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SIMULATIONS

Technical Report

By

Vihang M. Dholakiya (10MEEE05)

Devendra P. Parmar (10MEEE07)

Dr. S. C. Vora

INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

NIRMA UNIVERSITY

AHMEDABAD 382 481

MAY 2012

Dedicated To

Mentor

Dr. S. C. Vora

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Technical Report entitled \POWER SYSTEM STA-

BILIZER : ANALYSIS & SIMULATIONS" submitted by Mr. Vihang M. Dholakiya

(10MEEE05) and Mr. Devendra P. Parmar (10MEEE07), is the record of work

carried out by them under my supervision and guidance. The work submitted has

in my opinion reached a level required for being accepted. The results embodied

in this project work to the best of my knowledge are satisfactory.

Date:

Project Guide

Dr. S. C. Vora

Professor

Department of Electrical Engineering

Institute of Technology

Nirma University

Ahmedabad

Acknowledgements

We take this opportunity to express our sincere gratitude to our honorable guide

Dr.S.C.Vora for his invaluable guidance. It would have never been possible for us

to wok on this project without his technical support and continuous encourage-

ment. We consider ourself, extremely fortunate for having chance to work under

his guidance. In spite of his hectic schedule, he was always approachable and

spent his precious time to discuss problems. It has been a very learning and

enjoyable experi-ence to work under him.

We would like to acknowledge Mr. A. Ragaveniran et.al., authors of technical

paper titled as \MATLAB/Simulik-Based Modeling and Operation of Power

System Stabilizer" which provides us initial motivation for doing work in the area

of imple-mentation of power system stabilizer.

We would also like to thank all faculty members of Department of Electrical Engi-

neering, who have helped us during this project work. I wish to express my

thanks to other sta members of Electrical Department as well for their regular

help and co-operation during the project work. We heartily thankful sta member

of library for providing technical recourses for project work.

We would be specially thankful to our dear friend Narendra C. Mahavadia for

providing continuous help and motivational support during entire project work.

We never forget the time that we have spent with him during this tenure.

We are thankfull to our classmates for their invaluable help, suggestions and

support during the project work. We would like to thank all who have directly or

indirectly contributed to this project work.

Finally, We would like to thank The Almighty and express my deep sense of

rever-ence gratitude to our Parents and Family Members who have provided

support and blessings without which we wouldn't have reached at this stage.

- Vihang M. Dholakiya

- Devendra P. Parmar

i

Abstract

The extensive interconnection of power networks by weak tie-lines can restrict the

steady-state power transfer limits due to low frequency electromechanical

oscillations. The low frequency oscillations may result in interruptions in energy

supply due to loss of synchronism among the system generators and a ect

operational system economics and security. Further, in order to maintain steady state

and transient stability of syn-chronous generators, high performance excitation

systems are essential. The static exciters with thyristor controllers are generally used

for both hydraulic and thermal units. Such exciters are characterized by high initial

response and increased reliabil-ity due to advances in thyristor controllers and hence

have become one of the major problems in the power system stability area. As a

solution to this, the generators are equipped with Power System Stabilizers(PSSs)

that provide supplementary feedback stabilizing signals which is added to the

Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR). PSSs augment the power system stability limit

and extend the power transfer capability by enhancing the system damping of low-

frequency oscillations in the order of 0.2 to 3.0 Hz.

The report focuses on small signal performance analysis of Single Machine In nite

Bus(SMIB) as well as of multimachine power system. The dynamic behaviour of Ha

ron-Phillips model of excitation system with typical data is evaluated by devel-oping

MATLAB code for eigenvalue tracking analysis. The e ect of implementation of power

system stabilizer to SMIB system has been realized by time domain sim-ulations. In

the later part optimal placement of PSS is decided, because from the economic point

of view and to avoid redundancy, it is desired, not to employ PSS on individual

generators to overcome the problem of power system oscillations. The eigenvalue

analysis of the power system for various areas is used to determine the inter-area

and local mode frequencies and participation of the generators. It is also important to

identify the generator that shall be installed with PSS. A simulation study on well-

adopted test system is carried out, with various possibilities, to deter-mine the

optimal placement of the PSS. The observations of the certain analysis are helpful in

determining the PSS placement and are presented in the report.

ii

List of Figures

2.2 Phasor Representation of Electrical Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.3 Synchronizing & Damping Torque Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 14

3.2 Linearized SMIB Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

3.3 Block Diagram of Linearized SMIB Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

3.4 Eigenvalue Loci for Variation in AVR Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

3.5 Basic Arrangement of PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

3.6 Ha ron- Phillips Model of Excitation System with PSS . . . . . . . . 25

3.7 Operating Principle of PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

3.8 General Structure of PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

3.9 SMIB Model in MATLAB/SIMULINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

3.10 Rotor Angle Deviation Before Introducing PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

3.11 Speed Deviation Before Introducing PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

3.12 Rotor Angle Deviation After Introducing PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3.13 Speed Deviation After Introducing PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

4.2 Speed Participation Factor v/s Generator No. For Inter-Area Mode-

0.54 Hz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

4.3 Participation Factor v/s Generator No. For Local Mode-1.05 Hz . . . 39

4.4 Eigenvalues of Two Area Test System without PSS . . . . . . . . . . 39

4.5 Eigenvalues of Two Area Test System with PSS in Area-2 . . . . . . 40

4.6 Eigenvalues of Two Area Test System with PSS in Both Areas . . . . 40

4.7 MATLAB/SIMULINK Model of Test System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

4.8 Block Diagram of PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

4.9 Power Flow from Area-1 to Area-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

4.10 Per Unit Speed Deviation for Case-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

4.11 Per Unit Speed Deviation for Case-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

4.12 Per Unit Speed Deviation for Case-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

4.13 Per Unit Speed Deviation for Case-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

iii

List of Tables

4.1 Network Statastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

4.3 Line Flow Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

4.4 Summerized Power Flow Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

4.5 Summerized Power Flow Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

4.6 E ects of PSS with Di erent Arrangement Scheme . . . . . . . . . . 37

B.1 Machine Data of Two Area Test System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

B.3 Load Data of Two Area Test System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

B.4 Exciter & PSS Data of Two Area Test System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

iv

Abbreviations

CPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Continuous Power Flow

GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graphical User Interface

HVDC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High Voltage Direct Current

OPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Optimal Power Flow

PSAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power System Analysis Tool Box

PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Power System Stabilizer

SMIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single Machine In nite Bus System

Nomenclature

Gex(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exciter Transfer Function H . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moment of Inertia

KD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Damping Co-e cient K E . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Exciter Gain

KS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Synchronizing Co-e cient K P SS . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PSS Gain s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laplace Function T w . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wash out Time Constant ! n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Natural Frequency !

r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed Deviation

P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Change in Power

Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Change in Rotor

Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Damping Ratio . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Phase

v

Contents

Acknowledgements i

Abstract ii

List of Tables iv

Nomenclature/Abbreviations v

Contents vi

1 Introduction 1

1.2 Objective of The Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.3 Project Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.4 Scope of Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.5 Outline of Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

2 Power System Stability 4

2.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2.2 Small Signal Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2.3 Small Signal Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.3.1 Eigenvalue Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.3.2 Synchronizing and Damping Torque Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 12

2.3.3 Frequency Response and Residue Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.3.4 Time Domain Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

3 SMIB & PSS: Physical Aspects, Implementation & Analysis 17

3.1.1 Formulation of He ron-Phillips Model of Excitation System for

Stability Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

3.1.2 Linearized Model of Single Machine In nite Bus System . . . 19

3.1.3 Oscillatory Stability Assessment of SMIB . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

3.1.4 Introducing PSS in AVR loop of SMIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

3.2 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

vi

vii

4.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

4.2 Test System Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

4.3 Load Flow Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

4.4 Linear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

4.4.1 System Behavior in Di erent Arrangement of PSS . . . . . . . 36

4.4.2 Mode Identi cation and Participation Analysis . . . . . . . . . 37

4.4.3 S-Domain Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

4.4.4 Time Domain Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

4.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

5 Conclusions & Future Work 46

5.1 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

5.2 Future Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

References 48

A IEEE Proceeding 49

B System Data 50

C.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

C.1.1 Useful Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

C.1.2 PSAT Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

C.2 Starting Process of PSAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

C.3 Useful Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

Index 58

Chapter 1

Introduction

Power transactions are increasing day by day in restructured power systems. Re-

structured power system is therefore, expected to be operated at a greater variety of

operating points and closer to their operating constraints. The \low frequency os-

cillations" is one of the operational constraints which limit bulk power transmission

through power network. In such scenario, power system controls plays signi cant

role. Power system controls can contribute either positive or negative damping.

Generation control and particularly the generator voltage regulation can be signi cant

sources of negative damping. High gain in the generator voltage regulation can lead

to poor or negative damping of the oscillation. This problem has lead to the

implementation of Power System Stabilizer (PSS) to damp out the oscillations.

The project work is aimed at the implementation of power system stabilizer with

appropriate parameters in single machine in nite bus system. E ect of power

system stabilizer implementation on system damping is also targeted. Further, for

multi machine power system, it is aimed that, the damping of power system

oscillations can be achieved with minimum No.of power system stabilizers

located at optimal locations.

1

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 2

Formation & analysis of Ha ron-Phillips model of excitation system.

its e ect on system response.

c

Formation of SMIB in M AT LAB /SIMULINK.

c

Formation of Kundur's Two Area System in M AT LAB /SIMULINK.

Analysis Toolbox(PSAT).

factors.

The scope of the project work can be broadly outlined as below:

Response analysis in time domain for Kundur's Two Area System with

typical di erent cases.

analysis and time-domain simulations.

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 3

Chapter 1 introduces the main problem associated with the low frequency

oscillation damping by optimally placed PSS and the same is considered as the

objective of this work. The project planning and scope of work is also included.

description of eigenvalue analysis method used for evaluating small signal per-

formance of power system is focused and the other methods are discussed brie y.

system through eigenvalue tracking method. The e ect of implementation of

PSS in SMIB has also been analyzed by performing time domain simulations.

system. The eigenvalue analysis of for Kundur's two area system is used to de-

simulation study on considered test system is carried out, with various PSS

arrangement, the optimal placement of the PSS is decided.

Chapter 2

2.1 Background

The interconnected power system is comprised of multiple machines connected by the

transmission network. The supply of reliable and economic electric energy is a major

determinant of industrial progress and consequent rise in the standard of living. In

practical terms this means that both voltage and frequency must be held within allow-

able tolerances so that the consumer's equipment can operate satisfactorily. Further,

with deregulation of power supply utilities, the power network has become a highway for

transmitting electric power from wherever it is available to places where required,

depending on the pricing that varies with time of the day. In such scenario, the anal-ysis

of dynamic performance and stability of power system has great importance.

The stability problem is concerned with the behavior of the synchronous machines under

perturbed conditions. If the perturbation does not involve any net change in power, the

machines should return to their original state and if an unbalance between the supply

and demand is created by perturbation, a new operating state should be achieved.

When the system changes its operating point from one stable point to the other,it is

mandatory that all interconnected synchronous machines should remain in synchronism.

i.e., they should all remain operating in parallel and at the same speed.

4

CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 5

Thus, Power System Stability may be broadly de ned as that property of power

system that enables it to remain in a state of operating equilibrium under normal

operating condition and to regain an acceptable state of equilibrium after being

sub-jected to disturbance[1].

Although, stability of a system is an integral property of the system, for purposes

of the system analysis, it is mainly divided into following categories:

synchronism followed by small disturbances. e.g. gradually changing load.

machine to small perturbations that are oscillating in nature. If these

signal stable, but if the amplitude of oscillations is of growing nature, with

the passage of time the system may lose its stability. Usually, heavy power

ow in trans-mission line or interaction of controller with system frequency is

responsible for small signal instabilities. The phenomenon is concerning

with few seconds to 10s of seconds of time period.

turbances such as application and clearing of faults, sudden load changes and

inadvertent tripping of transmission lines or generators. Such large disturbances

can create large changes in rotor speeds, power angles and power transfer. The

phenomenon is concerns with time period of 1 second or less.

The detailed classi cation of power system stability is depicted in the following

Fig.2.1 [1].The report focuses on the Small Signal Stability of power system.

CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 6

CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 7

Small Signal Stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism

when subjected to small disturbances. A power system at a particular operating state

may be large disturbance unstable and still such a system may be operated with

insecurity with proper control and protective actions. But, if the system is small-signal

unstable at a given operating condition, it cannot be operated at all, because small

signal instability may result in steady increase in generator rotor angle due to lack of

synchronizing torque or in rotor oscillations of increasing amplitude due to insu cient

damping torque. Thus, small-signal stability is a fundamental requirement for the

satisfactory operation of power systems.The reasons for the system can become

small signal unstable are enlisted hereunder[3]:

Heavy power transfer over long transmission lines from remote generating plants

Power transfer over weak ties between systems which may result due to

line outages.

systems, HVDC-converters and static var compensators.

instabilities of torsional mode oscillations.

insu - cient damping of oscillations. In practical power system, the main types of

oscillations associated with small signal stability are as follows:

1) Swing Mode

2) Control Mode

3) Torsional Mode

CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 8

This mode is also referred to as electromechanical oscillations. For an n

gen-erator system, there are (n-1) swing (oscillatory) modes associated

with the generator rotors.The location of generators in the system

determines the type of swing mode.Hence, the swing mode of oscillation

can be further sub classi ed as shown in following Table 2.1 [3].

These oscillations generally These oscillations These oscillations usually

involve one or more typically involve two or involve combinations of many

synchronous machines at a more synchronous synchronous machines on

power station swinging machines at a power one part of a power system

together against a plant swing against each swinging against machines

comparatively large power other. on another part of the system.

system or load center.

Freqency Range: 0.7 to 2 Hz Freqency Range: 1.5 to 3 Hz Freqency Range: 0.1 to 0.5 Hz

Control modes are associated with generating units and other controls.

Poorly tuned exciters, speed governors, HVDC converters and static var

compensators are the usual causes of instability of these modes.

These oscillations involve relative angular motion between the rotating

elements (synchronous machine rotor, turbine, and exciter) of a unit, with

frequencies ranging from 4Hz and above. Instability of torsional mode may

be caused by interaction with excitation controls, speed governors and

series capacitor compensated transmission lines.

Of these oscillations, local mode, intra-plant mode, control mode and torsional

mode are generally categorized as local problems as it involves a small part of

the system. Further, inter-area mode oscillations are categorized as global

problems and have widespread e ects.

CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 9

There are mainly four techniques which are used to analyze the small signal

stability of power system:

a. Eigenvalue Analysis

In this report ,of the above methods, Eigenvalue Analysis is used to study oscillatory

behavior of power systems and hence has been described in detail. The system is

linearized about an operating point and typically involves computation of eigenvalues,

eigenvectors, participation factors and system modes from state-space representation of

power system model. This can also be termed as \Small Signal Stability Analysis" or

\Modal Analysis". Technique employed in this report for studying oscillatory modes is

also based on eigenvalue analysis. Initially, eigenvalues and eigenvectors are derived.

From this, modes of oscillations and participation factor of particular generator are found

out. It gives preliminary idea about possible location of PSS. The derivation of

eigenvalues and participation factor can be found in [1] and can be brie y explained as

follows: Linear approximation of power systems can be characterized by the following

state-space equations:

_ (2.1)

x=A x+B u

_ (2.2)

y=C x+D u

Where,

x is the state vector of length equal to the number of states n

CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 10

u is the input vector of length r

A is the (n n) state matrix B is

the input matrix of (n r)

C is the output matrix of (m n)

D is the feed forward matrix of (m r)

Eigenvalues of the system state matrix is available from the characteristic

equation of the state matrix A. It can be expressed as

det(A I) = 0 (2.3)

For each of the eigenvalues, there are two sets of orthogonal eigenvectors,

namely the left and right eigenvectors, satisfying the following equations:

Ai= i i (2.4)

iA = i i

(2.5)

Where,

th

i, is the i eigenvalue i is the right eigenvector corresponding to i i is the left

eigenvector corresponding to i

it

given by e . Therefore, the stability of the system is determined by the eigenvalues

analysis. Real eigenvalues are associated with non-oscillatory modes, whereas the

complex ones, appearing in conjugate pairs, correspond to oscillatory modes - one

mode for each pair. If the eigenvalue of an oscillatory mode is expressed as,

i = j! (2.6)

CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 11

The damping coe cient which gives the rate of decay of amplitude of the

oscillation is given by,

= p (2.7)

2 2

+!

and the frequency of oscillation in Hz is determined by,

f= ! (2.8)

A negative real part of the eigenvalue represents positive damping coe cient that is,

decaying oscillation, and the positive real part indicates negative damping, i.e.,

increasing oscillation. The right eigenvector of a mode gives an idea about how this

mode is distributed among di erent states of the system and hence known as Mode

Shape. Based on this idea, if a mode is found to be distributed among speci c state

variable of generating units in di erent areas, then that mode can be identi ed as a

local mode or inter-area mode. Typically, rotor speed is used as the test state

variable for mode shape analysis in inter-area oscillation study[1] , [4].

variable in any speci c mode. It is mathematically expressed as the multiplication

th

of left and right eigenvectors. For example, participation factor p ki of any k state

th

variable in any i mode can be measured as[1],

p = (2.9)

ki kiik

Where,

th th

ki is the k entry of the right eigenvector of i mode ik

th th

is the k entry of the left eigenvector of i mode

Thus, participation factors are the sensitivities of the eigenvalues to changes in the

diagonal elements of the state matrix. They indicate possible locations where a stabilizer

may e ectively control the mode of concern[8]. Eigenvalue or modal analysis describes

the small-signal behavior of the system about an operating point, and does not take into

account the nonlinear behavior of components such as controller's limits at large system

perturbations. Further, design and analysis carried out using various

CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 12

indices such as participation factors, may lead to many alternate options. These

options need to be veri ed by time-domain simulations.

ii) Root loci plotted with variations in system parameters or operating conditions

provide valuable insight into the dynamic characteristics of the system.

given swing mode can be identi ed.

between the input mechanical torque and output electrical torque of each

machine. The change in electrical torque of alternator following small perturbation

can be illustrated through following equation:

Te = Ts + TD ! (2.10)

Where,

Ts is the component of torque change in phase with the rotor angle pertur-

bation and is referred to as the synchronizing torque component.

referred to as the damping torque component.

The nature of system oscillations to small perturbation depends on both the com-

ponents of electrical torque. The response of generator without automatic voltage

regulator (constant eld) can result into instability due to lack of su cient synchro-

nizing torque. Such instability is known as non-oscillatory instability. Further, the

CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 13

presence of automatic voltage regulator can also result in instability with oscillations

having nature of continuously growing amplitude. Such instability is known as oscilla-

tory instability. Both types of instabilities are illustrated in following Fig.3.1 [1]. This

analysis assumes that the rotor angle and the speed deviations oscillate sinusoidally.

Hence this can be represented by phasors as depicted in Fig.2.2

From the above gure the damping torque component can be written as

If either or both damping and synchronizing torques are negative, i.e., if TeD <

0 and/or TeS < 0, then the system is unstable. A negative damping torque im-plies

that the response will be in the form of growing oscillations, and a negative

synchronizing torque implies monotonic instability.

CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 14

CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 15

given input and output. Frequency response methods allow a deeper insight into

small-signal dynamics and have widespread use in the design of power system

controllers. Frequency response can also be measured directly, even in a power

system. Residues give the contribution of a mode to a transfer function. They

also give the sensitivity of the corresponding eigenvalue to a positive feedback

between the output of the transfer function and its input. Thus, residues are

useful to get an idea of which modes will be a ected most by feedback. An

advantage of using residues in such analysis is that it takes into account the

transfer function structure of the excitation system unlike participation factors.

However, evaluation of residues dependent on the speci c input/output

combinations and may be computationally intensive for large systems.

systems both for small and large disturbances. The choice of disturbance and

selection of variables to be observed in time response are critical. If the input is not

chosen properly, there is possibility that the substantial excitation of the important

modes may not be achieved. The observed response may contain many modes and

the poorly damped modes may not be so dominant. The solution is highly a ected by

the modeling of the components. Larger systems may have a number of inter-area

modes of similar frequencies, and it is quite di cult to separate them from a response

in which more than one is excited. Therefore, for a large power system it is not

possible to identify any desired mode and study their characteristics.

Of all these methods, eigenvalue or modal analysis is widely used for analyzing

the small-signal stability of power system due to advantages described earlier in

this section.

CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 16

2.4 Summary

The chapter provides general introduction to basic concepts of power system stability

including a discussion of classi cation,de nitions of related terms in brief. The details

regarding small signal stability analysis includes eigenvalue analysis along with other

methods to evaluate small signal performance of power system in simpli ed manner.

Chapter 3

Implementation & Analysis

Bus System

In order to analyze the small signal stability of SMIB, following methodology has

been adopted:

for Stability Studies

The third-order model of the synchronous machine can be represented as a block dia-

gram shown in Fig.3.1. The basis for the model presented here, which was originally

proposed by He ron and Phillips, is the \Single Machine In nite Bus" (SMIB) setup. By

introducing a number of new constants, a very compact notation is achieved. The

17

CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS18

including the mechanical dynamics, eld winding, and excitation system. This im-

plementation can be used directly for stability studies. In the present case, a generic

simpli ed representation of the excitation system is used. Detailed descriptions and

common variants of these systems can be found in [1]. All quantities presented

are in per unit. The mechanical system is represented by the system inertia and

the damping constant, where the torque balances Tm Te is considered as an input

and the incremental torque angle as an output. The electrical part of the system

consists of three main parts:

a. The composition of the electrical torque (in uenced by over constant K 1 and

the internal incremental voltage eq over constant K2),

b. The e ect of the eld winding (determined by the eld winding constant K 3 and

in uenced by over constant K4),

c. The e ect of the excitation system (in uenced by over constant K 5 and eq

over constant K6).

CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS19

the ampli cation factor KA and the time constant TA.

Interpretation of K-constants

within the system and can be found by a comparison of coe cients with the equations

governing the synchronous machine dynamics. While K 1 and K2 are derived from the

computation of the electric torque, K 3 and K4 have their origin in the eld voltage

equation. K5 and K6 come from the equation governing the terminal voltage magni-

tude. The detailed derivation of K-constants is given in chapter 12 of P. Kundur.

K1 - In uence of torque angle on electric torque

K2-In uence of internal Voltage on electric torque

K3- eld winding constant

K4-In uence of torque angle on eld voltage

K5-In uence of torque angle on terminal voltage

K6-In uence of internal voltage on terminal voltage

system through transmission line. For any condition, the magnitude of in nite bus voltage

synchronous generator and neglecting stator resistance, linearization of system

CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS20

dt 2 3 =2 2H 2H 32 3 + 2 2H 3 Tm (3.1)

K K

1

d !r

D S

!r

4 5 4 0 54 5 4 0 5

!0

gure3.3: where,

KD=Damping torque coe cient in pu torque/rad

H =Inertia Constant in MW sec/MVA

!r=Speed Deviation in pu =Rotor

angle deviation in elec. rad

s=Laplace operator

!0=Rated speed in elec. rad/sec

The characteristic equation for the system can be given as

2 =0 (3.2)

s + KD s + K s ! 0

2H 2H

CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS21

2 2 (3.3)

s + 2 !ns + !n = 0

Natural frequency of oscillation is

!n = r (3.4)

s

!

k

2H

KD

= (3.5)

2

p

Ks2H!0

a. As the synchronizing torque coe cient K s increases, the natural frequency

in-creases and the damping ratio decreases.

damping ratio.

neg-ative damping and may lead to oscillatory instability. For the sake of small

signal stability analysis, a typical single machine in nite bus bar system given as

example in book titled as \ Power System Dynamics-Stability and Control" by

K.R. Padiar has been considered [2]. The system data considered are as follows:

K1 = 0.0345 K2 = 2.2571 K3 = 0.4490 K4 = 0.1826 K5 =-0.0649 K6 =1.0613

CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS22

condition, Eigenvalue Tracking approach has been adopted.

As discussed in chapter 1 that the eigenvalues computed from the system state

matrix can be helpful to predict the system stability.From the data shown in the

above table, a MATLAB code has been developed to analyze the behaviour of

system against gain variation from K E=0 to KE=400. It is possible to express the

system equations in the state space form. From the block diagram, shown in

Fig.3.1, the following system equations and state matrix are derived.

T (3.7)

x = [!r fdEfd]

2 K1 0 K 0 3

K D

2

6 0 ! 0 7

2

[A] = K4 1 1 (3.8)

6 H 0 0 7

2H 2H

6 7

T3 T3K3 T3

0

K K K K

6 E 5 E 6 1 7

6 7

T5 TE

6 TE 7

4 5

B = [0 0 0 KE ]T (3.9)

TE

The damping term KD, is included in the swing equation. The eigenvalues of the

matrix should lie in left half plane in the`s' plane for the system to be stable. The

from eigenvalue analysis. It is to be noted that the elements of matrix [A] are

dependent on the operating condition.

The loci of the complex critical eigenvalues for the considered case is shown in Fig.3.4.

It is observed that, when K5 < 0, the increase in AVR gain beyond K E=4 results in

CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS23

still it remains in the right hand plane only. Further,there is only one of the critical

eigenvalues is shown in Fig.3.4. The other is the complex conjugate whose locus

is the mirror image about the real axis. Thus, it can be realized from the analysis

that the fast acting AVR with higher gains are creating oscillatory instability in the

power system. In order to avoid such situation, the e ect of implementation of

PSS in small signal unstable system is discussed in subsequent sections.

Apart from providing fast control of the terminal voltage, high performance excitation

systems are essential for maintaining steady state and transient stability of modern

synchronous generators. It is observed that fast acting exciters with high gain AVR

can contribute to oscillatory instability in power systems. This type of-instability is

characterized by low frequency (0.2 to 2.0 Hz) oscillations which can persist or even

grow in magnitude for no apparent reason. A cost e ective and satisfactory solution

to the problem of oscillatory instability is to provide damping for generator rotor

CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS24

(PSS) which are supplementary controllers in the excitation systems. The basic

function of PSS is to add damping to the generator rotor oscillations by

controlling its excitation using auxiliary stabilizing signal.

The basic arrangement of PSS along with the generator controls is depicted in Fig.3.5.

In this arrangement, speed change of generator is taken as input to PSS and its out-put

is added to the reference input of AVR to change the excitation voltage.

The theoretical basis for PSS can be illustrated by extended block diagram of He

ron-Phillips model of excitation system as depicted in 3.6 As the purpose of PSS

is to introduce damping torque component, a logical signal to use for controlling

CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS25

controlling its excitation using an auxiliary stabilizing signal. The stabilizer does

so by producing component of electrical torque in phase with the rotor speed

deviation. Fig. 3.7 shows the operating principle of PSS.

CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS26

From the above gure it can be clearly visualize that due to stabilizing signal

provided by PSS in phase with speed deviation, the electrical torque is shifted

from third to rst quadrant, means becomes positive from negative in magnitude.

The block diagram of basic structure of power system stabilizer is depicted in

Fig.3.8.It consists of gain block, washout circuit, dynamic compensator, and lim-iter.

The functions of each of the components of PSS are given in subsequent sections.

1) PSS Gain

Stabilizing gain KP SS determines the amount of damping introduced by PSS.

Ideally, PSS gain is set to get the maximum damping of the oscillatory modes.

However, due to practical considerations, high gain may not be always the

best option and may cause excessive ampli cation of stabilizer input signal. In

general, the gain value is set such that it results in satisfactory damping of

critical system modes without compromising the stability limits.

2) Washout Circuit

The washout circuit is provided to eliminate steady-state bias in the output of PSS

which will modify the generator terminal voltage. The PSS is expected to respond

only to transient variations in the input signal, say rotor speed and not to the dc o

sets in the signal. The washout circuit acts essentially as a high pass

lter and it must pass all frequencies that are of interest. If only the local modes are

of interest, the time constant Tw can be chosen in the range of 1 to 2. However,

CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS27

if inter area modes are also to be damped, then Tw must be chosen in the range of 10

modes[1]. There is also a noticeable improvement in the rst swing stability when

Tw is increased from 1.5 to 10. The higher value of T w also improved the

overall terminal voltage response during system islanding conditions.

3) Lead-Lag Compensator

Lead-Lag compensator block provides the suitable phase lead to compensate

for the phase lag between the exciter input and generator electrical

torque.The dy-namic compensator, used in practice, is made up of several

multiple stages of lead-lag compensators depending upon the requirement of

phase compensation to be provided.

Stabilizer output voltage is limited between typical maximum and minimum

val-ues to restrict the level of generator terminal voltage uctuation during

transient conditions. Large output limits ensure maximum contribution of

stabilizers but generator terminal voltage may face large uctuation.The main

objective in select-ing the output limits of PSS is to allow maximum forcing

capability of stabilizer, while maintaining the terminal voltage within desired

limits. Most commonly used value of the maximum limit is between 0.1 to 0.2

p.u. , while minimum limit is taken between -0.05 and -0.1 p.u.

5) Input of PSS

Many signals, like rotor speed deviation, frequency deviation, change in load

angle, change in electrical power etc are possible to use as input signal to

PSS. However, from practical point of view, the following three types of input

signals are most commonly used as input to power system stabilizer:

Frequency Deviation ( f)

CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS28

Though in practice, the speed deviation signal is used as input to PSS, it is in-

herently sensitive to torsional modes of oscillations in the frequency range of 8

to 20 Hz, which can lead to negative damping for torsional mode. Hence, It

also advisable to use torsional lter-typically a low pass lter- for avoiding

interaction of PSS with torsional mode of oscillations.

The test system discussed in the previous section has also been used to realize the

impact of PSS installation in SMIB.The SIMULINK model of the test system is

depicted in Fig.3.9. From the Fig3.10. and Fig.3.11 of rotor angle deviation and

speed deviation respectively, it can be inferred that, in absence of su cient stabilizing

control the system has become oscillatory instable. The oscillations of growing

nature has been found that leads the test system to be small signal instable.

After introducing properly tuned PSS in AVR loop, it can be visualize from Fig.3.12

and Fig.3.13 of rotor angle deviation and speed deviation respectively, that the

system oscillations have been su ciently damped out in short period of time.

CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS29

Figure 3.11: Speed Deviation Before Introducing PSS

CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS30

Figure 3.13: Speed Deviation After Introducing PSS

CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS31

3.2 Summary

The chapter provides basic analysis on e ect of AVR gain on power system

stability that produces power system oscillations of increasing amplitude.For the

purpose of analysis, typical SMIB system has been linearized to get the

eigenvalues for di erent values of AVR gain. Further, the damping of low

frequency oscillations is achieved by properly tuned PSS. The chapter provide s

platform for implementation of power system stabilizer in multimachine power

system which is discussed in subsequent chapter.

Chapter 4

Multimachine Power System

4.1 Background

systems by the application of a PSS has become a matter of great attention. It is

much more signi cant in current scenario where many large and complex power

systems frequently operate close to their stability limits. Though, there is common

perception that the application of PSS is almost a mandatory requirement on all

generators, the use of high price PSS with each and every generator is constrained

by economical limits. In view of the potentially high cost of using a PSS and to

assess its e ectiveness in damping poorly damped oscillatory modes to achieve

better stability, identi cation of the optimum site of PSS is an important task.

P.Kundur considered for choosing optimal location of PSS.

The system contains eleven buses and two areas, connected by a weak tie between bus

7 and 9. Each area consists of two generators, each having a rating of 900 MVA and 20

kV. Inertia constant of area-1 generators is 6.5sec and of area-2 generators is

32

CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM33

6.17 5sec. Totally two loads are applied to the system at bus 7 and 9. Two shunt

capacitors are also connected to bus 7 and 9 as shown in the gure below. For the

comparisons of the obtained results with that available in literature, the frequency

of operation is chosen as 60 Hz.

The three step methodology adopted for deciding optimal location of PSS is

as follows. Power System Analysis Toolbox-PSAT is used to carry out the

following analysis:

Power ow analysis provides information regarding active and reactive power along

with other pertinent information such as bus bar voltage levels, e ect of inphase and

quadrature boost voltages on system loading, reactive power compensation. The

stability of the power system is related to the de ciency or redundancy in generation

CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM34

against particular load demand, power ow through transmission lines and various

operating constraints. Before executing eigenvalue analysis, to know the status

of the system, means weather the system is operating closer to operating

constraints or not, load ow analysis is performed on the above described system.

The detailed system data is shown in AppendixB. and results achieved by power

ow in PSAT are shown in table hereunder:

Elements No.

Buses 11

Lines 7

Generators 4

Transformers 4

Loads 2

[p.u.] [rad] [degree] [p.u.] [p.u.] [p.u.] [p.u.]

Bus 01 1.03 0.35252 20.19 7 1.7917 0 0

Bus 02 1.01 0.18237 10.44 7 2.2053 0 0

Bus 03 1.03 -0.11868 -6.79 7.1871 1.6911 0 0

Bus 04 1.01 -0.29607 -16.96 7 1.8571 0 0

Bus 05 1.0074 0.23984 13.74 0 0 0 0

Bus 06 0.98044 0.06428 3.68 0 0 0 0

Bus 07 0.96516 -0.08171 -4.68 0 0 9.67 -1

Bus 08 0.9532 -0.32301 -18.5 0 0 0 0

Bus 09 0.97616 -0.55941 -32.05 0 0 17.67 -2.5

Bus 10 0.98614 -0.41348 -23.69 0 0 0 0

Bus 11 1.0094 -0.23416 -13.41 0 0 0 0

CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM35

[p.u.] [p.u.] [p.u.] [p.u.]

Bus5 Bus6 1 7 0.97147 0.12314 1.1882

Bus6 Bus7 2 13.8769 1.1086 0.20163 1.9997

Bus7 Bus8 3 2.0132 0.05628 0.04811 0.304

Bus8 Bus9 4 1.9651 -0.24772 0.04706 0.29145

Bus11 Bus10 5 7.1871 0.83471 0.12855 1.242

Bus9 Bus10 6 -13.8549 1.4263 0.20361 2.0192

Bus7 Bus9 7 1.992 0.0526 0.09499 0.58713

Bus1 Bus5 8 7 1.7917 0 0.82022

Bus2 Bus6 9 7 2.2053 0 0.88004

Bus4 Bus10 10 7 1.8571 0 0.85693

Bus3 Bus11 11 7.1871 1.6911 0 0.85641

G1 700 185 1.03 20.2

G2 700 235 1.01 10.5

G3 719 176 1.03 -6.8

G4 700 202 1.01 -17

lows:

Power ows from area-1 to area-2 through two ties lines: (1) connected

between buses 7 and 9 (2) connected as bus 7 to 8 and 8 to 9.

No power mismatch

Oscillations can be predicted due to tie line power ow and generator rotor

angle variations.

CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM36

Total Generation

Real Power [p.u.] 28.1871

Reactive Power [p.u.] 7.5453

Total Load

Real Power [p.u.] 27.34

Reactive Power [p.u.] -3.5

Total Losses

Real Power [p.u.] 0.84709

Reactive Power [p.u.] 11.0453

After performing load ow analysis, S-domain analysis of the test system is carried out

in typical test conditions.The analysis gives eigenplots for di erent cases considered

and from the movement of eigenvalues, the stability of the considered power system is

predicted.The system is said to be stable if the eigenvalues are far from the imaginary

axis. The system is considered to be in critically damped conditions if eigenvalues

are situated on imaginary axis itself. The eigenvalues in right half of the S-plane

represents unstable mode of oscillations. This has been realized in subsequent sections

of this chapter.

oscil-lation damping, the following test conditions have been considered:

(1) No PSS;

The observations for the above cases are achieved by small perturbation at bus-8 for

the duration of 0.05s. In the corresponding situations, the small signal stability for

CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM37

the inter-area oscillation has been analyzed in detail with the eigenvalues

analysis method using PSAT Toolbox. PSAT is an add-on MATLAB toolbox for

electric power system analysis and control. PSAT includes power ow,

continuation power ow, optimal power ow, small-signal stability analysis and time

domain simulation. All operations can be assessed by means of Graphical User

Interfaces (GUIs) and a Simulink-based library provides a user friendly tool for

network design[9].The details of PSAT is given in AppendixC.

iden-ti ed using the report of small signal analysis in PSAT. It can be illustrated as

hereunder:

Frequency (Hz) Damping Ratio Frequency (Hz) Damping Ratio

Case-1 0.59 0.0378 1.085 0.0822

1.054 0.08232

Case-2 0.55 0.1 1.08 0.082

1.16 0.122

Case-3 0.60 0.144 1.19 0.122

1.05 0.083

Case-4 0.61 0.103 1.19 0.122

1.15 0.122

As shown in Table 4.6, four di erent cases have been compared to check the

suitable positioning of power system stabilizer in the test system to damp out

local as well as inter area mode of oscillations. The four di erent cases are as

mentioned before in this section.

The generators participating in the inter-area mode of oscillation, on installation of PSS,

o er di erent frequency of inter-area oscillation. This can be well observed in Table 4.6.

As the frequency of oscillation increases, the damping of oscillation is more e ective due

to presence of PSS. From the values of damping ratio shown in Table

CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM38

4.6, it can be inferred that, the local & inter area both the modes of oscillations can

be damped de nitely by placing PSS in both the areas. For damping of local mode

oscillations, there are three choices. One can follow the either of choice from case

no. 2, 3 and 4. The value of damping ratio that we get for local as well as inter area

mode, in case 1, is comparatively smaller than the other cases. Hence it is not

considered as a suitable choice for installation of PSS. In case no. 4 PSS is installed

at all generators. Although it gives best damping e ect, but it will result in redundancy

of no. of PSS used. So, in this report case no. 3 has been considered as suitable

choice for placement of PSS, because it provides su cient damping to local as well

as inter area mode of oscillations. It is being worth noted that the generators of Area-

2 are participating signi cantly only in inter area mode for considered cases. They

have negligible contribution to local mode oscillations. Hence, not depicted in Table

4.6. Further this can also be realized from the plot of speed participation factor v/s

generator no. shown in Fig.4.2 and 4.3.Resembling plots can be possible for other

modes of frequency for various cases.

Figure 4.2: Speed Participation Factor v/s Generator No. For Inter-Area Mode-

0.54 Hz

CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM39

Figure 4.3: Participation Factor v/s Generator No. For Local Mode-1.05 Hz

Figures shown below are eigenvalues plots for the two-area test system with di

erent stabilizer arrangements. From Fig.4.4, it can be seen that as for the open

loop system without any installed stabilizer, there is some margin of stability. By

installing the stabilizers in area-2, oscillation modes have been suppressed, and

hence system is enhanced greatly which is shown in Fig. 4.5. If we install the

stabilizers in both the areas, the inter-area mode and two local modes can attain

high damping and lower oscillation frequency shown in Fig.4.6.

Figure 4.4: Eigenvalues of Two Area Test System without PSS

CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM40

Figure 4.5: Eigenvalues of Two Area Test System with PSS in Area-2

Figure 4.6: Eigenvalues of Two Area Test System with PSS in Both Areas

For the veri cation and realization of concept of small signal oscillations, a two area

c

model described earlier has been developed using M AT LAB /SIMULINK software

as shown in 4.7. In this model, standard p.u. model of generator is considered. The

generator parameters in per unit on the rated MVA and kV base and the details of

CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM41

exciter parameter, Step-up transformer, transmission line & load are as per

Kundur's Two Area test system .

The simulations were carried out and various analysis results are depicted

pictorially for clarity.

The power system stabilizer model is with single input of the rotor speed

deviation. The damping is mostly determined by the gain K S=20, and the

following sub-block of wash out circuit has the high-pass ltering function to

ensure the stabilizer has the relative better response on the speed deviation.

There are also lead-lag transfer func-tions to compensate the phase lag between

the excitation model and the synchronous machine.

CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM42

In order to represent the concerned oscillation e ects, the time domain analysis

for the test system has been performed. Fig.4.9 shows the simulation results on

the line power ow from area 1 to area 2.

It can be observed that the arrangement on stabilizer installation for every machine

in both areas has the best damping e ects on inter-area oscillation, which is in unison

with the dominant eigenvalues analysis results discussed in earlier section.

If there is no stabilizer for machines in both areas, the inter-area oscillation is un-

avoidable. The power transfer for such a case would reach to 800 MW with signi

cant oscillations. This leads to stresses in a weakly coupled tie line. System will

be highly oscillatory and hence may result into instability.

Comparative analysis of the oscillations between areas indicate that installing the

stabilizers for G3 and G4 in area-2 is a relative optimal solution to damp the inter-

area oscillations. For this particular location of PSS, the constant active power ow is

identi ed as 413 MW from area-1 to area-2. Thus by proper placement of PSS and

tuning, constant power ow and damped inter area oscillations is achieved.

CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM43

Figure 4.10 to Fig.4.13 shown below are simulation results of per unit speed

deviation of each generator in both areas. The results are achieved for perturbed

test system to analyze the behavior of power system stabilizer at various

locations.Cases considered for analysis are same as mentioned in section IV.

For case-1, it is clearly visible from the Fig.4.10, that both the generators of a par-

ticular area deviate in reasonably in harmony. As expected, generators of both the

areas are oscillating in opposite direction. Further the system does not stabilize even

after long time; generators continue to oscillate around a particular operating point.

For cases 2 and 3 as evident from Fig.4.11 and 4.12, generators of speci c area

are oscillating in particular direction where as in case-4, Fig.4.13 all the

generators are oscillating in unison.

Further it is observed from Fig.4.11 that choice of area-1 as location of PSS is resulting

in damped oscillation. But constraint with this arrangement of PSS is that PSS is taking

long time of around 25 to 30 seconds to mitigate the oscillation completely.

the Fig.4.13 that the oscillations must die out within very short duration of 6 to 7

CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM44

seconds. But at the same time it is not favorable situation because placing PSS

at every generator has a redundancy in the solution.

For better choice which is optimized one is case-3. In this case PSS are installed

at both the generators of area-2. As shown in Fig. 4.12, the oscillations are

mitigated in about 10 sec.

CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM45

4.5 Summary

This chapter presents the power system stabilizer with the consideration of local and

inter-area mode of oscillations, to damp the potential power oscillation. Based on

this, the eigenvalues analysis method has been adopted to analyze the damping e

ects of various arrangement schemes of such stabilizer. The case study on the

typical 4-machines 2-area test system shows that although the best arrangement

scheme that install the stabilizer for every machine and area can obtain the best

oscillation damping e ect, it is not the economical solution scheme especial to the

large power networks, and the scheme that arrange stabilizer for one area is the

optimal arrangement with the consideration of economical factor.

Chapter 5

5.1 Conclusions

in-nite bus through external impedance have been explored by means of

eigenvalue tracking analysis giving insights into e ects of automatic voltage

regulator gain, and stabilizing functions derived from speed and working through

the voltage reference of the voltage regulator. An attempt has been made to

understand basic concepts that explain the stability phenomena and e ect of

implementation of PSS in power system.

Further, the stabilizing signals obtained from the PSS help mitigating the inter-area

and local mode oscillations. Studies on PSS placement has been an interest. Using

eigenvalues analysis and from the participation factors of the generators for di erent

modes, optimal solution to PSS placement was desired. The simulation studies car-

ried out on a test system indicated speci c generators, when supplemented by PSS,

helps mitigating oscillations reasonably fast. The work is done on the test system

with identical PSS and optimal solution for the system is proposed, based on which

further extension to actual systems after the zone and area formation seems

feasible. Thus, it is concluded from the results that by performing S-domain analysis,

the op-timal location of the PSS in multi-machine system can be decided. The time-

domain results in the said cases shall be no di erent than the S-domain results.

46

CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSIONS & FUTURE WORK 47

employing PSS with various gains and design to achieve quicker oscillation mit-

igation, avoid speed deviations, which may give better insight.

The future researches on the arrangement rules with evolutionary algorithm and

the coordinated FACTS device to obtain the better power oscillation damping

e ects can be concerned and performed.

References

[1] ] Prabha Kundur, \Power System Stability and Control," The EPRI Power

Sys-tem Engineering Series, 1994, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-063515-3.

Publications, 2002, ISBN: 81-7800-024-5.

Version 1.0.

cillations," IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol.6, no-3, Aug. 1991, pp. 914-921.

[5] Liao Quing n, Liudichen, Zeng Cong, Ying Liming, Cui Xue. \Eigen value

sen-sitivities of excitation system, model and parameters," 3rd IEEE Conf.

On In-dustrial Electronics and Applications, June-2008, pp. 2239-2243.

as A ected by Excitation Control," IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and

Systems, PAS-88, Apr. 1969, pp.316-329.

[7] Gurunath Gurrala, \Power System Stabilizer Design for Interconnected power

System," IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol.25, no.2, May 2010, pp. 1042-1051.

In uencing Power System Stabilizer Performance," IEEE Trans. on Energy

Con-version , vol.7, no.3, Sept. 1992, pp. 382 - 390.

(PSAT)," 2004.

48

Appendix A

IEEE Proceeding

Place-ments of Power System stabilizers: Simulation studies on Test System",

nd

Presented at 2 International conference of Current Trends in Technology

(NUiCONE'11) at Nirma University, Ahmedabad , ISBN No.: 978-1-4577-2169-4 .

49

Appendix B

System Data

The system consist of two similar area connected by a weak tie line. Each area con-

sists of two coupled units, The parameters of system as depicted in below tables.

Machines Data:

Gen. MVA Xd Xd' Xd" Tdo' Tdo" Xq Xq' Xq" Tqo' Tqo"

No Rating (p.u.) (p.u.) (p.u.) Sec. Sec. (p.u.) (p.u.) (p.u.) Sec. Sec.

1 900 1.8 0.3 0.25 8.0 0.03 1.7 0.55 0.25 0.4 0.05

2 900 1.8 0.3 0.25 8.0 0.03 1.7 0.55 0.25 0.4 0.05

3 900 1.8 0.3 0.25 8.0 0.03 1.7 0.55 0.25 0.4 0.05

4 900 1.8 0.3 0.25 8.0 0.03 1.7 0.55 0.25 0.4 0.05

Inertia constant of Area-1 machines are 6.5 (for G1 & G2), Area-2 machines are

6.125 (for G3 & G4). Each step up transformer has an impedance of 0 + j0.15

p.u. on 900 MVA and 20/230 kV base, and has an o -nominal ratio of 1.0.

Line Data:

The Transmission system nominal voltage is 230 kV. The parameters of the lines

in per unit on 100 MVA, 230 kV base are shown in below Table:

50

APPENDIX B. SYSTEM DATA 51

From Bus To Bus Length km r pu/km xl pu/km bc pu/km

5 6 25 0.0001 0.001 0.00175

6 7 10 0.0001 0.001 0.00175

7 8 110 0.0001 0.001 0.00175

8 9 110 0.0001 0.001 0.00175

7 9 220 0.0001 0.001 0.00175

9 10 10 0.0001 0.001 0.00175

10 11 25 0.0001 0.001 0.00175

Load Data:

The load and reactive power supplied by the shunt capacitors at buses 7 and 9

are as follows:

Bus No. PL (MW) QL (MVAr) QC (MVAr)

7 967 100 200

9 1767 100 350

Table B.4: Exciter & PSS Data of Two Area Test System

KA = 200 TR = 0.01 KST AB = 20.0 TW = 10.0

T1 = 0.05 T2 = 0.02 T3 = 3.0 T4 = 5.4

Appendix C

PSAT is free and open Source software particularly suited for analysis of Power

Sys-tems Stability and Control. The PSAT is a MATLAB toolbox for electric power

systems analysis and Simulation. All the operation can be accessed by means of

graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and Simulink based library provides an user

friendly tool for network design.

C.1 Overview

PSAT core is power ow routines, once the power ow has been solved, further

static and/or dynamic analysis can be performed.Following analysis performed in

PSAT tool box.

PMU Placement

52

APPENDIX C. INTRODUCTION TO PSAT 2.1.6 53

Prilimary steps of PSAT applications in analysis of Power Systems Problems:

a. PSAT Installation

b. Launching PSAT

c. Loading data

e. Displaying results

f. Saving results

g. Setting

APPENDIX C. INTRODUCTION TO PSAT 2.1.6 54

F PSAT Installation

http://www.uclm.es/area/gsee/Web/Federico/psat.htm

c. Installation

Open Matlab

Launching of PSAT

This will create all the structures required by the toolbox , then opens psat GUI.

Loading data

Almost all operations require that a data le is loaded. To load a le, Load only a

data le:

File/Open/Saved System

APPENDIX C. INTRODUCTION TO PSAT 2.1.6 55

created with the PSAT library. If the source is in a di erent format supported by

the PSAT format conversion utility, rst perform the conversion in order to create

the PSAT data le.

To run the power ow routine:

It is not necessary to load again the data le every time it is modify, because the

last version of the data le is read each time the power ow is performed. The data

are updated also in case of changes in the Simulink model originally loaded.

Other Analysis

After solving the rst power ow, the program is ready for further analysis,

such as CPF , OPF , ...

Each of these procedures can be launched from the tool-bar or the menu-

bar of the main window.

Displaying Results

Results can be generally displayed in more than one way, either by means of a

graph-ical user interface in MATLAB or as a ASCII text le.

APPENDIX C. INTRODUCTION TO PSAT 2.1.6 56

Saving Results

To save actual System status in a .mat le :

Menu File=Save=Current

All global structures used by PSAT are stored in this le which is placed in the

folder of the current data le. all static computations allow to create a report in a

text le that can be stored and used later.

Settings

The main settings of the system are directly included in the main window:

Base frequency

Base Power

Network Design

PSAT allows drawing electrical schemes by means of pictorial blocks. To launch

PSAT library

APPENDIX C. INTRODUCTION TO PSAT 2.1.6 57

PSAT comes with variety of procedures for static and dynamic analysis, several

mod-els of standard and unconventional devices, a complete GUI, and a

Simulink-based network editor. These features make PSAT suited for both

educational and research purposes.

Following links related to power systems:

Engineering/Power Distribution/ : Open Software for Power Systems

down-load

Educational Software (Power Engineer Education Committee)

e. http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/electricmotors.html : Electri-

cal Motor and Generator Fundamental Tutorial

~

f. http://www.ee.iitb.ac.in/trivedi/latex.htm : Help on Latex Software

g. http://www.latex-project.org

Index

Eigenvalue Tracking Analysis, 22

18

Interpretation of K-constants, 19

Synchronizing and Damping Torque Analy-

sis, 12

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