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Over the past few years, wireless technologies have emerged as the
most practical solution to meet the ever growing broadband demand across
the globe. India, with over 5 million broadband subscribers, is keenly looking
forward to embrace technologies that could support services with high data
transmission rates, quality of wireless connectivity and interoperability. This
would require a hardware platform that supports many access technologies
paving the way for multifunctional transceiver that could operate
simultaneously in the existing and the emerging wireless standards (Elwan
et al 2001, Rappaport et al 2002, Dietrich et al 2003, Agnelli et al 2006).
Reconfigurability, switchability and self similarity are the possible means of
meeting the stringent requirements of multifunctional transceivers (Bernhard
2003, Yang and Rahmat-Samii 2005, Nishiyama et al 2008). Various
interesting Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) based antenna designs, stacked
antennas and Electronic Band Gap (EBG) antennas are reported in the
literature for multiband and wide band applications (Virga and Rahmat-Samii
1997, Mclean et al 1999, Sim and Choi 2006, Raj Mittra 2005, Skrivervik
et al 2001). The PIFA has increased size in order to create multiband
characteristics and the size reduction is achieved by capacitive loading (Garg
et al 2001, Rowell and Murch 1997, Park et al 2006). Multiple resonances in
the antenna structure are excited by creating slots in the antenna structure or
various resonating patches that are arranged in a compact configuration to

reduce the lateral dimension (Girish Kumar and Ray 2003, Murakami et al
1993, Boag and Mittra 1995). Dynamically changing the geometrical
configuration of the resonating structure or arranging various resonating
patches in a compact manner leads to reconfigurablity (Bernhard 2003).
Space division approach is used to design narrow multi beam antenna leading
to switchable array (Paulraj et al 2003, Kamarudin and Hall 2006, Sekretarov
et al 2007). This leads to reduced interference and have increased capacity.

Recently, fractal geometry, due to its self similarity property has

emerged as a potential candidate to realize miniaturized multiband antennas
(Cohen 1997, Puente et al 2000a, Gianvittorio and Rahmat Samii 2002,
Werner and Ganguly 2003, Patnam 2008). Fractals were first proposed by
Benoit Mandelbrot in 1975 to characterize the unique occurrences in nature
such as the length of coastlines, the density of clouds, and branching of trees
which were difficult to get defined with Euclidean geometries (Mandelbrot

Kim and Jaggard (1986) reported the application of fractals to the

design of low side lobe arrays based on the theory of random fractals. The
time-harmonic and time-dependent radiation by bifractal dipole arrays was
studied by Lakhtakia in 1987. He also showed that the diffracted field of a
self-similar screen is also self-similar using a Sierpinski carpet. A wide
variety of new shapes and applications of fractals have been compiled by
Falconer (1990) and Michael Barnsley (1993). Werner and Werner (1995)
showed that self-scaling arrays can produce fractal radiation patterns based on
the theory of a non uniform linear Weierstrass array and developed radiation
pattern synthesis technique for Weierstrass arrays. Liang et al (1996)
extended this work to the case of concentric ring arrays, and developed a
synthesis technique to obtain fractal radiation patterns from concentric ring

arrays. The design of Koch arrays and low side lobe Cantor arrays are
investigated (Puente and Pous 1996).

Antennas based on the self-similar and space-filling fractal

geometry found applications in the design of multiband and miniaturized
antennas. Cohen performed numerical calculations on large perimeter fractal
loops and dipoles providing evidence that such small antennas might feature a
low resonance frequency with a relatively large input resistance (Cohen 1995,
Cohen and Hohlfeld 1996). Cohen investigated Minkowski island loop
suitable for designing miniaturized antennas (1997). Subsequently Sierpinski
gaskets were studied extensively for monopole and dipole antenna
configurations at the lower microwave frequency range (Puente et al 1996b,
Anagnostou et al 2002). It has been observed that the fractal shaping allows
an efficient use of the Wheeler radius at and beyond the small antenna limit
(Puente et al 2000a). Popular antennas using Sierpinski gasket, Koch curve,
Hilbert curve and Minkowski edge have been reported to have wide
bandwidth characteristics and found potential applications at microwave
frequencies (Puente et al 1996b, Vinoy et al 2001, Gianvittorio and Rahmat
Samii 2002, Best 2003).

Fractal antennas have been realized as microstrip patch antennas

(Walker and James 1998, Hara Prasad et al 2000). The multiband property of
a fractal tree antenna, whose structure is generated randomly by
electrochemical deposition, is recently reported (Puente et al 1996c). Puente
et al (1996a) also investigated the impact of the Sierpinski antennas spacing
perturbation on operating bands. Later, Puente et al (2000b) developed an
iterative model for fractal antennas which was applied in particular to the
Sierpinski gasket antenna to predict its performance as a function of its flare
angle. A stacked antenna configuration with multiple layers of fractal
geometries has also been studied (Song et al 1999, Carrier

et al 2003). This configuration has also been made conformal to improve the
utilization of the antenna. Similar to Sierpinski gaskets, Sierpinksi carpets
have also been used as antenna elements to achieve multifrequency operation
(Du et al 2001).

Though the fractal geometries have been limited to microwave

frequencies the use of miniaturized fractal antenna in lower frequency band
has potential applications. Vinoy et al (2001) designed a dipole Hilbert curve
antenna as small resonant antennas for Very High Frequency (VHF) and Ultra
High Frequency (UHF) communication. The space-filling properties of the
Hilbert curve have been used to design optimum miniaturized antennas at
lower frequencies (Vinoy 2002).

Recent efforts by several researchers around the world to apply

fractal concept in wireless communication applications have led to innovative
fractal antenna designs. Some of the novel fractal geometries such as shorted
Sierpinski, Koch fractal patch, fractal tree antenna, reconfigurable fractal
antenna and hybrid fractal antenna are explored for multiband wireless
application (Song et al 2001, Boria and Romeu 2003, Petko and Werner
2004, Anagnostou et al 2006, Tahir 2007). The self affine fractal antenna
which provides multiband operation with a larger frequency separation has
been investigated (Sinha and Jain 2007). Recently, miniaturized fractal
antenna using chemical deposition process has shown a lot of application in
cellular mobile communication (Rmili et al 2007). The analysis, design and
development of fractal antennas and arrays which can be used in a
multifunctional wireless environment are still an open problem.


Accurate characterization of planar structures have become a

necessity as it is no longer economical or even feasible, to tune the planar

structures once they are fabricated (Itoh 1989, Yamashita 1990). Since most
of the practical structures are not amenable to closed form analytical
expressions, the need for numerical analysis have gained importance (Raj
Mittra 1975). A number of numerical methods have been proposed and
somewhat more classical methods have been refined for the analysis of planar
antennas. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages, but it must
be emphasized that, more than one may be suitable for the solution of a given
problem (Itoh 1989, Raj Mittra 1975, Silvester and Ferrari 1996, Peterson et
al 1997, Bruns et al 2007). Numerical methods such as Method of moments,
Finite element method and Finite difference time domain method have been
reported in the literature to numerically analyze microwave structures
(Harrington 1968, Silvester 1969, Yee 1966).

1.2.1 Method of Moments

The Method of Moments (MoM) is a well established method of

analysis for electrically small structures and antennas. The MoM was
introduced for computational electromagnetics by Harrington in the 1967
(Harrington 1968). It is based on a numerical solution of integral equations
for the currents induced in the structure by sources (antennas) or incident
fields. The method involves segmentation of the antenna structure and
choosing suitable basis functions to represent currents on these segments. A
set of equations is generated by enforcing the boundary conditions with a
suitable set of testing functions. This results in a matrix whose order is
proportional to the number of segments on which the current distribution is
represented. The solution to the problem is found by inverting this matrix
(Klein and Mittra 1975, Richmond 1965). This method was first implemented
during 1970s by Poggio and Miller (1973). Advanced by Newman, there were
many works based on MoM method with Galerkins method and Richmond's
reaction integral equation for microstrip patch antennas (Coifman et al 1993).

Since the memory size required increases with number of unknown current
amplitudes as well as the computation time, the applicability of the MoM was
limited to relatively small structures. The analysis of complex structures using
MoM based multilevel fast multipole algorithm and the multilevel matrix
decomposition algorithm has shown improved accuracy and less memory
requirement (Michelsen and Boag 1996, Song et al 1997, Rius et al 1999). In
case of fractal radiating structures, highly iterated prefractal structures results
in many small self similar geometries that require tiny sub domain basis
function or fine discretization for an accurate computation of unknown
parameters. This, together with the fact that the multiband antenna is
electrically large at the highest operating bands, leads to a very large
computation space in the MoM formulation. A recursive algorithm for the
analysis of fractal patch antennas has been developed taking advantage of the
recursive structure of fractals and using the idea of macro basis functions
called multilevel Subdomain Approach (Ooms and Zutter 1998). The
geometrical properties of the Iterated function systems that generate the
antenna geometry are used to analyze a highly iterated fractal antenna with
reasonable computational requirement and computational cost of the
frequency analysis (Parron et al 2003). Recently wavelets have been
employed in MoM to save CPU time (Tong and Pan 2004).

1.2.2 Finite Element Method

The Finite Element Method (FEM) is probably the most popular,

strictly numerical method that has all the versatility to deal with the vast range
of complicated geometries and material distributions. Finite element method
was first outlined by Courant (1943). Its application to waveguide began in
1969 (Silvester 1969). The finite element method is implemented on an
integral formulation of a boundary value problem. In the conventional
applications, this is a variational expression in the form of a functional that is

to be minimized. The region of interest is subdivided into surface or volume

elements depending on whether a two or three dimensional structure is being
examined. The unknown function which may be a scalar potential or vectorial
field component is approximated within each element by a polynomial
function. Application of Rahleigh-Ritz procedure transforms the functional,
upon minimization, into a linear system of equations (Daly 1971, Pantic and
Mittra 1986, Silvester 1989).

In FEM, by using triangular elements, one can fit curved

boundaries with lesser difficulty. In addition, some boundary condition like
Neumann conditions are included in the functional itself and so they do not
need to be imposed. One difficulty with finite element method is in the
analysis of open structures. The most elementary way to deal with open
boundaries is by truncation. Later, the use of infinite element has been
proposed for open structures (Zienkiewicz et al 1983, McDougall and Webb
1989). Perfectly matched layer (PML) has shown considerable promise in
dealing with exterior problems (Mei et al 1984). This is efficient in terms of
memory and time. An apparent advantage of the FEM is its potential
hybridization. The FEM has also been effectively applied to solve
inhomogeneous and anisotropic guided wave problems (Lee et al 1993).
These attributes are essential to develop general-purpose analysis codes for
electromagnetic scattering, antennas, microwave circuits, and biomedical
applications. Finite-element solutions were obtained for axisymmetric
radiators (Gordon and Mittra 1993), taking into account the effects of
radomes (Gong et al 1994), cavity-backed antennas of arbitrary shape
(McGrath and Pyati 1994), and phased-array antennas (Jithesh and Pande
2003). Salazar-Palma et al (1998) have developed an iterative and Self-
Adaptive Finite-Elements has been developed for Electromagnetic Modeling.
Recently, a multi-hybrid method combining the finite element method and
several high frequency techniques for the efficient analysis of the radiation

and scattering of electromagnetic waves on complex three-dimensional

environments is investigated (Fernandez-Recio et al 2007).

1.2.3 Finite Difference Time Domain Method

The arrival of high speed huge memory computers has made

possible the development of Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method,
an accurate method for full wave electromagnetic analysis. This solves
Maxwells equations directly in time domain. Pioneered by Yee in 1966, the
time domain formulation of the finite difference method has been attracting
increasing attention from researchers due to the possibility of analyzing
transients and performing wide band analysis with a single computation
process (Yee 1966, Kunz and Luebbers 1993). The finite difference time
domain method is the simplest numerical method to transform a differential
equation into a system of algebraic equations. The region of interest is divided
into nodes located on a two or three dimensional grid. Because of the very
simple algorithm, the method is versatile (Sheen et al 1990). A shortcoming
of this method is the difficulty of fitting curved boundaries with the
rectangular mesh. Wolff (1992) has worked on finite difference time domain
method for simulating electromagnetic field and microwave circuits An
efficient and stable ABCs are reported for graded FDTD simulations and later
this algorithm is extended to metamaterials (Lauer and Wolff 1998, Rennings
et al 2006). Design considerations for multiband integrated mobile phone
antennas were demonstrated using Empire simulator (Manteuffel et al 2001).
A novel higher order nonstandard FDTD methodology has been applied for
the efficient analysis of fractal and arbitrarily shaped antennas in 3-D general
curvilinear coordinates (Zygiridis et al 2003).

On many occasions, the FDTD provides accurate results both in

time and frequency domains. However, its computational efficiency is limited
by two inherent physical constraints such as numerical dispersion, and the

CourantFriedrichLevy (CFL) stability conditions. Its major limitations

include its massive memory consumption and huge computational time. The
former requires fine spatial discretization for a particular accuracy, while the
latter demands a proper time step for computational stability. Both of them
lead to large memory and CPU time requirements. In this regard, wavelets
offer significant improvements to the FDTD. The Battle-Lemarie wavelet
based time domain method is referred to as Multi Resolution Time Domain
method (MRTD), that improves numerical dispersion of the FDTD
significantly (Krumpholz and Katehi 1996, Tretiakov et al 2004). However, in
MRTD the non sampling properties of the Battle-Lemarie wavelets make the
formulation difficult to numerically compute. To improve the effectiveness of
MRTD, the Wavelet-Galerkin Time-Domain (WGTD) scheme was proposed
by Cheong et al (1999), employing Daubechies compactly supported wavelets
D2 (Daubechies 1992) which is known as Sampling Biorthogonal Time
Domain (SBTD) method. This method is based on the use of orthogonal
properties of Daubechies wavelets in the spatial discretization. The SBTD
method has been reported for waveguide and planar structures and shows less
computation time and memory compared to the conventional FDTD method
(Pan 2003). The use of compactly supported positive sampling functions,
leads to fast decay in both spectral and spatial frequency domain and hence
this method is superior to FDTD in respect of memory and CPU speed. This
technique has been applied to analyse resonator, dielectric loaded waveguide
and patch antenna (Tretiakov et al 2004, Pan 2003). Recently, a new
unconditionally stable time domain method is reported based on the SBTD
algorithm and Sampling bi-orthogonal alternating direction implicit scheme
(Huang et al 2008).


As wireless-enabled devices possess more and more features, the

RF system designers are faced with the daunting task of integrating all of
them within a tough footprint without sacrificing on the time-to-market
related issues. This requires accurate electromagnetic Computer Aided Design
(CAD) simulation for achieving first pass design success.

The concept of Computer aided Design initially progressed in the

area of small signal, linear circuit design with a focus on the analysis and
optimization of discrete and hybrid Microwave integrated circuits.
Introduction of low cost personal computers in the 1980s provided more user
friendly computing power to handle non linear circuits, communication
systems, and eventually electromagnetic simulation (Besser and Gilmore

The first two port microwave simulator, MICAP was introduced by

Tymshare in 1969. It was soon followed by simulator SPEEDY, which
included Fairchild semiconductors microwave transistors S parameter
database (Besser 1970). In the 1970s, the demand for integration prompted
the University of California, Berekley to develop a large general purpose
program called SPICE for integrated circuit design (Kundert 1995). The main
purpose of SPICE was to handle low frequency analog integrated circuits, but
it did not address the microwave device simulation issues. The first
commercially microwave analysis program called COMPACT was introduced
through time sharing services (Besser et al 1973). In 1980, it was rewritten
and released under the name of SuperCompact (Besser et al 1981). This
version included physical transmission line model and discontinuities,
graphics, matching network synthesis, and an interactive smith chart
subprogram SmithTool.

In 1984, simulator EEsof came in to the market with first personal

computer based program called Touchstone having microwave design
capability with much more interactive features to the designer. This is
followed by the development of Microwave Harmonica, which included
harmonic balance analysis for non linear circuit simulation. After few years,
Hewlett Packard entered into the CAD market with their product called MDS.
Eagleware also entered the market, more or less the same period, and offered
a wide range of personal computer based programs at low cost. GENESYS,
from the former Eagleware-Elanix product line, was released. This is a single,
integrated electronic design automation environment for RF and microwave
applications. The GENESYS system design architectures use a wide range of
behavioral models such as amplifiers, mixers, splitters, couplers, and filters.
Once the architecture is in place, one can simulate the system performance
along each signal path (Besser and Gilmore 2003).

Theoretical advances in computational electromagnetics have

resulted in a host of new algorithms for electromagnetic analysis based on
finite-difference method, finite-element method, boundary-element method,
finite-difference time-domain, moment method, transmission line matrix

Each method offers advantages that fit it more to a certain class of

problems than to the others. The finite-element method shines at modeling
complex structures with curved boundaries, but may balk at problems that are
electrically large because so much memory is required. On the other hand,
methods such as finite-difference time-domain can tackle larger problems, but
may have difficulty conforming to curved surfaces.

In the 1990s, EEsof was acquired by Hewlett Packard (now Agilent

Technologies), developed Advanced Design Systems. Compact Software
merged with Ansoft, combining SuperCompact and Microwave Harmonica

into Serenade as well as Ansoft Designer. Near the turn of the century a new
company AWR entered the market with an user friendly integrated circuit/EM
simulation program, MicroWave office. Another product, from Finland,
called APLAC, also made its way into the industry. EM simulation had a
slower start, hampered by the larger computing power requirements. The first
commercially successful product released by Sonnet, called EM was followed
by Ansofts 3D program, HFSS in 1990 (Rautio and Harrington 1987, Besser
and Gilmore 2003).

The first integrated EM and circuit simulation product IE3D,

method-of-moments based electromagnetic simulator was introduced by in
1992 by Zeland Software and the latest version has been widely used in the
design of Monolithic Microwave integrated circuits, Radio frequency
integrated circuits, Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic circuits,
microwave/millimeter-wave circuits, Integrated circuit interconnects and
packages, high temperature superconductive circuits, patch antennas, wire
antennas, and other RF/wireless antennas. In 1996, a Canadian group, OSA,
demonstrated optimization with the HFSS, Remcoms XFDTD. AWRs
Computer simulation technology microwave studio has the features of
optimization and useful interactive post processing tools was introduced. In
1998, Empire XCcel, one of the leading 3D EM field solvers for antennas and
passive RF devices was introduced, which allows the modeling of highly
complex structures within minutes (Besser and Gilmore 2003).

Some of the popular numerical simulation programs were also

developed at the government and university laboratories and can boast some
well-tested and powerful electromagnetic algorithms such as NEC developed
at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, EMAP (3-D,
finite-element method code from University of Missouri at Rolla, Superfish
(2D and 3D, axially symmetric, finite-element method code) from Los

Alamos National Laboratory FDTDA (3-D, finite-difference, time-domain

code) developed at Pennsylvania State University, University Park (Mirotznik
and Prather 1997).

Advanced Design System (ADS) is a powerful electronic design

automation software system. It offers complete design integration to designers
of products such as cellular and portable phones, pagers, wireless networks,
radar and satellite communications systems, and high-speed digital serial
links. Advanced Design System is the industry leader in high-frequency
design. It supports system and RF design engineers developing all types of RF
designs, from simple to the most complex, from RF/microwave modules to
integrated MMICs for communications and aerospace/defense applications.
With a complete set of simulation technologies ranging from frequency-,
time-, numeric and physical domain simulation to electromagnetic field
simulation, ADS lets designers fully characterize and optimize designs.

EMPIRE XCcel developed by engineering excellence is one of

the leading 3D electromagnetic field simulators. It is based on the powerful
Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD), which has become an
industrial standard for RF component and antenna design. Due to its unique
on-the-fly compilation it has proven to be the fastest simulation engine which
allows the modeling of highly complex structures within minutes. For
structure definition, a powerful Graphical User Interface is included in the
EMPIRE XCcel package and several structure import and export formats are
supported. EMPIRE XCcels applicability ranges from analyzing planar,
multi-layered and conformal circuits, components and antennas to multi-pin
packages, waveguides, and SI/EMC problems including the devices
operational environment. Time signals, scattering parameters, and field
animations are generated accurately for a broad frequency range within only
one simulation run. Monitoring and animation capabilities give physical

insight into electromagnetic wave phenomena while accurate results are

obtained with little effort.

In this thesis, Advanced Design Systems (ADS) and Empire XCcel

simulators have been used for evaluating the performance of proposed fractal


The proposed antennas in this thesis are fabricated in the Printed

Circuit Board and tested in anechoic chamber in Thiagarajar Advanced
Research Center (TARC), Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai. A
rectangular chamber has been built to maximize the volume of quiet zone.
The size of the chamber is 8m 4m 4m. Antenna radiation characteristics
are measured using the Agilent Vector network analyzer N5230A. The return
loss S11 is measured using single port calibration. The experimental set up is
shown in Figure 1.1. The operating bandwidth of the anechoic chamber is
from 800MHz to 20GHz. When a standard antenna is used as the transmitter
and test antenna as the receiver, S21 is measured using the analyzer. Custom-
software is used to control the positioner as well as to download data from the
network analyzer. This software is also capable of generating radiation pattern
plots at individual frequencies, or S21 versus frequency at different look
angles of the test antenna.

The radiation patterns are measured in both E plane and H plane of

the antenna using Vector network analyser. A gain comparison method is
applied for antenna gain measurements. This method is used in conjunction
with standard gain antenna to determine the absolute gain of the antenna
under test. This assumes the return loss of the test antenna is very small and
comparable with that of a standard antenna. Initially the relative gain
measurements are performed, which when compared with that of standard
gain antenna, yields absolute value.

Figure 1.1 Set up for antenna measurements in an anechoic chamber

Figure 1.2 Photograph of an anechoic chamber


The stringent requirements of wireless communication systems

have necessitated the design of compact multiband antennas. To meet these
requirements, compact high-performance multiband planar antennas with
good radiation characteristics are needed. Recently, antennas with multiband
and wideband characteristics have been developed for wireless applications
such as shorted antenna with parasitic elements, shorted monopole with an
additional resonator, stacked monopole configuration and antenna with high
dielectric constant substrate. These designs, although they manage to cover

some frequency bands result in complex antenna structures which make them
difficult to manufacture. However, a technique that has drawn the attention of
research community involves the combination of the theory of fractal
geometry with antenna design for multiband operation.


Recently, several antennas have been introduced for wireless

applications based on the design such as meandering, reactive loading,
multilayer architecture and fractal geometries. Among the various types of
antennas, Fractal antennas have been emerged as compact, multiband and
wide band radiator. Several attempts have also been reported in modelling,
analysis and optimization of fractal antennas.

The scope of the thesis is to propose and analyse novel fractal

antennas such as Minkowski fractal antenna, Cantor fractal antenna and
Multifractal Cantor antenna for emerging wireless applications.

A Minkowski fractal patch antenna for WiMAX application is

developed. An array using Minkowski fractal patch is also proposed to
achieve reduced mutual coupling and increased throughput. To address the
issue of manufacturing difficulty associated with monopole antenna, a novel
printed Cantor fractal monopole antenna is proposed. In order to support
multistandard applications of emerging wireless mobile system, a novel
concept of multifractality is introduced in the design of Cantor fractal

The proposed antennas are numerically analyzed using Sampling

biorthogonal time domain (SBTD) method. The prototype of fractal antennas
are fabricated and the tested in the anechoic chamber. The analyzed results are
compared with that of measured results.


Wavelet based Sampling Biorthogonal Time Domain (SBTD)

method is presented in Chapter 2. The applicability of this method is verified
for patch antenna for wireless frequency.

Chapter 3 presents the design and implementation of Minkowski

fractal based Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) antenna system for
dual band WiMAX application. The effect of geometrical parameter on the
performance of the antenna has been analysed and the results are verified

Chapter 4 presents different forms of Cantor fractal geometry with

mathematical formulation. Impact of these geometries on the design of
monopole on size reduction and multiband operations are studied. The
variations in the structural coefficients of the fractal geometry significantly
change the characteristics of antenna. The numerical results are verified with
the experimental results.

Chapter 5 presents the miniaturized multistandard antenna for

wireless applications. The influence of the concept of Multifractality in the
design of Cantor fractal antenna is studied in respect of multiband operation.

A summary of the conclusions drawn from the research towards

this thesis work is presented in Chapter 6.