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SIMPLE INTEREST P (r1t1 r2t2 r3t3 ....)


SI =
100
SI = Simple Interest If sum is made X times, rate is made Y
times and time is made Z times then
Basics
percentage increase or decrease in SI would
P R T be
SI
100 % inc. / dec. in SI = (X Y Z 1) 100
A=P+SI Say, if a principle is tripled and rate is halved
A 100 and time is made 4 times than what is the %
P increase in SI?
100 R T
Where % increase in SI = 3 1 4 1 100
2
P = Principle or Sum
R = Rate = 500%
And T = Time If SI is a/b times of Sum and numerical value
A = Amount of Rate and Time is same then
Time saving tricks Time/Rate =
a
100
If a sum makes n times of itself in t years b
then

Rate = (n 1) 100 COMPOUND INTEREST


t
If a sum make n times of itself at rate of r
then BASICS
T
Time = (n 1) 100
A P 1
R
R 100
If a sum become m times in t years then it T

R
become n times in CI P 1 1
100

Time = (n 1) t
(m 1) Equivalent Rate
If a sum P become A after t years ,then if When T = 1 When T = 2 When T=3
rate increases and decreases by R% then P Year Years Years
becomes
RATE RATE RATE
A = A P R T
100 2% 4.04% 6.1208%
Say, if 500 becomes 550 in one year at a 3% 6.09% 9.2727%
certain rate, then if rate if increased by 5% ,
4% 8016% 12.4864%
then after one year new amount will be
5% 10.25% 15.7625%
A = 550 (500 5 1) 575
100 6% 12.36% 19.1016%
If a sum becomes P in a years and become Q
7% 14.49% 22.5043%
in b years at simple interest then
(Q P) 100 8% 16.64% 25.9712%
Rate =
diff. of P b and Q a 9% 18.81% 29.5029%
and 10% 21% 33.1%
If time is given in fraction then, say time
sum= diff. of P b and Q a = xY
diff. of b and a Z
If sum is laid on r1% for t1 years, r2% for t2
years and so on then

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Then A P 1 R 1 R Y
x
PROFIT AND LOSS
100 100 Z

To find out rate in different cases Profit (P) = SP CP
When A, P, T is given Loss (L) = CP-SP
P or L
A
1/t
P or L% = 100
R 1 100 CP
P
CP = SP 100
When sum become A1 in t1 time and A1 in t2
time 100 P or L %

1
SP = CP 100 P or L%
A2 t2 t1 100
R 1 100%
A
1

When a sum become x times of itself in t TIME SAVING METHODS
years
1 If an item is get at x% of P/L at SP1 and y%
R x t 1 100% at SP2 then

SP1 100 x% (use + sign for profit and sign for loss)

When a sum becomes n1 in t1 time and n2 SP2 100 y%
in t2 time
If an item is get x% of P/L at Selling A
1
items at Rs R1 and y% P/L at selling B
n2 t2 t1 items at Rs R2 then
R 1 100%
n
1
R1

If a sum become Then, A 100 x

R2 100 y
in t years then it becomes in B

Time = t p
n (use + sign for profit and sign for loss)

When difference (D) between CI and SI is If cost price of X items of is equal to selling
given price of Y items, then
2
P/L = x y 100%
For two years D = P R Y
100

If X items are purchased in Y Rs and Y
For three years
items are sold in X Rs, then
2
R 300 R 2 2

D P Profit% = X Y 100%
100 100 2
Y

When CI and SI of two years is given

2
Loss% = Y X 100%
2

Rate = CI SI
100% 2
Y
SI of one year
If x items are purchased in a Rs and y
When CI and SI of second year is given
items are sold in b Rs
CI SI (SI)2
Profit = bx ay 100%
Rate = 100% Sum =
SI CI SI

ay
Installments Amount of every installments
= Total amount Loss = ay bx 100%

100
1
100
2
ay
100 R 100 R .....n times
In case of dishonest shopkeeper
where n is no. of installments. P or L % = Error made by shopkeeper
Original Value Error made by shopkeeper

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If two items are of same CP, one is sold at a PERCENTAGE


profit of a% and other is sold at a loss of
b% then

Overall P or L% = (a b) %
Fraction Percentage Fraction Percentage
2 values values
1/2 50 1/3 1
NOTE: If two items are sold at same SP, one 33
at x% profit and other at x% loss then 3
always Loss will occur 1/4 25 1/5 20
2
Overall L% =
x 1/6 2 1/7 2
% 16 14
100 3 7
And if two items are having same CP and at 10
1/8 1 1/10
x% profit and other at x% loss then 12
2
Overall P or L% =0 %
1/11 1 1/12 1
But: If two items are sold at same SP, one at 9 8
x% profit and other at y% loss then 11 3
remember net Profit or Loss % is 1/13 9 1/14 1
7 7
xy 13 7
xy
100 1/15 2 1/16 1
6 6
In this case, net Profit or Loss % 3 4
= 100(x y) 2xy 1
1/20 5 1/24
4
200 x y 6
If two items are have total CP = A and one 1/25 4 1/30 1
3
item is sold at P% profit and other is sold at 3
L% loss then
1/40 1 1/50 2
L 2
CP of item sold at profit = 2
P L A
1/50 2 5/6 1
83
CP of item sold at loss = P A 3
P L
3/8 1 5/8 1
37 62
If two items have a total CP = A and have 2 2
same SP and one is sold at x% profit and 4/7 1 5/7 3
other is sold at y% loss then, 57 71
7 7
CP of item sold on profit
P% increase/decrease while making the
= 100 y A expenditure same

200 x y Required inc./dec. in consumption
P
CP of item sold on loss = 100 x = 100
A 100 P
200 x y
If on selling an item at Rs X and profit If value of an item is increased from P Rs/Kg
percentage is numerically equal to CP then to Q Rs/Kg, then for considering the
expenditure same, the required decrease in
CP = 10 x 25 50 consumption will be
If on selling an item at Rs X and profit is = Q P 100
equal to loss occurs on selling it at Rs Y , Q
then
When we require equivalent percentage of
CP = x y x % and y%
2

Req. = x y xy
100
If a person spends A% on first thing, B% of
remaining on another thing and C% of

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remaining on other thing and left with Rs x, 100 100


then his income will be %
x
INCOME = 100 100 100 If initial population/rent is A and it is

100 A 100 B 100 C increased/decreased by x% in first year and
y% in second year so on for n years then
If cost of sugar is increased by 20% and final population/rent will be
hence a person purchase 5kg less sugar on Rs
500. Then what is the original and increased Final value = initial value 1 x
1
y

price of sugar? 100 100

Short Trick: Inc. / dec. price (P)

= (price given) (% inc. / dec.) Speed, Time and distance


100 (Quantity given)

Original Price (P) = P 100 Distance (m/sec)


Speed
100 % inc. / dec. Time
Use + for profit and for loss.
Note that in this equation if one thing is
constant and other two are varying then we
Increased price =
500 20
20 Rs/Kg can easily solve questions by simple
100 5 proportionate method or by applying ratio.
Original price = 20
100 For Example:
16.67Rs/Kg
100 20 If a car covers a distance of 144 km in 4 hrs
If a candidate gets P% of votes and get lost then how much distance it will cover in 9 hrs.
by a votes then Here speed is constant and distance and time
a varies So,
Total no. of votes will be = 50
50 P By simple Ratio method
If price of sugar is increased by 20% and a D1 D2

lady can only increase her expenditure by T1 T2
10%, then by what % consumption will be
144 D2
reduced so that expenditure will not exceed
further, 4 9
D2 324 km
Short Trick:
Like this way we can solve countless
Dec in consumption :- a b 100 examples in easy way.

100 a
When relation between V1 (speed), V2 (speed),
Dec in consumption = 20 10 100 D (distance) and T is given

100 20 V1 V2
D T (where T is Time difference).
= 8.33 % V1 V2
In a mixture of salt of 8 litres, 40% is salt, if 2 (Note here we cannot apply simple ratio
litres water is vaporized then how much salt method because here all D,V, and T are
will left now? variable.)
Short Trick:- Types of question on which above formula
given value %given implies are
Left salt
given value added or extracted value A man goes with a speed of x and reaches
(+ is used for added and is used for extracted) the shop a minutes late. If he walks with a
speed of y then he reaches the shop b
minutes earlier. Find his distance to shop?
Left salt =
8 40 A boy goes to school at a distance of D kms
53.33%
82 with a speed of x. find the time he will save if
If income of A is x% of B then what Bs goes with the speed of y?(y>x)
income is what % of As income

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If a boy covers a certain distance D in t1 First train leaves P at a oclock and reach Q
time. Then with what certain speed he will at b oclock and another train starts from Q
cover the distance in t2 time? at x oclock and reach P at y oclock. Then
Average speed both trains will meet at
When two speeds x and y are given Time of meeting the trains = a (b a)(y a)
Vavg = 2xy
(b a) (y x)
xy Two guns shots are fired from one place with
When three speeds x, y and z are given a time interval of 16 minutes. But a man in
the train which is moving opposite to bullets
Vavg = 3xyz
hears the shots with a time interval of 15
xy yz zx minutes. If speed of sound is 300m/sec , then
When more than three speeds are given what is the speed of train?

Vavg = Total distance Short Trick:


Total time Speedtrain Timetrain = Speedsound T (where
th
T is time difference)
If a person walks with a speed of x of its
S 15 = 300 (16-15)
y
original speed and reaches the destination by S = 20 m/sec OR 72 kmph
t minutes late, then train crosses a man (standing on platform) in
40 sec and a train of same length, coming
Original Speed = x t
xy from opposite to the direction of first train
crosses the man in 60 sec. find the time in
If a speed of a bus without rest is x km/hr. if which the trains cross each other?
it travels with delays/rest then its speed is y.
then find out how much it delayed every Short Trick:
hour? 2t1t2
2 40 60
T T 48 sec
t1 t2 40 60
delay or rest per hour
Similarly, if both trains are moving in same
= difference
60 minutes direction then time will be,
Original speed
2t1t2
xy T
OR 60 t1 t2
x
A train crosses two man going in same
If a vehicle goes for a certain distance by
direction with speeds of 8m/sec 12m/sec in
speed of x and return the same distance with
8sec and 10sec respectively. Find speed of
a speed of y and take a total time of t hours
train?
then
Short Trick:
Total Distance = 2xy t
xy diff. of (v1t1 v2t2 )
Speed
If a person take x hrs by waking to a place
t1 t2
and return by a horse. And take y hrs when (where, v is speed and t is time)
goes and return both by horse. Then
12 10 8 8
Time taken for going and returning the Speed 28 m/sec
10 8
distance through walking = x+y hrs
Time taken for going and returning the
distance through horse = x-y hrs Average and Age Relation
If A starts from a point P with a speed of x
Sum of first n natural numbers =
n(n 1)
and B starts from a point Q with a speed of
y, they meet at a point C and after meeting 2
at C, A take t1 time to reach Q and B take t2 (n 1)
Average of first n natural numbers =
time to reach P. Then ratio of their speed 2
1
x t2 2 Sum of square of first n natural no
n(n 1)(2n 1)
y t1 =
6

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Average of square of first n natural no. 5 40 = 22.5


=
=
(n 1)(2n 1) 2
6 (n 1)
Average of first n multiples of k = k
Sum of cubes of first n natural no. 2
2
(n 1)
= n(n 1) Average of first n whole numbers =
2 2

Average of cubes of first n natural no. Different types of questions and their
2
speedy methods.
= n (n 1) If average of five consecutive even no. is 20,
2
then find the max and min value?
Sum of first n even no. = n(n+1) Short Trick:
Average of first n even no. = (n+1) For n consecutive even/odd no.
Sum of first n odd no. = n
2 Max value = avg +(n - 1)
Average of first n odd no. = n Min value = avg - (n-1)
Sum of squares of first n odd/even no. Max value = 20 + (5-1) = 24

N(N 1)(N 2) Min value = 20 (5-1) = 16


=
6 Average weight of 15 students is 30 kg. if
teacher is also included then average wt. will
Note here N = Last term not no. of terms. increase by 2kgs.then find the weight of
For example: teacher?
Short Trick:
567
12 + 32 + 52 = = 35 OR 22 + 42 + 62 Teachers age =15 2 + (30+2) = 62 years
6
6 7 8 = 56 Average of 15 students is 50 kgs. On coming
= of a new person the average weight decreases
6 by 4kgs. Find the weight of new member?
Average of any uniform series will always be
Wt. of new member = 15 4 - (50 - 4) = 14kgs
=
first term last term
NOTE When In a group one person comes or
2 goes from group, then the age/weight of that
For example: Person will be
5,10,15,20,25,30,35,40 New person weight = original no. of member
Average of above series will be (increase or decrease in average) new
average
=
(5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40)
22.5 For Included/added/increased use + sign
8
For excluded/goes/decreased use - sign
OR
When two or more persons added or left the
Average =
first term last term group then the avg. age/wt of the
2 added/reduced members will be

Short Trick:

originalno.of member

new average


avg. age/weight of the increase or decrease in average
no.of
newly added / excluded members


added / reduced members
no.of newly added / excluded members

For Included/added/increased use + sign


For excluded/goes/decreased use - sign

For Example: If avg. of 13 students of a Avg. of new members


group is 40kg. when two new members added
to the group then avg. of the group is =
(13 4) (40 4) (2) 70 kg.
increased by 4kgs. Find avg. of two new 2
members?

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When one person of a group is replaced by 89 39


other, then wt/age of new member Corr. avg. (32) 31
50
Short Trick:
New persons age = (total no. of members of group
increase/decrease in avg) (age of replaced person) AGE RELATIONS
For increase in average use + sign If age of a person = x years
For decrease in average use - sign His age after t years = x+t years
For Example: In a class of 8 members His age before t years = x - t years
average Wt. of class in increased by 2kgs If age of a person before t1 years is x years,
when one boy of wt. 30kg is replaced by a and his age after t2 years will be = x + t1 + t2
new boy? Find out the Wt. of new boy?
If age of a person after t1 years is x years,
Wt. of new boy = (8 2) + 30 = 46kg and his age before t2 years will be = x - t1 - t2
When all the numbers of a data is If ratio of a:b = 3:5 and after 12 years ratio
increased/decreased/multiplied/divided by a of their ages will be 3:4. Find present ages of
number and new avg. is asked then we simply A and B?
increased/decreased/multiplied/divided the
In this type of questions best method is to
old Avg. with that number.
equate ratios. As the increment in both ratios
For Example: Average of 12 nos. is 20. If is 10 years hence we will first make the
every number is divided by 2 then find the difference of ratios equal
new avg. of 12 numbers?

New avg. of 12 numbers = 20 =10


2
When avg. of consecutive odd/even nos. is
given, ie., always remember that consecutive
odd/even nos. form uniform series and we
know for a uniform series the average is
always the middle term, hence this concept
will be used to find out the consecutive odd
nos.?
For Example: If avg. of five consecutive odd
nos. is 15. Then find out the greatest Note-But originally there is a increase of 12
number? years, so we have to multiply +3 with 4
Say, five consecutive odd numbers = A, B, C, therefore, value of 1 ratio is 4
D, E Hence, multiply 4 in each ratio to get original
And we know by above concept values
That the avg. of above five numbers will be C 3 4 12 6 4 24

(i.e. middle term of the series) 5 4 20 8 4 32
Hence, C = 15,
So, E=15 +4 =19 (difference between two Original ages of Ages of A and B
consecutive odd nos. = 2)
A and B after 12 years
When from a series/group/class some number
is miss-spelt/read and we have to calculate If A is as much younger than B as he is older
the corrected average than C then,
Short Trick: Short Trick:
A : B : C : = 1:2:3
true valuefalse value
Corr. avg. (old avg.) Age of A = (sum of ages of B + C)
Total no.
If Bs present age is x times of the age of A
For example:
before t years, then

Average of 50 nos. is 32. But it was found Age of B A t x



that 89 has been read in place of 39. Then x 1
Find out the new avg.?

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If difference of ages of two persons A and B is Note - (2 1)/2 is in power of x


given and ratio of ages after/before t years
become a:b, then
As age after/before t years
. = x
= a
(diff. of ages)
diff. of a and b
In all other forms just assume the complex
term as say x and proceed.
Bs age after/before t years For example: Find the value of
= b
(diff. of ages)
diff. of a and b 2 3 3
4 2 4 . .
If sum of ages of A and B is given as y and t
years before As age was n times of Bs age Say
then

Present age of B y (n 1) 3
n1

= 2 4 2 34 . . (i)

Power and Indices


3
2 = 2 4 2 34 . .
= + ( 2 )3 = 8 4 from eq. (i)
am an
n m
6 = 32
So, 5 = 32
= 1 / = 2.

= 1/ in the expression
/
= ( 1/ ) = 1/
( )
/ = + + + . if
0 = 1 x=x*(x+1),
= (/ )
then
( )n = a
answer will always be = (x+1)
For example: Find value of

=
a b a b 2 ab
12
a b ab + 12 + 12 + 12 . .
a b a b 2 ab here, 12 = 3*4, answer will be 4

a b ab Similarly, in the expression

a/ = a/x
.
a/( + ) = a( )x-y

+ + = 2xy if x=x*(x+1),
then answer will always be = (x-1)
+ x-y For example: Find value of

56

. 56 56 56 . .
here, 56=8*7, answer will be 7
1)/2

= (2 If not so the case

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non zero no. then resulting series will also be


For example: 15 + 15 , a AP.
+ 15 + . .
in this type of questions where no exact form In an AP sum of terms equidistance from
is appearing then assume the identity as x beginning and end will be constant.
and solve by quadratic equation To solve problems related to AP, one must
assume following terms for easy and speedy
Let x = 15 + 15 + solving
15 + . .
3 terms : (a-d),(a),(a+d)
2 = 15 + x 4 terms : (a-3d),(a-d),(a+d),(a+3d)
2 -x- 15 = 0 5 terms : (a-2d),(a-d),(a),(a+d),(a+2d)
Now solve the quadratic equation by below Where a= first term
formula
d= common difference
b b2 4ac n= no. of terms
X
2a l=last term
If in a group of n persons every man 2. Geometric Progression
handshake with other. Then what is the total It is a series of non zero nos. in which ratio of
no. of handshakes have made? any term and its preceding term is always
In this type of questions. constant.
Total no. of handshakes = n(n-1) General representation of a GP is : a, ar, ar2,
ar3 .
If in a party of n persons, every person gives
gift to another person. Then find out the total Where a is first term and r is common ratio
no. of gifts are given in the party? If a, b, c are in GP then,
2 = ac
This type of questions is different from above nth term of a GP is: Tn = arn1
one because here every person give gift to
other person not to each other, hence here sum of first n terms of a GP is

Total no. of gifts = n(n-1)/2 a(rn 1)


(if r 1)
(r 1)
sum n
Series a(1 r ) (if r 1)
(1 r)

1. Arithematic Progression Sum of an infinite GP is


It is a progression with constant inc. /dec. sum = a
ie. 3,6,9,12. 1r
General representation of an AP is if a, b, c are in GP then b is called as
a, a + d, a+2d, a+3d Geometric Mean(GM) between a and c.


Sum of and A.P = {2a+(n-1)d} 2 =ac
2
Note if a and c are of opposite sign then their
Or
GM doesnt exist.
= (no. of terms) first term last term Taking terms in GP
2
3 terms: a/r,a,ar,
Nth term of A.P Tn = a +(n-1)d
5 terns : a/ 2 ,a/r,a,ar,ar2
If a, b, c are in AP then b is the arithmetic
mean between a and c. If a, b ,c are in GP then a b a
bc b
so, b a c In a GP Product of terms equidistance from
2
beginning and end is remain constant.
If a, a1, a2, a3 ..an, b are in AP, then we
3. Harmonic Progression
can say that a1, a2, a3 ..an are n arithmetic
means between a and b. a1, a2, a3 will be in HP if 1 , 1 , 1
If each term of an AP is increased, decreased, a1 a2 a3
multiplied and divided by a same constant are in AP.

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i.e. 1/2, 1/6, 1/10


In this case, b 2ac
Hence ac
General term of a HP = If a, a1, a2,..an , b are in HP, then a1,
1 1 1 a2,..an are n harmonic means between a
, , ... and b.
a (a d) (a 2d)
Relationship between AM, GM and HM
If a, b, c are in HP then, 2 1 1
b a c (GM)2 AM HM
Nth term of a HP is: Tn = 1
And, AM GM HM
a (n 1)d
If a, b, c are in HP, then b is called as
harmonic mean(HM) between a and c. There properties are extremely useful in
getting max. and min. values.

Miscellaneous
Some useful data to remember to save time

number square cube 4th power 5th power sq. root cube
root
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 4 8 16 32 1.414 1.260
3 9 27 81 243 1.732 1.442
4 16 64 256 1024 2.000 1.587
5 25 125 625 3125 2.236 1.710
6 36 216 1296 7776 2.449 1.817
7 49 343 2401 16807 2.646 1.913
8 64 512 4096 32768 2.828 2.000
9 81 729 6561 59049 3.000 2.080
10 100 1000 10000 100000 3.162 2.154
11 121 1331 14641 3.317 2.224
12 144 1728 20736 3.464 2.289
13 169 2197 28561 3.606 2.351
14 196 2744 38416 3.742 2.410
15 225 3375 50625 3.873 2.466
16 256 4096 65536 4.000 2.520
17 289 4913 83521 4.123 2.571
18 324 5832 104976 4.243 2.621
19 361 6859 130321 4.359 2.668
20 400 8000 160000 4.472 2.714

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21 441 9261 4.583 2.759


22 484 10648 4.690 2.802
23 529 12167 4.796 2.844
24 576 13824 4.899 2.884
25 625 15625 5.000 2.924
26 676 17576
27 729 19683
28 784 21952
29 841 24389
30 900 27000
31 961 29791
32 1024 32768
33 1089 35937
34 1156 39304
35 1225 42875
36 1296 46656
37 1369 50653
38 1444 54872
39 1521 59319
40 1600 64000
41 1681 68921
42 1764 74088
43 1849 79507
44 1936 85184
45 2025 91125
46 2116 97336
47 2209 103823
48 2304 110592
49 2401 117649
50 2500 125000

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