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Subject:- BENCH MARK / BASELINE SURVEY OF SUSTAINABLE

LIVELIHOODS IN BARANI AREAS PROJECT

Project Director, SLBAP has forwarded a copy of Benchmark/Baseline


Survey of his project. This study has been carried out by PIDE, Islamabad. This survey
was conducted to meet conditional ties of loan agreement. TOR of the survey have also
been provided in Annex-I alongwith questionnaire used by the survey team.
Salient features of the survey have been presented in the executive
summary which consists on 4 pages (i to iv).
Objective of the Study
Report provides basic information before the project interventions for
comparison and baseline against which progress on the objective of the project can be
measured.
Methodology
In this document both formal and informal sampling techniques have
been adopted for the survey. Twelve hundred and ninety four male and female farmers
were interviewed. The sample also includes non-project area for comparison.
Salient Features
Salient features and findings of the baseline survey are as under:-
i. About 70 percent households (HHs) were directly engaged in
agricultural. On an average HHs owns almost 32 kanals, which were 34
and 28 kanals in SLBAP and non-project areas.
ii. The overall tenure in the sample areas was 85, 9 and 6 percent owner,
tenant and owner-cum-tenant.
iii. Sowing methods reported by the 67.7 percent farmers was broad cast
followed by 23.8 percent by drill and 8.5 percent by keras.
iv. Majority of the framer (61.5%) were using tube well for irrigation.
v. The most common organic fertilizers 81% was 81 FYM.
vi. A large segment (47%) of the farmers was selling their product at the
local market.
vii. Weeds were creating serious constraint as reported by the farmers (46%).
viii. On an average livestock farmers were traveling 1.37 kms in order to
fetch water to their animals.
ix. There was more milk production (6.3 litter/day) during winter as of
summer (6.0 litter/day) for cattle (Buffalos and cows)
x. Around twenty seven percent farmers own buffalo/cow with an average of
two HHs three animals and 34 percent cattle.
xi. Diseases were reported as the major animal constraint by 32 percent.
xii. On an average the family size reported by the sample respondents was 7.47
per HH.
xiii. Cold and fever were the most common diseases reported by the HHs,
malaria and diarrhea were also common diseases.
xiv. Almost 50 percent respondents borrow loan. The major source is from
relative (45%), followed by shopkeeper/merchant (15%), friends (13%), banks
(11%), RSPs (6%), etc in the overall survey.
xv. The major purposes of loan was for consumption (38%) followed by social
events (38%), other (19%), inputs (12%), livestock’s (4%), etc.
xvi. Loans were taken on an average for two years which was across all the
categories.
xvii. Less than three rooms per HH were reported amongst all categories.
xviii. Major source of energy for cooking was fire wood (48%) followed by crop
waste (21%),
xix. The major source of drinking water was hand pump.
xx. Majority of the HHs possessed flush type toiled with (48%) pit and 12
percent public flush. Substantial number 36 percent HHs indicated no toilet.
xxi. The adjusted poverty line of Rs. 1023 per month per adult equivalent has
been used in the study.
xxii. Overall the incidence of poverty in barani areas was 19.2 percent in 2007.
The incidence of poverty was lower in project areas, about 17 percent, than in
control areas, 24 percent. It appears that areas covered by SLBAP are relatively
better off.
xxiii. Zone-level poverty estimates show that incidence of poverty is lowest in
Rawalpindi zone (15.6%) and it is highest in Sialkot zone (22.6%).
xxiv. Poverty levels vary from only 11 percent for Chakwal district to 25 percent
for Sialkot district.
xxv. Decisions regarding arranging marriage and solving family disputes were
mainly done by male (58.5 and 61.1 percent).
xxvi. Majority of the male (58%) HHs of the sample supervised their farm
operation while only 3 percent female supervise the operations.
xxvii. Forty three percent women were availing loan while their percentage was
little higher (43.5%).
xxviii. Eighty nine percent of overall survey HHs responded that roads were
developed with devolution and this response was higher (90%) in the project area
as of (83%) in non project area.
This study was carried out in accordance with the requirement of the
project. The information may be useful to carry out on going evaluation of the project.
As copy of report already sent by SLBAP to ADB and all concerned so no
further action is warranted. However, good questionnaire methodology and TOR are
available in this report and thus similar studies can be managed in other forth coming
project like Tribal Areas Development Project (TADP), Bahawalpur Rural Development
Project (BRDP), etc. Copy of the report may be sent to PD, TADP and BRDP for
replication of this model.

(MUHAMMAD ASLAM CH.)


CHIEF (RP)
18.03.2009

SECRETARY, P&D