0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

39 просмотров14 страницFisher

May 23, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

Fisher

© All Rights Reserved

0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

39 просмотров14 страницFisher

© All Rights Reserved

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

Published in ASHRAE Transactions 2004, Vol 109, Part 2. For personal use only. Additional distribution in

NA-04-9-1 either paper or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAEs permission.

Functions and Periodic Response Factors

in Cooling Load Calculation Procedures

Ipseng Iu D.E. Fisher, Ph.D., P.E.

Student Member ASHRAE Member ASHRAE

the transfer function equations, discuss implicit assumptions

This paper presents an overview of the conduction trans-

associated with each form, and illustrate by way of an example

fer function (CTF) and periodic response factor (PRF) meth-

calculation the use of the various methods. Particular attention

ods of calculating conductive heat transfer. Different forms of

is given to the conduction transfer function methods presented

the equations used in cooling load calculations are compared

in the ASHRAE Loads Toolkit. An algorithm that uses the

and contrasted. Particular attention is given to the methods

toolkit CTF module is presented along with a simple program

included in the ASHRAE Loads Toolkit. The toolkit contains

to generate CTFs and PRFs for use in cooling load procedures.

the source code for ASHRAEs new load calculation methods,

the heat balance method (HBM) and the radiant time series The heat balance method (HBM) is the standard

method (RTSM). Each method uses a similar, but different, ASHRAE load calculation method as described in the

conduction calculation technique.The HBM uses CTFs and the ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals (2001). This method is

RTSM uses PRFs. Since there are limited numbers of CTFs and based on simultaneously satisfying a system of equations that

PRFs in the literature, the toolkit algorithms provide a means includes a zone air heat balance and a set of outside and inside

of calculating CTFs and PRFs for stand-alone computer heat balances at each surface/air interface. The system of

programs or for generating CTF and PRF libraries. This paper equations may be solved in a computer program using succes-

describes the CTF and PRF algorithms in the toolkit and sive substitution, Newton techniques, or (with linearized radi-

demonstrates implementation of the toolkit modules in a ation) matrix methods.

program that calculates CTFs and PRFs. The radiant time series method (Spitler et al. 1997) is a

simplified method that does not solve the heat balance equa-

INTRODUCTION tions. The method is heat-balance based to the extent that the

In order to effectively use the ASHRAE cooling load storage and release of energy in the zone is approximated by

procedures, it is necessary to understand and correctly apply a predetermined zone response, called radiant time factors

conduction transfer functions (CTFs) or periodic response (RTFs). By incorporating these simplifications, the RTSM

factors (PRFs) to the conductive heat transfer calculation. calculation procedure becomes explicit, avoiding the require-

Although response factor and transfer function methods are ment to solve the simultaneous system of heat balance equa-

well established in the literature (Stephenson and Mitalas tions. The method is useful not only for peak load calculations

1971; Hittle 1979; Ceylan and Myers 1980; Seem 1987; but also for estimating component contributions to the hourly

Ouyang and Haghighat 1991), misconceptions persist cooling loads. If the radiant time factors and the periodic

concerning their application to cooling load procedures. response factors for a particular zone configuration are known,

Several forms of the equations relating to different boundary the RTSM may be implemented in a spreadsheet.

conditions are shown in the literature. Methods of calculating In both the HBM and the RTSM, two simplifying assump-

the coefficients differ, and their accuracy is not easily checked. tions are made in solving the wall heat conduction problem.

Ipseng Iu is a graduate student and D.E. Fisher is an assistant professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oklahoma State Univer-

sity, Stillwater, Okla.

First, heat conduction is assumed to be one-dimensional. Two- Conduction Transfer Function (CTF) Formulations

dimensional effects due to corners and nonuniform boundary The CTF formulation of the surface heat fluxes involves

conditions are neglected. Second, materials are assumed to be four sets of coefficients. Following Spitlers nomenclature

homogeneous and have constant thermal properties. As a (McQuiston et al. 2000) X, Z, and Y are used to represent the

result, the diffusion equation of conductive heat transfer prob- exterior, interior, and cross terms, respectively. Equation 3a

lem is simplified as shown in Equation 1. With the use of shows the zeroth outside and cross terms operating on the

Fouriers law (Equation 2) for calculating conductive heat current hours surface temperatures. Hout is the flux history

flux, Equations 1 and 2 are the governing equations of conduc- term as shown in Equation 3b. Together the current hours

tive heat transfer problems in cooling load calculation. surface temperatures and the history term yield the total flux

at the outside surface.

2

T ( x, ) 1 T ( x, )

--------------------- = --- ------------------- (1)

x

2 t q ko, = Y 0 t is, + X 0 t os, + H out (3a)

where

T ( x, )

q = k ------------------- (2)

x Ny Nx N

H out = Y n T is, n + X n T os, n + n q ko, n

Although the one-dimensional, transient conduction

n=1 n=1 n=1

problem can be solved analytically, the analytical solution is (3b)

immediately complicated when the analysis is extended to

multi-layered constructions. Analytical solutions for multi- Likewise, Equations 4a and 4b show the flux at the inside

layered slabs require special mathematic functions and surface.

complex algebra. Ultimately, numerical methods must be

employed at some level to solve the problem. Solution tech- q ki, = Z 0 t is, + Y 0 t os, + H in (4a)

niques include lumped parameter methods, frequency

where

response methods, finite difference or finite element methods,

and Z-transform methods (McQuiston et al. 2000). The toolkit Nz Ny N

implements Laplace and state-space methods for calculating

H in = Z n T is, n + Y n T os, n + n q ki, n

conduction transfer functions (CTFs) and provides an algo- n=1 n=1 n=1

rithm to derive periodic response factors (PRFs) from a set of (4b)

conduction transfer functions.

As indicated in Equations 3 and 4, the current heat fluxes

CTFs and PRFs are dependent only on material properties are closely related to the flux histories. The flux histories,

and reflect the transient response of a given construction for shown as constant terms in Equations 3 and 4, are not only

any set of environmental boundary conditions. Since material related to previous surface temperatures but also related to

properties are typically assumed to be constant in HVAC ther- previous heat fluxes. Equations 3a and 3b or Equations 4a and

mal load calculations, it is possible to pre-calculate these coef- 4b are usually solved iteratively with an assumption that all

ficients. Although CTF and PRF coefficients for typical previous heat fluxes are equal at the beginning of the iteration.

constructions are available in the ASHRAE Handbook The converged solution produces flux history terms (Hout and

Fundamentals (2001) and Spitler and Fisher (1999b), the Hin) that correctly account for the thermal capacitance of a

ASHRAE Loads Toolkit (Pedersen 2001), makes it possible to given construction.

quickly and accurately construct a stand-alone computer The temperatures operated on by the conduction transfer

program that will calculate CTFs and PRFs for any arbitrary functions may be either surface or air temperatures. Surface-

wall configuration. This paper presents an algorithm for pre- to-surface CTFs, which operate on surface temperatures and

calculating these coefficients using the toolkit modules. are required by the heat balance method, have the advantage

of allowing for variable convective heat transfer coefficients.

FORMULATIONS OF Air-to-air CTFs operate between either the sol-air tempera-

TRANSFER FUNCTION EQUATIONS ture or the air temperature on the outside and the air setpoint

temperature on the inside. Air-to-air CTFs include the appro-

The transfer function equations for conduction calcula- priate film coefficients as resistive layers in the wall assembly.

tion are formulated differently in load calculation methods. As shown in Figure 1, surface-to-surface CTFs are represented

The HBM uses conduction transfer functions (CTFs), while by the thermal circuit between Tos and Tis, while air-to-air

the RTSM uses periodic response factors (PRFs). In the HBM, CTFs are represented by the thermal circuit between To and Ti.

the instantaneous conduction flux is represented by a simple For constructions with the same material layer arrangement

linear equation that relates the current rate of conductive heat and properties, the surface-to-surface CTFs are always the

transfer to temperature and flux histories, while in RTSM, the same, while air-to-air CTFs differ depending on the selected

conduction flux is a linear function of temperatures only. values of the film coefficients.

Figure 1 CTF schematic diagram.

The 1997 ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals presents factors) rather than CTFs to calculate conductive heat trans-

an air-to-air conduction equation that includes additional fer through walls and roofs. PRFs operate only on tempera-

simplifications. The b and c terms shown in Equation 5 operate tures; the current surface heat flux is a function only of

on the sol-air temperature and the constant room air tempera- temperatures and does not rely on previous heat fluxes, as

ture, respectively. shown in Equation 8.

6 6 6

23

q e, = b n T e, n d n q e, n T rc c n (5)

n=0 n=1 n=0

q = P j ( T e, j T rc ) (8)

j=0

It should be noted that Equation 5 is suitable only for load

calculations. Historically, it was used in the Transfer Function This formulation is premised on the steady, periodic

Method (TFM) (McQuiston and Spitler 1992) and can be used nature of the sol-air temperature over a 24-hour period (Spitler

without loss of generality in the Radiant Time Series Method et al. 1997). Although the number of PRFs may vary, the 24

(RTSM). PRFs shown in Equation 8 correspond to 24 hourly changes in

Although Equations 3 through 5 are solutions to the tran- the sol-air temperature for a single diurnal cycle. It is clear

sient, one-dimensional conduction problem, it is useful to

from Equation 8 that the overall heat transfer coefficient, U, is

consider the steady-state limit of these equations. Under

represented by the sum of the periodic response factors as

steady-state conditions, the exterior and interior heat fluxes

are equal and the following identities are readily apparent shown in Equation 9.

(Equation 6):

23

Nx Ny Nz 6 6 U = Pj (9)

Xn = Yn = Zn or b n = c n (6) j=0

n=0 n=0 n=0 n=0 n=0

The periodic response factor directly scales the contribu-

In combination with the standard formulation for steady-

tion of previous fluxes (in the form of temperature gradients)

state heat transfer through a wall ( q = U T ), an expression

to the current conductive heat flux. As a result, the periodic

for U, the overall heat transfer coefficient, in terms of conduc-

response factor series provides a visual representation of the

tion transfer functions can be derived as shown in Equation 7.

thermal response of the wall. As shown in Figure 2, wall 17 has

Ny 6 a slower thermal response then roof 10 because it is a more

Yn bn thermally massive construction.

n =0 n =0 -

U = ------------------------

N

- or Uf = ---------------

6

(7) PRFs are directly related to CTFs as shown in Equation 10

n=1 n=1 CTFs. The toolkit uses this method to calculate periodic

response factors.

Periodic Response Factor (PRF) Formulations

As formulated in the ASHRAE Loads Toolkit, the Radi- P = d-1b (10)

ant Time Series Method for design load calculations uses peri-

odic response factors (PRFs) (also called conduction time where

be calculated from surface-to-surface CTFs. This reflects the

actual conduction response of a construction without consid-

ering the outside and inside film coefficients.

IMPLICIT ASSUMPTIONS OF

TRANSFER FUNCTION EQUATIONS

The assumptions behind the transfer function equations

come from the CTF calculation methods. Two widely used

CTF calculation methods are the Laplace method (Stephenson

and Mitalas 1971; Hittle 1979) and the state-space method

(Ceylan and Myers 1980; Seem 1987; Ouyang and Haghighat

1991). A brief overview of these two methods is included in

the following sections.

Figure 2 Periodic response factors for Roof 10 and Wall Laplace Transform Method

17. Hittle (1979) introduced a procedure to solve the conduc-

tive heat transfer governing Equations 1 and 2 by using the

Laplace transform method. The system in the Laplace domain

is shown in Equation 14.

P0 P5 P4 P3 P2 P1

D ( s ) 1

P1 P0 P5 P4 P3 P2

q ki ( s ) ----------- -----------

B(s) B(s) Ti ( s )

= ------------

- (14)

P2 P1 P0 P5 P4 P3 1 A ( s ) To ( s )

q ko ( s ) ----------- --------------

P = P3 P2 P1 P0 P5 P4 (11) B(s) B(s)

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . . gular temperature pulse to the inside and outside surface of the

P 23 P4 P3 P2 P1 P0 multi-layered slab. The response factors are defined as an infi-

nite series of discretized heat fluxes on each surface due to

both an outside and inside temperature pulse. Hittle also

1 0 0 d3 d2 d1 described an algebraic operation to group response factors into

d1 1 0 0 d2 CTFs, and to truncate the infinite series of response factors by

d2 d1 1 0 0 the introduction of flux history coefficients. A convergence

d = (12) criterion shown in Equation 15 is used in the Laplace method

to determine whether the numbers of CTFs and flux history

coefficients are sufficient such that the resulting CTFs accu-

rately represent the response factors.

d3 d2 d1 1

Nx Ny Nz N

Xn = Yn = Zn = U ( 1 n ) (15)

b0 0 0 b3 b2 b1 n=0 n=0 n=0 n=1

b1 b0 0 0 b2

where

b2 b1 b0 0 0

b = (13) Nx = N y = N z

The Xn, Yn, and Zn are exterior, cross, and interior CTFs,

respectively. They are equivalent to CTFs shown in Equations

b3 b2 b1 b0 3 and 4. The number of CTF terms will increase to satisfy the

criteria shown in Equation 15. Heavyweight (long thermal

As shown in Equation 10, the PRFs are related to the cross response time) constructions require more CTFs than light-

and flux CTF terms. The first column of the P matrix is the weight constructions.

resulting PRFs, P0, P1, P2, ., P23. Since the sol-air temper- The number of CTF terms can be determined in different

ature is used in RTSM conduction calculations, the b and d ways. Mitalas (1978) suggests that the number of CTF terms

matrices must be filled with air-to-air CTFs. This eliminates should be

the surface heat balance calculations in HBM. However, if

conductive heat transfer is an isolated concern, the PRFs can Nx = Ny = Nz = 1+N, (16)

and there is no limited number of CTF terms in this approach. The number of CTF terms is increased until the ratio of the last

Peavy (1978) suggests that the number of flux CTF terms to the first flux history coefficient is less than a tolerance limit.

should always be less than or equal to 5, even for thermally

massive walls. COMPARISON OF RESULTS FROM LAPLACE

AND STATE-SPACE METHODS

State-Space Method Since Laplace and state-space CTFs are calculated differ-

ently, the resulting CTFs are expected to be different even for

The use of the state-space method in solving the govern-

the same slab. The number of CTF terms, and/or the numerical

ing Equations 1 and 2 was introduced by Seem (1987). The

value of each single CTF can be different. Table 1 lists the

state-space expression is formulated by using either finite-

CTFs from the Laplace and the state-space methods for

difference or finite-element methods to discretize the govern-

ASHRAE roof number 10 (ASHRAE 2001). The Roof 10

ing equations. The state-space expression relates the interior

construction is an eight-layer construction consisting of

and exterior boundary temperatures to the inside and outside

membrane, sheathing, insulation board, metal deck, and

surface heat fluxes at each node of a multi-layered slab as

suspended acoustical ceiling. Note that as presented in the

shown in Equations 17 and 18.

Handbook, the inside and outside layers of these construction

types are resistance layers that model the combined effects of

dT is dt T is radiation and convection on inside and outside surfaces,

. . Ti

. = a .. + b respectively; the resulting CTFs are therefore air-to-air type.

. (17)

To The data on the right-hand side of the tables are calculated

dT os dt T os

from the Laplace method, while the data on the left-hand side

are from the state-space method. The summation of each CTF

T is series and the U-factors are also shown in the tables for

q ki . Ti

= c .. + d (18) comparison. Conduction transfer functions are not unique for

To any construction. The differences can be in terms of the

q ko T os number of CTF terms and/or numerical values. However,

under steady-state condition, these resulting CTFs will predict

The exterior and interior temperature variations, Ti and To, the same U-factor. As shown in Table 1, both CTFs from

are modeled with piecewise linear functions. Equations 17 and Laplace and state-space methods predict nearly the same over-

18 can be simplified using some matrix algebraic calculations, all heat transfer coefficient.

so that the surface heat fluxes are directly related to the surface The number of CTF terms generated by the toolkit

and boundary temperatures only. This system of equations is algorithms is determined by the thermal mass of the

solved directly for CTFs, without calculating response factors. construction materials. Table 2 compares Roof 10 CTFs to the

2 -1 2 -1 2 -1

CTFs bn, Wm K cn, Wm K dn bn, Wm K cn, Wm2K-1 dn

0 1.84341408E-02 1.55869365E+00 0.00000000E+00 1.79231787E-02 1.55760048E+00 0.00000000E+00

Wm2K-1

Construction Roof 10 Wall 17 Roof 10 Wall 17

Number of CTF terms 6 8 4 6

2 -1

U-factors, Wm K 3.79868921E-01 7.22031659E-01 3.79862500E-01 7.22032100E-01

Wall 17 (ASHRAE 2001) CTFs. Wall 17 is a six-layer rithms address this problem by automatically selecting an

construction consisting of brick, insulation board, and brick. appropriate number of CTF terms. Note also from Table 2 that

Note that the more thermally massive wall 17 has eight CTF

the number of CTF terms is also related to the the method of

terms, while the relatively lightweight Roof 10 has six. The

more thermally massive the construction, the greater the calculation. The toolkit Laplace method generates less CTF

number of CTF terms regardless of the CTF solution terms than the state-space method. However, the resulting

technique used. overall heat transfer coefficients are nearly the same.

Although the maximum number of terms reported in the

1997 ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals is seven, thermally The PRFs of Roof 10 can be derived according to Equa-

massive constructions may require more terms for accurate tions 10 to 13. Using the Laplace CTFs listed in Table 1, the

calculations (Giaconia and Orioli 2000). The toolkit algo- resulting d and b matrices are shown below.

1 0 2.95287743E 02 3.90083134E01

3.90083134E01 1 0 0 2.95287743E02

2.95287743E02 3.90083134E01 1 0 0

d = 0 2.95287743E02 3.90083134E01 1 0 0

0. 0. 2.95287743E02

. 3.90083134E01

. 1. . 0.

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

0 0 0 2.95287743E02 3.90083134E01 1

1.52697088E01 1.79231787E02 0 2.25362542E03 7.00275192E02

7.00275192E02 1.52697088E01 1.79231787E02 0 2.25362542E03

b = 2.25362542E03 7.00275192E02 1.52697088E01 1.79231787E02 0 0

0. 2.25362542E03

. 7.00275192E02

. 1.52697088E01

. 1.79231787E02

. . 0.

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

0 0 2.25362542E03 7.00275192E02 1.52697088E01 1.79231787E02

Table 3. Periodic Response Factors of Roof 10 (Wm2K-1)

P0 1.84341408E-02 P12 7.38448080E-07 P0 1.79231800E-02 P12 7.35175100E-07

shown in Table 3 are to be expected since both the methods and

the convergence criteria used to determine the state-space and

Laplace CTFs are different. The accuracy of the node number

criterion used in calculating state-space CTFs does not

necessarily match the convergence criterion of the root finding

procedure in the Laplace CTF calculation. In addition, some

differences due to computer round-off error when converting

CTFs to PRFs are expected.

TO CALCULATE CTFS AND PRFS

Each ASHRAE Loads Toolkit module contains a set of

subroutines and functions required to achieve its computa-

tional objective. The following sections describe the incorpo-

ration of the CTF modules in a stand-alone program that

generates CTFs and PRFs.

The algorithm consists of a driver program that first calls

the toolkit CTF routines to calculate CTFs and then converts

the CTFs to PRFs by applying Equation 10. The required

After taking the inverse of d and calculating d-1b, the P surface construction information is in standard toolkit input

matrix is calculated. Table 3 lists the first column of the P file format and is read using the toolkit input processor as

matrix, i.e., PRFs of Roof 10 from Laplace CTFs. The overall described by Crawley et al. (1998). The overall procedure is

heat transfer coefficients were calculated using Equation 9 and shown in Figure 3 and can be summarized as follows:

are also shown for comparison. The values only differ at the 1. Get the surface and construction information from the input

eighth significant digit compared to the overall heat transfer file.

coefficients calculated using Equation 7 and shown in Tables 2. Pass this information to the CTF computational module and

1 and 2. While the CTFs can be different for the same slab, calculate CTFs.

PRFs represent the construction thermal response and theo-

3. Print the CTF results to an output file.

retically must be unique for any slab. Table 3 illustrates that the

PRFs for Roof 10 are the same when calculated from Laplace 4. Convert the CTFs to PRFs.

and state-space CTFs. 5. Print the resulting PRFs to another output file.

ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia 835

Figure 4 Structure of the toolkit CTF and PRF calculations.

Table 4. Required Data Values in the Toolkit Input File for CTF and PRF Calculation

SURFACE Surface name; construction ID

MATERIALLAYER Layer names; thickness, thermal conductivity, density, specific heat or thermal resistance

Structure of the Algorithm the application of a graphical user interface as discussed in the

next section.

The structure of the algorithm for CTF and PRF calcula- The function GetNumObjectsFound and the subroutine

tions is shown in Figure 4. The USE statement is a Fortran GetObjectItem in this module are used in the CTF and PRF

90 keyword that makes the subroutines in a FORTRAN 90 calculations. GetNumObjectsFound returns the number of

module available to a program, subroutine, or another module. surfaces in the calculations, while GetObjectItem returns

USE is followed by the toolkit module name. Subroutines in two arrays containing all data values (numeric and alpha) for

one FORTRAN 90 module cannot be called by another the keyword Surface. Although there will be a number of

module unless the calling routine or module uses the target surface data values returned from this subroutine, only the

surface name and the construction ID are useful for the calcu-

module. The module InputProcessor handles all input data.

lations. The argument variables of this subroutine are

The data are organized under keywords with a one-to-one

described in the toolkit documentation (Pedersen 2001). In a

correspondence between each definition and data value. The similar way, the data associated with the keywords

keywords for calculating CTFs and PRFs are SURFACE, CONSTRUCTION and MATERIALLAYER are read into the

CONSTRUCTION, and MATERIALLAYER. Table 4 shows program.

the required data for each keyword. By changing the data The program can be configured to use either the Laplace

values of these keywords, the toolkit generates different CTFs or the state-space CTF module. Figure 4 shows the program

and PRFs. Although manual construction of a toolkit input configured to use the StateSpaceCTFCalc module. It

data file is tedious, the structured input format is conducive to contains subroutines that import the construction and material

layer data, generates CTFs, and performs related calculations. THE TOOLKIT USER INTERFACE

The subroutine CalcStateSpaceConduction is the main call- TO CTF AND PRF GENERATOR

ing routine of this module. It was modified to obtain the To facilitate calculation of CTFs and PRFs and illustrate

desired output format of the CTFs and to facilitate calculation the utility of the ASHRAE Loads Toolkit, a simple user inter-

of PRFs. The inputs to this subroutine are surface number and face to the FORTRAN 90 program was developed. This inter-

construction names. The surface number is assigned in order face and a compiled version of the program can be

of appearance of the surface data in the input file; construction downloaded from www.hvac.okstate.edu and freely used for

names are identifiers for each set of data and are used to map any purpose. The toolkit program was compiled into a

the construction data to a specific surface in the computational dynamic link library (DLL) file. When this file is called from

algorithm. the interface, it imports data from the input file, generates

CTFs and PRFs, and prints them to separate output files. The

The inputs to the PRF subroutine are the number of CTF inputs to this DLL file are the names of the toolkit idd and idf

terms and the cross and flux CTFs. These data are used to fill files. The interface allows the user to display the output on a

the b and d matrices shown in Equation 10. FORTRAN matrix spreadsheet or notepad for further application or analysis. In

functions are used to calculate the PRFs and the results are addition, related information, including surface names,

printed to an output file. If the PRFs are to be used in the constructions, and U-factors, is displayed by the interface.

RTSM, air resistance layers must be included at both inside The dialog box shown in Figure 5 guides the user in creat-

and outside of the construction specification in the input file. ing a valid toolkit input file by requesting definition of surface

Once the air resistance layers have been added, the resulting names, number of layers, and material properties. The number

CTFs and PRFs will be air-to-air type, as described earlier. of material layers is limited by the toolkit algorithm to ten.

Material layer data are entered from outside to inside. Material

Typical inside and outside resistance values for vertical

layers can be either resistive, as illustrated by layer F01, or

surfaces are 0.12 and 0.04 (m2KW-1) or 0.68 and 0.25

completely specified, as illustrated by layer G03 in Figure 5.

(hft2FBtu-1), respectively (ASHRAE 2001). The air-to-air It should be noted that only fully specified layers capture the

PRFs can be directly applied to the RTSM; however, the air- expected lag and decrement effect of thermal mass. The

to-air CTFs cannot be used in the HBM since the inside and resistance layer option should only be used for material layers

outside convection coefficients are already included in the with low thermal capacitance. This primarily applies to air

heat balance calculations. layers but is often also applied to glazing.

Figure 5 Dialog box used for creating toolkit input file (IP).

Figure 6 Material database.

The default layer type of fully specified properties, can be Evaluation of the Program Outputs

changed by clicking the Edit button. For input convenience, The PRF generator can efficiently and conveniently

an ASHRAE material database, which contains the data calculate the desired CTFs and PRFs for any construction.

shown in Table 22, chapter 29, 2001 ASHRAE Handbook This section establishes the validity of the program in terms of

Fundamentals, is included as shown in Figure 6. This database the self-consistency of the program outputs, the agreement of

can be modified and saved for future reference. The interface program output with previously published data, and the

conservation of energy based on a steady-state test.

can handle up to 100 surfaces, which may be specified in either

Consistency of PRFs and CTFs. Since the U-factor is

SI or IP units. All IP unit data are converted to SI units by the

unique for any construction and since it can be calculated

interface before writing the input file, since input to the toolkit either using CTFs or PRFs, the U-factor check can be used to

modules must be in consistent SI units and in accordance with evaluate the program algorithm that converts CTFs to PRFs.

toolkit conventions. Figure 7 compares the U-factors calculated by CTFs and PRFs

Figure 8 Comparison of the PRF generator outputs to the PRF database of Spitler and Fisher (1999b), Wm2K1.

for the wall and roof database used by Spitler and Fisher Therefore, the total thermal resistance is calcuated using

(1999b). The diagonal line represents a zero percent difference Equation 22.

between the two. The results show nearly perfect agreement

n

between the CTF and PRF U-factors. The differences show up

RT = Ri (22)

in the fifth decimal place and are probably due to round-off

i=1

error.

Comparison with Published Data. The second step in If the calculated U-factor from the steady-state Equation

evaluating program output is based on the fact that the PRF 19 is equal to that from the CTFs and PRFs, energy is

series is unique for any construction regardless of whether it conserved. Figure 9 shows the comparison of the program

is derived from Laplace or state-space CTFs. Since a PRF output U-factors with the steady-state U-factors based on the

database for the walls and roofs in the ASHRAE Handbook same construction database used by Spitler and Fisher

Fundamentals is already available in the literature (Spitler and (1999b). The U-factors shown on the vertical axis are the PRF

Fisher 1999b), the validity of the program outputs is evaluated U-factors from Figure 7.

by a term-by-term comparison of calculated and published Figure 9 shows that use of the program outputs to calcu-

PRFs for each construction, as shown in Figure 8. The small late U-factors is satisfactory. The steady-state U-factors agree

differences shown in the figure could be caused by slight with the calculated U-factors to within 3.4%. Although some

numerical differences in the input data, the type of CTFs used round-off error is expected, the root cause of the differences is

to derive PRFs, as well as the round-off error in both calcula- primarily due to the convergence criteria used in the Toolkit

tions. In addition, if the convergence criterion used in the CTF module. The CTFs calculated from the computer program are

calculation is different from that used by Spitler and Fisher based on the default Toolkit settings. A better result is obtained

(1999b), it would also cause the numerical difference in the if one tightens the convergence criteria in the Toolkit CTF

PRFs. In general, the program outputs agree very well with the module.

published data. The steady-state evaluation is necessary but not sufficient

Steady-State Evaluation. The program outputs for a to guarantee the accuracy of the transient calculation. A more

given construction can also be verified at the steady-state limit rigorous transient evaluation would apply a sinusoidal temper-

by comparing the U-factor predicted by the CTFs or PRFs ature variation to the outside surface and a constant tempera-

with that predicted by the steady-state calculation. At steady ture to the inside surface and compare the resulting heat flux

state, the U-factor is calculated as shown in Equation 19. to the analytical solution presented in ASHRAE RP-1052

(Spitler et al. 2001). However, for most standard construc-

1

U = ------ (19) tions, the steady-state test is a good indicator of CTF and PRF

RT

accuracy.

The thermal resistance for each layer is calculated using

either Equation 20 or 21. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Transfer function equations continue to provide a robust,

1

R = --- for air resistance layer (20) accurate, and tractable approach to calculating conductive

h

heat gains in cooling load procedures. This paper illustrates

L two commonly used formations in conduction calculation,

R = --- for thermal mass layer (21)

k i.e., CTF and PRF formulations. The application and the rela-

Figure 9 Comparison of the PRF generator U-factors to the steady-state U-factors, Wm2K1.

tion between CTF and PRF are discussed. Although care must NOMENCLATURE

be taken to consistently apply CTFs and PRFs, depending on a, b, c, d = coefficient matrices that depend on material

whether they were generated with or without a convective properties and/or film coefficients

resistance layer, the application of boundary conditions and b = 2424 air-to-air cross CTF coefficient

solution techniques is straightforward and consistent. matrix (Equation 13)

Implicit assumptions of the two CTF calculation methods d = 2424 air-to-air flux CTF coefficient matrix

(Laplace and state-space) imply that CTFs can be different for (Equation 12)

the same material construction. The differences are in terms of

C = material capacitance, JC-1 (BtuF-1)

number of CTF terms and the CTF numeric values. Hower-

bn = air-to-air cross CTF coefficient, Wm-2K-1

ever, the predicted overall heat transfer coefficients are the

(Btuh-1ft-2F-1)

same. PRFs represent the thermal response of a material

construction and therefore are unique regardless of the calcu- cn = air-to-air interior CTF coefficient,

Wm-2K-1 (Btuh-1ft-2F-1)

lation methods. An example comparing the Lapalce and state-

space methods showed that the more thermally massive dn = air-to-air flux coefficient, dimensionless

construction (Wall 17) carries more CTF terms and has slower A(s), B(s), D(s) = overall transmission matrices that depend on

thermal response than Roof 10. material properties and/or film coefficients

In the past, the most serious drawback to the use of trans- hi = inside film coefficient, Wm-2K-1

fer function and response factor methods was the complexity (Btuh-1ft-2F-1)

of the computer code required to generate the coefficients. The ho = outside film coefficient, Wm-2K-1

ASHRAE Loads Toolkit addresses this problem by providing (Btuh-1ft-2F-1)

the source code required to generate conduction transfer func- k = thermal conductivity, Wm-1K-1

tions and periodic response factors for arbitrary wall or roof (Btuh-1ft-1F-1)

constructions. The computational algorithm required to n = number of layers

implement the toolkit modules in a CTF/PRF generator Nx = number of exterior CTF terms

program was presented in this paper. In addition, input/output Ny = number of cross CTF terms

and interface issues were discussed. The CTFs and PRFs

Nz = number of interior CTF terms

calculated by the Toolkit algorithms can be directly applied to

heat balance and radiant time series load calculation proce- N = number of flux CTF terms

dures. P = 2424 PRF matrix (Equation 10)

The outputs of the computer program were evaluated Pj = periodic response factors, Wm-2K-1

based on the physical significance of the CTFs and PRFs and (Btuh-1ft-2F-1)

were compared to the published literature. A simple method q = heat flux, Wm-2 (Btuh-1ft-2)

for checking the steady-state accuracy of CTFs and PRFs was qki = heat flux at interior surface, Wm-2

also used in the evaluation. The results showed that based on (Btuh-1ft-2)

the steady-state check, program outputs are within 3.4% of qko = heat flux at exterior surface, Wm-2

the calculated U-factor. (Btuh-1ft-2)

q = heat flux for the current hour, Wm-2 Ceylan, H.T., and G.E. Myers. 1980. Long-time solutions to

(Btuh-1ft-2) heat conduction transients with time-dependent inputs.

qe, = heat flux at interior surface, Wm-2 ASME Journal of Heat Transfer 102 (1): 115-120.

(Btuh-1aft-2) Crawley, D.B., L.K. Lawrie, C.O. Pedersen, R.J. Liesen,

qki(s) = inside flux terms in the Laplace domain D.E. Fisher, F.C. Winkelmann, and W.F. Buhl. 1998.

qko(s) = outside flux terms in the Laplace domain EnergyPlus: The new generation energy simulation pro-

gram beyond BLAST and DOE-2. ASES Passive Con-

R = material resistance, mKW-1

ference, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Boulder, Colorado,

(hft2FBtu-1in-1)

ASES.

T = temperature, C (F)

Hittle, D.C. 1979. Calculating building heating and cooling

Te, = sol-air temperature, C (F)

loads using the frequency response of multilayered

Ti = inside air temperature, C (F) slabs. Ph.D. thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-

To = sol-air or outside air temperature, C (F) Champaign.

Tis = inside surface temperature, C (F) McQuiston, F.C., and J.D. Spitler. 1992. Cooling and Heat-

Tos = outside surface temperature, C (F) ing Load Calculation Manual, 2d ed., pp. 2.1-2.14.

Trc = constant room temperature, C (F) Atlanta: ASHRAE.

Ti(s) = interior boundary temperature in the Laplace McQuiston, F.C., J.D. Parker and J.D. Spitler. 2000. Heating,

domain. ventilating, and air conditioning Analysis and design,

To(s) = exterior boundary temperature in the 4th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Laplace domain. Mitalas, G.P. 1978, Comments on the z-transfer function

U = overall heat transfer coefficient, Wm-2K-1 method for calculating heat transfer in buildings.

(Btuh-1ft-2F-1) ASHRAE Transactions.

Uf = overall heat transfer coefficient with film Ouyang, K.,and F. Haghighat. 1991. A procedure for calcu-

coefficients, Wm-2K-1 (Btuh-1ft-2F-1) lating thermal response factors of multi-layered walls

x = heat flow direction, m (ft) State space method. Building and Environment 26 (2):

Xn = surface-to-surface exterior CTF coefficient, 173-177.

Wm-2K-1 (Btuh-1ft-2F-1) Peavy, B.A. 1978. A note on response factors and conduc-

Yn = surface-to-surface cross CTF coefficient, tion transfer functions. ASHRAE Transactions.

Wm-2K-1 (Btuh-1ft-2F-1)

Seem, J.E. 1987. Modeling of heat transfer in buildings.

Zn = surface-to-surface interior CTF coefficient, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Wm-2K-1 (Btuh-1ft-2F-1)

Spitler, J.D., and D.E. Fisher. 1999a. On the relationship

= thermal diffusivity, m2s-1 (ft2s-1)

between the radiant time series and transfer function

= time step methods for design cooling load calculations. Interna-

= time tional Journal of Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning

= time, s and Refrigerating Research 5 (2): 125-138.

n = flux coefficient, dimensionless Spitler, J.D., and D.E. Fisher. 1999b. Development of peri-

odic response factors for use with the radiant time series

REFERENCES method. ASHRAE Transactions 105(2).

ASHRAE. 1997. 1997 ASHRAE HandbookFundamen- Spitler, J.D., D.E Fisher and C.O. Pedersen. 1997. The radi-

tals. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerat- ant time series cooling load calculation procedure.

ing and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ASHRAE Transactions 103 (2), 503-515.

ASHRAE. 2001. 2001 ASHRAE HandbookFundamen-

tals. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerat- Spitler, J.D., S.J. Rees and D. Xiao. 2001. Development of

ing and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. an analytical verification test suite for whole building

Pedersen, C.O. 2001. Building loads calculation toolkit. energy simulation programs Building fabric,

Urbana, IL: Building Systems Laboratory, Department ASHRAE 1052-RP final report. Atlanta: American

of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, University of Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Engineers, Inc.

Giaconia, C., and A. Orioli. 2000. On the reliability of Stephenson, D.G., and G.P. Mitalas. 1971. Calculation of

ASHRAE conduction transfer function coefficients of heat conduction transfer functions for multiplayer slabs.

walls. Applied Thermal Engineering 20: 21-47. ASHRAE Transactions 77 (2):1.17.

This paper has been downloaded from the Building and Environmental Thermal Systems

Research Group at Oklahoma State University (www.hvac.okstate.edu)

Iu, I., D. Fisher. 2004. Application of Conduction Transfer Functions and Periodic

Response Factors in Cooling Load Calculation Procedures. ASHRAE Transactions,

110(2): 829-841.

Reprinted by permission from ASHRAE Transactions (Vol. #110, Part 2, pp. 829-841).

2004 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.