Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 622

MAP OF THE

HOLY LAND

Corrtctea by

T. 8. DE HA88, D. D

6

10

16

10

*

/

I*M M

(ruiu Urrrnwlcb

fe

S

IB

TRIBAL.

REFKKKNCKS.

I. JUDAH.

H0f

Z.Cuml

Uutuh

6-Ubn.b

T.UcbUk

f.ll tor

~

!

AdullumC4T

II. 8IJIEOX.

III.HK.SJAM1N.

I.RImmo. 6. An.tlxHb

rv. DAN.

V. EPHRAIM.

VI. MANA8SEH.

VII. ZEBl'LOX.

VIII. I88ACUAK.

IX. ASIII.H.

X. NAPHTALJ.

XL MANA8SEH.

XII. GAD.

XIII. Kt.l 1U

V.

jy.

^

K<

S

BURIED CITIES RECOVERED,

on.

ong in BiHe Landg,

GIVING THE RESULTS OF RECENT RESEARCHES IN THE ORIENT, AND RECOVERY OF MANY PLACES IN SACRED AND PROFANE HISTORY LONG CONSIDERED LOST,

0lnsfraffrl irith ^u-^ays

Burner ons Anginal ^

BY

FRANK S. DEHASS, D. D.

Member oftkt American Geographical Society, and late United State* Conmlin Palettint,

REVISED EDITION, WITH APPENDIX.

CONTAINING A FULL ACCOUNT OF EGYPT AND THE EGYPTIANS, RISE AND F CL OF EMPIRES IN THE LIGHT OF PROPHECY, AND WONDERFUL CON- FIRMATION OF REVELATION BY LATE DISCOVERIES.

PHILADELPHIA:

BRADLEY & COMPANY,

66 NORTH FOURTH STREET.

1887.

Copyright by F. S. DEHASS, D. D., 1886.

All right* reserved.

109

DEDICATION.

TO MY NUMEROUS FRIENDS,

WHO HAVE KEQUESTED THB PUBLICATION OF THESE SKETCHES;

TO THE WIFE OF MY YOUTH,

VfHO ACCOMPANIED ME IN ALL MY TRAVELS THROUGH THE ORIENT;

TO MY AGED MOTHER,

WHO EARLY TURNED MY WAYWARD FEET INTO THE PATH OF LIFE;

TO THE MEMORY OF

MY HONORED AND SAINTED FATHER,

WHO, AS HIS SON WAS EXPLORING THE EARTHLY, PEACEFULLY DEPARTED FOE THE HEAVENLY, CANAAN;

AND ABOVE ALL, TO GOD,

WHO HATH GRACIOUSLY PRESERVED ME IN ALL MY JOUBNEYING8 AT HOME AND ABROAD,

I AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATE

of tfce $j>dg Eanfc.

INTRODUCTION.

THE author's object in accepting an appointment under the United States Government was not the honor or emolu-

ments of office, but a desire to visit the lands of the Bible, that

he might see for himself how far the manners, customs, and

traditions of the people and topography of those countries agreed

with the inspired word. These sketches were originally written for our own gratifica-

tionj amid the vivid scenes where the events described occurred;

and it; is a remarkable fact that nearly all the places mentioned

in the Bible where any great event transpired may still be identi-

fied by their old Hebrew names in the Arabic form

a most

wonderful philological corroboration of the Biblical narrative.

Recent explorations in the East have resulted in the recovery

of many places in sacred and profane history long regarded as lost ; and as the facts brought out by these researches are not

accessible to the general reader, the author has compiled them in

this concise form, and at the request of numerous friends gives

them to the public, not as a scientific work for the antiquarian,

but as an humble contribution to Biblical archaeology for the home

circle, believing that such a volume will add greatly to the

elucidation of the Scriptures, and serve to correct some of the

errors which many travellers have fallen into by a too hasty or

superficial view of the places visited.

Palestine, the great centre of religious interest, though com-

paratively a small mountainous country, has, nevertheless, been

10

INTRODUCTION.

the theatre of the most stirring and momentous events in the

history of our world.

Learned divines, historians, and anti-

quarians for ages have been visiting this land, giving us glowing

descriptions of their travels, with the results of their investiga-

tions, until our libraries teem with volumes on these subjects;

and yet the desire to know more about this country was never

greater than at present.

No other land is so fruitful a theme

for meditation or so hallowed in its associations ; and what is

remarkable, it never loses its interest. It can no more be ex- hausted than Deity himself. The more we know about Pales-

tine the more interest it awakens. The whole country seems to

breathe an inspiration, and to the devout mind is fragrant with

the most sacred memories.

The author's official position, together with his long residence

in Jerusalem, and his connection with the American and English

Palestine Exploration Societies, afforded him many facilities in

his researches he otherwise could not have enjoyed ; and under

the conviction that the publication of these investigations will

not only add

to the knowledge but greatly strengthen the

Christian's faith, he casts these fresh leaves upon the waters, with

the sincere prayer that they may not return void, but tend to

correct in some measure the perverse tendency of the age to

doubt the credibility of the inspired volume.

YORK, October, 1886.

FRANK S.

CONTENTS.

PART I.

EGYPT, IN ITS RELATION TO THE BIBLE.

CHAPTER I.

CUB INHERITANCE IN EGYPT THE BIBLE WRITTEN ON HER MONTTMENTS. 28

CHAPTER II.

ALEXANDRIA SEAT OF GREEK PHILOSOPHY AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. 33

CHAPTER III.

HELIOPOLIS, PYRAMIDS, AND COLOSSAL SPHINX

42

CHAPTER IV.

MEMPHIS, THE NOPH OF SCRIPTURE NECROPOLIS OF EGYPT

CHAPTER V.

THEBES, THE NO-AMON OF THE BIBLE GRAND TEMPLE OF KARNAX,

CHAPTER VI.

ISLAND OF PHIL.E, LAST SEAT OF EGYPTIAN IDOLATRY

53

60

81

CHAPTER VII.

THE EXODUS PASSAGE OF THE RED SEA ; WILDERNESS OF WANDERING. 90

PART II. THE LAND OF ISRAEL.

CHAPTER I.

THE PROMISED LAND ITS EARLY INHABITANTS AND CONQUEST

CHAPTER II.

V,JAFFA TO JERUSALEM TENT LIFE IN THE HOLY LAND

109

119

12

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER III.

CITY OF THE GREAT KINO A WALK ABOUT ZION

CHAPTER IV.

MORIAH THE MOUNTAIN OF THE LORD'S HOUSE SOLOMON'S TEMPLE

CHAPTER V.

GOLGOTHA AND TOMB OF CHRIST TRADITIONAL SITES

CHAPTER VI.

ROYAL SEPULCHBR OF THE HOUSE OF DAVID ROCK-HEWN TOMBS

CHAPTER VII.

EASTER FESTIVITIES IN JERUSALEM SOLEMN MOCKERIES

PAQK

133

145

160

172

183

CHAPTER VIII.

BETHLEHEM, AND HILL COUNTRY OF JUDEA LOCUSTS AND WILD HONEY. 191

CHAPTER IX.

POOLS OF SOLOMON CAVE OF ADULLAM TOMB OF HEROD

CHAPTER X.

HEBRON CAVE OF MACHPELAH BEEB-SHEBA WELL OF ABRAHAM

CHAPTER XL

JXLANDOFTHE PHILISTINES AN EXTINCT RACE

CHAPTER XII.

rV SEA - COAST OF PALESTINE PLAIN OF SHARON ANCIENT TYRE

A

202

213

224

233

CHAPTER XIII.

M< U'NT CARMEL SCENE OF ELIJAH'S SACRIFICE CONVENT AND GROTTO. 244

CHAPTER XIV.

FROM JERUSALEM TO DAMASCUS BETHEL JACOB'S WELL GALILEE

I

CHAPTER XV.

DOWN TO JERICHO VALLEY OF THE JORDAN PLAIN OF GILGAL

253

278

CONTENTS.

13

CHAPTER XVI.

^THE DEAD SEA CITIES OF THE PLAIN LOT'S WIFE

294

CHAPTER XVII.

FORTRESS OF MASADA, ENGEDI, AND CLIFF OF Ziz

305

PART III. TRANS-JORDANIC PALESTINE.

CHAPTER I.

THE LAND OF MOAB FORTRESS OF MACH^RUS PRISON OF JOHN THE

BAPTIST

315

CHAPTER II.

HOT SPRINGS OF CALIRRHOE MOABITE STONE AND POTTERY

329

CHAPTER III.

MOUNT PISGAH GRAND OUTLOOK FROM ITS SUMMIT

341

CHAPTER IV.

LAND OF GILEAD REMARKABLE RUINS WILD SONS OF ISHMAEL

350

CHAPTER V.

STONE CITIES OF BASHAN AND THE HAURAN GIANT RACES

366

CHAPTER VI.

THE LAND OF Uz TRADITIONAL PALACE OF JOB

382

CHAPTER VII.

AHGOB AND PADAN-ARAM HARAN PROBABLY IN SYRIA

393

CHAPTER VIII.

LATEST DISCOVERIES IN ASSYRIA AND PALESTINE-RECOVERY OF NINEVEH 404

CHAPTER IX.

14

CONTENTS.

PART IV.

ASIA MINOR.

CHAPTER I.

AUCTKXT ANATOLIA TURKISH BULK LOST ARTS

CHAPTER II.

SKVEN CHURCHES OP ASIA TEMPLE OF DIANA ATHENS

CHAPTER III.

RISE AND FALL OF EMPIRES IN THE LIGHT OF PROPHECY

CHAPTER IV.

THE CRUSADERS THEIR OBJECT AND HEROES

APPENDIX.

CHAPTER I.

EGYPT AND THE EGYPTIANS

CHAPTER II.

THE SOUDAN AND EL MAHDI

CHAPTER IIL

MULTUM IN PABVO VERY LATEST DISCOVERIES

JEWISH COINS.

PACK

457

474

501

521

537

559

57J

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Aaron's Tomb

Adonis, River

Adullara, Cave of

Alexandria, Modern AH Diab, Sheik of the Adwans

American Consulate, Jerusalem

Apis, or Sacred Bull

Arabs Eating

Arak el Emir, Rock-hewn Palace

Arch, Ecce Homo

Askelon, Ruins of Assyrian Black Obelisk

Assyrian Sculpture and Seals

Assyrian Tablet of the Deluge

Baalbec, Great Stone

Baalbec, Ruins of Temple

Baal, Head of

Banias, Grotto and Source of the Jordan

Bedouin Camp

Beelzebub, Image of*.

Beersheba

Bethlehem, Church of the Nativity

Bloody Way

Bozrah, Ruins of

Bridge, Natural, Mt. Lebanon

Bridge, Robinson's

Calirrhoe, Hot Springs

Camels, Ships of the Desert

Camp Life in the Holy Land

Capernaum and Sea of Galilee

Castle of Subeibeh, Mount Hermon

Cave under Dome of the Rock

Cedars of Lebanon

Cesarea Philippi, Baniaa

FAOB

171

440

207

34

351

Frontispiece

57

352

356

134

228

411

408, 409, 414, 415

412

436

430

385

274

352

425

221

189

279

378

441

150

331

97

112

269

276

162

438

272

J6

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Church of the Ascension

Church of the Holy Sepulcher

('

in-.

Ancient Jewish, Widow's Mite

Colossal Statues, Thebes

Convent of St. Catharine

Crucifixion

Damascus, View of

Damascus, Wall and East Gate Dead Sea, from Engedi

Donkey of Alexandria

Down to Jericho

Dromedary Riding

Egyptian Boat, Ancient

Egyptian Brick

Egyptian Funeral

Egyptian Gate-way Egyptian Remains, Island of Philse

Egyptian Sculpture Hebrews Making Brick Egyptian Temple, Exterior Egyptian Temple, Interior

El Aksa, Temple Inclosure

El

Kuzneh, Petra Engedi and Cliff of Ziz

Ephesus, Ruins of

Fish Pools of Heshbon

Flight into Egypt Flint Knives, from Tomb of Joshua

Ford of the Jordan

Fountain at Tomb of Dorcas

Gadara, Ruins

Gate of Damascus, Jerusalem

Gate- way of the Sik, Petra

Gethsemane and Olivet Golden Gate, Temple of Solomon

Grapes of Palestine

Great Sea under Temple Court

Grecian Temple Hauran

Grinding at the Mill

Hadrian's Statue, Head of

Haggai's Seal

Hebrew Inscriptions

Hebron

Hezekiah's Pool and Dome over the Tomb of Christ

.'

.'

1 ----

141

161

473

75

99

185

432

433

310

37

280

271

41

73

59

21

79

25, 86

 

69

31

158

103

310

479

321

24

284

?

285

182

363

254

102

138

146

365

147

392

136

427

1 54

422

219

170

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Hiram's Tomb

Hyrcanus, Castle of

Inscribed Rocks Wady Mukatteb

Jacob's Well

Jaffa, from the Sea

Jerash, Mahanaim

Jericho, Ruin

Jerusalem, Plan of the City

Jerusalem, View from Olivet Jerusalem, View from the Wall

Jew, Polish

Jew's Wailing Place

Job's Traditional Palace, Kunawat

Joseph's Tomb

Karnak, Temple of

Kedron Valley

Kirjath Jearim Emmaus

Lamps, Egyptian Last Judgment, Egyptian

Levitical Cities, Plan of

Lotus of the Nile Luxor, Ruins of

Machserus, Fortress of

Maps of Palestine and Gulf of Suez

.17

PAGE

 

242

355

 

.'

100

 

175

121

360

287

131

125

144

117

129

388

175

64

'

 

135

122

89

86

423

32

61

328

3, 91

Mars' Hill, Athena

 

498

Masada,

Fortress and Synagogue

307

Moabite Pottery and Images

 

345

Moabite Stone

336

Moabite Vase and Inscription

420

Mosque of Omar

155

Mountains East of Dead Sea

297

Mount Carmel and Convent

245

Mount Tabor

249

Mummy Case, Egyptian

 

55

Nablotw, Ancient Shechem

260

Nazareth

263

Nineveh, Excavations

 

405

Oak of Abraham

215

Oak of Bachan

'.

358

Obelisk, HeliopolU

44

Palm Trees

201

Pompey's Pillar Pools of Solomon

36

203

18

LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS.

Pyramids

Quarantania, Mount of Temptation

Kabbah Ammon

Rachel's Tomb

Kamtwium, Colossal Statue

Rehoboam, Son and Successor of Solomon

Robber's Retreat Rock-cut Tombs, Jewish

Rock-hewn Tombs Interior

Samaria, Ruins

Sealed Fountain

Seals, Assyrian

Smitten Rock

Sphinx

Sphinx, Theban

Springs of Moses, Mount Pisgah

Stone

Stork and Nest

Suez Canal

Table-ware, Egyptian

Temple of Isis, Island of Philse

Houses of the Hauran, Stone Door

Tomb

of Bishop Kingsley

Tomb of Christ

Tomb of David, with Diagram

Tomb of Joseph Tomb of the Judges

Tombs of the Kings, Egypt

Tyre

Vaults under the Temple Platform

Water-Wheel for Irrigation

Well of Abraham

Wells of Moses

Wilderness of Judea

Winged Globe, Egyptian

Winged Lion, Nineveh

Wooden Statue, found at Memphis

j

MM

46

291

318

192

74

67

265

181

174

261

204

414, 415

223

51

62

344

.371, 397

480

40

72

84

442

165

177, 179

175

173

544

240

143

277

221

95

198

63

408

27

PART I.

EGYPT IN ITS RELATION TO THE BIBLE.

"The LORD did bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt

with

a mighty hand, and with an outstretched arm." Ex. xii, 51 ; Deut. xxri, 8.

EGYPTIAN GATE-WAY.

BURIED CITIES RECOVERED,

OR,

RECENT EXPLORATIONS IN BIBLE LANDS.

CHAPTER I

OUR INHERITANCE IN EGYPT.

Oldest Civilized Portion of the Globe The Bible written on her Monuments-

Egyptian Chronology No Conflict with the Mosaic Account History Lost

in Mystery The " Rosetta Stone "Religion of the Old Egyptians.

fPHE present century has been noted for its discoveries in science

*

and explorations among the ruins of the past.

Europe and

America have been vying with each other in the recovery of lost

arts, lost languages, lost cities, and lost nations.

Thus far, no discovery has been made that conflicts with Rev-

elation. These disentombed cities are not composed of dead-walls,

but living stones, witnessing to the truth of Scripture.

Egypt and Palestine are so closely related, and their histories

so interwoven, it is difficult to write about the one without includ-

ing the other, as so many events in sacred history transpired in the

valley of the Nile. Abraham, when driven by famine from Ca-

naan, found here a home and plenty ; the beautiful narrative of Joseph is located here ; Jacob and his sons settled here in the

land of Gosh en ; here Moses was born, and the Passover was in-

stituted ; the wife of Solomon was a daughter of the reigning Pha-

raoh ; and hither the holy family fled for safety from the bloody

24

BIBLE LANDS.

sword of Herod; thus fulfilling the prophecy, " Out of Egypt have I called my Son." 1 And, what is very remarkable,

many names

mentioned in the Scriptures,

such as Ham,

Mizraim, Potiphar, Shishak, Asenath the wife of Joseph,

and others, are still found written on her monuments, and

many incidents of the Bible are recorded in sculpture and

hieroglyphics on her grand temples. In one place we have

what appears to be a representation of Joseph introducing his

FLIGHT INTO EGYPT.

brethren to Pharaoh ; in another, the Hebrews making brick,

with a decree ordering them to build the temple and quarry stone for Rameses; their task-masters standing by with

scourge in hand urging them " not to be idle ;" and in still

another, an account of the exodus, or

a race of strangers

going up out of Egypt and settling in Syria, under a leader

by the name of Osarsiph, which is identical with that of Moses,

the name being derived from Osiris, the golden Apis. Also,

an account of plentiful harvests, and the filling of the royal

> Matthew ii, 15.

EGYPTIAN CHRONOLOGY.

25

granaries with corn, followed by a great famine, agreeing with

that which prevailed in the time of Joseph.

1

Egypt is probably the oldest civilized portion of our globe.

Little, however, is known of her history prior to Abraham ;

in fact, nothing reliable.

The works of Manetho, her only his-

torian, who wrote B. C. 285, have long since been lost, and

all we know of his writings is what has been transmitted to

us by later authors, after passing through many hands, and, no doubt, greatly perverted.

EGYPTIAN SCULPTURE HEBREWS MARINO BRICK.

Some claim for this country a much higher antiquity than

the Mosaic chronology or the facts will warrant, as must ap-

pear to every candid reader who investigates the subject. In dealing with this question of chronology we shall do so with

reverence and freedom reverence for every thing sacred and

venerable, freedom in regard to the opinions and theories of others with the one desire to arrive at the truth in relation to

the age of those wonderful remains that mark the development

of our world's civilization.

It is claimed, for example, that on the ancestral tablets only

i,6

BIBLE LANDS.

lately recovered the names of certain Pharaohs are found, each reigning so many years, and when yon come to compote the

whole list it carries yon back beyond our era five thousand

Bnt then they overlook the

years or more.

Which is true.

important fact that these kings did not reign successively, but, in many instances, contemporaneously, rival Pharaohs being

on the thrones of Upper and Lower Egypt at the same time,

and in other instances father and son were associated in the

government of the country. Then there are many gaps or omissions in these tablets which, when supplied with the

proper data, remove all difficulties in harmonizing the Hebrew

and Egyptian chronology.

It is further argued that the sediment deposited during the

annual

overflow of the Nile accumulates at the rate of so

many inches in a century, and, as from twenty to thirty feet

of this alluvial deposit are found over some of these buried

cities, they, therefore, must be from six to eight thousand

years old. This, however, does not follow, as the deposit some years is much greater than others, and forms in the eddies over

these ruins much faster than out on the naked plain.

This

whole argument reminds me of the logic of a noted humorist, 1

who, in ridiculing the theories of some of our modern scien- tists, says : " It can be easily demonstrated that the Mississippi

River, by washing out new channels across her great bends, has

shortened the distance between Cairo, at the mouth of the

least one hundred and sixty

miles in the last two hundred years;" which being admit-

ted, he then very amusingly concludes, "that if this process

continues for two thousand years longer, New Orleans will

And this is about the weight

Ohio, and New

Orleans, at

be where

Cairo now stands 1 "

i Mark Twain.

EGYPTIAN REMAINS.

27

of the arguments advanced against the chronology of the

Bible.

the oldest

It is also a notable fact that the oldest relics found in

tombs of

Egypt are wooden coffins and idols,

in many instances not the least decayed ; embalmed mummies,

the linen wrappings upon them scarcely soiled ; rolls of papyri

WOODEN STATUE. ONE OF THE OLDEST RELICS FOUND IN EOYPT.

28

BIBLE LANDS.

as legible as if written on bnt yesterday; eggs, looking ai

fresh as if just taken from the nest ; garden seeds and wheat,

said still to retain their vitality; loaves of bread, different

kinds of vegetables, even honey in the comb ; nothing to war

rant a more remote antiquity than the Mosaic account, espe-

cially if we adopt the Septnagint standard. And what makes these statements of the skeptic appear even more absurd i*

the fact that in some of these cities which they affirm have

been buried ten thousand years or more, recently have been

found coins and pieces of pottery belonging to the Greek and Roman period. And the zodiac carved on the ceiling of

the temple at Denderah, which at first was claimed by the French to be from fifteen to seventeen thousand years old, hai since been proven to belong to the first century of our era.

We admit that, next to the Bible, the monuments of Egypt

contain the earliest chronological history of our race, but these

records are not entirely reliable, in part owing to the lack of