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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Steel Research Panel Meeting 10th June 2016

Recently Completed, Current


and Planned Future Research at
the University of Auckland and
Associated Organizations*
Presentation to the 10th Steel Research Panel Meeting
10th June 2010 by:
Charles Clifton and James Lim,
The University of Auckland
*Uni of Canterbury
*HERA, SCNZ
*Industry partners
*AUT
*SCION

Scope of Presentation
Covers over 90% of the UofA research that we are
involved in
Sequence of coverage:
Heavy steel buildings performance in earthquakes
Reinforced concrete member performance in
earthquakes (yes we have joined the dark side)
Heavy steel buildings performance in severe fires
Cold formed light gauge steel building research
New product or member development

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 1 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Heavy Steel Buildings


Performance in Earthquakes

Cyclic shear buckling endurance


(CPD) limits of & the effects of
strain ageing on yielding EBF
active links

EBF Demand & Repair

Robert Currie, ME candidate

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Why is this work important?


Answer 2 key questions from Nashids (2014)
PhD research:
How realistic are CPD limits?
Currently derived from cumulative inelastic demand
Refine for more accurate procedure
What are the effects of strain ageing?
How does it affect behaviour & performance?
How are material properties (e.g. hardness) affected?

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Apparatus
Connecting
Beam

A-frame with 1000 kN


servohydraulic actuator 1000 kN
Actuator
Vertical push & pull
Guiding
Yield links via shear Frame 152

buckling
Bolted replaceable short
link specimen pairs A-Frame

LVDTs & portal gauges


measure displacement
Strain Active
Link
Actuator load cell
Load Bench

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Experimentation
Cyclic plastic shear
strain Hardness
Yield links via shear Capture bare steel
buckling surface hardness data
Prescribed levels: Before, during & after
testing
3, 5, 7, 10 & 15 %
Constant & variable Strain ageing
amplitudes
Accelerated/artificial
Test; strain age; re-
Relate hardness &
test
plastic strain

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Development of the Rotational


Bolted Active Link (RBAL)

Alex Leung, ME candidate

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 4 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Why Rotational Bolted Active


Link??
Post event reparability confinement of inelastic
demand on bolts only. Bolts can be easily replaced

Damage control - confining damage outside panel


zone and wall piers

Decoupled stiffness and strength allow the use of


larger section without imposing large overstrength

Architecture merit - Failure mode no longer governed


by length of Link

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Rotational Bolted Active Link

EQ

EBF with RBAL subjected


to Lateral Seismic Loading

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Full Scale Component Testing of


RBAL Specimens

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Experimental Results

RBAL with Bis-Alloy400 Capping Plates

RBAL with G300 Mild Steel Capping Plates


SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Conclusion
RBAL maintains stiffness and strength over a
large amount of cycles
RBAL performance highly dependent on the
hardness of the capping plates.
Bis-Alloy 400 - stable hysteresis (desirable).
Mild steel - gradually increase hysteresis (undesirable)
Further Research
Full scale testing of the EBF and concrete couple shear
walls with RBAL
Finite element analysis to understand local stress on RBAL
during sliding
Optimisation of the RBAL design
SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Introduction

A study on modified EBF with a


new type replaceable active link

Angel Ashikov PhD project

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Importance
The use of the proposed new type bolted replaceable active links
for EBFs would:

Allow designers to size the replaceable active links with desired


cross-section dimensions and different steel grade, if needed
Allow for independent control of frame stiffness and required
strength, resulting in more efficient structures
Allow for quick inspection and easy replacement of yielded and
damaged links following a major earthquake, significantly
minimizing the disruption time to reoccupy the structure

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Modelling work
FE model of a single storey of a realistic structure, with detailed
modelling of the active link region
Detailed 3D bolt modelling and tightening
An interaction behaviour was defined for all interacting surfaces
A bilinear steel material was modelled with a combined hardening
Cyclic enforced displacements were applied according to AISC
Loading protocol 2010

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Experimental work
Two tests of a single storey full-scale EBF structure were carried
out one monotonically loaded while the second one was
subjected to cyclic loading (AISC 2010)
Technical report writing is underway along with the appropriate
analyses

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Results
The proposed replaceable active
link has rotation capacity of up to
gp = 0.134 rad
The proposed bolted design
procedure is satisfactory in
suppressing inelastic demand in
all components except the active
linkAn interaction behaviour was
defined for all interacting
surfaces
The bolt tension forces do not
increase which means bolt failure
will not occur during an
earthquake excitation
There is no sliding on the bolted
surfaces of the model, meaning
the no-slip condition is met

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Results
Stable hysteretic behaviour
The objective of suppressing the
inelastic demand away from the
active link was achieved
No bolt slippage occurred
The bolts were reused (is this
important?)
FORCE [KN] VS AXIAL STRAINS OF THE BOTTOM RIGHT FLANGE OF FORCE [KN] VS ROTATION [rad]
ACTIVE LINK [m/mm]
500
500

400
400

300
300
Force in the actuator [kN]

Force in the actuator [kN]


200
200

100 100

0 0
-10000 -5000 0 5000 10000 15000 -0.040 -0.030 -0.020 -0.010 0.000 0.010 0.020 0.030 0.040 0.050 0.060 0.070

-100 -100

-200 -200

-300 -300

-400 -400

-500
Axial strains of the bottom right flange of the active link -500

[m/mm] Active link rotation [rad]

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Future directions
The two tests were carried out for proving the concept of the
proposed new type bolted replaceable active link
More tests could be carried out in order to enhance the
behaviour of the EBF
An experimental testing of the influence of strain ageing on
the response to a second round of plastic deformation could
also be undertaken.

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 10 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Development and Validation of


Shear Links for LCF and EBF
Seismic Systems via Testing and
Numerical Modelling
Dmitry Volynkin, PhD project

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Large Scale Testing at Portland State University 2015/2016

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Numerical
Modelling
More than 60 different
sections analysed in a
parametric study
Exact same trends as
experimental
i.e. can extrapolate findings
to all sections available

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Stiffener Spacing
Equation
Axes are the aspect ratios (X
axis assumes squared
relationship)
Alpha = s/d1; Beta = d1/tw
Dots are experimental
results
Grey line is theoretical
formula
Bottom line is the AISC line
Top line is expansion of
provisions experiments to
the right -> conservative

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

New Equation
If you use a stocky section
your permitted stiffener
spacing is much higher
For typical lengths Im
guessing the new equation will
just say not to use any
stiffeners
45in. [1.1m] longest link
tested without stiffeners: so
say you have a 310UC137
your spacing is up to 1.2m
from the equation, limited to
1.1m from experimental data.
310UC137 up to 1.1m -> no
stiffeners
200UC60 up to 800mm ->
no stiffeners
Beta = d1/tw this is already
available in steel tables
Beta of 25 is marginal, 21.3
and lower is very high
performance (exponential
relationship)

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Other Experiments
Web Doubler Plates
Secondary Element
Demands
Contact Stiffeners
T-EBF concept
Gusset Plates

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

An Elastic Rocking Steel Shear Wall:


Experimental Testing of
Double Acting Ring Spring Type II

PhD Candidate : Gary Djojo


Supervisor : Charles Clifton

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Motivation and
Objective
2
1. Research Motivation:
1. Conventional ductile structures under severe earthquakes rely on:
1. Inelasticity of the lateral resisting systems.
2. Yielding of selected members to dissipate energy.
2. Structural damage with residual deformation may require
expensive structural repair or demolition.
2. Research Objective:
A novel rocking system utilising a centralised rocking mechanism and
energy dissipation devices is developed to keep the system elastic
during earthquakes and self-centre
the structure after earthquakes.

Vbase

L Energy Dissipation Devices


Centralised rocking pivot Early Concept
SRP Mtg 10th June 2016 L: Ring Springs R: Double Acting Ring Springs

Double Acting
Ring Springs Systems
3
Type I Type II
Experimental testing: Completed Experimental testing: Completed

Parallelogram force-displacement diagram Flag-shaped force-displacement diagram

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Test Results
4
Double Acting Ring Springs
Type I Type II
Displacement (mm)

Displacement (mm)
Time (s) Time (s)

Loading Protocol
Loading Protocol

BOT, COMP.
Force (kN) BOT, COMP. Force (kN)

Displ. (mm) Displ. (mm)

TOP, TENS. TOP, TENS.


Parallelogram force-displacement diagram Flag-shaped force-displacement diagram
SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Summary
5
1. The experimental results showed good agreement with the
numerical analysis of the double acting ring springs systems.
Their hysteresis curves are stable, consistent and repeatable.
2. The system self-centring:
1. Type I: Relying on the dynamic force and gravity loading.
2. Type II: Actively self-centring.
3. The final testing phase, bottom storey sub-assemblages
testing, will commence in late June 2016. This testing is to
observe the rocking behaviour and the joints behaviour during
rocking.

Bottom Storey Sub-assemblage Type I Bottom Storey Sub-assemblage Type II


SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Enhanced Sliding Hinge Joint


Connection with Belleville Springs
Shahab Ramhormozian PhD Project
In conjunction with, for 2016:
The optimum level of installed bolt tension
in the SHJAFC
Brent van Bergen and Thomas White
For 2015:
Influence of Surface Roughness on the Sliding Behaviour of the
AFC Connection with Belleville Springs
Daniel Civitanich and Sarah Maetzig
And, for 2014:
Sliding Hinge Joint Connection With Belleville Springs
Raghav Kruthiventy and Jay Dangwal

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Sliding Hinge Joint

Developed by Clifton (2005) at UoA-HERA.

Widely used in New Zealand.

Allows large beam-column rotation with


minimal damage through sliding in
Asymmetric Friction Components (AFCs).

Decoupling joint strength and stiffness.

Effectively isolating the floor slab.

Confining yielding to the bolts. Intended


to be improved or ideally avoided.

Pinched hysteresis behaviour. intended to


be improved for an enhanced self-centring
capability.

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Findings

It has been shown mathematically and


experimentally (9 tests on the old SHJAFC test
rig) that, introducing partially compressed
BeSs with the bolts installed in the elastic
range can:

Reduce the bolt tension loss after sliding


has occurred.

Provide more stable behaviour for the AFC


and the bolt group.

Increase the post-earthquake connection


slip force.

Increase the coefficient of friction and the


joint sliding shear capacity.

Improve the joint self centring capability.

Eliminate the prying effects.

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Further established
findings and ongoing research
Establishing the optimum surface
preparation/roughness level for the AFC plies
sliding surfaces using an AFC test rig on the
MTS machine designed in 2015 (27 tests).
Experimentally investigating the following AFC
configurations:
A shim-less AFC
AFC with TiN coated shims
AFC with abrasion resistant cleat and shims
Developing the analytical SHJAFC elastic bolt
model.
Developing the FEM of the AFC using the
ABAQUS software to redesign the SHJAFC old
test rig to test SHJAFC with customized BeSs,
three rows of bolts, and SFC configuration.
The AFC component tests on the MTS machine
to establish the optimum level of installed bolt
tension and the benefit of customized BeSs.
Developing the design procedure for the use of
BeSs in the friction sliders.
Developing analytical models for the SHJAFC
to optimize the joints design and behaviour
e.g. the optimum beam-column gap.
SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

The High Strength Friction Grip


(HSFG) bolts
Shahab Ramhormozian PhD Project in conjunction
with
2014/15 SRF project:
Determination of the Required Part-turn of the
Nut with Respect to the Number of Free Threads
under the Loaded Face of the Nut in Fully
Tensioned High Strength Friction Grip Property
Class 8.8 Bolts
Hai Nguyen
And, 2015 Project X:
Establishing the Method of Bolt Tightening with
Belleville Springs in the Elastic Range of the Bolt
Preload
Hai Nguyen SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Experiments on HSFG G8.8 M20 and M24


bolts from two NZ based suppliers

Tensile tests on 12 bolts,

Part-turn tests on 84 bolts with 1, 3, 4, 5,


6, 7, 8 free threads at nut loaded face,

Turn-to-fracture tests on 84 bolts with 1, 3,


4, 5, 6, 7, 8 free threads at nut loaded face

Proposed Changes to NZS3404


Addition to Clause 14.3.6.1.1: Nuts shall run freely
when part of a bolt/nut assembly. This shall be checked
by running the nut along the bolts threads by hand the
full length of the thread before being used in a
connection. Only bolt/nut assemblies that pass this test
shall be used. Once a bolt/nut assembly has been so
tested neither component shall be substituted.
Change on Clause 14.3.6.1.2: (c) For tensioned bolts
to either 15.2.5.2 or 15.2.5.3 in all connections except
moment resisting endplate connections, at least two clear
threads run out shall be clear beneath the nut after
tightening.
Addition to Clause 14.3.6.1.2: (d) For tensioned bolts
to either 15.2.5.2 or 15.2.5.3 in moment resisting
endplate connections [keep the existing subclause (c)
requirements]
Change in Table 15.2.5.2: The bolt length is defined as
underside of bolt head to outer face of nut.

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Experiments on HSFG G8.8 M20 bolts


and different configurations of two BeSs
Tightening tests on 69 HSFG G8.8 M20
bolts and two types of Belleville springs
i.e. old BeSs and customized BeSs.
Monitoring applied torque, BeS deflection,
and Nut rotation during the tests.
Proposing a nut-rotation based procedure
to install the bolts in their elastic range up
to a certain bolt tension with BeSs.
Developing an analytical bolt model for
the bolt tightening to set a torque
threshold with respect to the clamping
force to prevent yielding the bolt material
in torsion.(under development)

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Self-Centring Sliding Hinge Joint


Connection with elastic springs

Shahab Ramhormozian PhD Project


In conjunction with, For 2016:
Self Centering Sliding Hinge Joint with
Lurethane Springs
Yoshie Takayama and Julie Lam

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 20 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Using elastic springs to make the SDOF


systems with friction dampers
self-centre
Mathematically determining the required
characteristics of a linear elastic spring to
make a SDOF friction damper system
statically self-centre.
Developing dynamic SDOF SHJ models in
SAP2000 to investigate the effect of
dynamic loading frequency, mass, and wind
down to determine the extent to which
linear spring may be relaxed from the static
condition to maintain dynamic self-
centering capability at component level.

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

SHJ MDOF system

Developing a MDOF systems of the


SHJ to research the SHJ dynamic
self-centring capability using
SAP2000 based on direct integration
non-linear time history analysis and
different scaled earthquake records.
(under development)

Investigating the effect of the


following parameters on the self
centring capability of the building:

Column base rotational stiffness


Type of the friction damper (i.e. SFC and
AFC).
The additional linear elastic spring between
the column and beam. This includes the
level of pre-compression and the stiffness
of the spring.
etc.

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 21 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Research topic

PhD project

The Behavior and Design of Gusset


Plates in Braced Steel Structures

By
Behnam Zaboli

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Motivation & objectives

Motivation:
Frame action imposes severe demand on gusset plate and
framing components
Inadequacy of existing design equations in predicting the
gusset plate failure loads, and need for a reliable design
approach

Objectives:
Investigate the influence of the flexible gusset to
beam/column connections on the frame actions interaction
with the in-plane actions from the brace
Research further the design procedure that use in NZ which is
based on fundamental principles of resisting a 2.5%
restraining force
Revise the current design equations and effective length
factors for gusset plates
SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Current research

Numerical simulation and experimental test of some cost


effective and flexible gusset to beam/column connection to
avoid mobilization of the in-plane stiffness

Low Constraint Gusset Plate Idea for BRBFs

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Current research

Low Constraint Gusset Plate Idea for BRBFs

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Current research

Novel sliding system for conventional CBFs

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Method

Simulate the behavior of connections by means of


appropriate finite element analysis models in Abaqus
software
Consideration of proper boundary conditions, initial
geometric imperfections, and material strain hardening
will be addressed in the development of the finite
element analysis procedures
The finite element modelling strategy will be carefully
verified with the results of existing full scale tests
A parametric study on different types of connections will
be conducted using the calibrated finite element
analysis models
An experimental investigation to evaluate the behavior
of connections will be developed

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Future directions

Assess the out of plane stability of the gusset plate by


means of taking 2.5% of the maximum compression
force in the brace and applying that laterally at the
centroid of the brace to gusset plate connection

Propose well-tested and dependable effective length


factors for gusset plates

Investigate the local failure modes of gusset plates such


as tearing or block shear

Examine the influence of using gusset plates with edge


stiffeners

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Reinforced Concrete Member


Performance in Earthquakes

Page 25 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Post-Earthquake Residual Capacity


of Reinforced Concrete Components
Kai Marder PhD

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Test program being conducted as part of larger effort to develop


guidelines to quantify residual capacity of RC buildings. Proposed
framework shown here:
Ground motion &
structural drawings Observable damage

Create building model and Crack distributions


perform analytical estimation of Crack widths
peak building response Residual drift
etc...

Best estimate of peak demands

Calculate residual stiffness, strength, & deformability for


damaged/repaired components

Update building model to account for damaged/repaired


Is repair components
required?

Conduct ULS analysis using updated model

Assess building capacity relative to its undamaged state

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

14 RC beam tests
Holes in cover concrete allow displacement gauges to
be attached directly to longitudinal rebar

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Test program to investigate:

Variable loading protocols and low-cycle fatigue effects

Dynamic vs. static loading rates and how this affects strain
distribution in plastic hinge

Effects of strain ageing on RC plastic hinges

Quantifying effects of epoxy injection, including any


mitigation of low-cycle fatigue or strain ageing

Whether or not data from standard quasi-static cyclic tests is


appropriate for evaluating reparability or residual capacity

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 27 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Heavy Steel Buildings


Performance in Severe Fires

Structural Performance of Continuous Concrete-


Filled Steel Tube (CFST) Square Columns
Subjected to Concentric or Eccentric Axial
Compression under Elevated Temperature

Kingsley Ukanwa PhD project

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Objectives
1. To analyse the behaviour of continuous CFST column with
different types of concrete infill; plain, fibre and reinforcing bar.

2. To understand the effectiveness of using different end support


conditions for CFST column in fire.

3. To understand the effects of compression only and


compression+bending

4. To develop an advanced numerical model to validate against the


experimental tests and so may be extended to other shapes.

5. To provide design recommendations based on parametric studies


SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Experimental test
Table 1: Experiment test data
e fc Load Load Failure
Column ColumnSize fy FRR
S/N Distance B.C (MPa) (kN) Level Mode
Number (mm) (MPa) (Mins)
(mm)
1 P-1 200 x 200 x 6 0 Fixed-Fixed 86.9 450 1378 0.37 37 b
2 P-2 200 x 200 x 6 0 Fixed-Pinned 81.33 450 1378 0.37 26 b
3 P-3 200 x 200 x 6 25 Fixed-Pinned 89.55 350 1068 0.42 48 b
4 P-4 200 x 200 x 6 50 Fixed-Pinned 78.8 350 872 0.42 26 c
5 P-5 220 x 220 x 6 0 Fixed-Fixed 84.4 310 1415 0.37 38 a
6 P-7 220 x 220 x 6 25 Fixed-Pinned 76.8 310 1127 0.37 80 c

7 P-8 220 x 220 x 6 50 Fixed-Pinned 73.8 310 912 0.37 41 b

8 F-1 200 x 200 x 6 0 Fixed - Pinned 90.9 350 1378 0.42 24 b


9 F-2 200 x 200 x 6 0 Fixed-Pinned 91.9 350 1378 0.42 25 b
10 F-3 200 x 200 x 6 25 Fixed-Pinned 93.1 450 1068 0.37 98 c
11 F-4 200 x 200 x 6 50 Fixed - Pinned 95.1 450 872 0.37 42 b
12 F-5 220 x 220 x 6 0 Fixed Fixed 79.86 310 1415 0.37 85 b
13 F-6 220 x 220 x 6 0 Fixed - Pinned 94.3 310 1415 0.37 51 b
14 F-7 220 x 220 x 6 25 Fixed - Pinned 101.6 310 1127 0.37 132 c
15 F-8 220 x 220 x 6 50 Fixed - Pinned 97.7 310 912 0.37 66 b
16 R-1 200 x 200 x 6 0 Fixed - Pinned 86.1 450 1485 0.42 46 b
17 R-2 200 x 200 x 6 0 Fixed - Pinned 94.5 350 1485 0.42 23 b
18 R-3 200 x 200 x 6 25 Fixed - Pinned 88.2 350 1120 0.42 65 b
19 R-4 200 x 200 x 6 50 Fixed - Pinned 90.1 350 899 0.42 34 b
20 R-5 220 x 220 x 6 0 Fixed - Pinned 86.05 310 1604 0.37 72 c
SRP th
21 R-7 220 x 220 x 6 25 Fixed Mtg
- Pinned10 June
85.7 2016
310 1208 0.37 72 b
R8 220 220 6 50 969 0 37

Page 29 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Result and Conclusion


The Furnace temperature closely matched
the ISO 834 fire curve

The maximum steel tube expansion was 3


mm, and the unheated lengths reaching a
maximum temperature of 80 C

The column filled with steel fibre


reinforced concrete has the highest
structural fire ratings when subjected to
compression only.

Fig 1: Column temperature in fire

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Result and Conclusion


The column filled with rebar reinforced concrete had the highest
structural fire ratings when subject to combined compression and
bending

All columns except column P5 failed due to the member capacity.

(a). Local buckling failure with no global buckling

(b). Global buckling with inelastic Euler buckling


mode shape within heated region

(c). Global buckling with plastic hinge formation


within heated region

Fig 2: Local buckling Fig 3: Euler buckling Fig 4: Plastic hinge


(a) (b) (c)
SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 30 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Steel Research Panel Meeting 10th June 2016

Effect of Edge Beam


Deformations on the Slab Panel
Method
MEFE Thesis
May 2016 by:
Ted Gu - Beca
Supervised by:
Dr. Anthony Abu - The University of Canterbury
Associate Professor G Charles Clifton -The University
of Auckland

Importance of the work


Failure of slab panels edge beam will lead to
integrity failure of slab panel

SPM incorporates certain deflection


and negative moment capacity at slab
panel protected internal edges.

This research seeks to quantify the


effectiveness of edge-beam support in the
Slab panel folding mechanism (Abu et al., 2012)
SPM, for both isolated slab panels and panels
with more than one edge supported

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Results
SPM results compared with VULCAN simulation
Six slab panels with various slab continuities
were investigated
Aspect Ratio effects were investigated 9m x
9m, 9m x 12m, 9m x 6m

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Results
SPM required deflection Vs Vulcan deflections
Slab Panel under fire limit load
9m x 6m
9m
12m

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Future Directions
Strength and stiffness requirements for
supporting edge beams (refining current
recommendations_

Investigate the differences between the SPM and


the Bailey - BRE method

Full floor modelling

Finer grid size in VULCAN simulation

Effect of reinforcement ratio

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Limit capacity of edge and corner


composite slabs in fire conditions

Steel Innovations Conference 2015

Anthony Abu & Malte Duchow


Department of Civil & Natural Resources Engineering

Page 33 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Introduction

Peripheral compression Induced central tensile


area

Tensile Membrane Action

Introduction

Multi-storey steel frame building


Concrete floor supported by steel
beams
Fire protection on all beams

Only protect particular beams


Dependable behaviour
Cost reduction

Simplified methods for day-to-day designs


Bailey-BRE method
Slab Panel Method (NZ)
MACS+

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Simplified Methods
Membrane enhancements
L
C C nL

S S

T2 T2
T2 T2

T1

Isolated slab Panel


Numerical model

Secondary Beam Primary Beam

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Isolated slab Panel


Numerical model

Failure Mechanism
Isolated slab panel

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2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Collapse Mechanisms

Plastic folding mechanisms without membrane forces


Work-balance calculations
Selecting the mechanism that occurs first
Depends on:
loading
extent of fire in compartment
support conditions
structural capacity at elevated temperature

Collapse Mechanisms

Page 37 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Collapse Mechanisms

Mechanism 1

Slab panel failure occurs when:

42M ps nM int m L 2beff , ps nbeff ,int 0


wLl 1 1 1
2 l l l

External work Internal work

Collapse Mechanisms

Mechanism 2

Slab panel failure occurs when:


2M 1 nM 1 2M 1 nM 1
wLl ps
l
int
l
ps
l
int
l 0
4
1
2 m m L 2beff , ps nbeff ,int

Page 38 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Collapse Mechanisms
Edge slab panel

Mechanism 3

Slab panel failure occurs when:


M 1 1 1 1 1
E , ps l nM int l M E , ps l M I , ps l nM int l

4 m m L beff , E , ps beff , I , ps nbeff ,int
wLl 1
0
3 l
m m
l
4L

Collapse Mechanisms
Corner slab panel

Mechanism 4 - Development
Fire in whole compartment

Fire in corner compartment

Page 39 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Collapse Mechanisms
Corner slab panel

Mechanism 4

Collapse Mechanisms
Corner slab panel

Mechanism 4

Slab panel failure occurs when:


12r M 15n 17
5 E , pp 2M E , ps M int n
15n 5

r 375r 2 364 2 8 5r
2
25
wL rM E , pp M E , ps nM int m L 0
864r 1
2
5Lr
6 36

m m Lr 2 1 rbeff , E , pp beff , E , ps nbeff ,int

Page 40 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Conclusions
Edge & Corner slab panel
Mechanism 3

Mechanism 4

Recommendations
Edge & Corner slab panel

Comparisons with relevant test results


Effect of adjacent Slab Panels
Consideration of Columns
Investigate the effect of Traveling fires

Page 41 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Ductility of Reinforcing Bar


Crossing a Fire Induced Crack

This is the key unknown in all Slab Panel


Behaviour
Current SPM procedure keeps away from
fracture limits
But what are they?

Plan for representative small scale testing to


determine this
PhD project currently applying for funding

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 42 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Fire Engineering Design of Multi-


Storey Steel and Composite
Structures; Recommendations for
Demand and Capacity: Demand Side

Fire load modification factor


Calculation of time equivalent
Migrating fire allowance
Fires on multiple floors
Thermal transfer to steel
Natural fire curves: BFD curve
Radiation barrier method
Building lateral stability in fire
Car park building fires

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Fire Engineering Design of Multi-


Storey Steel and Composite
Structures; Recommendations for
Demand and Capacity: Capacity Side
Sub-assemblage design
Beam design
Column design
Connections
Distribution of car park fire load over multiple
beams
Slab panel support beams: strength (R) and
stiffness

Draft recommendations developed; currently


under review
SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 43 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Review of proposed standard


AS/NZS 2327:20xx
Composite Steel-Concrete
Construction in Buildings

Section 7 System Design for Fire


Resistance

by Dr Antony Gillies
Lakehead University, Canada
(Visiting Professor - University of Sheffield and
University of Auckland, 2015-16)

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Clause-by-clause review of draft


document Section 7

Develop trial designs in accordance


with the proposed standard

Identification of research needs to


support proposed code

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 44 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Review of alternative models for


tension membrane slab behaviour

Application first proposed in 2000 by Bailey & Moore based


on research by Hayes (1968)

Slab panel membrane deflection limit is a critical


parameter for the computation model (limited data few
tests completed through to failure)

Alternative model proposed by Burgess, Dai and Huang


(2013) based on mechanics principles

Maximum ductility at elevated temperature of the slab


rebar prior to fracture is a critical parameter requires
experimental testing (no existing data available)

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Cold Formed Light Gauge Steel


Building Research

Page 45 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Low Damage Modular Construction


by John Jing, PhD student
Modular construction:
- Rapidly growing presence in
non-seismic parts of the world
- Currently limited in high
seismic regions due to seismic
requirements
- Research objective to develop
a cost-effective seismic
damage-resistant system to
allow multi-storey modular
buildings used and protected
under ongoing serviceability
conditions in high seismic
regions
- PhD completed SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Seismic Damage-Resistant System


for Modular Steel Structures

The slider device


- Will allow modules to
move against each other
in alternate directions
within a 2.5% drift
- Will enable modules to
return to the pre-
earthquake position after
a major earthquake
- Will dissipate over 50%
of the input seismic
Z Z
energy
X
Y
SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 46 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Selected Test and Analysis Results

Ground level First level

Second level Fixed direction


SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Analysis and design of cold-formed


steel storage racks subject to
rocking in the cross-aisle direction

James Maguire, PhD project

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 47 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Importance
Combination of thin gauge steel members and large
loading makes storage racking susceptible to collapse
under strong ground motion.

Collapse results in significant economic loss and business


interruption.

To improve resilience without increasing cost, uplift and


rocking in the cross-aisle direction is being investigated.

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Results to date
Lighter baseplates (S8) have the ability to dissipate much
more energy through uplift cycles than heavy baseplates
(HD).

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 48 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Future directions
Full-scale static pushover and
snapback testing (June, 2016)

OpenSees computer simulation,


verified by snapback test, will be
used to model earthquake response

Full-scale shaking table testing


(February, 2017)

Recommendations for the design of


rocking racks will be developed

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Seismic performance of cold-


formed steel storage racks allowed
to uplift by altered baseplate
configurations
Zhenghao Tang, PhD project
James Maguire, PhD project
Sidhant Kumar, Part 4 project

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 49 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Importance
Combination of thin gauge steel members and large
loading makes storage racking susceptible to collapse
under strong ground motion.

Collapse results in significant economic loss and business


interruption.

To improve resilience without increasing cost, uplift and


rocking in the cross-aisle direction is being investigated.

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Results to date
Lighter baseplates (S8) have the ability to dissipate much
more energy through uplift (by steel yielding) cycles than
heavy baseplates (HD).

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 50 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Friction-slipper base plate: design


Motivation:
moment-rotational stiffness decreases
rapidly with axial load applied to the base
Low energy dissipation capacity
Design concept:
allows the upright to lift up with friction
force provided by tightening bolts to
dissipate more energy
the upright-to-baseplate connection still
keep a reasonable amount of moment-
rotational stiffness to carry bending
moment

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Results to date
15
Influenceofloadingvelocity 15
Influenceoflateralload
10 10

5 1mm/s 0.02mm/s 1kN20mm 2kN20mm


5
Force(kN)

0.5mm/s 0.2mm/s 4kN20mm 8kN20mm


Load(kN)

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 5 0 5 10 15 20 25
Displacement(mm) Displacement(mm)
5 5

10 10

15 15
35
30
Number of bolts
Friction force (kN)

25
20
15
10
5
0
1 2 3
Bolt Bolts Bolts
Number of bolts

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 51 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Future directions
Full-scale static pushover and
snapback testing (June, 2016)

Full-scale shaking table testing


(February, 2017)

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Development of Cold-Formed Steel


Truss Portal Framing System Using
a Novel Pinned Connection
Amin Ahmadi, PhD Candidate
Importance of the research:
To develop general guidelines for engineers to design
a truss portal framing system using new Howick
Rivet Connector (HRC) and channel sections
manufactured by Howick Ltd. i.e. Howick truss
system.
To design a truss portal framing system that is most
efficient in terms of cost and material considering
current construction markets demand.

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 52 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Results and Findings to Date:


An experimental study on a novel cold-formed steel
connection for light gauge open channel steel trusses
In this study, an experimental investigation on cold-formed steel
Tee-stubs with a gap connected using the HRC has been
investigated. The diameter of the HRC was 12.75 mm and its
thickness was 0.95 mm.
Laboratory tests results on twenty-seven HRC Tee-stub specimens
have been presented; for comparison, another twenty-seven bolted
Tee-stubs specimens were also tested. In the laboratory tests, three
different thicknesses of channel-sections and three different end
distances were considered.
It has been shown that the behavior of the HRC Tee-stubs is similar
to that of that the bolted Tee-stubs, but that use of the HRC results
in a higher capacity and an improved ductility, as shown by a longer
yield plateau once the connection becomes inelastic. It has been
recommended that a minimum end distance of 1.5 times of the HRC
diameter is sufficient. Design equations have been proposed to
predict the bearing strength of the HRC Tee-stubs.
SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Results and Findings to Date:


Behavior of cold-formed steel trusses with concentric and
eccentric joint arrangements using the Howick Rivet
Connector
This study has considered the behavior of a cold-formed steel truss
system that uses the HRC (D: 12.75 mm, t: 0.95 mm).
Full-scale truss tests have been described using both concentric and
eccentric (having 70 mm eccentricity) joint arrangement have been
tested. It has been shown that the mid-span deflection of the
concentric joint arrangement in the elastic range is 3 times smaller
and 64% stiffer than that of the eccentric joint arrangement.
To investigate the effect of removing the lips for the concentric joint
arrangement, truss panel tests have been performed. Failure was
found to be localized buckling at the discontinuity where the lip was
removed. The experimental strength of truss panel has been
compared with the DSM; and found to be similar to the member
capacity of the channel section without the lip. Therefore, it was
concluded where the deflection is not a limiting factor, eccentrically
jointed truss should be used.
SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 53 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Future Study
Components Tests
Howick has recently developed new channel section and HRC for
industrial building construction such as warehouses. There are range
of tests need to be conducted to measure the capacity of every
components.
Truss Tests
The truss system is the major part of this research. It is crucial to
test the channel section and the HRC within a system i.e. truss
assembly to determine the ultimate limit state and serviceability of
the Howick truss system.
Full-scale Tests
A truss portal framing system will be designed based on the
collected experimental data. It is proposed to have two bays (three
portal frames) where they are connected through purlins, girts and
fly bracing in out-of-plane direction. This is to experimentally
determine the performance of the complete portal framing system.
Then, the middle frame will be tested.

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Web Crippling Strength of Cold-


Formed Stainless Steel Channel
Sections Under One and Two Flange
Loadings

PhD project by
Amir Mohammad Yousefi

Supervising by
James Lim and Charles Clifton

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 54 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Statement of the problem

Cold-formed stainless steel sections are often used as


purlin, wall studs or floor joists; such sections often
include web openings for ease of installation of the
electrical or plumbing services.

At point of concentrated loading and supports, severe


lateral loading can result in a local buckling in the web.
For the sections with holes, such web crippling needs to
be taken into account.

Current Design Codes: British Standard (BS5950, 1998)


and Eurcode 3 (EC3, 1996) do not provide any design
rules for one and two flange web crippling loading
considering web openings.

Only North American Specification (NAS, 2007)


provides the web crippling design rules with limited
. Condition for cold-formed carbon steel.

Research Underway:
Investigate web crippling behaviour of cold-formed steel with
web opening using numerical techniques.
Propose design recommendation.
Proposing new strength reduction factor equations

Future Research
Plain and Lipped channel sections
One and two flange loadings
Both flanges fastened and unfastened to the bearing plates
Two types of web openings
Examine effects of web openings on web crippling strength
Proposing new web crippling strength equations

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 55 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Weathertight characteristics of steel weatherboard


claddings and interlocking panels

Krishanu Roy, PhD Candidate

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Research Objective
1. To fully understand the behaviour of steel weatherboards and interlocking panels under rain and wind load.

2. To determine the effect of condensation on the inside face of the steel weatherboard and how to eliminate
undesirable effects of this.

3.To determine the weather tightness of lap and joints.

5. To Perform Lab Testing for large-scale water leakage at steady pressure and fluctuating air pressures.

6 To Perform Lab Testing for small-scale water leakage at steady pressure and fluctuating air pressures.

7. To develop an advanced CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) model that will be validated against the
experimental tests and can be used to predict the behaviour of different weatherboard profiles under wind and
rain.
8. To develop an insulated steel weatherboard comprising steel with bonded PIR or PUR.

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 56 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Importance of the Research


1. This research will enable the durability characteristics of the steel weatherboards and interlocking panels under
rain and wind load.

2. Steel weatherboard cladding and interlocking panel system can be used in buildings designed for weather
tightness in accordance with New Zealands building control system.

3. From this research we can get an optimised steel weatherboard profile, which will give maximum weather
resistance even at severe weather condition.

2. Results will have application for pacific countries (New Zealand) using steel weatherboard and interlocking
panels, because of the generic nature of the results obtained and the capability of the CFD model.

4. This will increase the confidence to use steel weatherboard and interlocking panels in buildings. It is ideal,
attractive (Can give classic finish) and low-maintenance alternative to timber weatherboards.

5. The industry will benefit from the results of this project as there will be less need to conduct full scale weather
tests on different steel weatherboard and interlocking panels systems, as a CFD model will be developed to
validate the tests results which will minimize the projects cost.

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Future Studies
Experimental Tests:

Test Rig-(2.4*3.6m)

1. Preconditioning-
Apply a preconditioning loading to the external face of the test sample for a period of 1
minute of positive pressure, followed by a period of 1 minute of negative pressure(suction).
The loading shall be 1515 Pa.

2.Series 1 Static Pressure Water Penetration-


The water penetration test by static pressure shall be conducted in accordance with
Clause 8.5 of AS/NZS 4284 and at the maximum test pressure of 455 Pa.

3.Series 1 Cyclic Pressure Water Penetration-


The water penetration test by cyclic pressure shall be conducted in accordance with Clause
8.6 of AS/NZS 4284 and to the cyclic pressure of 455 910 Pa at the prescribed Stage 3,
with the Stage 1 and Stage 2 tests deleted.

4. Series 2 Water Management Testing-


Tests 2 and 3 should be repeated, following the formation of 6 mm diameter holes through
the wet wall as allowed in AS/NZS 4284 Clause 9.9 in at least 4 places, as noted below:
o Through the window/wall joint at 3/4 height of both window/door jambs,
o Immediately above the head flashing,
o Through the external sealing of the horizontal and vertical joints, and
o Above any other wet wall penetration detail. The introduction of defects
is intended to simulate the failure of the primary weather defence/ sealing.
It must only penetrate to the plane of the back of the wet wall so the
water management of the cavity will be assessed.

Numerical Modelling:

An advanced CFD model will be developed to predict the behaviour of steel weatherboards and
interlocking panels under rain and wind load.

Results will be validated with the experimental results

CFD model will be used for parametric studies. SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 57 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

-LGSF Connections
(Stud to Bottom Track)
-Multi-Story Cold Formed Building
Students: Chia Mohammadjani (PhD) Sidhant Kumar (ME)
Supervisors: Professor Charles Clifton and Dr James Lim
The University of Auckland

Project Scope
The limiting strength of the bottom storey connection is the attachment of the wall base to the concrete in tension. This is
potentially a good mode of failure as, provided the wall doesnt start to slide due to vertical uplift, the rocking mode of
behaviour will absorb energy and allow a structural ductility factor greater than 1.25 to be used. It could be used in the
following way:
For attachments to the seismic bracing panels.
These are designed to rock, with uplift on the tension side. So the hold down system comprises HD bolts with springs between
the plate washer and the head of the HD bolt. That fastener (or pairs of fasteners) would be near the edge column of the
bracing panel (BP) so that, under seismic induced tension, controlled uplifting of the column can occur through elastic
squashing of the spring. On further thought, maybe the fastener on one side is as per the tested detail ie without the spring
and it is intended to be firmly connected to the concrete under the seismic design tension action on the stud associated with
say = 2 and Sp = 0.7. When uplift occurs, this one starts to pull out and the fastener on the other side can uplift on the
spring providing increasing resistance to further uplift
On the compression side the bearing forces go straight into the concrete slab; there is no gap between the end of the stud and
the web of the bottom plate.
Along the length of the bottom plate bracing unit into the concrete slab are one or preferably two other HD bolts without
springs. These are away from the tension columns (say midway between studs) so that they wont be pulled out of the concrete
and are designed to transfer the earthquake induced base shears into the walls and thus prevent base sliding.
For the attachments to the non seismic bracing unit walls.
These are the standard HD detail placed as specified in the NASH book or probably better placed midway between studs so
they are not subject to strong uplifting tension.

Page 58 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

LGSF Drawing for Axial Compression Testing


of Stud to Base Connection
Axial Compression testing: Plan, elevation and 3D

LGSF Drawing for Tensile Testing of Stud to


Base Connection

Page 59 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Experimental Results
Tension test was conducted on a concrete slab and once
tension force was applied there was a pull out of anchor bolt
at about 20kN. Further tension tests are now being carried
out in the lab on a steel beam to find the connection
capacity.
Compression test carried out on a 1.15mm
thickness Cee section with and without end bearing 8.00E+01
Graph of Loading vs
showed the following results. The local buckling 6.00E+01
Dispalcement
failure was observed and the complete failure of 4.00E+01

Loadings (kN)
specimen is around 55kN. Axial shortening has
2.00E+01
been noticed. It follows that bearing type without W
0.00E+00
any gap is a superior choice for cold form steel stud

0.2028642
1.4912546
2.5460248

4.2726222
4.4200332

4.5501346
4.5965238
4.6635358
4.7648524
4.4337964
4.7034416
3.887477

4.507272
Displacement (mm)
in medium rise buildings in terms of axial -2.00E+01

shortening performance

Multi-Story Cold Formed Building


The Auckland Council Capacity Growth Study 2013 is
encouraging greater urban density through multi-story
residential buildings. To ensure that designers are given
complete freedom in their choice of structural solution, it
is proposed to develop a similar design guide for multi-
story light steel framed buildings, which utilizes New
Zealand made high strength steel.

To participate in such structural projects, Heavy


Engineering Research Association (HERA), University of
Auckland (UoA) and National Association of Steel-
framed Housing (NASH) have agreed on a project of
rising a 6 story Cold-Formed building.

Page 60 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

General Concepts
The aim of the HERA project is to built a multi-story
apartment purely made of light-gage steel elements. Therefore,
the vertical studs, horizontal stubs, joists and even the cold-
formed trusses will make a unique structural system consisting
of only thin walled members. These structural members had
to be integrated to make the specific cold formed walls. The
walls are responsible to withstand both against the vertical
gravity loads and against the lateral load shocks made by
earthquake and wind loads.

Plan of the building


A typical building layout from TATA steel company will be
used as a simple four flat 6 story building for the project.

Shear Walls
The shear walls had to be designed to take the gravity loads
and the lateral loads

After placing the first story walls, the second story walls will sit
on them so that the bottom section of upper studs will
coincide with the top section of below studs of the below
wall.

Walls had to have a gap between allowing them to freely


deflect under lateral loads affecting the building.

After that the wall was affected by the lateral load, one edge
will be under compression while the other one will act under
tension. For the tension side, the pull out strength of the
connections should be checked under different earthquake
loadings. Shear Walls sitting on top of each other

The V-braced walls and K walls will be installed in sequences.

Page 61 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

New Product or Member


Development

Development of Ultralight Weight


Concrete With Polylactic Acid Aggregate
Aliakbar Sayedi at AUT
Charles Clifton second supervisor

Objective:
Develop ULW concrete ( < 300 kg/m3 ) for
structural applications.
Aggregate is PLA from wood waste
No toxic gasses in fire
Use with thin steel sheet
High sustainability rating
SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 62 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Development of Ultralight Weight


Concrete With Polylactic Acid Aggregate
Progress and challenges:
First successful mix developed .
Challenge maintaining integrity PLA during
setting
Current density 300 kg/m3; want to get to
nearer 100 kg/m3
Scale up to commercial production is final
major step
Use eg inside Speedwall.

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Paperclip Steel Fibres for Reinforced


Concrete Slabs
Part 4 Project
Denise Tong and Maria Rocio Garcia (part 4
students)

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 63 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Why is the work important?


Any further development in concrete reinforcement is
always encouraged due to reinforcement being a vital
aspect to concrete construction and performance.
Small deformations on steel fibres currently in the
market do not have a significant enough effect on
fibre pull-out capacity in concrete during flexural
bending
There is a possibility that close loop/hook fibres can
greatly increase post cracking strength and pull-out
capacity; more research is encouraged and needed
Paperclips are the only mass produced steel item
with a closed hook shape similar in size to steel fibres
available in the market

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Results to date
21 beams in total, each batch group containing fibre dosage
rates of 20kg/m^3 and 25kg/m^3:
Group 1: 6 beams with unaltered paperclips as fibres
Group 2: 6 beams with Dramix 3D steel fibres
Group 3: 6 beams with paperclips cut in half as fibres
Group 4: 3 beams with standard reinforcement
Concrete mix design (without any fibre/standard
reinforcement) trails (specified 36MPa at 28 days)
Cylinders (200x100)
7 days: 29MPa
28 days: 38Mpa
Paperclips within the concrete matrix are in good condition;
they have not reacted to the alkaline of the cement
Have not encountered major clumping/tangling of paperclips
in mix
Individual paperclip strength under tensile loading ~758MPa

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 64 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Photos of trials

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Future direction with this work


Aim to finish making the concrete batches by
end of June/beginning of July
Flexural bending tests for the beams will take
place in August
If specimens perform well in flexural tests, the
project will pave the way for future research
into closed loop steel fibres and have
paperclips as a possible fibre alternatives
Revolutionize concrete fibre reinforcement

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 65 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Dinobeam Development Project


Matthew Russell (ME student)
Callaghan funded research with NZSteel
Development of a new light-weight steel
cross-section for composite floor beams
Cross-section will utilise thin flanges, this
restricts shear connector diameter and makes
it difficult to achieve code minimum degree of
shear connection

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Push-off Tests
Push-off testing will be
undertaken to
determine shear
connector behaviour
when attached to a
thin flange
Shear connector
ductility (and any
flange bending
contribution to this
ductility) will be
established th
SRP Mtg 10 June 2016

Page 66 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Shear
Load connector

Steel decking

Steel beam flange

Potential failure modes


SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Nested Tapered Channel sections(NTC)


as an optimal solution for
portal frame buildings

Amir Shahmohammadi PhD project

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 67 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Adding some advantages:


1- Bird and Vermin Proof

2- 40% Lower painting cost


3- More beautiful

4- Removing fly bracings

5- 10% less erection and


fabrication cost

Disadvantages
1- 15% heavier
2- More End-plate
connection is needed for Fabricated three-plate I-Shaped Cold-formed Nested Channels
long spans

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Software Creation
Creating a Software to minimize :
1- Material Weight
2-Waste
3-Erection cost
4- Design time

Using GENETIC ALGORITHM

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 68 of 21
2016 Steel Research Panel University of Auckland Presentation 10 June 2016

Experimental test on a full-scale NTC portal frame

To investigate
The Validity of the design procedure for the members and connections

SRP Mtg 10th June 2016

Page 69 of 21