Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 46

Structure 1 Assignment

Contents
Q1. .......................................................................................................................................................... 2
Q2. .......................................................................................................................................................... 5
Q.3.8.9 .................................................................................................................................................... 6
Q.4.18.13 .............................................................................................................................................. 9
Q4.8.17. ................................................................................................................................................ 11
Q5.8.21 ................................................................................................................................................. 13
Q6.8.26 . ............................................................................................................................................... 14
Q.7.8.30. ............................................................................................................................................... 15
Q.8.8.34 ................................................................................................................................................ 17
Q.9.8.44 ................................................................................................................................................ 19
Q10.8.45 through 8.52. ......................................................................................................................... 20
Q.11.8.53 through 8.57 :........................................................................................................................ 25
Q.12.9.9: ............................................................................................................................................... 25
Q.13.9.13 .............................................................................................................................................. 27
Q.14.9.17 .............................................................................................................................................. 29
Q.15.Problem 13.5 ................................................................................................................................ 31
Q.16.Problem 13.6 ................................................................................................................................ 35
Q.17.Problem 13.7 ................................................................................................................................ 37
Q.18.Problem 13.8 ................................................................................................................................ 39
Q.19.13.9 through 13.12:....................................................................................................................... 41
Q.20. 13.13 through 13.25: ................................................................................................................ 44
Structure 1 Assignment

Q1. The load system shown below crosses a simple beam spanning 20m in the given order .Determine
the position of load system that gives(Assuming the vehicle moves from right to left)

Maximum negative and positive shear at K


Maximum bending moment at K

Solution

2 6 10 4

5m K 15m

Draw the IL for shear at point K

=b/l =15/20 = 3/4 0.65


0.45
0.3

=-a/l =5/20 = -1/4


The maximum positive shear occurs when the 2KN concentrated loads is just to right of point K at the
top of the max IL ordinate value, the other values under the loads 6,10,4 can be obtained from
similarity of triangles as follows:

SK(Positive max shear) = (2*0.75)+ (6*0.65)+(10*0.45)+(4*0.3)= 11.1KN

Similarly the maximum negative shear occurs when the 4KN load is just to the left of the negative
ordinate of the IL

SK(negative max shear) = (4*(-0.25))+ (10*(-0.1))= -2KN


Structure 1 Assignment
Maximum bending moment at K

=a*b/l = (5*15)/20= 3.75

20
5

If we place each of the four-concentrated loads at the peak of influence line, then we can get the largest
influence from each force.

2 6 10 4
2
2 4 3

K
5 15

Fig 1.Beam loaded with a series of loads First load at section K

2 6 10 4

2 4 3

K
5 15

Fig 2.Beam loaded with a series of loads Second load at section K

2 6 10 4

2 4 3

K
5 15
Structure 1 Assignment

Fig 3.Beam loaded with a series of loads Third load at section K

2 6 10 4

2 4 3

K
5 15

Fig 4.Beam loaded with a series of loads Fourth load at section K

When the first load 2 kN crosses the section and second load 6 kN is approaching section
(Figure 1) then change in moment is given by :

dM = -2*(3.75/5)*2 + (6*(3.75/15)*2) + (10*(3.75/15)*4) + (4*(3.75/15)*3)

dM= 28

When the second load 6 kN crosses the section and third load 10 kN is approaching section
(Figure 2) then change in moment is given by

dM = -(2+6)*(3.75/5)*2 + (10*(3.75/15)*4) + (4*(3.75/15)*3)

dM= 1

When the third load 10 kN crosses the section and fourth load 4 kN is approaching section
(Figure 3) then change in moment is given by

dM = -(2+6+10)*(3.75/5)*2 + (4*(3.75/15)*3)

dM= -24

At this stage, we find negative change in moment; hence place third load at the section and
maximum moment will be given by :

=a*b/l = (5*15)/20= 3.75

20
5
Structure 1 Assignment

0.75 3

MK(Max Bending moment at point K) =( 2*0)+(0.75*6)+(10*3.75)+(4*3)= 54KN.m

Q2. Compute the absolute maximum bending moment for the beam having span of 30 m and loaded
with a series of concentrated loads moving across the span as shown in Figure below .

First of all compute the center of gravity of loads from first point load of 100 kN .

Now place the loads as shown in Figure below

Also, draw the influence line as shown in Figure below for the section X.
Structure 1 Assignment

Q.3.8.9 Draw the influence lines for the vertical reaction and the reaction moment at support A and the shear and
bending moment at point B of the cantilever beam shown in Fig. P8.9.

3m 2m

Solution
1. Vertical reaction and reaction moment at support A
1.1 IL for vertical reaction at support A

We replace the fixed end with rollers and move the member 1 unit up and we will get the following
influence line for support A and the whole member moves(translates) upward as a rigid body , using
muller beraselu principle

1.2 IL for reaction moment at support A

by moving a unit load along the member , we can determine the IL for reaction at point A as follows;

When unit load is at point A


Structure 1 Assignment
MA =0

1*0+MA = 0 == MA = 0

When unit load is at point B

MA = 1*3 == MA = 3

When unit load is at point C

MA = 1*5 == MA = 5

The following is IL for reaction moment at support A

2. The shear and bending moment at point B

2.1 IL for The shear at point B

We have to first remove the shear at point B and replace it with roller in order to move up and down
as shown below . Apply a unit displacement , only member BC can move upward a unit ,because
member AB is fixed at point A so cannot translate and the final displacement and IL are shown
below.

3 2
Structure 1 Assignment

3 2

2.2 IL for The bending moment at point B

We remove a moment from cantilever beam and replace it with a hinge as shown below:

After adding a hinge , we have to introduce a unit rotation at the hinged point as shown below:

3 2

Boundary condition detects as point A is fixed , member AB must remain horizontal:


Structure 1 Assignment
So our deformed shape is where segment BC rotates clockwise a unit rotation as shown and IL is also
shown below:

L* = 2*1 =-2

3 2

L* = 2*1 =-2

Q.4.18.13 Draw the influence lines for the vertical reactions at supports A and E and the reaction moment at
support E of the beam shown in Fig. P8.13.

Solution

1. IL for reaction and reaction moment for support A :

1.1 IL for reaction for support A.

Pin permits movement up and down and move the support A , since there is a hinge at point C , there
are two members , member AC and member CE. The member AC will move up ward in triangular shape
a unit magnitude , but member CD stays horizontal since support E is of fixed type and cannot make any
kind of movement. The IL for reaction at support A is shown below:
Structure 1 Assignment

1.2 IL for reaction for support E.

We first apply a roller only permits movement up and down and move the support E , since there is a
hinge at point C , there are two members , member AC and member CE. The member CE will move up
ward as a rigid body and vertical translates a unit magnitude , but member AC ,since there is a hinge
and the support A is a roller , rotation is allowed and it will rotate counter clockwise as member CE
translates vertically upward a unit magnitude . The IL for reaction at support E is shown below:

2. IL for reaction moment at support E

=*L =1*8=8

Place a pin at E and rotate is clock wise a unit , since there is a hinge at location C the whole section will
rotate upward as shown in the IL for reaction moment above.
Structure 1 Assignment

Q4.8.17. Draw the influence lines for the vertical reactions at supports A and B and the shear and
bending moment at point D of the frame shown in Fig. P8.17.

2m
3m

2m 2m 2m

Solution

1. Influence line for the vertical reaction at support A and B using mulear beraselue are shown below:

1.1 Influence line for the vertical reaction at support A

1
1/2

F
C D E

To get the value at point D and F using similarity of triangle:

1/4 = D/2 -1/2


D=1/2 1/4 = F/2

F=-1/2

1.2 Influence line for the vertical reaction at support B 3/2


1

C D E F
Structure 1 Assignment

To get the value at point F using similarity of triangle:

1/4 = F/6

D=6/4=3/2

F= 3/2

2. The shear and bending moment at point D

1/2

C D E F

-1/2

2.1 Shear influence line for point D

To get the shear value at point D we use the following formula

b/a , where a(2m) is the left side dimension , b(2m) is the right side dimension from point D.

Left and right shear at point D =a/l= 2/4 = 1/2 and b/l= -1/2

2.2 Bending Moment at point D ( MD)

6
1

FF

C D E

-1
To find the moment value at point D, we multiply the left length (a) and right length(b) dividing
it with total span length ( between two supports)=(a*b)/L

MD= 2*2/(4) = 1
Structure 1 Assignment
To find the value at point F, we can use similarity of triangles:

1/2 = F/2

MF=1

Q5.8.21 Draw the influence lines for the shear and bending moment at point C and the shear at
internal hinge D of the beam shown in Fig. P8.20.

2m 2m 2m 2m 2m 2m
Solution

1. Influence line for shear and bending moment at point C.


1.1 Influence line for shear at point C (VC)

To get the shear value at point C we use the following formula, b/a , where a is the left side dimension ,
b is the right side dimension from point C. Left and right shear at point C = 2/4 = 0.5 and -0.5. there are
two members because of the hinge , member AD and member DG , since there are two supports E and G
, member DG can not make any movement , but member AD is free to rotate when we replace the point
C with roller to move up and down and IL is shown below.

1.2 Influence line for bending at point C (MC)

To find the moment value at point C, we multiply the left length (a) and right length(b) excluding
cantilever and all the span in which the shear is zero in the shear diagram above and dividing it
with total span length (between the hinge and roller support where point C is found).

MC= 2*2/(4) = 1

To find the value at point A, we can use similarity of triangles:

1/2 = A/2

MA=1
Structure 1 Assignment

Q6.8.26 . Draw the influence lines for the shear and bending moment at point B of the beam
shown in Fig. P8.24.

Solution
1. Influence line for shear and bending at point B

1.1 influence line for shear at point B


We first draw the qualitative shear diagram as shown below. To get the shear value at point B we
use the following formula, a/b , where a is the left side span , b is the right side span from point B
and it is up to the hinge where it changes its shape. Left and right shear at point B = 6/12 = 0.5 and -
0.5

All the other points can be determined by similarity of triangles,


D/6= 0.5/6
D= - 0.5
F=0.5
Structure 1 Assignment
1.2 Influence line for bending moment diagram at point B (MB)

To find the moment value at point B, we multiply the left length (a) and right length (b)
excluding and all the span in which the shear is zero in the shear diagram above and dividing it
with total span length .

MB= 6*6/(12) = 3

To find the value at point D and F, we can use similarity of triangles:

3/6 = D/6

MD= -3

3/6 = F/6

MF=3

Q.7.8.30. Draw the influence lines for the shears and bending moments at points C and F of
the beam shown in Fig. P8.29.

4m 3m 3m
2m 2m 4m
Structure 1 Assignment
1. Influence line for Shear and bending moment at point C
1.1 influence line for shear at point C
We first draw the qualitative shear diagram as shown below. To get the shear value at point F
we use the following formula, a/l , where a is the left side span , b is the right side span, l is the
span between two supports ( in this case two hinge points) where the Point C is found in
between. Left and right shear at point C = a/l= 2/4= 0.5 and b/l =-2/4= -0.5.

1.2 Influence line for bending moment at point C

To find the moment value at point F, we multiply the left length (a) and right length (b) and
dividing it with total span length in between the two supports in which point C is found(Between
two hinges since hinge cannot support moment(moment is zero)).

MB= 2*2/(4) = 1

Moment is zero on all other points as shown on the above figure for the moment

2. Influence line for shear and bending moment at point F


2.1 Shear force at point F

We first draw the qualitative shear diagram as shown below. To get the shear value at point F we
use the following formula, a/l , where a is the left side span , b is the right side span, l is the span
Structure 1 Assignment
between two supports where the Point F is found in between. Left and right shear at point C = a/l=
3/6= 0.5 and b/l =3/6= -0.5.

Point D value can be found by similarity of triangle:

D/4=0.5/3

D=2/3

2.2 Influence line for bending moment diagram for point F(MF)

1.5

-2

To find the moment value at point F, we multiply the left length (a) and right length (b) and
dividing it with total span length in between the two supports in which point F is found.

MF= 3*3/(6) = 1.5

To find the value at point D, we can use the similarity of triangles:

D/4= 1.5/3

MD =- 2

Q.8.8.34 Draw the influence lines for the shears and bending moments at points D and F of the beam
shown in Fig. P8.33.

Solution

1. Influence line for Shear and bending moment at point D


1.1 influence line for shear at point D
We first draw the qualitative shear diagram as shown below. To get the shear value at point F
we use the following formula, a/l , where a is the left side span , b is the right side span , l is the
span between two supports ( in this case two hinge points) where the Point D is found in
Structure 1 Assignment
between. Left and right shear at point D = a/l= 4/8= 0.5 and b/l =-4/8= -0.5.there are three
member s due to double hinge at point C and E. so at point D , we apply a siding roller and when
member AC tries to move it cant since its movement is constrained by 2 support A and B , only
part CD moves downward , the same for member EH, only DE move upward(because hinge
doesnt constraint rotation). The IL for Shear at point D is show below.

1.2 Influence line for bending moment at point D

To find the moment value at point D, we multiply the left length (a) and right length (b) and
dividing it with total span length in between the two supports in which point D is found(Between
two hinges since hinge cannot support moment(moment is zero)).(a*b/l), we first apply a hinge
at point D and rotate members CD and DE since all other members are restrained at their ends.
The IL for bending moment for point D is shown below

MB= 4*4/(8) = 2

2. Influence line for Shear and bending moment at point F


2.1 influence line for shear at point F
We first draw the qualitative shear diagram as shown below. To get the shear value at point F
we use the following formula, a/l , where a is the left side span , b is the right side span , l is the
span between two supports ( in this case a hinge and a roller support points) where the Point F
is found in between. Left and right shear at point F = -1, since the hinge can only move 1 unit
down .

2.2 Influence line for bending moment at point F(MF)

To find the moment value at point F, it is the area under point E and F MF= -1*3 = -3
Structure 1 Assignment

Q.9.8.44 Draw the influence line for the shear in panel CD and the bending moment at D of
the girder with the floor system shown in Fig. P8.44.

1. Influence line for shear panel CD


For each position of the unit load, the magnitude of Ay is computed by applying the equation of
condition MA
1K is at A , MG(Taking moment at hinge since hinge) = 0 , Ay*9 = 1*9, Ay = 1
1K is at B , MG = 0 , Ay*9 = 1*3, Ay = 1/3
1K is at C , MG = 0 , Ay*9 = 1*0, Ay = 0
1K is at D , MG = 0 , Ay*9 = 1*0, Ay = 0
1K is at E , MG = 0 , Ay*9 = 1*0, Ay = 0

IL for SCD( Shear at panel CD)


We place the 1-k load successively at each of the five panel points and determine the influence-
line ordinates as follows. When
1K is at A , Ay = 1 ,SCD = 0
1K is at B , Ay = 1/3 ,SCD = 1/3-1=-2/3KN
1K is at C , Ay = 0 ,SCD = 0-1=-1KN
1K is at D , Ay = 0 ,SCD =0
1K is at E , Ay = 0 ,SCD =0
The IL for shear at panel CD is shown below:

.
2, IL for bending moment at panel CD (at point D)
Influence Line for MD We place the 1-k load successively at each of the five panel points and
determine the influence-line ordinates as follows. When
1K is at A , Ay = 1 ,MD = 0
1K is at B , Ay = 1/3 ,MD = (1/3)*(18)-1*(12)=-6KN
1K is at C , Ay = 0 ,MD = 0*(18)-1(6)=-6KN
1K is at D , Ay = 0 ,MD =0
Structure 1 Assignment
1K is at E , Ay = 0 ,MD =0,IL for MD is shown below.

Q10.8.45 through 8.52. Draw the influence lines for the forces in the members identified
by an X of the trusses shown in Figs. P8.45P8.52. Live loads are transmitted to the bottom
chords of the trusses.

4m

4m = 16m

Solution

We cannot apply mulear beraselue method for truss,


1. IL for member AF

Apply unit load at point B , C and D, no need to apply unit load at supports A and E , because no
load will be generated at the members.

Apply a unit load at point B:

ME= 0
Ay*16=1*12= Ay = 0.75

Fy= 0

Now cut the truss at panel AB (Using method of section)

(FAF*sin26.6)+0.75=0

FAF*0.45+0.75=0
FAF = -1.677KN

Apply a unit load at point C:


ME= 0

Ay*16=1*8= Ay = 0.5
Fy= 0
Structure 1 Assignment

Now cut the truss at panel AB (Using method of section)


(FAF*sin26.6)+0.5=0
FAF = - 1.111KN
Apply a unit load at point D:
ME= 0

Ay*16=1*4= Ay = 0.25
Fy= 0

Now cut the truss at panel AB (Using method of section)


(FAF*sin26.6)+0.25=0
FAF = - 0.556 KN

Generally we draw the influence line for member AF as follows:

2. IL for members FC and BC

2.1 Member BC IL

Apply a unit load at point B:


ME= 0

Ay*16=1*12= Ay = 0.75
Structure 1 Assignment

MF= 0

0.75*4=FBC*2
FBC = 1.5
Apply a unit load at point C:
ME= 0

Ay*16=1*8= Ay = 0.5
MF= 0

0.5*4=FBC*2
FBC = 1

Apply a unit load at point D:


ME= 0

Ay*16=1*4= Ay = 0.25
MF= 0

0.25*4=FBC*2
FBC = 0.5

Generally we draw the influence line for member BC as follows:

2.2 IL for member FC

Using the influence line of member BC, we can determine the shear values at member FC as
follows:

Apply a unit load at point B:


MA= 0

Ey*16=1*4= Ey = 0.25

Now cut the truss at panel BC (Using method of section) and take the right section for analysis:

MG= 0

FFCsin(26.6)*4+ FFC cos(26.6)*2 - 1.5(Member BC value when unit load is at joint B and read
from above IL for Member BC)*4+0.25*8 = 0
Structure 1 Assignment
FFC = -1.118

Apply a unit load at point C:


MA= 0

Ey*16=1*8= Ey = 0.5

Now cut the truss at panel BC (Using method of section) and take the right section for analysis:

MG= 0

FFCsin(26.6)*4+ FFC cos(26.6)*2 - 1(Member BC value when unit load is at joint C and read
from above IL for Member BC)*4+0.25*8 = 0
=3.58FFC 4+4=0

FFC = 0

Apply a unit load at point D:


MA= 0

Ey*16=1*12= Ey = 0.75

Now cut the truss at panel BC (Using method of section) and take the right section for analysis:

MG= 0

FFCsin(26.6)*4+ FFC cos(26.6)*2 0.5(Member BC value when unit load is at joint D and read
from above IL for Member BC)*4+0.75*8-1*4 = 0
=3.58FFC 2+6-4=0
FFC = 0
Generally we draw the influence line for member FC as follows:

2.3 IL for member GC

Using the influence line of member FC, we can determine the shear values at member FC as
follows:

Apply a unit load at point B:


MA= 0
Structure 1 Assignment
Ey*16=1*4= Ey = 0.25

Now cut the truss at panel BC (Using method of section) and take the left section for analysis:

ME= 0

-FFC sin(26.6)*4+FGC*8 -1*12+0.75*16= 0


-12+12+8 FGC-1.118(the member FC value when unit load is at point B and read from IL for
member FC)*0.45*4=0
FGC= 0.25

Apply a unit load at point C:


MA= 0

Ey*16=1*8= Ey = 0.5

Now cut the truss at panel BC (Using method of section) and take the left section for analysis:

ME= 0

-FFC sin(26.6)*4+FGC*8 +0.5*16= 0


-8+8 FGC-0(the member FC value when unit load is at point C and read from IL for member
FC)*0.45*4=0
FGC= 1

Apply a unit load at point D:


MA= 0

Ey*16=1*12= Ey = 0.75

Now cut the truss at panel BC (Using method of section) and take the left section for analysis:

ME= 0

-FFC sin(26.6)*4+FGC*8 +0.25*16= 0


-4+8 FGC-0(the member FC value when unit load is at point D and read from IL for member
FC)*0.45*4=0
FGC= 0.5

Generally we draw the influence line for member GC as follows:


Structure 1 Assignment
Q.11.8.53 through 8.57 : Draw the influence lines for the forces in the members identified
by an X of the trusses shown in Figs. P8.53P8.57. Live loads are transmitted to the top
chords of the trusses.

Solution
1.IL for member AE

2.IL for member AC

3.IL for member EF

Q.12.9.9: For the truss of Problem 8.47, determine the maximum compressive axial force in
member GH due to a concentrated live load of 120KN, a uniformly distributed live load of 28
KN/m, and a uniformly distributed dead load of 14KN/m.
Structure 1 Assignment

3m

4m=16m
Solution:
First draw the influence line for the member GH using unit load as follows:

Apply a unit load at point B:


MA= 0

Ey*16=1*4= Ey = 0.25

Now cut the truss at panel CD (Using method of section) and take the right section for analysis:

MC= 0

FGH *3=0.25*8= 0
FGH= -2/3

Apply a unit load at point C:


MA= 0

Ey*16=1*8= Ey = 0.5

Now cut the truss at panel CD (Using method of section) and take the right section for analysis:

MC= 0

FGH *3=0.55*8
FGH= -4/3

Apply a unit load at point D:


MA= 0

Ey*16=1*12= Ey = 0.75

Now cut the truss at panel CD (Using method of section) and take the right section for analysis:

MC= 0

FGH *3-1*4+0.75*8= 0
FGH= -2/3
Structure 1 Assignment
Generally we draw the influence line for member GH as follows:

-21.33

To find the maximum axial force in member GH : we multiply the concentrated load (120KN) by
the maximum ordinate of the influence line(-4/3) and the distributed loads(40KN/m live load and
20KN/m dead load) by the area of the influence line graph(= 2*0.5*4/3*16 = -21.33).

Max compressive FGH = 120*(-4/3)+(28+14)*(-21.33) = -1013.2KN(Compressive)

Q.13.9.13 For the beam of Problem 8.1, determine the maximum positive shear and bending
moment at point B due to the series of three moving concentrated loads shown in Fig P9.13.

Solution:

Draw influence line for point B using mulear berasule as follows:

Where a(left span length of point B)= 5 and b(right span length of point B)= 5, L(total
length)=10

Left shear value at point B = a/L = 5/10= -1/2


Right shear value at point B = b/L = 5/10 = 1/2
Structure 1 Assignment

Influence line for bending moment at point B


Where a(left span length of point B)= 5 and b(right span length of point B)= 5, L(total
length)=10

Bending moment ordinate at point B is:


=(a*b)/L = (5*5)/10 = 2.5

1. The maximum positive shear at point B.


Assuming the load is moving from right to left:
Using similarity of triangles we can determine the rest of ordinates of the shear IL as follows
-at 3m to the left of max positive ordinate(1/2)
X/2= ()/5 = X= 1/5
-at 2m to the left of max positive ordinate(1/2)
X/3= ()/5 = X= 3/10

Loading position 1
When the 125KN load is on top of max shear ordinate of the IL
SB(Shear at point B) = 125*(1/2)+100*(3/10)+50*0 = 92.5KN

1/2
3/10
1/5

-1/5
-3/10
-1/2
Loading position 2
When the 100KN load is on top of max shear ordinate of the IL

SB(Shear at point B) = 125*(-3/10)+100*(1/2)+50*(1/5) = 22.5KN

Loading position 3
When the 50 KN load is on top of max shear ordinate of the IL
SB(Shear at point B) = 125*0+100*(-1/5)+50*(1/2) = 5KN

Therefore , the maximum positive shear at point B is caused by loading position 1 with
magnitude of SB = 92.5KN
2. The maximum bending moment at point B.
Using similarity of triangles we can determine the rest of ordinates of the Bending moment IL as
follows
-at 3m to the left of max positive bending ordinate(2.5)
Structure 1 Assignment
X/2= 2.5/5 = X= 1
-at 2m to the left of max positive bending ordinate(2.5)
X/3= 2.5/5 = X= 1.5 2.5
1.5 1.5
1 1

Loading position 1
When the 125KN load is on top of max Bending ordinate of the IL
MB(Bending at point B) = 125*(2.5)+100*(1.5)+50*0= 462.5KN.m
Loading position 2
When the 100KN load is on top of max Bending ordinate of the IL
MB(Bending at point B) = 125*(1.5)+100*(2.5)+50*1= 487.5KN.m
Loading position 3
When the 50 KN load is on top of max Bending ordinate of the IL
MB(Bending at point B) = 125*(0)+100*(1)+50*2.5= 225KN.m
Therefore , the maximum bending moment at point B is caused by loading position 2 with
magnitude of MB = 487.5KN

Q.14.9.17 For the truss of Problem 8.53, determine the maximum tensile axial force in
member DI due to the series of three moving concentrated loads shown in Fig. P9.13.

First draw the influence line for the member DI


Sin = 3/5

Unit load at point B


MG = 0
Ay*24= 1*20
Ay = 0.833
Fy = 0
3/5*FDI + 0.833-1=0
FDI=0.278
Structure 1 Assignment
Unit load at point C
MG = 0
Ay*24= 1*16
Ay = 0.667
Fy = 0
3/5*FDI + 0.667-1=0
FDI=0.556

Unit load at point D


MG = 0
Ay*24= 1*12
Ay = 0.5
Fy = 0
3/5*FDI + 0.5=0
FDI=-0.833

Unit load at point E


MG = 0
Ay*24= 1*8
Ay = 0.333
Fy = 0
3/5*FDI + 0.333=0
FDI=-0.556

Unit load at point F


MG = 0
Ay*24= 1*4
Ay = 0.167
Fy = 0
3/5*FDI + 0.167=0
FDI=-0.278
The location where the graph crosses the x-axis can be determined by similarity of triangle as
follows:
0.556/x= 0.833/(4-x)
x = 1.6m and 4-x =2.4m
Generally the influence line for member DI is shown below:

Now calculate for the max tensile force on member DI due to the series of concentrated load, we
follow the following steps:
Structure 1 Assignment

Assuming load is moving from right to left:


Loading position 1

When the 125KN load is on top of the ordinate value 0.556:

FDI = 125*0.556-100*(0.4/0.288)-50*(11/14.4) = 17.42KN

Loading position 1

When the 125KN load is on top of the ordinate value 0.556:

FDI = 125*0.556-100*(0.4/0.288)-50*(11/14.4) = 17.42KN

Loading position 2

When the 100KN load is on top of the ordinate value 0.556:

FDI = 125*(6/14.4)+100*(0.556)-50*(1.4/2.88) = 83.38KN

Loading position 3

When the 50KN load is on top of the ordinate value 0.556:

FDI = 125*(3/14.4)+100*(5/14.4)+50*(0.556) = 88.56KN


Therefore, maximum tensile force on member DI occurs at loading position 3 with
magnitude of FDI =88.56KN.

13.5 through 13.8: Determine the reactions and draw the shear and bending moment diagrams
for the beams shown in Figs. P13.1P13.4 by using the method of consistent deformations.
Select the reaction moment at the fixed support to be the redundant.

Q.15.Problem 13.5
Solution:
Structure 1 Assignment

Using superposition, we find the deflection at point due to the concentrated loads ,selecting the
redundant support to be support D.

Using beam deflection formulas for cantilever shown above, we do the following:

First the deflection at point D caused by concentrated load of 60KN and next by 100KN.

DO = (-Pa2/6EI)(3L-a) = -(60*3*3)/6EI(3*9-3) = -2,160/EI


DO = (-Pa2/6EI)(3L-a) = -(100*6*6)/6EI(3*9-6) = -12,600/EI
DO (Total)= -2,160/EI-12,600/EI= -14,760/EI

The flexibility coefficient fDD is evaluated as:

fDD =L3/3EI = (9*9*9)/3EI= 243/EI


Structure 1 Assignment

Using compatibility equation, we determine the reaction at point D(D y)

DO+fDD*Dy=0
Dy=14760/243= 60.47KN

Using equilibrium equation , we can determine the values of R A and MA since the structure has
become determinate now we found the reaction of support D.
Fy = 0
RA = 160-60.74 = 99.26KN
MA = 0
MA+60.74*9-60*3-100*6 = 233.34KN.m

The values are shown in the diagram below:


60KN 100KN

233.34KN
.m
RA = 99.26KN RD = 60.74KN

Shear force diagram:

99.26

A1=99.26*3 =99.62-60=39.26
=297.78
A2= 117.78

A3= - 182.22
=39.26-60=-60.74
Structure 1 Assignment
Bending Moment Diagram:

182.22 = 64.44+117.78

64.44 = -233.34+297.78

233.34

We can take the redundant support to be support A and solve for the other support values

Therefore the rotation at point A and flexibility coefficient fAA can be found as follows:

Applying superposition, we can obtain the rotation at point A


AO = -60*6/6EI*9(92-62) + -100*3/6EI*9(92-32) = -300/EI-400/EI

AO= -700/EI

fAA = L/3EI = 9/3EI=3KN.m2/KN.m/EI

Using compatibility equation solve for MA:


Structure 1 Assignment

AO+fAA*MA = -700/EI+3/EI*MA = 0

MA = 700/3= 233.33KN.m

The above process can be repeated for solving reaction at support D.

Q.16.Problem 13.6
Solution:

As it can be seen from the above table for simply supported member the rotation and flexibility
coefficient fAA are obtained from the following formula by selecting support A(fixed support) as
redundant support:

AO = -wL3/24EI
fAA= L/3EI

From compatibility equation, we can find MA as follows:

AO + fAA*MA = 0
MA = wL3/24EI(3EI/L) = wl2/8
Structure 1 Assignment
Now since the structure is determinate, we can determine reaction at support A and support B
using simple equilibrium equations:

Fy = 0;

RA + RB = wL

MA = 0;
wl2/8+RB*L wL2/2=0
RB = 3wl/8
RA = wL-3wl/8= 5wl/8
w

MA = wl2/l

RA = 5wl/8 RD = 3wl/8

Shear force Diagram


5wl/8

A1=0.5* 5wl/8*0.625l=
1.5625wl2/8

A2= -0.5*3wl/8*0.375l=
0.5625wl2/8

Bending Moment Diagram


-0.5625wl2/8=-wl2/8+1.5625 wl2/8

=5wl/8-wl = -3wl/8

-wl2/8
Structure 1 Assignment
Q.17.Problem 13.7

Solution;

As it can be seen from the above table for simply supported member the rotation and flexibility
coefficient fCC are obtained from the following formula by selecting support C(fixed support) as
redundant support:
Using superposition:

CO = -PL2/16EI(for concentrated load)-MAL/6EI(for the end moment at support A)


=- 120*144/16EI- 75*12/6EI = -1080/EI-150/EI = -1230/EI

fCC= L/3EI = 12/3EI = 4/EI


Structure 1 Assignment

From compatibility equation, we can find MC as follows:

CO + fCC*MC = 0
MC = 1230/4 = 307.5KN.m

The shear and bending force diagram is shown below, the same process is done once the
structure becomes redundant(i.e. use equilibrium equation to fine the rest unknown forces)
Structure 1 Assignment
Q.18.Problem 13.8

300KN
50KN/m

6m 6m

Solution:

300KN
50KN/m

1KN.m
Structure 1 Assignment

As it can be seen from the above table for simply supported member the rotation and flexibility
coefficient fCC are obtained from the following formula by selecting support C(fixed support) as
redundant support:
Using superposition:

CO = -(Pb/6EI)(L2-a2)(for concentrated load)-wL3/24EI(for distributed load)


= -300*6/6EI*9(9*9-6*6)- 50*9*9*9/24EI = -1499.85/EI-1518.75/EI = - 3018.6/EI
= -60*20/6EI*30(30*30-20*20)- 3*30*30*30/24EI = -3333/EI-3375/EI = - 6708/EI

fCC= L/3EI = 9/3EI = 3/EI

Using compatibility equation we can find MC as follows:

CO + fCC*MC = 0
MC = 3018.6/3 = 1006.2KN.m

The shear and bending force diagram is shown below, the same process is done once the
structure becomes redundant(i.e. use equilibrium equation to fine the rest unknown forces)

300KN

50KN/m

1006.2KN.m

RA=213.2KN.
RC=536.8KN.
m m
Structure 1 Assignment

Now since the structure is determinate, we can determine reaction at support A and support C
using simple equilibrium equations:

Fy = 0;
RA + RC = 50*9 + 300 = 750
MA = 0;
RC *9-1006.2-450*4.5-300*6=0
RC= 536.8KN
RA = 750-536.8= 213.2KN
Shear Force Diagram

213.2

A1=0.5*4.26*213.2= 454.12

A2=0.5*1.74*(-86.8)= -75.52

=213.2-300= -86.8
A3=(-386.8-536.8)/2*(3)= -1385.4

=-86.8-300=-386.8

=-386.8-150=-536.8
454.12

Bending Moment Diagram


454.12-75.52=378.6

=-1006.8+1006.2(Moment at
C)=0

=378.6-1385.4=-1006.8
Q.19.13.9 through 13.12: Determine the reactions and draw the shear and bending
moment diagrams for the beams shown in Figs. P13.9P13.12 using the method of consistent
deformations. Select the reaction at the interior support to be the redundant.
Structure 1 Assignment

50KN/m

5m 5m

E= 200Gpa,I=1000*106mm2

Solution:

Take support B as redundant support:

BO

250KN 250KN

fBB

Using equilibrium equation:

MA = 0
3/8 1KN 5/8
1*5= CY*8
x
x
CY = 5/8

FY = 0

AY= 1-5/8 = 3/8

Using virtual work method:

5 50 3 3 5
BO = 1/EI [0.50 200 ( 2 ) 2 ) ( ) +0 (200 (50/2) 2 ) (( 8) )
8

Solving the above equation we obtain:

BO= -1638.67/EI

5 3 2 5 2
fBB = 1/EI [0.50 ( ) + ( )
8 8
Structure 1 Assignment
Solving the above equation we obtain:

fBB = 6.445/EI

Using compatibility equation , we find BY

BY = BO/ fBB = 1638.67/6.445 = 254.25KN

Now the structure is determinate, and we can use simple static equilibrium equation to solve the
reactions for support A and C and draw shear force and bending moment diagram as follows:

50KN/m

RA = 104.66KN RB = 254.25KN RC = 41.09KN

MA = 0

254.25*5+ CY*8 = 50*8*4

CY = 41.09KN

FY = 0

AY + BY + CY = 400

AY = 400-254.25-41.09 = 104.66KN

Shear Force Diagram

104.66 =-145.34+254.25=108.91

A1=109.37 2.91 A3= 118.71 0.82

2.18
2.09 A2=- A4=-
211.47 16.85

=104.66-250=-145.34 =108.91-150=-41.09
Structure 1 Assignment

109.37
Bending moment diagram:

=-102.1+118.71=16.65

Dimensions on the shear diagram are obtained by using similarity of triangles as follows:
=109.37-211.47=-102.1
104.66/x = 145.34/(5-x)

x = 2.09 and (5-x) = 2.91

Similarly

108.91/x = 41.09/(3-x)

x = 2.18 and (3-x) = 0.82

Q.20. 13.13 through 13.25: Determine the reactions and draw the shear and bending
moment diagrams for the structures shown in Figs. P13.13P13.25 using the method of
consistent deformations.

Solution:
Structure 1 Assignment
Structure 1 Assignment