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Power Electronics Training Kit


Nabeel Hussain Kazi 2K7/EL/57

Masroor Munsif Qureshi 2K7/EL/41

Abdul Jabbar Bozdar 2K7/EL/05

Ayaz Ali Bhutto 2K7/EL/21

A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

BS Electronics

Institute of Information and Communication Technology

University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan



All rights are reserved of this thesis. Photocopying, buying, selling or use of any content
of this thesis without prior knowledge to authors is prohibited. Authors have all rights of
this thesis.

Nabeel Hussain Kazi

Masroor Munsif Qureshi

Abdul Jabbar Bozdar

Ayaz Ali Bhutto

Table of Contents

Chapter # 01 Introduction
1.1 Context 07
1.2 Objectives 07
1.3 Benefits 08
1.4 Academic Use 08
Summary 09
Chapter # 02 Research
2.1 Related Material 10
2.2 Cost Analysis 12
Summary 13
Chapter # 03 Investigation and Analysis
3.1 Investigation of Hardware 14
3.2 Analysis of Hardware 14
Summary 20
Chapter # 04 Design and Implementation
4.1 PCB Design and Implementation 21
4.2 PCB Layout of Power Electronics Kit 23
4.3 Built-in Circuit Designs and Their Implementation 24
Summary 30
Chapter # 05 Project Implementation and Process
5.1 Architecture of Project Hardware 32
5.2 Built-in Circuits Implementation on PCB 33
Summary 40
Chapter # 06 Applications and Results
6.1 Applications of Power Electronic Devices 42
6.2 Results 53
Summary 54
Chapter # 07 Project Critical Evaluation
7.1 Aims 55
7.2 Achievements of The Project 56
Summary 57
Chapter # 08 Conclusion
8.1 Synopsis and Conclusion 58
8.2 Future Work 59
Summary 59
References 60
Appendices 62
Appendix A Circuit Design of Project 63
Appendix B Data Sheets 64



Our Beloved

Parents and Family Members


During the development of our graduate studies in the Institute of Information and
Communication Technology, University of Sindh, several persons collaborated directly
and indirectly with our studies. Without their support it would be impossible for us to
finish our work. That is why; we wish to dedicate this section to recognize their support.

We want to start expressing a sincere acknowledgement to our supervisor Prof: Dr.

Imdad Ali Ismaili as he gave us the opportunity to research under his guidance and
supervision. We received motivation; encouragement and support from him during all our
studies. With him, we have learned writing thesis for our final year and sharing our ideas
to the public. We also want to thank our co-supervisor Mr. Waseem Javaid Soomro for
his support we received from him.

Last but not least, we would like to thank our families, for their unconditional support,
inspiration and love.

Nabeel Hussain Kazi

Masroor Munsif Qureshi

Abdul Jabbar Bozdar

Ayaz Ali Bhutto


This work presents the model of a Power Electronics Engineering Training Kit. It is an
improved model of previous training kits with some enhanced features.

This training module is consist of 12 different education experiments along with one
digital multimeter and one bread board which may be used for further experiments.
Because of bread board; this kit differs from other as it is not available in previous genres
of this training kit because of high voltages and current ratings.

The base of this training module is Power Engineering, using Power Semiconductor
Devices with high voltage and current ratings, different type of experiments can be
performed and different properties of various devices including traic, diac, power diodes,
and AC/DC motors can be checked.

This trainer has following excellent features:

Ideal for teaching power and industrial electronics.
Integrated training system, with complete curriculum.
12 excellent built-in circuits using major power devices.
Low current rate, maximum 1A.
Includes power supply, meter, and motor units.
The training of qualified technicians able to install, operate, and maintain industrial and
power electronics equipment is more and more required nowadays. The Power
Electronics trainer is a comprehensive and self-contained training system that has been
designed to satisfy these requirements.

The wide range of detailed experiments covers subjects such as UJT, GTO, SCR, DIACs,
TRIACs and AC/DC motor control experiments.


Many years have been passed away but still demand for control of electrical power for
electrical motor drive system and industrial control system exists. Power electronics have
changed the concept of power control for power conversion and for control of electrical
driven systems.

1.1 Context

Power electronics fundamental base is the switching of the power semiconductor devices.
With the development of power semiconductor technology, the power handling
capabilities and the switching speed of the power devices have improved dynamically.
The development of microprocessors and microcomputer technology has a great impact
on the control and synthesizing the control strategy for the power semiconductor devices.
Modern power electronics equipment uses power semiconductors that can be regarded as
the muscle and microelectronics that have the power and intelligence of a brain as shown
in figure 1.1:

Figure: 1.1
of Power
Electronics to Electronics
Electronics, Power
and Control Equipments

Some applications of power electronics are Air-Conditioning, Electric Vehicles,
Furnaces, Steel Mills, Traffic Signal Controls, Static Circuit Breakers etc. The history of
power electronics began with the introduction of the mercury arc rectifier in 1900. Then
the metal tank rectifier, grid-controlled vacuum-tube rectifier, ignitron, phanotron, and
thyratron were introduced gradually. These devices were applied for power control until
the 1950s.

1.2 Objectives

Till now we have understood the idea of power engineering and electron devices now
well discuss about our aims for that all which we are writing. We thought that why
should not an under graduate student should be trained with various power semiconductor
devices and should be familiar with some practical approaches of power semiconductors
devices and their properties. After all we decided to design a basic power electronics
training module. However in market there are several type of educational purpose power
electronics trainers are available but we thought to design a such type of cheap in cost
trainer which would be more reliable than other all and easy to use, long life. The real
aim of this training module is to train under graduate and post graduate students for

1.3 Benefits

There are several benefits of this training module. Anyone who will work with this
training module will be able to understand all power engineering systems. Furthermore in
all industries all the basic phenomena are same. So the person who got training using this
trainer will be able to serve well. This training model will be easy to use along with high
performance. A built in multimeter will be available in this trainer which makes
detection, verification and different measurement easy for trainee. A trainee will need all
the best precautions for their protection as Power Devices in this training module will
work on 220-240 volts at approximately 1A ratings.

1.4 Academic Use

This training module is only for academic use. Students will be the trainee only. All type
of experiments is of academic level. Extension for further experiments is given where
students and teachers may increase the quantity of experiments using bread board and
built in multimeter.

In this chapter, we have discussed some background of power electronics, power devices,
and aim of this thesis, benefits of training module. As the power electronics are playing
an important role in our life. Use of various power diodes is growing day by day. That
purpose we decided to design such academic training kit of power electronics which can
be used to train students for industry work.


2.1 Related Material

We searched a variety of material in power electronics such as Traics, Diacs, Silicon

Controlled Rectifiers (SCRs), Gate-Turn-Off Thyristor (GTO), Power Diodes, Power
Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs), AC Motors, DC Motors and many others. We
almost explored complete power electronics material and reviewed industrial usage of
power electronics from different aspects.

Later on, we took some specific material with required specifications to design this
training kit. In which we included Unipolar Junction Transistor, Bridge Rectifier, Half
Wave Rectifier Diode, Silicon Controlled Rectifier, Gate-Turn-Off Thyristor and AC/DC
Motors as shown in figures below.

Figure: 2.1 Diode Bridge Rectifier Figure: 2. 2 Gate Turn-off Thyristor

Figure: 2.3 TRAIC Figure: 2.4 Unipolar Junction Transistor

Figure: 2.5 AC Motor

Figure: 2.6 DC Motor

2.2 Cost Analysis

Table of Differnet Materials and Their Costs
Material Estimated Cost
Printed Circuit Board 5000 PKR
Vero Board 300 PKR
Multimeter 200 PKR
Thyristors 2500 PKR
Capacitors 50 PKR
Transistors 700 PKR
Transformers 290 PKR
Diodes 120 PKR
Trainer Outer Structure 3500 PKR
Miscellaneous 313 PKR
Total Estimated Cost 12, 973 PKR

In this chapter we analyzed required material for training kit design and made a cost
estimation for final production of triaining kit. We analyzed different types of devices for
future use in kit. We specially focused extendable capability of kit. Using a vero board
any one who has basic knowledge of power engineering and electronics can design their
own circuit easily. We analyzed different types of motors as given in figure 2.5 and
figure 2.6, furthermore we searched different thyristors including GTOs. Further analysis
of material and devices will be discussed in next chapter.

3 Investigation and Analysis

3.1 Investigation of Hardware

After material survey and cost analysis of required material we moved to investigation of
hardware design. We decided to design 12 internal circuits along with an external bread
board. Purpose of including bread board is to allow trainees to design new power
engineering circuits time by time in future.
We had different type of hardware which is listed and explained as following:
1. Power Diode
2. Unijunction Transistor (UJT)
3. Step Down Transformer
4. Gate Turn-Off Transistor (GTO)
5. Silicon Control Rectifier
6. Traic

3.2 Analysis of Hardware:

Power Diode:
A semiconductor signal diode will only conduct current in one direction from its anode to
its cathode (forward direction), but not in the reverse direction acting a bit like an
electrical one way valve. A widely used application of this feature is in the conversion of
an alternating voltage (AC) into a continuous voltage (DC). In other words small signal
diodes can be used as rectifiers in low-power, low current (less than 1-amp) rectifiers or
applications, but were larger forward bias currents or higher reverse bias blocking
voltages are involved the PN junction of a small signal diode would eventually overheat
and melt so larger more robust Power Diodes are used instead. The power semiconductor
diode, known simply as the Power Diode, has a much larger PN junction area compared
to its smaller signal diode cousin, resulting in a high forward current capability of up to
several hundred amps (KA) and a reverse blocking voltage of up to several thousand
volts (KV). Since the power diode has a large PN junction, it is not suitable for high

frequency applications above 1MHz, but special and expensive high frequency, high
current diodes are available. For high frequency rectifier applications Schottky Diodes
are generally used because of their short reverse recovery time and low voltage drop in
their forward bias condition. Power diodes provide uncontrolled rectification of power
and are used in applications such as battery charging and DC power supplies as well as
AC rectifiers and inverters. Due to their high current and voltage characteristics they can
also be used as freewheeling diodes and snubber networks. Power diodes are designed to
have a forward "ON" resistance of fractions of an Ohm while their reverse blocking
resistance is in the mega-Ohms range. Some of the larger value power diodes are
designed to be "stud mounted" onto heatsinks reducing their thermal resistance to
between 0.1 to 1oC/Watt. If an alternating voltage is applied across a power diode, during
the positive half cycle the diode will conduct passing current and during the negative half
cycle the diode will not conduct blocking the flow of current. Then conduction through
the power diode only occurs during the positive half cycle and is therefore unidirectional
i.e. DC as shown below:

Power Diode Rectifier

Power diodes can be used individually as above or connected together to produce a

variety of rectifier circuits such as "Half-Wave", "Full-Wave" or as "Bridge Rectifiers".
Each type of rectifier circuit can be classed as either uncontrolled, half-controlled or fully
controlled were an uncontrolled rectifier uses only power diodes, a fully controlled
rectifier uses thyristors (SCRs) and a half controlled rectifier is a mixture of both diodes
and thyristors. The most commonly used individual power diode for basic electronics
applications is the general purpose 1N400x Series Glass Passivated type rectifying diode
with standard ratings of continuous forward rectified current of 1.0 amp and reverse

blocking voltage ratings from 50v for the 1N4001 up to 1000v for the 1N4007, with the
small 1N4007GP being the most popular for general purpose mains voltage rectification.

Uni-Junction Transistor:

The basic structure of a unijunction transistor (UJT) is shown in Fig.1. It is essentially a

bar of N type semiconductor material into which P type material has been diffused
somewhere along its length. Contacts are then made to the device as shown; these are
referred to as the emitter, base 1 and base 2 respectively. Fig.2 shows the schematic
symbol used to denote a UJT in circuit diagrams. For ease of manufacture alternative
methods of making contact with the bar have been developed, giving rise to the two types
of structure - bar and cube - shown in Fig.3

Step Down Transformer

A step-down transformer is one whose secondary voltage is less than its primary voltage.
It is designed to reduce the voltage from the primary winding to the secondary winding.
This kind of transformer steps down the voltage applied to it. As a step-down unit, the
transformer converts high-voltage, low-current power into low-voltage, high-current
power. The larger-gauge wire used in the secondary winding is necessary due to the
increase in current as shown in figure # 4:

The primary winding, which doesnt have to conduct as much current, may be made of
smaller-gauge wire.

Step-Down Transformer Considerations:

It is possible to operate either of these transformer types backwards (powering the

secondary winding with an AC source and letting the primary winding power a load) to
perform the opposite function: a step-up can function as a step-down and visa-versa.

Figure # 4

One convention used in the electric power industry is the use of H designations for the
higher-voltage winding (the primary winding in a step-down unit; the secondary winding
in a step-up) and X designations for the lower-voltage winding.

One of the most important considerations to increase transformer efficiency and reduce
heat is choosing the metal type of the windings. Copper windings are much more
efficient than aluminum and many other winding metal choices, but it also costs more.
Transformers with copper windings cost more to purchase initially, but save on electrical
cost over time as the efficiency more than makes up for the initial cost.

Step-down transformers are commonly used to convert the 220 volt electricity found in
most parts of the world to the 110 volts required by North American equipments.

Gate Turn-Off thyristor (GTO):

A variation of the SCR, called a Gate-Turn-Off thyristor, or GTO, makes this task easier.
But even with a GTO, the gate current required to turn it off may be as much as 20% of
the anode (load) current! The schematic symbol for a GTO is shown in the following

SCRs and GTOs share the same equivalent schematics (two transistors connected in a
positive-feedback fashion), the only differences being details of construction designed to
grant the NPN transistor a greater than the PNP. This allows a smaller gate current
(forward or reverse) to exert a greater degree of control over conduction from cathode to
anode, with the PNP transistor's latched state being more dependent upon the NPN's than
vice versa. The Gate-Turn-Off thyristor is also known by the name of Gate-Controlled
Switch, or GCS.

Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR):

The thyristor is a four layer P-N-P-N device as shown in figure # 5a with different levels
of doping for each layer. The cathode is the most heavily doped and the gate and anode
are less heavily doped. The central N type layer is only slightly doped and is also thicker
than the other layers enabling it to support a high blocking voltage.

Figure # 5a Figure # 5b Figure # 5c

In operation the thyristor may be considered as an NPN and a PNP transistor as shown in
figure # 5b connected back to back, forming a positive feedback loop within the device.
The output of one transistor is fed to the input of the second and the output of the second
transistor is in turn fed back to the input of the first. A small trigger pulse on the gate will
turn the thyristor on and once a current starts to flow, it quickly builds up until both
transistors are fully turned on or saturated and the only way it can be turned off is by
removing the supply voltage. The device is designed to act as a switch and can carry very
high currents. Being a unidirectional (one-way) device, at most we can only deliver half-
wave power to the load, in the half-cycle of AC where the supply voltage polarity is
positive on the top and negative on the bottom. However, for demonstrating the basic
concept of time-proportional control, this simple circuit is better than one controlling full-
wave power (which would require two SCRs).

With no triggering to the gate, and the AC source voltage well below the SCR's
breakover voltage rating, the SCR will never turn on. Connecting the SCR gate to the
anode through a standard rectifying diode (to prevent reverse current through the gate in
the event of the SCR containing a built-in gate-cathode resistor), will allow the SCR to be
triggered almost immediately at the beginning of every positive half-cycle as shown in
Figure # 6:

Figure # 6


SCRs are unidirectional (one-way) current devices, making them useful for controlling
DC only. If two SCRs are joined in back-to-back parallel fashion just like two Shockley
diodes were joined together to form a DIAC, we have a new device known as the TRIAC
shown in figure # 7a and 7b.

Figure # 7

TRIACs are notorious for not firing symmetrically. This means these usually won't
trigger at the exact same gate voltage level for one polarity as for the other. Generally

speaking, this is undesirable, because unsymmetrical firing results in a current waveform
with a greater variety of harmonic frequencies. Waveforms that are symmetrical above
and below their average centerlines are comprised of only odd-numbered harmonics.
Unsymmetrical waveforms, on the other hand, contain even-numbered harmonics (which
may or may not be accompanied by odd-numbered harmonics as well).

In the interest of reducing total harmonic content in power systems, the fewer and less
diverse the harmonics, the better -- one more reason individual SCRs are favored over
TRIACs for complex, high-power control circuits. One way to make the TRIAC's current
waveform more symmetrical is to use a device external to the TRIAC to time the
triggering pulse.


In this project we used six major components as; Power Diode Unijunction Transistor
(UJT), Step Down Transformer, Gate Turn-Off Transistor (GTO), Silicon Control
Rectifier, Traic. We discussed all parameters of these devices in terms of power
engineering and analyzed their behavior in terms of project hardware design.

4 Design and Implementation

Till now we have investigated and analyzed the power devices which have been used in
this project. Now it is turn to create a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) design which would
be used in this project hardware design. We will focus a less complex and easy way to
understand PCB.

4.1 PCB Design and Implementation:

What is a Printed Circuit Board?

A printed circuit board, or PCB, is a self-contained module of interconnected electronic

components found in devices ranging from common beepers, or pagers, and radios to
sophisticated radar and computer systems. The circuits are formed by a thin layer of
conducting material deposited, or "printed," on the surface of an insulating board known
as the substrate. Individual electronic components are placed on the surface of the
substrate and soldered to the interconnecting circuits. Contact fingers along one or more
edges of the substrate act as connectors to other PCBs or to external electrical devices
such as on-off switches. A printed circuit board may have circuits that perform a single
function, such as a signal amplifier, or multiple functions.

There are three major types of printed circuit board construction: single-sided, double-
sided, and multi-layered. Single-sided boards have the components on one side of the
substrate. When the number of components becomes too much for a single-sided board, a
double-sided board may be used. Electrical connections between the circuits on each side
are made by drilling holes through the substrate in appropriate locations and plating the
inside of the holes with a conducting material. The third type, a multi-layered board, has
a substrate made up of layers of printed circuits separated by layers of insulation. The
components on the surface connect through plated holes drilled down to the appropriate
circuit layer. This greatly simplifies the circuit pattern.

Components on a printed circuit board are electrically connected to the circuits by two
different methods: the older "through hole technology" and the newer "surface mount
technology." With through hole technology, each component has thin wires, or leads,
which are pushed through small holes in the substrate and soldered to connection pads in
the circuits on the opposite side. Gravity and friction between the leads and the sides of
the holes keeps the components in place until they are soldered. With surface mount
technology, stubby J-shaped or L-shaped legs on each component contact the printed
circuits directly. A solder paste consisting of glue, flux, and solder are applied at the point
of contact to hold the components in place until the solder is melted, or "reflowed," in an
oven to make the final connection. Although surface mount technology requires greater
care in the placement of the components, it eliminates the time-consuming drilling
process and the space-consuming connection pads inherent with through hole technology.
Both technologies are used today.

Two other types of circuit assemblies are related to the printed circuit board. An
integrated circuit, sometimes called an IC or microchip, performs similar functions to a
printed circuit board except the IC contains many more circuits and components that are
electrochemically "grown" in place on the surface of a very small chip of silicon. A
hybrid circuit, as the name implies, looks like a printed circuit board, but contains some
components that are grown onto the surface of the substrate rather than being placed on
the surface and soldered.

4.2 PCB Layout of Power Electronics Training Kit:

Following is the PCB layout of Power Electronics Training Kit. This layout was created
using CAM-CAD software. It is the scanned copy of original work.

Printed Circuit Board

4.3 Built-In Circuit Designs and Their Implementation:
Now well design and implement those circuits which will be built-in circuits of power
electronics training kit. There are total 12 circuits of power devices. Well focus power
characteristics of these devices.

Circuit Design # 1 Traic Characteristics (AC Source)

Circuit Design # 2 UJT Characteristics

Circuit Design # 3 UJT Triggering of SCR

Circuit Design # 4 Triac Characteristics (DC Source)

Circuit Design # 5 Power Diode Half Wave Rectifier

Circuit Design # 6 Power Diode Full Wave Bridge Rectifier

Circuit Design # 7 Full Wave Controlled Rectifier

Circuit Design # 8 Silicon Controlled Rectifier Characteristics

Circuit Design # 9 DIAC Triggering of SCR

Circuit Design # 10 Series Inverter

Circuit Design # 11 AC Motor Control Using Gate Turn-off (GTO) Thyristor

Circuit Design # 12 DC Motor Control Using SCR

As we thought that design is very easy but in real case we found that implementation of
power devices is not easy in circuits. Finally, we reached at our direct and designed 12
different types of circuits including full wave controlled rectifier. It was very tough time
when many times our judgments, analysis and calculations went wrong and we
continuously compromised with design and re-design process with tired fingers. In next
chapters well briefly discuss the project implementation and process. All the circuits will
be briefly discussed in terms of power engineering.

5 Project Implementation and Process

In previous chapters we have discussed different power devices and implemented all in
different circuits using passive components. Now well implement these designed circuits
on PCB and complete the hardware of Power Electronics Training Kit. For that purpose,
first well discuss the architecture of hardware.

5.1 Architecture of Project Hardware

5.1.1 Hardware Box:

Finally, it was decided to make an 1812 size of hard box to fit the PCB and sensitive
material of project hardware. In which completely soldered PCB has been inserted. So
for, it is now protected from all type of environmental errors and because of this
protection shield; though more accuracy will be retained regardless of sudden
temperature changes.

5.1.2 PCB and Installation of built-in Circuits:

The PCB which was designed for this training module comprises on one layer as
discussed in previous chapter. There are 12 built-in circuits which are soldered on PCB as
per PCB design.

5.2 Built-in Circuits Implementation on PCB:

5.2.1 Triac Characteristics (AC Source)

The triac is bi-directional device which behaves like an SCR which shows forward-
direction behavior in both directions. The triac has four triggering modes, of which those
(I+ and III-) having gate and M2 polarity the same are preferred.

Although the triac (like the SCR) is not turned off merely by removing the gate signal,
the use of it with an altering supply causes the main-circuit current to cease periodically.
If the gate signal is then zero the triac cuts off the load current.

Figure # 5.1 Normal Mode

Figure # 5.2 Alternate Mode

5.2.2 UJT Characteristics

The UJT is a three-terminal device with trigger action. The principal application of the
UJT is in relaxation oscillators, which generate pulse-type outputs. If an AC supply is
rectified to supply a UJT relaxation oscillator, the oscillator is synchronized to the AC
supply, and can supply an output pulse train which starts at a phase of the supply cycle
which can be simply controlled.

Figure # 5.3 UJT Characteristics Waveform

Figure # 5.4 UJT Outputs

5.2.3 Power Diode Half Wave Rectifier:

A half-wave rectifier is an electronic circuit. The rectifier circuit takes alternating current
(AC) from the wall outlet and converts it into a positive direct current (DC) output. The
particular electronic device that accomplishes this task is a semiconductor called a diode.
The diode like all semiconductors is a material which has a resistance in between that of a
conductor or wire and an insulator like that of a plastic.

Figure # 5.5 In and Out

Figure # 5.6 Ripples in Pulsating Output

5.2.4 Power Diode Full Wave Bridge Rectifier

As mentioned earlier, one can also implement a single-phase full-wave rectifier using
four diodes. The diagram of the full-wave bridge rectifier and associated waveforms are
shown in figure #5.7:

On the positive half cycle of transformer secondary supply voltage, diodes D1 and D2
conduct, supplying this voltage to the load. On the negative half cycle of supply voltage,
diodes D3 and D4 conduct supplying this voltage to the load.

It can be seen from the waveforms that the peak inverse voltage of the diodes is only Vm.
The average output voltage is the same as that for the center-tapped transformer full-
wave rectifier.

Figure # 5.7

5.2.5 Full Wave Controlled Rectifier

Its topology is similar to the full-bridge diode rectifier. The smoothing reactor in series
with the load reduces the ripple of the dc current and extends the range of the continuous

Figure # 5.8 Controlled Rectifier Output

5.2.6 SCR Characteristics

A silicon-controlled rectifier (or semiconductor-controlled rectifier) is a four-layer solid

state device that controls current. The name "silicon controlled rectifier" or SCR is
General Electric's trade name for a type of thyristor.

Figure # 5.9 SCR Characteristics

5.2.7 Diac Characteristics

A diac is an important member of the thyristor family and is usually employed for
triggering triacs. A diac is a two-electrode bidirectional avalanche diode which can be
switched from off-state to the on-state for either polarity of the applied voltage. This is
just like a triac without gate terminal, as shown in figure. Its equivalent circuit is a pair

of inverted four layer diodes. Again the terminal designations are arbitrary since the diac,
like triac, is also a bilateral device. The switching from off-state to on-state is achieved
by simply exceeding the avalanche break down voltage in either direction show in figure
# 5.10:

Figure # 5.10 Diac Characteristics

5.2.8 Gate Turn-off Thyristors

The gate turn off thyristor is behaves somewhat differently to a standard thyristor which
can only be turned on and cannot be turned off via the gate. The gate turn off thyristor,
GTO can be turned-on by a gate signal, and it can also be turned-off by a gate signal of
negative polarity shown in figure #5.11:
The device turn on is accomplished by a "positive current" pulse between the gate and
cathode terminals. As the gate-cathode behaves like PN junction, there is a relatively
small voltage between the terminals.

Figure # 5.11 GTO Characteristics Curve

5.2.9 AC Motor Characteristics

An AC motor is an electric motor driven by an alternating current. It consists of two basic
parts, an outside stationary stator having coils supplied with alternating current to
produce a rotating magnetic field, and an inside rotor attached to the output shaft that is
given a torque by the rotating field as shown in figure #5.12:

Figure # 5.12 Basic Design of AC Motor

5.2.10 DC Motor Characteristics
The ability to control the speed with great accuracy is an attractive feature of the dc
motor. A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power. Two examples of pure DC
designs are Michael Faraday's homo-polar motor (which is uncommon), and the

Figure # 5.13 Basic DC Motor

ball bearing motor, which is (so far) a novelty. By far the most common DC motor types
are the brushed and brushless types, which use internal and external commutation
respectively to periodically reverse the current in the rotor windings. Brushed DC motor
is shown in figure #5.13:


In this chapter we discussed about circuits and devices available for experiments. We
reviewed different aspects of power devices like their power characteristics, V-I
characteristics and operational behavior. In next chapter well discuss applications of
these devices.

6 Applications and Results

6.1 Applications of Power Electronic Devices

There are several types of industrial and non-industrial applications of power electronic
devices. In this chapter well discuss some of them here in terms of project hardware.

6.1.1 Uni-junction Transistor Applications

The simplest application of a UJT is as a relaxation oscillator, which is defined as one in

which a capacitor is charged gradually and then discharged rapidly. Another application
is to trigger thyristor like SCRs and Traic. A basic LED flasher is given below in figure #
6.1 as an example which is based on UJT oscillator.

Figure # 6.1 Basic LED Flasher Using Uni-junction Transistor

6.1.2 Diac Applicaions

The diacs, because of their symmetrical bidirectional switching characteristics, are widely
used as triggering devices in triac phase control circuits employed for lamp dimmer, heat
control, universal motor speed control etc. Although a triac may be fired into the
conducting state by a simple resistive triggering circuit, but triggering devices are
typically placed in series with the gates of SCRs and triacs as they give reliable and fast
triggering as shown in figure # 6.2:

Diac is the most popular triggering device for the triac. This is illustrated in the following
application, Figure # 6.3:

Figure # 6.3 Diac Heat Control Circuit

6.1.3 Triac Applications

The triac is the most widely used member of the thyristor family. In fact, in many of
control applications, it has replaced SCR by virtue of its bidirectional conductivity.

Fig # 6.4 High Power Lamp Switching Triac Application

Motor speed regulation, temperature control, illumination control, liquid level control,
phase control circuits, power switches etc. are some of its main applications. One is
shown in figure # 6.4:

Fig # 6.5 Power Control by Triac AC Power Control Application of Triac

However, the triac is less versatile than the SCR when turn-off is considered. Because the
triac can conduct in either direction, forced commutation by reverse-biasing cannot
be employed. So turn-off is either by current starvation, which is usually impracticable,

or else by ac line commutation. There are two limitations enforced on the use of triac at
present state of commercially available devices (200 A and 1,000 PRV). The first is the
frequency handling capability produced by the limiting dv/dt at which the triac remains
blocking when no gate signal is applied. This dv/dt value is about 20 Vmicros-1 compared
with a general figure of 200 Vmicro s-1 for the SCR, so that the limitation of frequency is
at the power level of 50 Hz as shown in figure # 6.5: The same dv/dt limitation means the
load to be controlled is preferably a resistive one. When high frequencies and high dv/dt
are involved then the back-to-back SCRs cannot be replaced by the triac.

6.1.4 AC Motors Applications

Three phase induction motors are used wherever the application depends on AC power
from the national grid. Because they don't need commutators, they are particularly
suitable for high power applications. They are available with power handling capacities
ranging from a few Watts to more than 10 Megawatts. They are mainly used for heavy
industrial applications and for machine tools as show in figure#6.6:

Figure # 6.6 Motor Applications

The availability of solid state inverters in recent years means that induction motors can
now be run from a DC source. They are now finding use in automotive applications for
electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Nevertheless, the induction motor is ill-suited for
most automotive applications because of the difficulties associated with extracting heat
from the rotor, efficiency problems over wide speed and power ranges, and a more
expensive manufacturing process due to distributed windings. Permanent magnet and
reluctance motors offer better solutions for these applications.

6.1.5 DC Motor Applications

Industrial applications use dc motors because the speed-torque relationship can be varied
to almost any useful form -- for both dc motor and regeneration applications in either
direction of rotation. Continuous operation of dc motors is commonly available over a
speed range of 8:1. Infinite range (smooth control down to zero speed) for short durations
or reduced load is also common.

DC motors are often applied where they momentarily deliver three or more times their
rated torque. In emergency situations, dc motors can supply over five times rated torque
without stalling (power supply permitting).

DC Motor: Part of Robot

Dynamic braking (dc motor-generated energy is fed to a resistor grid) or regenerative

braking (dc motor-generated energy is fed back into the dc motor supply) can be obtained
with dc motors on applications requiring quick stops, thus eliminating the need for, or
reducing the size of, a mechanical brake.

6.1.6 Gate Turn-off Thyristors Applications

Gate turn-off thyristors (GTOs) are four-layer PNPN devices that act as switches,
rectifiers, and voltage regulators. Like other thyristors, GTOs can be turned on by the

application of a positive gate signal (g > 0); however, unlike other more conventional
devices that can be turned off only at a zero crossing of current, GTOs can be turned off
at any time by the application of a gate signal equal to zero. Like silicon controlled
rectifiers (SCRs) and silicon controlled switches (SCSs), GTOs have three external
terminals: an input control terminal (gate), an output terminal (anode), and a terminal
common to both the input and output (cathode).

Figure # 6.7 GTO Switch

Unlike SCRs and SCSs, however, GTOs can be turned on or off by applying the proper
pulse at only one terminal, the cathode. Applying a positive pulse to the cathode turns on
the GTO. Conversely, applying a negative pulse to the cathode turns off the GTO as
shown in figure # 6.7:

6.1.7 Power Diode Applications

A power diode or MOSFET operates on similar principles to its low-power counterpart,

but is able to carry a larger amount of current and typically is able to support a larger
reverse-bias voltage in the off-state.

Different Applications of Power Diode

Structural changes are often made in power devices to accommodate the higher current
density, higher power dissipation and/or higher reverse breakdown voltage. The vast
majority of the discrete (i.e. non integrated) power devices are built using a vertical
structure, whereas small-signal devices employ a lateral structure. With the vertical
structure, the current rating of the device is proportional to its area, and the voltage
blocking capability is achieved in the height of the die. With this structure, one of the
connections of the device is located on the bottom of the semiconductor die.

6.1.8 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor Applications

The insulated gate bipolar transistor or IGBT is a three-terminal power semiconductor

device, noted for high efficiency and fast switching. It switches electric power in many
modern appliances: electric cars, trains, variable speed refrigerators, air-conditioners and
even stereo systems with switching amplifiers. Since it is designed to rapidly turn on and
off, amplifiers that use it often synthesize complex waveforms with pulse width
modulation and low-pass filters.

IGBT-Module with a rated current of 1,200 A and a maximum voltage of 3,300 V

The IGBT combines the simple gate-drive characteristics of the MOSFETs with the high-
current and lowsaturation-voltage capability of bipolar transistors by combining an
isolated gate FET for the control input, and a bipolar power transistor as a switch, in a
single device. The IGBT is used in medium- to high-power applications such as
switched-mode power supply, traction motor control and induction heating. Large IGBT
modules typically consist of many devices in parallel and can have very high current
handling capabilities in the order of hundreds of amperes with blocking voltages of 6000

6.1.9 Silicon Controlled Rectifier Applications

The ability of an SCR to control large currents to a load by means of small gate current
makes the device very useful in switching and control applications. Some of the
applications are here:

A commonly used circuit for controlling power in load RL using two SCRs is shown in
figure # 6.8: Potentiometer R controls the angle of conduction of the two SCRs. The

greater the resistance of the pot, lesser will be the voltage across capacitors C1 and C2 and
hence smaller will be the time duration of conduction of SCR1 and SCR2 during a cycle.

Figure # 6.8 SCR Power Control Using two SCRs

During positive half cycle capacitor C2 gets charged through diode D1, pot R, and diode
D4. When the capacitor gets fully charged, (charge on the capacitor depending upon the
value of R) it discharges through Zener diode Z. This gives a pulse to the primary and
thereby secondary of the transformer T2. Thus SCR2, which is forward biased, is turned
on and conducts through load RL. During negative half cycle similar action takes place
due to charging of capacitor C1 and SCR1 is triggered. Thus power to a load is controlled
by using SCRs.

Here is another important application of SCR shown in figure # 6.8: The basic
components of the circuits are shown in figure. Diodes D1 and D2 are to establish a full-
wave rectified signal across SCR1 and the 12 V battery to be charged. When the battery is
in discharged condition, SCR2 is in the off-state as will be clear after discussion. When
the full-wave rectified input is large enough to give the required turn-on gate current
(controlled by resistor R1), SCR1 will turn on and the charging of the battery will
commence. At the commencement of charging of battery, voltage VR determined by the
simple voltage-divider circuit is too small to cause 11.0 V zener conduction. In the off-
state Zener diode is effectively an open-circuit maintaining SCR2 in the off-state because
of zero gate current.

Figure # 6.8 Battery Charging Regulator

The capacitor C is included in the circuit to prevent any voltage transients in the circuit
from accidentally turning on of the SCR2. As charging continues, the battery voltage
increases to a point when VR is large enough to both turn on the 11.0 V Zener diode and
fire SCR2. Once SCR2 has fired, the short circuit representation for SCR2 will result in a
voltage-divider circuit determined by R1 and R2 that will maintain V2 at a level too small
to turn SCR1 on. When this occurs, the battery is fully charged and the open-circuit state
of SCR1 will cut off the charging current. Thus the regulator charges the battery
whenever the voltage drops and prevents overcharging when fully charged. There are
many more applications of SCRs such as in soft start circuits, logic and digital circuits,
but it is not possible to discuss all these here.

6.1.10 Inverter Applications

Power inverters are often used in cars. The inverters allow users to power items from a
TV and a VCR to a laptop. Tractors are a common application for power inverters. We
have seen power inverters used to run a variety of applications on a tractor. Tractors
usually have good diesel engines and may include 12 volt sockets or direct connect
terminals. With HVDC power transmission, AC power is rectified and high voltage DC

power is transmitted to another location. At the receiving location, an inverter in a static
inverter plant converts the power back to AC.

6.2 Results

The results are almost similar as per project was planned. Project highlights are as

Shot of Project: External Design

This trainer has following excellent features:

Ideal for teaching power and industrial electronics.
Integrated training system, with complete curriculum.
12 excellent built-in circuits using major power devices.
Low current rate, maximum 1A.

Includes power supply, meter, and motor units.

The training of qualified technicians able to install, operate, and maintain industrial and
power electronics equipment is more and more required nowadays. The Power
Electronics trainer is a comprehensive and self-contained training system that has been
designed to satisfy these requirements.

The wide range of detailed experiments covers subjects such as UJT, GTO, SCR, DIACs,
TRIACs and AC/DC motor control experiments.


Using different power devices, a training kit for power electronics engineering has been
created. This training kit will be beneficial in many ways like to understand basics of
power and industrial electronics.

7 Project Critical Evaluation

7.1 Aims

When plan of project was being thought then one thing was very difficult to write in plan
that what type of circuits should be in this trainer and why. Later on, it was decided to
design simple industrial circuits which can take away trainees to all basic understandings
of industrial workout.

In this trainer there are total 12 built-in circuits and one extendable breadboard. Using
breadboard trainees can design new advanced power electronic circuits for their
understanding and learning aspects.

A number of aspects have been covered in the design process including modeling of
power electronics devices and AC/DC machines. All of which are implemented to
provide to test new power electronic devices and machine drivers.

These circuit designs contain very important power electronics devices including Silicon
Controlled Rectifier (SCRs) Thyristors, Gate Turn-off Thyristors (GTOs), AC/DC Driven
Motors, Diodes for Alternating Current (DIACs), Triodes for Alternating Current
(TRAICs) and Uni-Junction Transistors (UJTs). All circuits have great training
functionality which is that the current is maximum 1A; which makes training kit safer
than other training kits. AC/DC Motors work on 220 ~ 240 volts so it will be a necessary
precaution for trainees that they wear highly resistive hand gloves otherwise there will be
a risk of a high shock.

Aim and purpose of designing this power electronics trainer were to familiarize the future
students of Insititute of Information and Communication Technology, University of
Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan. As in previous times, student wanted to do such experiments
in laboratories but lack of apparatus and required material. So it was a main purpose to
design this training module to give understanding of basic industrial workout to young

engineers. It will be highly recommended to students that they complete all experiments
not only that but also they enhance the features of training kit using built-in bread board.

During design of one aim was also that there is a need of such environment at university
which makes busy students and create a potential interest in them and can acquire vast
knowledge of power and industrial electronics.

7.1.1 Trainer Model and Its Features

Trainer model is designed in a unique way as it contains pre-installed digital multimeter

to and breadboard which are not available in other model. It is an improved model of
engineering aspects. This Training model has maximum 1 Ampere current rating having
220~240 AC volts input from main power supply. It has very best features some are here:

Light weight: Easy to carry from one place to another place

Vast range of built-in experiments including major power devices

Easy to operate

Easy to understand

It has a unique feature of built-in digital multimeter (DMM) to work easily with
training kit.

Trainer is fully protected with a wood box so there is no matter of any shock but
the basic precautions are required for both trainer and trainees.

7.2 Achievements of The Project

It is a big achievement that a new model of power electronics training kit has been
designed. At the start of this project, it was thought that how such type of critical circuits

will be implemented and how they will be operated as there were not as much testing
equipments but finally that dream become true and a power electronics model containing
12 built-in circuits along with extra built-in features like digital multimeter and bread
board; became ready for laboratory use. These two extra features (brad board and
multimeter) are not available in previous models. Trainees will be able to extend and can
create new power circuits using bread board. Bread board is safe having quality interface.
It has a steel plate under it, which conducts current given by designer. Multimeter allows
trainees to check test points (already given on training kit) of circuits. Each circuit has
one or more than one test point to identify current and voltages in all circuits. Using
oscilloscope, trainees can detect various current and voltage ratings.


Power Electronics Kit contains 12 built-in power circuits along with built-in multimeter
and breadboard; which enable students to design new power circuits. There are several
test points in trainer which allow trainees to identify behavior of voltage and current in
power circuits.

8 Conclusion

8.1 Synopsis and Conclusion

The design and implementation of a power electronics training kit has been carried out
using different power electronics devices. The original design was based on previous
models of power electronics training kits which were changed for a more accessible and
desirable training kit with increased number of power circuits with specification of 1
Ampere current and 220~240 voltages.

A number of aspects have been covered in the design process including modeling, power
circuit design using various types of power devices, AC/DC machines, multimeter and
breadboard. All of which are implemented to provide vast knowledge of power
electronics devices and circuits to young students.

The modeling provided a foundation for the design of the power circuits and gave a look
at what was expected when applied with hardware. The simulations gave very good
results, although they were never expected to occur in partial implementation due to
response times of the power electronics circuits. The simulation helped immensely in
optimizing the system.

The modeled design was applied reasonably easily to printed circuit board due to
National Instruments Multisim. The Multisim provided a number of features in,
Thyristor check, AC/DC conversions and GTO. There are also options available for
extending the design given; involving control of DC motors, Thyristors and many other
power circuits.

The power electronics came in the form of AC-DC conversion for motor control. The
motor controller required little modification which involved installation of a transformer
which can drive it at a main power supply rating without burning any other device in
training kit.

Although the final practical testing fell short of expectations at the time of writing, this
thesis has been successful in providing a solid design for power electronics devices and
circuits that has demonstrated almost complete functionality. The design method used is
easy to follow to allow future advancements to be made without too much difficulty.

8.2 Future Work

There are a number of topics for future work and development related with the power
electronics devices and circuits designed in this thesis.

These may include:

Obtaining greater power specifications for the power electronics to be used with a
large dynamometer. The increased current would allow for greater performance to
be used while the increase in voltage would raise the speed, producing much
better road load simulator for testing electric motors and drive systems.

Developing test bench software for computer control and monitoring via a
personal computer.

To meet the needs of future systems, it is important to miniaturize and better

integrate power electronic circuits.


Finally, this project became complete with some future work highlights. In upcoming
years, students are allowed to modify this trainer for advanced power electronics. There
is a great work in power electronics like control of high voltage machinery.



1. Power Electronics (Mohammed Haroon Rasheed) - 2006 (3rd Edition).

2. Power Electronics (P.C. Sen) Tata McGraw Hill - 2005.
3. Electronic Devices (Floyd L.) McGraw Hill (7th Edition)
4. Handbook of Power Quality (Angelo Baggini) John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
5. Teach Your Self Electrical and Electronics (Stan Giboilisco) 3rd Edition
6. Power Electronics and Control (Samir K. Datte) PHI - 1986.
7. Industrial Electronics and Control (S.K. Bhattacharya) Tata McGraw Hill - 2007.
8. Modern Power Electroncis (P.C. Sen) Wheeler Publications - 1992.
9. Practical Transistor Circuits Design and Analysis (Jerrald E. William) Tata McGraw
Hill - 1976.
10. Power Electronics System Theory and Design (Jai P. Aggarwal) Pearson Education
Asia - 2001.
11. Power Electronics (Vedam Subrahmanyam) New Edge Intl - 2000.
12. Practical Electronics Handbook (IAN SINCLAIR and John Dunton) 6th Edition

1. Monthly Appliance Magazine, Los Angeles, USA July 2006
2. Monthly Power Engineering International, Marietta, Georgia, USA Nov.2010




Appendix A Circuit Design of Project

Appendix B Important Data Sheets

Appendix A

Appendix B
KA78XX/KA78XXA 3-Terminal 1A Positive Voltage Regulator
Output Current up to 1A
Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V
Thermal Overload Protection
Short Circuit Protection
Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Parameter Symbol Value Unit
Input Voltage (for VO = 5V to 18V) VI 35 V
(for VO = 24V) VI 40 V
Thermal Resistance Junction-Cases (TO-220) RJC 5
Thermal Resistance Junction-Air (TO-220) RJA 65
Operating Temperature Range (KA78XX/A/R) TOPR 0 ~ +125 C

Storage Temperature Range TSTG -65 ~ +150 C

Electrical Characteristics (KA7805/KA7805R)

(Refer to test circuit, 0C < TJ < 125C, IO = 500mA, VI =10V, CI= 0.33F, CO=0.1F, unless
otherwise specified)
Parameter Symbol Conditions Unit
Min. Typ. Max.
TJ =+25 oC 4.8 5.0 5.2
Output Voltage VO 5.0mA Io 1.0A, PO 15W
VI = 7V to 20V 4.75 5.0 5.25
VO = 7V to 25V - 4.0 100
Line Regulation (Note1) Regline TJ=+25 oC mV
VI = 8V to 12V - 1.6 50
IO = 5.0mA to1.5A - 9 100
Load Regulation (Note1) Regload TJ=+25 oC mV
IO =250mA to 750mA - 4 50
Quiescent Current IQ TJ =+25 oC - 5.0 8.0 mA
IO = 5mA to 1.0A - 0.03 0.5
Quiescent Current Change IQ mA
VI= 7V to 25V - 0.3 1.3
Output Voltage Drift VO/T IO= 5mA - -0.8 - mV/ oC
Output Noise Voltage VN f = 10Hz to 100KHz, TA=+25 oC - 42 - V/VO
f = 120Hz
Ripple Rejection RR 62 73 - dB
VO = 8V to 18V
Dropout Voltage VDrop IO = 1A, TJ =+25 oC - 2 - V
Output Resistance rO f = 1KHz - 15 - m
Short Circuit Current ISC VI = 35V, TA =+25 oC - 230 - mA
Peak Current IPK o - 2.2 - A
TJ =+25 C

Electrical Characteristics (KA7806/KA7806R)
(Refer to test circuit, 0C < TJ < 125C, IO = 500mA, VI =11V, CI= 0.33F, CO=0.1F, unless
otherwise specified)
Parameter Symbol Conditions Unit
Min. Typ. Max.
TJ =+25 oC 5.75 6.0 6.25
Output Voltage VO 5.0mA IO 1.0A, PO 15W
VI = 8.0V to 21V 5.7 6.0 6.3
VI = 8V to 25V - 5 120
Line Regulation (Note1) Regline TJ =+25 oC mV
VI = 9V to 13V - 1.5 60
IO =5mA to 1.5A - 9 120
Load Regulation (Note1) Regload TJ =+25 oC mV
IO =250mA to750mA - 3 60
Quiescent Current IQ TJ =+25 oC - 5.0 8.0 mA
IO = 5mA to 1A - - 0.5
Quiescent Current Change IQ mA
VI = 8V to 25V - - 1.3
Output Voltage Drift VO/T IO = 5mA - -0.8 - oC

Output Noise Voltage VN f = 10Hz to 100KHz, TA =+25 oC - 45 - V/Vo

f = 120Hz
Ripple Rejection RR 59 75 - dB
VI = 9V to 19V
Dropout Voltage VDrop IO = 1A, TJ =+25 oC - 2 - V
Output Resistance rO f = 1KHz - 19 - m
Short Circuit Current ISC VI= 35V, TA =+25 oC - 250 - mA
Peak Current IPK TJ =+25 oC - 2.2 - A

Electrical Characteristics (KA7808/KA7808R)

(Refer to test circuit, 0C < TJ < 125C, IO = 500mA, VI =14V, CI= 0.33F, CO=0.1F, unless
otherwise specified)

Parameter Symbol Conditions Unit
Min. Typ. Max.
TJ =+25 oC 7.7 8.0 8.3
Output Voltage VO 5.0mA IO 1.0A, PO 15W
VI = 10.5V to 23V 7.6 8.0 8.4
VI = 10.5V to 25V - 5.0 160
Line Regulation (Note1) Regline TJ =+25 oC mV
VI = 11.5V to 17V - 2.0 80
IO = 5.0mA to 1.5A - 10 160
Load Regulation (Note1) Regload TJ =+25 oC IO= 250mA to mV
- 5.0 80
Quiescent Current IQ TJ =+25 oC - 5.0 8.0 mA
IO = 5mA to 1.0A - 0.05 0.5
Quiescent Current Change IQ mA
VI = 10.5A to 25V - 0.5 1.0
Output Voltage Drift VO/T IO = 5mA - -0.8 - mV/ oC
Output Noise Voltage VN f = 10Hz to 100KHz, TA =+25 oC - 52 - V/Vo

Ripple Rejection RR f = 120Hz, VI= 11.5V to 21.5V 56 73 - dB
Dropout Voltage VDrop IO = 1A, TJ =+25 oC - 2 - V
Output Resistance rO f = 1KHz - 17 - m
Short Circuit Current ISC VI= 35V, TA =+25 oC - 230 - mA
Peak Current IPK TJ =+25 oC - 2.2 - A

Electrical Characteristics (KA7809/KA7809R)

(Refer to test circuit ,0C < TJ < 125C, IO = 500mA, VI =15V, CI= 0.33F, CO=0.1F, unless
otherwise specified)
Parameter Symbol Conditions Unit
Min. Typ. Max.
TJ =+25 oC 8.65 9 9.35
Output Voltage VO 5.0mA IO 1.0A, PO 15W
VI= 11.5V to 24V 8.6 9 9.4
VI = 11.5V to 25V - 6 180
Line Regulation (Note1) Regline TJ=+25 oC mV
VI = 12V to 17V - 2 90
IO = 5mA to 1.5A - 12 180
Load Regulation (Note1) Regload TJ=+25 oC mV
IO = 250mA to 750mA - 4 90
Quiescent Current IQ TJ=+25 oC - 5.0 8.0 mA
IO = 5mA to 1.0A - - 0.5
Quiescent Current Change IQ mA
VI = 11.5V to 26V - - 1.3
Output Voltage Drift VO/T IO = 5mA - -1 - mV/ oC
Output Noise Voltage VN f = 10Hz to 100KHz, TA =+25 oC - 58 - V/Vo
Ripple Rejection f = 120Hz
RR 56 71 - dB
VI = 13V to 23V
Dropout Voltage VDrop IO = 1A, TJ=+25 oC - 2 - V
Output Resistance rO f = 1KHz - 17 - m
Short Circuit Current ISC VI= 35V, TA =+25 oC - 250 - mA
Peak Current IPK T J= +25 oC - 2.2 - A

Electrical Characteristics (KA7810)

(Refer to test circuit, 0C < TJ < 125C, IO = 500mA, VI =16V, CI= 0.33F, CO=0.1F, unless
otherwise specified)

Parameter Symbol Conditions Unit
Min. Typ. Max.
TJ =+25 oC 9.6 10 10.4
Output Voltage VO 5.0mA IO 1.0A, PO 15W
VI = 12.5V to 25V 9.5 10 10.5