends on the cai to realize a wide bandwidth array,
number N of microphones used in the and a compromise solution must be The BBC Research Department con-
array according to the formula 10 log N found between the frequency range of ducted practical tests using in-line ar-
dB. For eight microphones the maxi- operation, the width of the array, and rays consisting of eight omnidirectional
mum rejection can reach 9 dB, for two the number of microphones in the array, microphones in order to evaluate their
microphones 3 dB (Fig. 2). To achieve good directional resolu- sound quality and usefulness for speech
Being wavelength dependent, arrays tion over the full bandwidth using a reception. The tests were conducted in
fail to reject low-frequency background brute-force method would require a an anechoic chamber, in a reverbera-
noise unless their aperture is very large wide array with narrow inter-element tion room, and in a room typical of a
(6 m or more), spacing and would require more than small TV studio [2]. Two regular spac-
Beam width, the width of the main 10,000 microphones! One solution pro- ings of 0.1 m (0.7-m aperture) and of
lobe having the largest sensitivity on posed in [2] for reducing the number of 0.4 m (2.8-m aperture) were tried on an
axis to the array, becomes progressive- microphones was a symmetrical logs- arc array as well as the logarithmic
ly narrower as the frequency increases, rithmic array designed for speech band- spacing of 0.1 m to 0.8 m. All arrays
This creates losses of high frequencies width where the inter-element spacing gave similar performance on natural
when the array is even slightly offset to increases logarithmically from 0.1 m at speech. In the studio, the human speak-
the source, Wavefront curvature is re- the center to 1.0 m at the edges. The er was heard with more presence on
axis compared with the single micro-
phone. Offaxisthespeaker "sounded
Rejection of Reverberation by Arrays more distant and echoey" as direct
sound was attenuated (phase interfer-
I 100
I 200
] 500
t lkI 2kI 5k 1Ok ence) while reverberation remained.
1 room wavelength= 1 wavelength= 2x arrays/ The authors report that the tonal quality
rumble [ 4 x array width J inter-element spacing J of speech was colored by high levels of
dB 0 - _ _ _ reverberation at low frequencies, and
.. _ _ thatthedirectional

addition, comb-filter colorations were

.................. '._ii_ M-2 (level dropping 6 dB at 1 m off axis). In

diffusion verberation, when the speaker turned in

M-8 different directions. The array in-
creased the audibility of low-frequency
i! M-4 audible, only partly masked by the re-
1 coherent incoherent M-16 background noise of the studio to an
unacceptable level as small aperture
att, muation of
Hz _ frequency (2.8 m) and spacing (0.4 m) made it un-
reverberation I Arrays have same spacing and increasing widths I able to cancel large wavelengths. (The
inter-element spacing larger than half
Fa_ur_ the wavelength is required for maxi-
.......... mumrejection of thereverberant t:>

J. Audio Eng.,Soc. VoL 40, No. 11, 1992 November 927

, , , , , , , ,, , , i ..... , , , r,r,

High-Quality Cardioid Microphone Array: 4 KM84s Coincident, In Line

Frequency Response Curves 0-180 Measured every 5 _ I_
t'"'--- source rotation

- - x L_:,;_. ?I-,.

_-,,, '_'--_'_.7,--J_,_ '"_iltll ; -T--Eqlrri_- - ":v,'_' \,'f rll Jtl/l.L
\_x_'x, ..,_ ,.,----42_[
_, _ i tlJ (1) 0- 60 (1) 0- 180
2 , '_,'W."_ h;r IIIII fll
5_-2_5g/I " t,?Ittt
horizontal scale: 5kHz/division _: k 1 I,_,d i:
vertical scale: 5dB/division .... _A_ _\_ -' - --_ '_
cursor marks at: 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 kHz _ _ '_A_,_lm
BI ItJl_ .... __ '_ _it-__ x'_
__,; \ _Yi_tt_dll ___,


....... _';,;' ' ' _"_"_
'_ '_I_'T_
(2) SO- 120 (3) 120- 180

Figure 3 Figure 4

field.) High-frequency performance, across a wide bandwidth, multiple-mi- directional microphone provides direc-
beam sharpness, and the level of side crophone arrays optimized for speech tivity in the middle frequencies.
lobes, were sensitive to precise pos_- and having narrow beam widths are A coincident arrangement of two or
tioning of microphones in the array, not useful. However. the limited direc- more microphones is used to produce
A 1-meter-wide prototype array con- tivity of a single, gradient-type, Unridi- an effective increase of directivity at
sisting of 40 microphone elements rectional microphone can be effective- high frequencies and at the same time
spaced 28.3 mm apart was developed by ly enhanced with compIementary avoid destructive phase cancellations
JVC of Japan in 1984 for use in situa- narrow-band arrays. The strategy pro- within the sensitive middle audio
tions where sharp directivity within the posed for optimizing the use of arrays range. A widely spaced microphone ar-
frequency range of the human voice is in music recording is to combine nar- ray is used to provide increased direc-
needed [1]. It was an electronically row-band arrays with selected direc- tivity allow frequencies. In addition,
steerable arc-line array using digitally tional microphones and to adjust the spaced microphones contribute to in-
controlled delay circuits allowing 5.5-gs sound balance in a number of spectral creased diffusion in the middle and up-
delay increments and hypercardioid mi- regions according to existing sound- per frequencies. Directional beams of
crophone elements oriented + 30o and field conditions, the two array systems do not overlap in
-30 to the main axis. A visual indicator When we examine the directivity of frequency or area of focus, so combina-
of beamdirection(a calibratedTV cam- studio-quality unidirectional micro- ,, , r

era) was provided. The array was used phones (see Fig, 3) we can identify
for capturingthe sound of sports events three areas of distinct directivity: low L- ' , _ I I I_'
from a distance. No subjective parlor- frequencies, middle range, and high I _ _:_-_I i.
manceassessmentwasreported, frequencies.The largestdirectivityis in I _}ii'_l
the middle range from 500 Hz to 5000 0-80 I t_4_,'_11
3 COMBINATIVE NARROW-BAND Hz where a substantial attenuation of I_ l,;_i9_
45 dB can be measured at 180inet- I l_'_11_,,
dance in high-quality microphones (see
the large vertical spread of the response
If they are to be practical, arrays used curves). In the high- and low-frequency 60-120
in music recording cannot require a range, directivity (off-axis attenuation)
very large number of microphones and is considerably reduced. It is in these
must function without the need for ex- two regions that arrays can provide
tensive and precise adjustments. To be their directional capabilities which el-
desirable, arrays must produce unique fectively complement that of the micro-
results which other tools of directivity phone alone. To accomplish this, the
and image enhancement cannot deliver, mmrophones must be arranged in a nar-
In music recording, where mild di- row-band array optimized for high fie-
factional adjustments and low unwant- quencies, and also a narrow-band array
ed side effects are usually needed optimizedfor low frequencies.The uni-

928 d. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 40, No. 11, 1992 November
attenuation reaching the maximum at
between 60 and 90 . The high-fre-
Array: 4 KM84s Coincident, In Block quency response is also very sensitive
(Horizontal: 0-60 , 60-120, 120-180; Vertical: 0--60 ) to slight source displacement away

,,_, : l_I I __t th I from the 0 axis. The response falls off
_' - ---- :"_t _I_l because of a small misalignment of the
\!k_,\_ - , _[_
_ ,I source from 0 Middle and low fre-
I I tg_/tlttl _lJ I l_,\\l_lllJtl quencies are subject to max]mum at-

': = k._ I _1ltrl_/l_ltHtl tenuation at an angle of incidence be-

I ,I ,,lltll q) I t IIlIIl?, tween 110 and 130 (which is in
(1) 0 - 60 (1) 0 - 60 between the hypercardioid and super-
cardioid characteristics).
I J I*ll Althoughthecoincident
! itl

_' ._--_----___J j _ __>._J'l\_l_-J

_-'--%-_ J I/Itt'it_
'&J IIt',_ ray producessimilarperformance
interference tothe
tube. it allows a much
greater control during sound reception
1 II_tlIUl
q l!llttjglltll!, x'_\'_/_-_'_7
V It _]Jl:!
g!I I_[Iil_, because in the horizontal plane (short
(2) 60 - 120 (3) 120 - 180 dimension) the array has the same di-
rectivity as one of its microphones. The
Fagu_'5 user may take advantage of a micro-
phone system which has directivity
ranging from subcardioid or cardioid to
tive arrays provide good coverage for long dimension), a shot-gun microphone by adjusting the
any widely distributed sound field. Phase interference which increases array orientation. The array layout
The performance of a high-frequency directivity of arrays can be compared gives a clear indication which sections
array is presented in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 to acoustic phase interference in a of the sound field are affected by these
where four unidirectional microphones shot-gun microphone. There. the array different directional capabilities and al-
are mounted together in line or in of openings in the interference tube lows fast repositioning of the array in
block. Tight coincidence means that the produces an array of sound waves orig- order to achieve different samplings of
array will be effective up to the highest inating at increasing distances from a the sound field.
frequencies of the audio bandwidth single microphone receiver. For com- It should be noted, that phase inter-
without any serious unwanted lobes parison, the directional effect of a short ference resulting from an array of par-
which could cause timbral distortions. 1l-cm interference tube installed on a allel slits in a microphone grid can also
Smooth performance in the horizontal hypercardioid transducer is shown in cause a definite (although relatively
plane (around the short dimension) can Fig. 6. We can observe that the direc- mild) directional effect. Fig. 7 shows
effectively mask any undesirable side tional selectivity of the microphone is the difference of frequency response
effects resulting from increased direc- much sharper at high frequencies due between the horizontal and the vertical
tivity in the vertical plane (around the to the interference tube, with off-axis grid orientation in a small-diameter

Effect of Microphone Grid

Mini-Shotgun Microphone Small Diameter Omnidirectional Microphone

.... nominal response _ ?"'_ 0ijJ

J g...[_,_-.-:,
._':''n,, : :::::: : : : : ::::::

,/ t_ IJJ/I
/ /// ,,1,,,,:,,: : ,, ': i _':iiii
.. t

5kHz/div. 180
grid vertical referenced to grid horizontal; 5kHz/div., 5dB/div.

Fil3ur_ Filler 7

J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 40. No. 11, 1992 November 929
, , t j , _ ,i .... ,

(16-mm) omnidirectional microphone.

Decca-Tree Stereo Array The interference causes a 6-dB attenu-

ation of a 20-kHz signal at 90 inci-
Directivity, Precedence, and the Resulting Images dance. Some professional users are
Low-and high-frequency condition well aware of this effect and use it to
solid center their advantage in recording.

nter-right ray (spaced array) should be positioned

&/l _ I I X_e Thelow-frequencynarrow-bandar-

'_r '/ path, along the large room dimension,

ihepo ivowr
where low frequencies can develop, or
sond along the room boundaries that guide
m LO right /ow-frequency waves. For wide spac-
ing of microphones, as for example be-
tween the L microphone and the L out-
rigger or the R microphone and its

t I I I I outrigger in a Decca-Tree arrangement

diffused center (reverb) (Fig. 8), or in the M-5 stereo array
(Fig. 9_, coherent doubling of micro-
Figure 8 phone signals occurs for an incoherent
Spaced Arrays M-3 and M-5 sound field only at the lowest frequen-
cies [3]. The microphones are effec-

r signals)at middleand upperfrequen-

_ _ _ _ tivefydecoupled (receiveuncorrelated
primary axis cies, and contribute to higher diffusion

I tical doubling ofofinformation

and smoothness sounddue to density.
1. LargeSpacing It should be kept in mind that a statisti-
2. Low Interference
El El 4____ cally diffused field exists only at dis-
3. Directivity at Low-Frequency
4. Diffusion at High-Frequency
L. C R tances greater than a half wavelength
M 3 from the room boundaries, and at least
a critical distance (radius) away from
the source.
L El
L El
C El
R iD
R 4 Arrayscan be put togetherusingmi-

and bi-directional microphones pro-

% M5 / crophones of any polar pattern. Omni-
'"'outriggers' duce arrays having symmetrical direc-
tivities with respect to their longest di-
Figureg mansion. This type of directivity

"Straus Paket" Array, KM84 + KM83 pattem

be difficult tomicrophones
use in some

ti/IlI produceunidirectional
singleaxisof maximum arrayswitha
_11_ KM84+
_'__ t_:._ with which it is easier to avoid unde-

_/___ KM83 sired sources.

....... Arrays can also incorporate micro-
-- _ i '' phones

0 ' 90 C_ 5dB/div. __ istics. Fig. 10 shows an example of a

_ KM84 coincident array consisting of two dif-
.. If It __ii,tit1r-
__.i ) { II fit_{I
[tlt[I ._._
_ _ I -_. ferentpattern(cardioid
tional) microphones. The and omnidirec-
avid user of
"--- - t'"Xt_4t;[,ti'-
' 'l'llI'k.-,, '_"_- _' -*_ this array, ProfessorVolkerStrausof
------- ----_ PhilipsClassics in Baam,TheNether-
ii KM83 lands [4], takes advantage of its excel-
I r I lin Itill lent response, which is much smoother
90 - 180 C_ 5 kHz/div, on and off axis than any one of the indi-
- 180 vidual microphones.The extendedIow-
Figure l0 frequency response and a nonsymmetri-
cai directional characteristic can be very
i i i

930 J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 40, No. 11, 1992 November

--_ SubCardiid (WideCardiOid'--

_ ............ Stereo Arrays: L + R Sum Response
Hypocardioid) Compared to Cardioid
t I I t L_i_ i

// _ -- source at 45

90o / :",,0 ,, _:li

I i t; ,_ off-axis

t/ _'_;_!!_ [ 110, 17cm

.... ..... ! _I_ ; source at 55

"" .... !""':I ..... off-axis

useful in complex sound fields, and are crophone characteristics by combining crophones panned in between belong-
an added bonus of this hybrid micro- various complementary microphones ing to both mono L and R arrays.
phone. Its subcardioidpattern (Fig. 11) intoarrays. Stereo microphonearrays may haveto
had been utilized long before the inte- Stereo arrays can be considered as be summed for mono reproduction.
grated subcardioid capsules of today be- dual mono L and R arrays, that is mi- Free-field measurements of XY and
came available. Clearly, the potential is crophones panned to hard left or right ORTF arrays in Fig. 12 show that
them for developing new improved mi- creating mono L or R arrays, and mi- Phase interference affects the corn-

isperformance. Performancethat
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J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 40, No. 11, 1992 November 931
bined L+R response of .... sorpti0n,volume,dimen-
ORTF pairs when the source Stereo Loudspeaker Array sions, and so forth). Two
is on axis to one of the mi- Perceptual Consideration stereo arrays connected in

thearray)Thefrequencyre- _ Ny mono arraysconsistingof

crp hnes(55ffaxist _ coherel ce axis ,_ parallel produceLandR
sponsesare measuredevery two spaced apart elements
5 when the source moves each (Fig. 14). The spacing
upward,awayfromtheheft~ andpositioning of the Ioud-
zontalplane of the micro- speakers introduce addition-
phone pair. The comb-like ce al diffusion and directional
interference produced by the / 'x / (soatial) axis focus, which can be used to

audible in the ispresence

ORTFarray of a
usuallynot _ 4 ' the sound
adjust image inqauality
theoverall room.of
strong reverberant sound EARS SENSITIV //LOUDSPEAKERS PLACED
field which fills in peaks and SUM ANDDIFFERENCE,
_. _ _
valleys with reflected ener- COMPONENTS
gy. This shows, however,
that coincidence or large Figure 13 ARRAYS
separationof microphones, Arrayscanbeveryeffective
which are suggested in order Double-Stereo Loudspeaker Arrays where proper imaging de-
to optimize the performance Improved Spatial Image pends on a specific balance
ofarrays,are a goodwayto betweenfocusand smear,
LF RF LF RF and between coherent and
avoid unwanted interference, r'l r-1 P [[3
\ incoherent components of

A_T LOUD- _) _LS _ rive effect of arrays on the
RSn sound image can be de-
Microphones which are scribedasselective focusing
panned in between the left LR RR and smearing.ofj_age de_fi-.....
and the right channel should _I=i 3rm L the soundfield.Thesubjec-
be reproduced over an array FRONTARRAY
and SlOE In a diffuse sound field,
of stereo loudspeakers (two focusing directional_ beams on the listener constructed from running
loudspeakers separated by a increasing diffusion, spatiousness and envelopment plane waves incident from
typical distance of a few me- all directions, Sound-field
ters). Depending on the fre_ Figure 14 samples taken by micro-
quency,amplitude, andphase phonesbecomestatistically
relationships of the L and R signals: a generation of complex Coherent and im independent above a certain frequency,
stereo loudspeaker array has a potential coherent sound images from a single This occurs when an array samples the
to generate positively and negatively array (Fig 13). The DolbySurround ar- sound field at points separated by dis,
con'elated, partly correlated, and uncor- ray utilizes extra loudspeakers to tm- tances which are greater than the corre-
related (random) components of the total prove the spatiousness and definition of lation length or the coherence interval
sound field, or coherent and incoherent the perceived sound image. Spatial tm- (greater than half the wavelength). In a
sound fields, in the listening room. The pression improves because a stronger typical integrated sound field, some of
balance of these components mostly de- diffuse fietd is generated by using a the sound field components are coher-
pends on the relationships of micro- number of surround loudspeakers ar- ent direct sound waves incident at cer-
phones in the recording room. In a ranged in a spaced array along the lat- tain angles off axis. These oncoming
stereo presentation, smearing and diffu- eral axis, and a center front loudspeaker coherent waves become decorrelated
sion as well as directional selectivity is used to enhance the direct frontal tm- and lose their coherence within the out-
provided by the arrays become much age definition, put of the array, when sampled at
more audible than in mono because they Stereo perception in the horizontal points outside of their correlation
contribute to spatial perception by fully plane can be somewhat controlled and length.
engaging the binaural capabilities of the improved during sound reproduction At high frequencies, when the spac-
listener, when double stereo (a dual stereo ar- lng between the microphonesis larger
A stereo loudspeaker array is typical- ray) is used [5]. Spatial impression in- than half the wavelength for off-axis
ly placed at +30 , -30 angles, which is eluding directional resolution, sense of angles of incidence, the microphone
in between the optimal positions for the diffusion and envelopment, and defini- signals are uncorrelated and an tm-
production of a direct frontal image and tion of center image can be adjusted to pulse received by the array becomes
production of a diffused spatial image, a cegain degree depending on the exist* dispersed (diffused) or smeared m
This positioning greatly simplifies the lng acoustical conditions in a room (ab- time. An impulse received on axis and

932 d. Audio Eng. Soc. VoL 40. No. 11, 1992 November

in phase by the microphones retains its highlight the definition of two distinct can effectively complement directivi-
integrity in time domain, and its ampli- (statistically independent) areas of a ties of single transducers and produce
tude is increased because the correlat~ distributed sound field. If the micro- results that cannot be accomplished
ed microphone signals add without phones are unidirectional (cardioid), easily with any single microphone.
loss. The smearing of direct sound re- then the focus extends down to the Arrays can also deal more effectively
ceived off axis helps to blend that middle frequencies. In the proposed op- with large distributed sound sources
sound more with diffused reverbera~ timization scheme, large microphone (for example an orchestra, or a room)
tion and makes it more indistinct as the spacing avoids unwanted timbral et'- and can modify the coherence of
individual sound. Early reflections ar- fects and produces diffusion over a sounds received by the microphone,
riving off axis also become more wide portion of the audio band. Close and therefore change the properties of
smeared (diffused) in time when pro- spacing in a coincident-array arrange- the sound image.
cessed by arrays, ment also avoids timbral effects, and
This coherence processing function introduces certain "soft focus" or
of arrays can be considered as enhanc- smearing at high frequencies. In mono
ing or destroying the fine time-domain arrays medium spacing is avoided as [1] Y. Abe, N. Miyaji, M. Iwahara, A.
pattern of sound depending on its fre- audible timbral colorations could per- Sakamoto, L. Boden, "Practical Appli-
quency and direction of incidence, and ceptually overpower the subtle effects cation and Digital Control of the Mi-
can be used as a tool in the design of of smearing and diffusion, crophone Array," presented at the 76th
auditory images. On-axis correlated The array, therefore, has the capacity Convention of the Audio Engineering
sounds are enhanced by amplification to change qualitative and quantitative Society, J. Audio Eng. Soc. (abstracts),
(coherent summing) and by maintain- balance between the sounds it receives vol. 32, no. 12, p. 1006 (1984 Dec.)
lng time-domain integrity (multiple based on their angle of incidence and preprint 2116.
sound images are perfectly time- frequency, and this can be used as a [2] P.S. Gaskell and K.A. Bradbury,
aligned with each other). Off-axis tool of artistic interpretation in the "An evaluation of the use of micro-
sounds are smeared (multiple sound hands of a sound engineer, phone arrays for studio recording," The
imagesare not aligned)and attenuated BritishBroadcastingCorporation.Re-
(incoherent sum). While a sharp image 6 _M4_g_l_ search Department Report # BBC RD
may be desired for forward direct 1985/8 (1985 August).
sounds received on ams, a poorly de- In general, we can define an optimal ar- [3] W. Woszczyk, "A Review of Mi-
fined smeared or diffused image may ray performance (for music recording) crophone Techniques Optimized for
be appropriate for sounds received off as that giving uniform directivity, good Spatial Control of Sound in Televi-
axis to produce a secondary layer or directional selectivity, low level of sion," Proc. AES 9th Int. Co_.fkrence
background effect, grating lobes or ap lobes at all, small "Television Sound Today atTdTomor-
In the spaced-apart array, coherent physical size for little visual obstruc- rou,' Detroit. MI (1991 Feb.).
low-frequency components are ampli- tion. wide bandwidth of directional op- [4] Author's conversations with Profes-
fled and are in focus, while middle and eration, and good adjustability of the sor Volker Straus, Philips Classics,
upper frequencies are smeared. If each sound image. It has been shown [2] that Baam, The Netherlands, 1986.
of the widely spaced microphones is a single array cannot provide optimal [5] M. Burkhard, W. Bray, K. Genuit
not a single unit but a coincident pardi- performance over a wide audio band- and H. W. Gierlich, "Binaural Sound
lei array of microphones (uni- or omni- width, for Television." Proc. of the AES 9th
directional) then at high frequencies However, coincident and spaced- Int. Conj'krence "Television Sound To-
these arrays focus on two areas along apart arrays optimized over two ex- day and Tomorrow" Detroit, MI (1991
their axes. This allows the engineer to treme (high and low) narrow bands Feb.).

,, ,, ,

%_1_ _llJlJ'__ cations in products serving the audio indus-

Wieslaw Woszczyk established the Gradu- try, and as new techniques used in the
ate Program in Sound Recording at McGill recording practice.
University in Montreal, Canada, in 1979. He Dr. Woszczyk has presented numerous
is currently a full professor and the chairman papers at AES conventions, and has chaired
of graduate studies m sound recording at sessions and conducted seminars. Recently,
McGill. he wasthe chairmanof the AES9th Interna-
Prior to joining McGill, Dr. Woszczyk was tional Conference, 'q-elevision Sound Today
actively involved in the music recording in- and Tomorrow," held in Detroit, Michigan,
dustry in New York City. He continues his and currently serves as an AES governor
practical involvement in audio as a recording and as chairman of the AES Membership
engineer and producer, in addition to his Committee. In 1991, he received the Board
II consulting practice. His inventions find appli- of Governors Award from the Society.

November 933