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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 PREAMBLE

Over the past few years, wireless technologies have emerged as the

most practical solution to meet the ever growing broadband demand across

the globe. India, with over 5 million broadband subscribers, is keenly looking

forward to embrace technologies that could support services with high data

transmission rates, quality of wireless connectivity and interoperability. This

would require a hardware platform that supports many access technologies

paving the way for multifunctional transceiver that could operate

simultaneously in the existing and the emerging wireless standards (Elwan

et al 2001, Rappaport et al 2002, Dietrich et al 2003, Agnelli et al 2006).

Reconfigurability, switchability and self similarity are the possible means of

meeting the stringent requirements of multifunctional transceivers (Bernhard

2003, Yang and Rahmat-Samii 2005, Nishiyama et al 2008). Various

interesting Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) based antenna designs, stacked

antennas and Electronic Band Gap (EBG) antennas are reported in the

literature for multiband and wide band applications (Virga and Rahmat-Samii

1997, Mclean et al 1999, Sim and Choi 2006, Raj Mittra 2005, Skrivervik

et al 2001). The PIFA has increased size in order to create multiband

characteristics and the size reduction is achieved by capacitive loading (Garg

et al 2001, Rowell and Murch 1997, Park et al 2006). Multiple resonances in

the antenna structure are excited by creating slots in the antenna structure or

various resonating patches that are arranged in a compact configuration to

2

reduce the lateral dimension (Girish Kumar and Ray 2003, Murakami et al

1993, Boag and Mittra 1995). Dynamically changing the geometrical

configuration of the resonating structure or arranging various resonating

patches in a compact manner leads to reconfigurablity (Bernhard 2003).

Space division approach is used to design narrow multi beam antenna leading

to switchable array (Paulraj et al 2003, Kamarudin and Hall 2006, Sekretarov

et al 2007). This leads to reduced interference and have increased capacity.

emerged as a potential candidate to realize miniaturized multiband antennas

(Cohen 1997, Puente et al 2000a, Gianvittorio and Rahmat Samii 2002,

Werner and Ganguly 2003, Patnam 2008). Fractals were first proposed by

Benoit Mandelbrot in 1975 to characterize the unique occurrences in nature

such as the length of coastlines, the density of clouds, and branching of trees

which were difficult to get defined with Euclidean geometries (Mandelbrot

1983).

design of low side lobe arrays based on the theory of random fractals. The

time-harmonic and time-dependent radiation by bifractal dipole arrays was

studied by Lakhtakia in 1987. He also showed that the diffracted field of a

self-similar screen is also self-similar using a Sierpinski carpet. A wide

variety of new shapes and applications of fractals have been compiled by

Falconer (1990) and Michael Barnsley (1993). Werner and Werner (1995)

showed that self-scaling arrays can produce fractal radiation patterns based on

the theory of a non uniform linear Weierstrass array and developed radiation

pattern synthesis technique for Weierstrass arrays. Liang et al (1996)

extended this work to the case of concentric ring arrays, and developed a

synthesis technique to obtain fractal radiation patterns from concentric ring

3

arrays. The design of Koch arrays and low side lobe Cantor arrays are

investigated (Puente and Pous 1996).

geometry found applications in the design of multiband and miniaturized

antennas. Cohen performed numerical calculations on large perimeter fractal

loops and dipoles providing evidence that such small antennas might feature a

low resonance frequency with a relatively large input resistance (Cohen 1995,

Cohen and Hohlfeld 1996). Cohen investigated Minkowski island loop

suitable for designing miniaturized antennas (1997). Subsequently Sierpinski

gaskets were studied extensively for monopole and dipole antenna

configurations at the lower microwave frequency range (Puente et al 1996b,

Anagnostou et al 2002). It has been observed that the fractal shaping allows

an efficient use of the Wheeler radius at and beyond the small antenna limit

(Puente et al 2000a). Popular antennas using Sierpinski gasket, Koch curve,

Hilbert curve and Minkowski edge have been reported to have wide

bandwidth characteristics and found potential applications at microwave

frequencies (Puente et al 1996b, Vinoy et al 2001, Gianvittorio and Rahmat

Samii 2002, Best 2003).

(Walker and James 1998, Hara Prasad et al 2000). The multiband property of

a fractal tree antenna, whose structure is generated randomly by

electrochemical deposition, is recently reported (Puente et al 1996c). Puente

et al (1996a) also investigated the impact of the Sierpinski antennas spacing

perturbation on operating bands. Later, Puente et al (2000b) developed an

iterative model for fractal antennas which was applied in particular to the

Sierpinski gasket antenna to predict its performance as a function of its flare

angle. A stacked antenna configuration with multiple layers of fractal

geometries has also been studied (Song et al 1999, Carrier

4

et al 2003). This configuration has also been made conformal to improve the

utilization of the antenna. Similar to Sierpinski gaskets, Sierpinksi carpets

have also been used as antenna elements to achieve multifrequency operation

(Du et al 2001).

frequencies the use of miniaturized fractal antenna in lower frequency band

has potential applications. Vinoy et al (2001) designed a dipole Hilbert curve

antenna as small resonant antennas for Very High Frequency (VHF) and Ultra

High Frequency (UHF) communication. The space-filling properties of the

Hilbert curve have been used to design optimum miniaturized antennas at

lower frequencies (Vinoy 2002).

fractal concept in wireless communication applications have led to innovative

fractal antenna designs. Some of the novel fractal geometries such as shorted

Sierpinski, Koch fractal patch, fractal tree antenna, reconfigurable fractal

antenna and hybrid fractal antenna are explored for multiband wireless

application (Song et al 2001, Boria and Romeu 2003, Petko and Werner

2004, Anagnostou et al 2006, Tahir 2007). The self affine fractal antenna

which provides multiband operation with a larger frequency separation has

been investigated (Sinha and Jain 2007). Recently, miniaturized fractal

antenna using chemical deposition process has shown a lot of application in

cellular mobile communication (Rmili et al 2007). The analysis, design and

development of fractal antennas and arrays which can be used in a

multifunctional wireless environment are still an open problem.

necessity as it is no longer economical or even feasible, to tune the planar

5

structures once they are fabricated (Itoh 1989, Yamashita 1990). Since most

of the practical structures are not amenable to closed form analytical

expressions, the need for numerical analysis have gained importance (Raj

Mittra 1975). A number of numerical methods have been proposed and

somewhat more classical methods have been refined for the analysis of planar

antennas. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages, but it must

be emphasized that, more than one may be suitable for the solution of a given

problem (Itoh 1989, Raj Mittra 1975, Silvester and Ferrari 1996, Peterson et

al 1997, Bruns et al 2007). Numerical methods such as Method of moments,

Finite element method and Finite difference time domain method have been

reported in the literature to numerically analyze microwave structures

(Harrington 1968, Silvester 1969, Yee 1966).

analysis for electrically small structures and antennas. The MoM was

introduced for computational electromagnetics by Harrington in the 1967

(Harrington 1968). It is based on a numerical solution of integral equations

for the currents induced in the structure by sources (antennas) or incident

fields. The method involves segmentation of the antenna structure and

choosing suitable basis functions to represent currents on these segments. A

set of equations is generated by enforcing the boundary conditions with a

suitable set of testing functions. This results in a matrix whose order is

proportional to the number of segments on which the current distribution is

represented. The solution to the problem is found by inverting this matrix

(Klein and Mittra 1975, Richmond 1965). This method was first implemented

during 1970s by Poggio and Miller (1973). Advanced by Newman, there were

many works based on MoM method with Galerkins method and Richmond's

reaction integral equation for microstrip patch antennas (Coifman et al 1993).

6

Since the memory size required increases with number of unknown current

amplitudes as well as the computation time, the applicability of the MoM was

limited to relatively small structures. The analysis of complex structures using

MoM based multilevel fast multipole algorithm and the multilevel matrix

decomposition algorithm has shown improved accuracy and less memory

requirement (Michelsen and Boag 1996, Song et al 1997, Rius et al 1999). In

case of fractal radiating structures, highly iterated prefractal structures results

in many small self similar geometries that require tiny sub domain basis

function or fine discretization for an accurate computation of unknown

parameters. This, together with the fact that the multiband antenna is

electrically large at the highest operating bands, leads to a very large

computation space in the MoM formulation. A recursive algorithm for the

analysis of fractal patch antennas has been developed taking advantage of the

recursive structure of fractals and using the idea of macro basis functions

called multilevel Subdomain Approach (Ooms and Zutter 1998). The

geometrical properties of the Iterated function systems that generate the

antenna geometry are used to analyze a highly iterated fractal antenna with

reasonable computational requirement and computational cost of the

frequency analysis (Parron et al 2003). Recently wavelets have been

employed in MoM to save CPU time (Tong and Pan 2004).

strictly numerical method that has all the versatility to deal with the vast range

of complicated geometries and material distributions. Finite element method

was first outlined by Courant (1943). Its application to waveguide began in

1969 (Silvester 1969). The finite element method is implemented on an

integral formulation of a boundary value problem. In the conventional

applications, this is a variational expression in the form of a functional that is

7

elements depending on whether a two or three dimensional structure is being

examined. The unknown function which may be a scalar potential or vectorial

field component is approximated within each element by a polynomial

function. Application of Rahleigh-Ritz procedure transforms the functional,

upon minimization, into a linear system of equations (Daly 1971, Pantic and

Mittra 1986, Silvester 1989).

boundaries with lesser difficulty. In addition, some boundary condition like

Neumann conditions are included in the functional itself and so they do not

need to be imposed. One difficulty with finite element method is in the

analysis of open structures. The most elementary way to deal with open

boundaries is by truncation. Later, the use of infinite element has been

proposed for open structures (Zienkiewicz et al 1983, McDougall and Webb

1989). Perfectly matched layer (PML) has shown considerable promise in

dealing with exterior problems (Mei et al 1984). This is efficient in terms of

memory and time. An apparent advantage of the FEM is its potential

hybridization. The FEM has also been effectively applied to solve

inhomogeneous and anisotropic guided wave problems (Lee et al 1993).

These attributes are essential to develop general-purpose analysis codes for

electromagnetic scattering, antennas, microwave circuits, and biomedical

applications. Finite-element solutions were obtained for axisymmetric

radiators (Gordon and Mittra 1993), taking into account the effects of

radomes (Gong et al 1994), cavity-backed antennas of arbitrary shape

(McGrath and Pyati 1994), and phased-array antennas (Jithesh and Pande

2003). Salazar-Palma et al (1998) have developed an iterative and Self-

Adaptive Finite-Elements has been developed for Electromagnetic Modeling.

Recently, a multi-hybrid method combining the finite element method and

several high frequency techniques for the efficient analysis of the radiation

8

environments is investigated (Fernandez-Recio et al 2007).

possible the development of Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method,

an accurate method for full wave electromagnetic analysis. This solves

Maxwells equations directly in time domain. Pioneered by Yee in 1966, the

time domain formulation of the finite difference method has been attracting

increasing attention from researchers due to the possibility of analyzing

transients and performing wide band analysis with a single computation

process (Yee 1966, Kunz and Luebbers 1993). The finite difference time

domain method is the simplest numerical method to transform a differential

equation into a system of algebraic equations. The region of interest is divided

into nodes located on a two or three dimensional grid. Because of the very

simple algorithm, the method is versatile (Sheen et al 1990). A shortcoming

of this method is the difficulty of fitting curved boundaries with the

rectangular mesh. Wolff (1992) has worked on finite difference time domain

method for simulating electromagnetic field and microwave circuits An

efficient and stable ABCs are reported for graded FDTD simulations and later

this algorithm is extended to metamaterials (Lauer and Wolff 1998, Rennings

et al 2006). Design considerations for multiband integrated mobile phone

antennas were demonstrated using Empire simulator (Manteuffel et al 2001).

A novel higher order nonstandard FDTD methodology has been applied for

the efficient analysis of fractal and arbitrarily shaped antennas in 3-D general

curvilinear coordinates (Zygiridis et al 2003).

time and frequency domains. However, its computational efficiency is limited

by two inherent physical constraints such as numerical dispersion, and the

9

include its massive memory consumption and huge computational time. The

former requires fine spatial discretization for a particular accuracy, while the

latter demands a proper time step for computational stability. Both of them

lead to large memory and CPU time requirements. In this regard, wavelets

offer significant improvements to the FDTD. The Battle-Lemarie wavelet

based time domain method is referred to as Multi Resolution Time Domain

method (MRTD), that improves numerical dispersion of the FDTD

significantly (Krumpholz and Katehi 1996, Tretiakov et al 2004). However, in

MRTD the non sampling properties of the Battle-Lemarie wavelets make the

formulation difficult to numerically compute. To improve the effectiveness of

MRTD, the Wavelet-Galerkin Time-Domain (WGTD) scheme was proposed

by Cheong et al (1999), employing Daubechies compactly supported wavelets

D2 (Daubechies 1992) which is known as Sampling Biorthogonal Time

Domain (SBTD) method. This method is based on the use of orthogonal

properties of Daubechies wavelets in the spatial discretization. The SBTD

method has been reported for waveguide and planar structures and shows less

computation time and memory compared to the conventional FDTD method

(Pan 2003). The use of compactly supported positive sampling functions,

leads to fast decay in both spectral and spatial frequency domain and hence

this method is superior to FDTD in respect of memory and CPU speed. This

technique has been applied to analyse resonator, dielectric loaded waveguide

and patch antenna (Tretiakov et al 2004, Pan 2003). Recently, a new

unconditionally stable time domain method is reported based on the SBTD

algorithm and Sampling bi-orthogonal alternating direction implicit scheme

(Huang et al 2008).

10

RF system designers are faced with the daunting task of integrating all of

them within a tough footprint without sacrificing on the time-to-market

related issues. This requires accurate electromagnetic Computer Aided Design

(CAD) simulation for achieving first pass design success.

area of small signal, linear circuit design with a focus on the analysis and

optimization of discrete and hybrid Microwave integrated circuits.

Introduction of low cost personal computers in the 1980s provided more user

friendly computing power to handle non linear circuits, communication

systems, and eventually electromagnetic simulation (Besser and Gilmore

2003).

Tymshare in 1969. It was soon followed by simulator SPEEDY, which

included Fairchild semiconductors microwave transistors S parameter

database (Besser 1970). In the 1970s, the demand for integration prompted

the University of California, Berekley to develop a large general purpose

program called SPICE for integrated circuit design (Kundert 1995). The main

purpose of SPICE was to handle low frequency analog integrated circuits, but

it did not address the microwave device simulation issues. The first

commercially microwave analysis program called COMPACT was introduced

through time sharing services (Besser et al 1973). In 1980, it was rewritten

and released under the name of SuperCompact (Besser et al 1981). This

version included physical transmission line model and discontinuities,

graphics, matching network synthesis, and an interactive smith chart

subprogram SmithTool.

11

computer based program called Touchstone having microwave design

capability with much more interactive features to the designer. This is

followed by the development of Microwave Harmonica, which included

harmonic balance analysis for non linear circuit simulation. After few years,

Hewlett Packard entered into the CAD market with their product called MDS.

Eagleware also entered the market, more or less the same period, and offered

a wide range of personal computer based programs at low cost. GENESYS,

from the former Eagleware-Elanix product line, was released. This is a single,

integrated electronic design automation environment for RF and microwave

applications. The GENESYS system design architectures use a wide range of

behavioral models such as amplifiers, mixers, splitters, couplers, and filters.

Once the architecture is in place, one can simulate the system performance

along each signal path (Besser and Gilmore 2003).

resulted in a host of new algorithms for electromagnetic analysis based on

finite-difference method, finite-element method, boundary-element method,

finite-difference time-domain, moment method, transmission line matrix

method.

problems than to the others. The finite-element method shines at modeling

complex structures with curved boundaries, but may balk at problems that are

electrically large because so much memory is required. On the other hand,

methods such as finite-difference time-domain can tackle larger problems, but

may have difficulty conforming to curved surfaces.

Technologies), developed Advanced Design Systems. Compact Software

merged with Ansoft, combining SuperCompact and Microwave Harmonica

12

into Serenade as well as Ansoft Designer. Near the turn of the century a new

company AWR entered the market with an user friendly integrated circuit/EM

simulation program, MicroWave office. Another product, from Finland,

called APLAC, also made its way into the industry. EM simulation had a

slower start, hampered by the larger computing power requirements. The first

commercially successful product released by Sonnet, called EM was followed

by Ansofts 3D program, HFSS in 1990 (Rautio and Harrington 1987, Besser

and Gilmore 2003).

method-of-moments based electromagnetic simulator was introduced by in

1992 by Zeland Software and the latest version has been widely used in the

design of Monolithic Microwave integrated circuits, Radio frequency

integrated circuits, Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic circuits,

microwave/millimeter-wave circuits, Integrated circuit interconnects and

packages, high temperature superconductive circuits, patch antennas, wire

antennas, and other RF/wireless antennas. In 1996, a Canadian group, OSA,

demonstrated optimization with the HFSS, Remcoms XFDTD. AWRs

Computer simulation technology microwave studio has the features of

optimization and useful interactive post processing tools was introduced. In

1998, Empire XCcel, one of the leading 3D EM field solvers for antennas and

passive RF devices was introduced, which allows the modeling of highly

complex structures within minutes (Besser and Gilmore 2003).

developed at the government and university laboratories and can boast some

well-tested and powerful electromagnetic algorithms such as NEC developed

at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, EMAP (3-D,

finite-element method code from University of Missouri at Rolla, Superfish

(2D and 3D, axially symmetric, finite-element method code) from Los

13

code) developed at Pennsylvania State University, University Park (Mirotznik

and Prather 1997).

automation software system. It offers complete design integration to designers

of products such as cellular and portable phones, pagers, wireless networks,

radar and satellite communications systems, and high-speed digital serial

links. Advanced Design System is the industry leader in high-frequency

design. It supports system and RF design engineers developing all types of RF

designs, from simple to the most complex, from RF/microwave modules to

integrated MMICs for communications and aerospace/defense applications.

With a complete set of simulation technologies ranging from frequency-,

time-, numeric and physical domain simulation to electromagnetic field

simulation, ADS lets designers fully characterize and optimize designs.

the leading 3D electromagnetic field simulators. It is based on the powerful

Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD), which has become an

industrial standard for RF component and antenna design. Due to its unique

on-the-fly compilation it has proven to be the fastest simulation engine which

allows the modeling of highly complex structures within minutes. For

structure definition, a powerful Graphical User Interface is included in the

EMPIRE XCcel package and several structure import and export formats are

supported. EMPIRE XCcels applicability ranges from analyzing planar,

multi-layered and conformal circuits, components and antennas to multi-pin

packages, waveguides, and SI/EMC problems including the devices

operational environment. Time signals, scattering parameters, and field

animations are generated accurately for a broad frequency range within only

one simulation run. Monitoring and animation capabilities give physical

14

obtained with little effort.

simulators have been used for evaluating the performance of proposed fractal

antennas.

Circuit Board and tested in anechoic chamber in Thiagarajar Advanced

Research Center (TARC), Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai. A

rectangular chamber has been built to maximize the volume of quiet zone.

The size of the chamber is 8m 4m 4m. Antenna radiation characteristics

are measured using the Agilent Vector network analyzer N5230A. The return

loss S11 is measured using single port calibration. The experimental set up is

shown in Figure 1.1. The operating bandwidth of the anechoic chamber is

from 800MHz to 20GHz. When a standard antenna is used as the transmitter

and test antenna as the receiver, S21 is measured using the analyzer. Custom-

software is used to control the positioner as well as to download data from the

network analyzer. This software is also capable of generating radiation pattern

plots at individual frequencies, or S21 versus frequency at different look

angles of the test antenna.

the antenna using Vector network analyser. A gain comparison method is

applied for antenna gain measurements. This method is used in conjunction

with standard gain antenna to determine the absolute gain of the antenna

under test. This assumes the return loss of the test antenna is very small and

comparable with that of a standard antenna. Initially the relative gain

measurements are performed, which when compared with that of standard

gain antenna, yields absolute value.

15

have necessitated the design of compact multiband antennas. To meet these

requirements, compact high-performance multiband planar antennas with

good radiation characteristics are needed. Recently, antennas with multiband

and wideband characteristics have been developed for wireless applications

such as shorted antenna with parasitic elements, shorted monopole with an

additional resonator, stacked monopole configuration and antenna with high

dielectric constant substrate. These designs, although they manage to cover

16

some frequency bands result in complex antenna structures which make them

difficult to manufacture. However, a technique that has drawn the attention of

research community involves the combination of the theory of fractal

geometry with antenna design for multiband operation.

applications based on the design such as meandering, reactive loading,

multilayer architecture and fractal geometries. Among the various types of

antennas, Fractal antennas have been emerged as compact, multiband and

wide band radiator. Several attempts have also been reported in modelling,

analysis and optimization of fractal antennas.

antennas such as Minkowski fractal antenna, Cantor fractal antenna and

Multifractal Cantor antenna for emerging wireless applications.

developed. An array using Minkowski fractal patch is also proposed to

achieve reduced mutual coupling and increased throughput. To address the

issue of manufacturing difficulty associated with monopole antenna, a novel

printed Cantor fractal monopole antenna is proposed. In order to support

multistandard applications of emerging wireless mobile system, a novel

concept of multifractality is introduced in the design of Cantor fractal

antenna.

biorthogonal time domain (SBTD) method. The prototype of fractal antennas

are fabricated and the tested in the anechoic chamber. The analyzed results are

compared with that of measured results.

17

method is presented in Chapter 2. The applicability of this method is verified

for patch antenna for wireless frequency.

fractal based Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) antenna system for

dual band WiMAX application. The effect of geometrical parameter on the

performance of the antenna has been analysed and the results are verified

experimentally.

mathematical formulation. Impact of these geometries on the design of

monopole on size reduction and multiband operations are studied. The

variations in the structural coefficients of the fractal geometry significantly

change the characteristics of antenna. The numerical results are verified with

the experimental results.

wireless applications. The influence of the concept of Multifractality in the

design of Cantor fractal antenna is studied in respect of multiband operation.

this thesis work is presented in Chapter 6.

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