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Bonding &

1. An atom or group of atoms with a Structure


charge is called
6. Which two elements would form a
a) an electron b) a molecule covalent compound?

c) a metal d) an ion a) sodium and oxygen

2. An element X is in Group VI of the b) copper and oxygen


Periodic Table. The ion will be represented
c) carbon and oxygen
by
d) magnesium and oxygen
a) X+ b) X2+
7. The elements P, Q and R in the Periodic
c) X- d) X2-
Table have consecutive increasing proton
3. Which pair of elements will join to form numbers. If element R is a noble gas, then
a compound with a one-to-one ratio? the symbol for the ion of the element P is

a) magnesium and chlorine a) P+ b) P2+

b) sodium and flourine c) P- d) P2-

c) potassium and oxygen 8. during the formation of an ion bond,


the atoms taking part
d) lithium and sulphur
a) only gain electrons
4. when a calcium atom becomes a
calcium ion(Ca2+), b) share electrons

a) it loses an electron c) lose and gain electrons

b) it loses two electrons d) only lose electrons

c) it gains two electrons 9. Fluorine has an electronic configuration


2,7 and oxygen 2,6. The formula of
d) its proton number increases
fluorine oxide would be
5. A crystal is most likely to have a low
a) FlO b) Fl2O
melting point, if it
c) F2O d) F2O2
a) is a macromolecule
10. Which of these statements about
b) is a crystal lattice
covalent bonds is incorrect?
c) has delocalized valence electrons
a) HCl contains one pair of shared
d) has weak van der walls forces
electrons

b) CCl4 contains four pairs of shared


electrons
c) H2O contains three pairs of shared d) NH3 contains three pairs of shared
electrons electrons
11 Which substance is a good conductor of electricity when solid?

A a halogen
B a metal

C a plastic

D a salt
12 The diagrams show the structures of two forms, X and Y, of a solid element.

X Y

What are suitable uses of X and Y, based on their structures?

use of solid X use of solid Y


A drilling drilling
B drilling lubricating
C lubricating drilling
D lubricating lubricating

13 Which compound has the largest relative molecular mass, Mr?

A CO2
B NO2
C SiO2
D SO2

14 The diagrams show models of molecules.

X Y Z
Which molecules could the above models represent?

X Y Z
A helium chloride chlorine water
B helium chlorine hydrogen methane
C hydrogen hydrogen chloride water
D hydrogen methane
chloride chlorine
15 The diagram shows a model of a molecule containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

How many atoms of each element are in the molecule?

carbon hydrogen oxygen


A 1 6 2
B 2 5 1
C 2 6 1
D 6 2 1
16 How many electrons are shared between the atoms in a molecule of methane, CH4, and in a
molecule of water, H2O?

methane water

A 4 2
B 4 4
C 8 2
D 8 4
17 The table compares the strengths of the bonds for reactions of the type below.

X2 + Y2 2XY

Which reaction is most exothermic?


bonds in bonds in bonds in
X2 Y2 XY
A strong strong strong
B strong strong weak
C weak weak strong
D weak weak weak
18 The lead in a pencil is made of a mixture of graphite and clay.

lead

If the percentage of graphite is increased, the pencil slides across the paper more easily. Why is

this?

A Graphite conducts electricity.


B Graphite is a form of carbon.
C Graphite is a lubricant.
D Graphite is a non-metal.
19 Which statement about gaseous hydrogen chloride and solid potassium chloride is correct?

A Hydrogen chloride is covalent but potassium chloride is ionic.


B Hydrogen chloride is ionic but potassium chloride is covalent.
C They are both covalent compounds.
D They are both ionic compounds.
20 Which change to an atom occurs when it forms a positive ion?

A It gains an electron.
B It gains a proton.
C It loses an electron.
D It loses a proton.
21 In the molecules CH4, HCl and H2O, which atoms use all of their outer shell electrons in bonding?

A C and Cl
B C and H
C Cl and H
D H and O
22 The diagram shows the structure of a substance.

What is represented?

A diamond
B ethane
C graphite
D poly(ethene)

23 Which statement about gaseous hydrogen chloride and solid potassium chloride is correct?

A Hydrogen chloride is covalent but potassium chloride is ionic.


B Hydrogen chloride is ionic but potassium chloride is covalent.
C They are both covalent compounds.
D They are both ionic compounds.
24 In the molecules CH4, HCl and H2O, which atoms use all of their outer shell electrons in bonding?

A C and Cl
B C and H
C Cl and H
D H and O

25 Which change to an atom occurs when it forms a positive ion?

A It gains an electron.
B It gains a proton.
C It loses an electron.
D It loses a proton.
26 Which of the following can be used as a lubricant?

a liquid fraction
graphite
from petroleum

A

B

C

D

27 The diagram shows the outer shell electron arrangement of compound J that contains the
elements Y and Z.

Y
Y Z
Y

What type of compound is J?

A an alloy
B a macromolecule
C covalent
D ionic

28 In which compounds are pairs of electrons shared between atoms?

1 sodium chloride
2 methane
3 lead bromide

A 1 only B 2 only C 1 and 3 D 1, 2 and 3

29 For which of the following can graphite be used?

A as an abrasive only
B as an abrasive and as an electrode
C as an electrode and as a lubricant
D as a lubricant only
30 How does a magnesium atom form a bond with an oxygen atom?

A by giving one pair of electrons to the oxygen atom


B by sharing one pair of electrons, both electrons provided by the magnesium atom
C by sharing two pairs of electrons, both pairs provided by the oxygen atom
D by sharing two pairs of electrons, each atom donating one pair of electrons

31 Elements X and Y combine to form the gas XY2.

What are X and Y?

X Y

A calcium chlorine
B carbon hydrogen
C carbon oxygen
D hydrogen oxygen

32 Which of the following contains the same number of electrons as an atom of neon?

A Cl
B Li
C
Li+

D O2

33 Which statement about all the noble gases is correct?

A The number of protons in the atoms equals the number of neutrons.


B Their atoms each have a stable arrangement of electrons.
C Their atoms each have eight electrons in their outer shell.
D They exist as molecules containing two atoms.
+
34 Hydrogen can form both H ions and H ions.

Which statement about these two ions is correct?


+
A An H ion has no electrons in its first shell.
+
B An H ion has more protons than an H ion.
+
C An H ion has one more electron than an H ion.

D An H ion is formed when a hydrogen atom loses an electron.
35 Which substance has a giant molecular structure at room temperature?

A methane
B sand
C sodium chloride
D water

36 An element X forms a positive ion with the electronic structure 2,8,8.

What is the proton (atomic) number of X?

A 16 B 17 C 18 D 19

37 Which two substances are elements with a giant molecular structure?

A diamond and graphite


B diamond and sand
C methane and iodine
D methane and sand

38 Which compound has both ionic and covalent bonds?

A ammonium chloride
B carbon dioxide C
ethyl ethanoate
D sodium chloride

39 Which pair of elements, when combined together, do not form a covalent compound?

A caesium and fluorine


B nitrogen and chlorine

C phosphorus and fluorine


D sulfur and chlorine

40 Two particles X and Y have the composition shown in the table.

particle number of electrons number of neutrons number of protons


X 10 8 8
Y 18 18 17

The particles X and Y are

A metal atoms.

B non-metal atoms.
C negative ions.
D positive ions.
41 The table shows some properties of diamond and graphite.

For which property is the reason correct?

property reason

A diamond cuts glass the bonds in glass are stronger than those in diamond
B diamond is a hard substance there are many ionic bonds in diamond
C graphite is a lubricant there are weak bonds between graphite layers
D graphite conducts electricity graphite contains freely moving ions

42 Which statement describes the conversion of magnesium atoms to magnesium ions?

A The change is reduction, because there has been a gain of electrons.


B The change is oxidation, because there has been a loss of electrons.
C The change is reduction, because there has been a loss of electrons.
D The change is oxidation, because there has been a gain of electrons.

43 Which statement about diamond and graphite is correct?

A Both diamond and graphite are used as abrasives.


B Diamond and graphite have different arrangements of carbon atoms.
C The carbon atoms in graphite have a different number of neutrons from those in diamond.
D The carbon atoms in both graphite and diamond have four covalent bonds.

44 Which statement is always true when two atoms join together by a covalent bond?

A One atom is a metal, the other atom is a non-metal.


B One atom loses one electron, the other atom gains one electron.
C The two atoms share one electron.
D The two atoms share two electrons.