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Research Design

A blue print for conducting study with maximum control over factors that may interfere

with the validity of the findings.

A research design is the set of methods and procedures used in collecting and analyzing

measures of the variables specified in the research problem research study.

Characteristics of research design

Objectivity: The findings obtained by the research should be objective. It is possible by allowing more than one person to agree between the final scores/ conclusion of the research.

Reliability: If the similar research is carried out time and again in a similar setting it must give similar result. So, the researcher must frame the research questions to make it reliable and provide similar outcomes.

Elements of Research Design
Elements of Research Design

Validity: Any measuring device can be said to be valid if it measures what it is expected

to

research must be framed accordingly.

measure and nothing else. To make a research valid the questionnaire framed before

Generalization: The information collected from given sample must be utilized for providing a general application to the large group of which the sample is drawn.

Identifying the broad problem area

The aim of our project might grow out of an intimate knowledge of a particular environment and this may be a great deal more useful than a study which reflects the range of opinion in the literature. This echoes the problem-solving focus of applied research., and suggest that in looking at a problem close to home, your understanding of the situation will provide a significance advantage.

It is not to suggest that you should not consider the experience of others as reflected in the literature, or for that matter focus on a whole new area, but rather it recognizes that our ability to recognize problem is often based in specialist knowledge that has developed from an ongoing gathering of data relevant to our interest.

We are taking an example of woman empowerment

1. Decision making

2. Hold on money

3. Children’s decision

4. Self confidence

5. Bank account

6. Insurance

8.

Independence

Problem statement

Having identified a possible problem, there are a number of ways of articulating the focus of a research project. When it comes to writing up a research project this is sometimes called a problem statement. It is equally important and extremely useful to spend some time reshaping the problem as a question.

1. Research question

2. Research objectives

Types of Variables

The phenomena that can vary/change from person to person is known as variable. A variable is anything that can take on differing or varying values. The values differ at various times for the same object or person, or the values can differ at the same time for different objectives or persons.

There are two types of variables

→ researcher’s focus
→ researcher’s focus

1. Independent Variable

2. Dependent Variable

The dependent variable is the variable of primary interest to the researcher. The researcher’s goal is to explain or predict the variability in the dependent variable. In other words, it is the main variable that lends itself as a viable issue for the investigation. Though analysis of the dependent variable it is possible to find answers or solutions to the problem at hand

The changes that can be seen in the dependent variable due to the effect of independent variable are sometimes called criterion or yield.

Data collection

Gathering primary data is one way of referring your thoughts, or looking for symptoms, as a doctor often does. Secondary data contained in a n organization’s reports and documents may help to sharpen your focus on the problem you have identified. The researcher is anxious to get to the stage of gathering primary data; that is, data has not been accumulated before.

Hypothesis

A hypothesis is an educated guess. A hypothesis is there for a proposition, a theoretical statement to account for the facts. ‘Can we say this is true?’ is the everyday question with which we generally greet a hypothesis. Strong research projects usually begin with a clear and simple hypothesis. They should not contain multiple possibilities that would make the task of testing them more difficult. The hypothesis is always get the benefit of the doubt. It continues to be accepted until evidence to the contrary becomes statistically overwhelming. If the hypothesis was true, it would be extremely unlikely that all the observed results could have occurred.

Conceptual Framework

Causes of violation of law in Pakistan

Background/Demographic/ Independent Variables Dependent Variables Socio economic Variables/ Personal Characteristics
Background/Demographic/
Independent Variables
Dependent Variables
Socio
economic
Variables/
Personal Characteristics
Gender
Policy Implementation
Violation of Law
Education
Class Conflict
Age
Economic position/Poverty
Marital Status
Norms and Values
Number of children
Societal thrill
Residential area
Unequal
distribution
of
resources
Income
Political interference
Class
Over population
Profession
Unemployment
Poor Socialization
Bad company/peers
Lack of awareness
Fulfilment of basic needs
Types of Research design
1.
Explanatory
When we encounter an issue that is already known and have a description of it, we might begin
to wonder why things are the way they are. The desire to know “why,” to explain, is the purpose
of explanatory research. It builds on exploratory and descriptive research and goes on to identify
the reasons for something that occurs. Explanatory research looks for causes and reasons. For
example, a descriptive research may discover that 10 percent of the parents abuse their children,
whereas the explanatory researcher is more interested in learning why parents abuse their children.
2.
Exploratory

This is a descriptive type of research specifically designed to deal with complex issues. It aims to move beyond ‘just getting the facts’ in order to make sense of the myriad other elements involved, such as human, political, social, cultural and contextual.

You may be exploring a new topic or issue in order to learn about it. If the issue was new or the researcher has written little on it, you began at the beginning. This is called exploratory research. The researcher’s goal is to formulate more precise questions that future research can answer. Exploratory research may be the first stage in a sequence of studies. A researcher may need to know enough to design and execute a second, more systematic and extensive study.

3.

Descriptive

Descriptive research relies on observation as a means of collecting data. It attempts to examine situations in order to establish what is the norm, i.e. what can be predicted to happen again under the same circumstances.

Descriptive research presents a picture of the specific details of a situation, social setting, or relationship. The major purpose of descriptive research, as the term implies, is to describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon. Descriptive research seeks to determine the answers to who, what, when, where, and how questions. Labor Force Surveys, Population Census, and Educational Census are examples of such research. Descriptive study offers to the researcher a profile or description of relevant aspects of the phenomena of interest. Look at the class in research methods and try to give its profile the characteristics of the students. When we start to look at the relationship of the variables, then it may help in diagnosis analysis.

of the variables, then it may help in diagnosis analysis. 4. Experimental This design is best

4.

Experimental

This design is best suited in controlled settings for example labs. The design assumes random assignment of subjects and random assignment to groups (A and C). It tries to investigate cause and affect associations where causes could be manipulated to generate different types of effects. Due to the requirement of random assignment, this design can be challenging to carry out in the real world (non-laboratory) setting.

5.

Prediction

This can sometimes be done in research areas where correlations are already known. Predictions of possible future behavior or events are made on the basis that if there has been a strong relationship between two or more characteristics or events in the past, then these should exist in similar circumstances in the future, leading to predictable outcomes.

6.

Evaluation

This involves making judgements about the quality of objects or events. Quality can be measured either in an absolute sense or on a comparative basis. To be useful, the methods of evaluation must be relevant to the context and intentions of the research.

It addresses the question, “Did it work?” The process of establishing value judgment based on evidence about the achievement of the goals of a program. Evaluation research measures the effectiveness of a program, policy, or way of doing something. “Did the program work?” “Did it achieve its objectives?” Evaluation researchers use several research techniques (survey, field research). Practitioners involved with a policy or program may conduct evaluation research for their own information or at the request of outside decision makers, who sometime place limits on researchers by setting boundaries on what can be studied and determining the outcome of interest. Two types of evaluation research are formative and summative. Formative evaluation is built-in monitoring or continuous feedback on a program used for program management. Summative evaluation looks at final program outcomes. Both are usually necessary.

7. History

The idea is to gather, validate, synthesize evidence to establish facts which defend or oppose your hypothesis. It makes use of primary sources, secondary sources, and a lot of qualitative data sources for example logs, diaries, official data, reports, and so on. The issue is that the sources need to be both authentic and valid.

The Classical experimental design

The classical experimental design consists of two comparable groups.

Experimental group: The members of this group are selected randomly.

Control group: The members of this group are selected randomly for assignment of cases.

Pre-Test: Taken prior to the introduction of independent variable Post-Test: After exposure, has been done.
Pre-Test: Taken prior to the introduction of independent variable
Post-Test: After exposure, has been done.
The difference in measurement between posttest and pretest is compared in each of the two
groups. If the difference in the experimental group is significantly larger than in the control group,
it is referred that the independent variable is causally related to the dependent variable.
The classical experimental design is usually associated with research in the biology and physical
sciences.
Random
Pre-Test
Independent
Post-Test
Differences
Selection
Variable
<
Experimental Group
R
O1
X
O2
O2-O1=de
Control Group
R
O3
X
O4
O4-O3=dc
de > dc
Causal interference components

Covariation

A variable change when the other variable is changed. Covariation simply means that or more phenomena vary together. For example, if a change in the level of education is accompanied by a change in the level of income, one can say that education covaries with income, that is that individuals with higher levels of education have higher incomes than individuals with lower levels of education. Thus, a correlation between phenomena is necessary evidence for a causal interpretation.

Non-Spurious

The second operation requires the researcher to demonstrate that the observed covariation is nonspurious. Non-Spurious relationship is a relationship between two variables that is not

explained by the third variable in analysis. In other words, if the effects of all relevant variables are controlled for and the relation between the original two variables is maintained, the relation is non-spurious. A nonspurious relation implies that there is an inherent causal link between variables and that the observed covariation is not based on an accidental connection with some associated phenomena.

Time Order

The third operation, time order, requires the researcher to demonstrate that the assumed causes occur first or change prior to the assumed affect.

Components of Research Design
Components of Research Design

Comparison

The process of comparison underlies the concept of covariation or correlation. A comparison is an operation required to demonstration that two variables are correlated. Let us say that we wanted to demonstrate a correlation between cigarette smoking and lung cancer, that the smoking of cigarettes is associated with a greater risk getting lung cancer. To examine this, one may compare the frequency of cancer cases among smokers and nonsmokers or, alternatively, compare the number of cancer cases in a population of smokers before and after they started smoking.

Manipulation

The notion of causally implies that if Y is caused by X, then an induced change in X will be followed by a change in Y. it is hypothesized that the relations are asymmetrical: that one variable is the determining force and the other is a determined response.

Control------Non-Spurious

Extrinsic/External

Intrinsic/Internal

Extrinsic account for possible braces resulting from the differential requirement of research participants to the experimental and control group.

Intrinsic account for change in the individuals or the units studied that occur during the study period, change in the measuring instrument or in the reactive effect of the observation itself.

Intrinsic Factors

History

History refers all those events that occur during the time of the study that might affect the individuals studied and provide a rival explanation for the change in the dependent variable.

Longer time period Higher the chances of error

Maturation

Maturation involves Biological, Psychological or Social processes that produce changes in the individuals or units studied with the passage of time. These changes could possibly influence the dependent variable and lead to erroneous.

Experimental Mortality

Experimental Mortality refers to dropout problems that prevent the researcher from obtaining complete information on all cases. When individual’s dropout selectively from the experimental or control group, the final sample on which complete information is available may be biased.

Instrumentation

Instrumentation designates change in the measuring instruments between the pretest and the posttest. To associate the difference between posttest and pretest scores with the independent variable, one has to show that repeated measurements with the same measurement instrument under unchanged conditions will yield the same result. If this cannot be shown, observed differences could be attributed to the change in the measurement instrument and not necessarily to the independent variable. The stability of measurement is also referred to as reliability and its absence can be threat to the validity of experiments.

Testing

The possible reactivity of measurement is a major problem in social science research. The process of testing may itself change the phenomena being measured. The effect of being pretested might Sensitize the individual and improve their scoring on the posttest. A difference between posttest and pretest scores could thus be attributed not necessarily to the independent variable but rather to the experience gained by individuals while taking the pretest.

experience gained by individuals while taking the pretest. Regression Artifact Regression Artifact is a threat that

Regression Artifact

Regression Artifact is a threat that occurs when the individuals are assigned to experimental group on the basis of their extreme scores on the dependent variables. When this happens and measures are unreliable, individuals who scored below average on the pretest will appear to have improved on retesting. Conversely, individuals who scored above average on the pretest would appear to have done less well on retesting. The most familiar example of this problem is taken from our own experience in test taking. Most of us have sometimes performed below our expectations on an academic test because of factors beyond our control that had nothing to do with our academic ability.

Interaction with selection

i) Selection-History interaction results when the experimental group and the control group are selected from different settings so that each might affect their response to the treatment.

that the rate of development for females is faster than for males, and this might account for their better performance on the posttest.

How to write literature review

1 st Step: Literature citation/Reference (et.al)

For one author: Khan (2010)

For two authors: Khan & Mahmood (2010)

For more than two authors: Khan,et.al.,(2010) Data collection Data Analysis Sample
For more than two authors: Khan,et.al.,(2010)
Data collection
Data Analysis
Sample

Important Note: don’t forget to atelic (et.al)

2 nd Step: 1 line of Topic + Area/City

3 rd Step:1 or 2 lines of methodology: -

For example: The data was collected from 200 respondents while the respondents were chosen through simple random sampling technique. The results were through regression model.

4

th Step: Write down the Similarities or dissimilarities of research if you compared it with any other.

5

th Step: Write down the findings/suggestions of the research.

th Step: Arrange the complete refence with the Author’s names, Year, topic, Journal name, Volume, Edition and page number.

6

1 st Step: Literature citation/Reference (et.al): Khan,et.al.,(2010)

2 nd Step: 1 line of Topic + Area/City: Stated/Presented/Studied/Reported/Reconducted the

situation of migrant’s families left behind in District Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan.

3 rd Step:1 or 2 lines of methodology: -

Data collection

Data Analysis

They interviewed 120 wives of migrants with a well-structured questionnaire through snowball and convenient sampling techniques. The descriptive data analysis shows that the/70% of them were feeling secure economically. The respondents reported that they were feeling socially insecure 50% and loneliness 70%.

4

th Step: Write down the findings/suggestions of the research.

70% of them were feeling secure economically. The respondents reported that they were feeling socially insecure 50% and loneliness 70%. They suggested educational facilities, frequent parents- teacher meeting and counselling centers for woman to improve the situation.

5 th Step: Write down the Similarities or dissimilarities of research if you compared it with any other.

We don’t compare the research with any other research therefore we have no Similarities or dissimilarities to write.

6 th Step: Arrange the complete refence with the Author’s names, Year, Topic, Journal name, Volume, Edition and page number and year.

Complete Sample
Complete Sample

Khan,I.A.,Mahmood,S.,Yasin,G.,and Shahbaz,B.(2010) “Impact of International Migration on social Protection of Migrant’s Families Left Behind in agrarian Communities of District Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan.” Pak.J.Agri.Sci.,Vol.47(4), 425-428;2010.

Author’s names: Khan,I.A.,Mahmood,S.,Yasin,G.,and Shahbaz,B.

Year: (2010)

Topic: “Impact of International Migration on social Protection of Migrant’s Families Left Behind in agrarian Communities of District Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan.”

Journal name: Pak.J.Agri.Sci.,

Volume: Vol.47

Edition: (4),

Page number and year: 425-428;2010.

Khan,et.al.,(2010) Studied the situation of migrant’s families left behind in District Toba Tek Singh Punjab, Pakistan. They interviewed 120 wives of migrants with a well-structured questionnaire through snowball and convenient sampling techniques. The descriptive data analysis shows that the 70% of them were feeling secure economically. The respondents reported that they were feeling socially insecure 50% and loneliness 70%. They suggested educational facilities, frequent parents-teacher meeting and counselling centers for woman to improve the situation.

Khan,I.A.,Mahmood,S.,Yasin,G.,and Shahbaz,B.(2010) “Impact of International Migration on social Protection of Migrant’s Families Left Behind in agrarian Communities of District Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan. ” Pak.J.Agri.Sci.,Vol.47(4), 425-428;2010.