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International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Research Technology (IJEART)

ISSN: 2454-9290, Volume-1, Issue-6, December 2015

The Change Effect for Boundary Conditions to


Minimize Error Bound in Lacunary Interpolation
by Forth Spline Function
Muhannad A. Mahmoud

i
AbstractThe researcher interested in spline function xi , i 0,2,....,2m and n=2m+1 . We define
because it is necessary function in interpolation process, by 2m
putting a certain condition for spline function from forth degree
which is as follows the class of Spline function S P ( 4,3, n ) as follows :
any element S ( x)S P (4,3, n) if the following
Sn( x0 ) 0, Sn( x2 m ) 0 , then the aim of this research
condition satisfied :
is to change the previous boundary conditions which is as (i ) S ( x) C 3[0,1]
Sn( x0 ) f ( x0 ), Sn( x2 m ) f ( x2 m ) to get minimum
(ii) S ( x) is polynomial of deg ree four in each [ x2i , x2i 2 ] (1)
error for spline function from forth degree. i 0,1,..., m 1

In this paper we prove the following :
Index Terms Spline function ; Boundary Conditions. Theorem 1:
Given arbitrary number f ( x2 i ) , f (t 2 i ) i=0,1,2,n-1

I. INTRODUCTION and f ( 2) ( x ), f ( 2) ( x2 m ) there exists a unique spline


S n ( x) S p (4,3, n) such that
Spline functions appears in the late middle of twentieth
century, According to Schoenbery [5] , the interest in Spline S n ( x2 i ) f ( x2i ) i 0,1,2....., m

functions is due to the fact that , Spline function are good tool S n (t2i ) f (t2i ) i 0,1,2...., m 1 (2)
for the numerical approximation of functions and that they ( 2)
( x0 ) f ( 2) ( 2)
( x2 m ) f ( 2)
suggest new ,challenging and rewarding problems . For more
S n ( x0 ) , S n ( x2 m )
information about a Spline function , one is referred to Alberg
,Milson and walsh [1] .Lacunary interpolation by Spline
appears whenever observation gives scattered or irregular Theorem 2:
information about a function and its derivatives , but with out Let f C 4 [0,1] and S n Sp(4,3, n) be a unique
Hermite condition . Mathematically , in the problem of
spline satisfying the condition of (theorem 1.1) , then
interpolation given data a i, j by polynomial p n (x ) of 1
S ( x) f ( r ) ( x) 5.6404257m r 4 w( f , ) m r 4 f ( 4) ; r 0,1,2,3
(r )
n
degree of most n satisfying : m

where
1
p ( xi ) ai , j
( j)
n , i 1,2,3,..., n , j 0,1,2 ,......., m w( f ( 4)

m
) max f ( 4 ) ( x) f ( 4 ) ( y ) : x y h, x, y [0,1]
,

f ( 4)
max f ( 4 ) ( x) : 0 x 1

we have Hermit interpolation if for i , the order j of


derivatives in form unbroken sequence . If some of the
sequence are broken , we have lacunary interpolation . In II. TECHNICAL PRELIMINARIES:
another communications we shall give the applicationsof
Spline functions obtaining the approximation solution of If p(x) is a polynomial of degree Four on [0,1] (because we
boundary value problem , for more about applications of want to construct a spline function of degree four ) then we
Spline functions , see [2,4] . For description our problem , let have :

1
:0 xo x2 x3 ..... x2 m 1 by a uniform P( x) P(0) A0 ( x) P( ) A1 ( x) P(1) A2 ( x) P // (0) A3 ( x) P // (1) A4 ( x)
3
partition of the interval [0,1] with ..(3)
Where

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The Change Effect for Boundary Conditions to Minimize Error Bound in Lacunary Interpolation by Forth Spline
Function

1
A0 ( x) [27 x 4 54x 3 38x 11]
11

1
A1 ( x) [81x 4 162x 3 81x]
22

1 ....( 4)
A2 ( x) [27 x 4 54x 3 5 x]
22
1
A3 ( x) [15x 4 41x 3 33x 2 7 x]
66
1
A4 ( x) [12x 4 13x 3 x]
66

In the subsequent section we need the following values for f C 4 [0,1] we have the following expansions:
4 2
f ( x2i 2 ) f ( x2i ) 2hf / ( x2i ) 2h 2 f // ( x2i ) h 3 f /// ( x2i ) h 4 f ( 4 ) (1, 2i )
3 3
x2i 1, 2i x2i 2
4 2
f ( x2i 2 ) f ( x2i ) 2hf / ( x2i ) 2h 2 f // ( x2i ) h 3 f /// ( x2i ) h 4 f ( 4 ) ( 2 , 2i )
3 3
x2 i 2 2 , 2 i x2 i
2 2 4 2 4 ( 4)
f (t 2i ) f ( x2i ) hf / ( x2 i ) h 2 f // ( x2i ) h 3 f /// ( x2i ) h f ( 3 , 2 i )
3 9 81 243
x2 i 3 , 2 i t 2 i
4 8 32 32 4 ( 4)
f (t2i 2 ) f ( x2i ) hf / ( x2i ) h 2 f // ( x2i ) h3 f /// ( x2i ) h f (4 , 2i )
3 9 81 243
t2i 2 4 , 2i x2i
2 // 2 4
f / (t 2i ) f / ( x2i ) hf ( x2i ) h 2 f /// ( x2i ) h 3 f ( 4 ) (5, 2i )
3 9 81
x2 i 5 , 2 i t 2 i
4 8
f // (t2i 2 ) f // ( x2i ) hf /// ( x2i ) h 2 f ( 4 ) (6, 2i ), t2i 2 6, 2i x2i
3 9
2 2
f // (t2i ) f // ( x2i ) hf /// ( x2i ) h 2 f ( 4) (7 , 2i ), x2i 7 , 2i t2i
3 9
f ( x2i 2 ) f ( x2i ) 2hf ( x2i ) 2h2 f ( 4) (8, 2i ) , x2i 2 8, 2i x2i
// // ///

f // ( x2i 2 ) f // ( x2i ) 2hf /// ( x2i ) 2h2 f ( 4) (9, 2i ), x2i 9, 2i x2i 2


2 ( 4)
f /// (t2i ) f /// ( x2i ) hf (10, 2i ) , x2i 10 , 2i t2i ....( 5)
3

III. PROOF OF THEOREM 1:


The proof depends on the following representation of Sn ( x) for 2ih x (2i 2)h , i 0,1,...., m 1 we
have

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International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Research Technology (IJEART)
ISSN: 2454-9290, Volume-1, Issue-6, December 2015
x 2ih x 2ih x 2ih
S n ( x) f ( x2i ) A0 ( ) f (t2i ) A1 ( ) f ( x2i 2 ) A2 ( )
2h 2h 2h
x 2ih x 2ih
4h 2 S n ( x2i ) A3 ( ) 4h 2 S n ( x2i 2 ) A4 (
// //
) .......... (6)
2h h
On using (3.0) and the conditions
Sn (0) f // (0) , Sn (1) f // (1)
// //
(7)
we say that S n (x ) as given by (6) satisfies (1) is fourth in [ x2 i , x2 i 2 ] , i 0,1,2,...., m 1.we also need to show that
whether it is possible to determine S // n ( x2i ) where i 1,2,...., m 1 uniquely .For this purpose we use the fact that
S /// n ( x2i 2 ) S /// n ( x2i ) , i 1,2,..., m 1 with the help of (6) and (7) reduce to
41 2 // 32 35
h S n ( x2i 1 ) h 2 S // n ( x2i ) h 2 S // n ( x2i 2 )
22 22 22
but (7) is a strictly tri
243 243 81 243 81
f ( x2i ) f (t2i ) f ( x2i 2 ) f (t2i 2 ) f ( x2i 2 )
44 44 44 44 22
........ (8)
diagonal dominant system has a unique solution[3] .
Thus S // n ( x2i ) , i 1,2,..., m 1 can be obtained uniquely by the system (8)
This theorem is completed.

IV. ESITIMATES:
In order to prove theorem 1.2 , we need the following:
Lemma 4.0 :
Let E2i S // n ( x2i ) f // ( x2i ) then for f C 4 [0,1] we have
81 2 1
max E2i h w( f ( 4) ; ) , i 0,1,2,..., m 1 (9)
108 m
Proof:
From (8) we have
41 2 // 32 2 //
n ( x 2 i 2 ) f ( x 2 i 2 )) h ( S n ( x2i ) f // ( x2i ))
//
22 h ( S
22

35 2 // 243 243 81
h ( S n ( x2i 2 ) f // ( x2i 2 )) f ( x2i ) f (t 2i ) f ( x2i 2 )
22 44 44 44

243 81 41 32 35
f (t 2i 2 ) f ( x2i 2 ) h 2 f // ( x2i 2 ) h 2 f // ( x2i ) h 2 f // ( x2i 2 )
44 22 22 22 22

2 4 54 4 32 4 54 4
h f ( 4)
( 3, 2 i ) h f ( 4)
(1, 2i ) h f ( 4)
( 4 , 2 i ) h f ( 4)
( 2 , 2 i )
44 44 44 22

82 4 70 4 81 1
h f ( 4)
( 8 , 2 i ) h f ( 4)
(9, 2i ) 1 h 4 w( f ( 4)
, ) , 1 1
22 22 22 m
The result (9) follows on using the property of diagonal dominant [3].
Lemma 4.1:
Let f C [0,1] then
4

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The Change Effect for Boundary Conditions to Minimize Error Bound in Lacunary Interpolation by Forth Spline
Function

135 1
(i ) S lll n ( x 2i ) f lll ( x 2i ) hw( f ( 4 ) ; )
44 m
378 1
(ii) S lll n ( x 2i ) f lll ( x 2i ) hw( f ( 4) ; )
88 m
33 1
(iii) S lll n (t 2i ) f lll (t 2i ) hw( f ( 4) ; )
22 m
31 2 1
(iv) S ll n (t 2i ) f ll (t 2i ) h w( f ( 4) ; )
44 m
2546 3 1
(v) S l n (t 2i ) f l (t 2i ) h w( f ( 4 ) ; )
9801 m

Proof:
From (6) we have
81 243 81 123 2 ll 39
h 3 S lll n ( x 2i 2 ) f ( x 2i ) f (t 2i ) f ( x 2i 2 ) h S n ( x 2i ) h 2 S ll n ( x 2i 2 )
22 44 44 66 66
Hence
81 243 81 123 2 ll
h 3 ( S lll n ( x 2i ) f lll ( x 2i ))
f ( x 2i ) f (t 2i ) f ( x 2i 2 ) h ( S n ( x 2i ) f ll ( x 2i ))
22 44 44 66
39 123 2 ll 39
h 2 ( S ll n ( x 2i 2 ) f ll ( x 2i 2 )) h 3 f lll ( x 2i ) h f ( x 2i ) h 2 f ll ( x 2i 2 )
66 66 66
1 27 4 ( 4 ) 39 123 2 ll
h 4 f ( 4 ) ( 3, 2 i ) h f (1, 2i ) h 4 f ( 4 ) ( 4, 2i ) h ( S n ( x 2i ) f ll ( x 2i ))
22 22 33 66
39
h 2 ( S ll n ( x 2i 2 ) f ll ( x 2i 2 ))
66

27 4 1 123 ll 39
h 2 w( f ( 4 ) ; ) ( S n ( x 2i ) f ll ( x 2i )) h 2 ( S ll n ( x 2i 2 ) f ll ( x 2i 2 )) ; 2 1
22 m 66 66
By using (9) the lemma (4.1)(i) follows ,the proof of lemma (4.1)(ii-v) are similar ,we have only mention that
81 243 81 57 2 ll 105 2 ll
h 3 S lll n ( x 2i ) f ( x 2i ) f (t 2i 2 ) f ( x 2i 2 ) h S n ( x 2i 2 ) h S n ( x 2i )
44 44 22 66 66

27 81 27 63 9 2 ll
h 3 S lll n (t 2i ) f ( x 2i ) f (t 2i ) f ( x 2i 2 ) h 2 S ll n ( x 2i ) h S n ( x 2i 2 )
22 44 44 66 66

18 27 9 2 5
h 2 S ll n (t 2i ) f ( x 2i ) f (t 2i ) f ( x 2i 2 ) h 2 S ll n ( x 2i ) h 2 S ll n ( x 2i 2 )
11 11 11 33 33

and

12 39 37 34 2 ll 14 2 ll
hS l n (t 2i ) f ( x 2i ) f (t 2i ) f ( x 2i 2 ) h S n ( x 2i ) h S n ( x 2i 2 )
11 44 44 297 297
Proof of theorem (2):
For 0 Z 1, we have
A0 ( Z ) A1 ( Z ) A2 ( Z ) 1 ....(10)
let x 2i Z x 2i 2 . On using (10) and (7) , we obtain

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International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Research Technology (IJEART)
ISSN: 2454-9290, Volume-1, Issue-6, December 2015

x 2ih x 2ih
S lll n ( x) f lll ( x) ( S lll n ( x2i ) f lll ( x)) A0 ( ) ( S lll n ( x2i 2 ) f lll ( x)) A1 ( )
2h 2h
x 2ih
( S lll n (t2i ) f lll ( x)) A2 ( ) L1 L2 L3
2h
.......... .......(11)
from (4) it follows that A0 ( x) 1, A1 ( x) 1 and A2 ( x) 1
Since f lll ( x) f lll ( x2i ) ( x x2i ) f ( 4) ( ) , x2i x
Therefore
x 2ih x 2ih
L1 ( S lll n ( x2i ) f lll ( x)) A0 ( ) ( S lll n ( x2i ) f lll ( x2i ) ( x x2i ) f ( 4) ( )) A0 ( ) On using lemma
2h 2h
(4.1)(i) and x x 2i 2h , we obtain
x 2ih
L1 S lll n ( x2i ) f lll ( x2i ) ( x x2i ) f ( 4 ) ( ) A0 ( )
2h
Therefore
135 1
L1 hw( f ( 4 ) ; ) 2h f ( 4 ) (12)
44 m
Similarly
378 1
L2 hw( f ( 4 ) ; ) 2h f ( 4)
88 m
x 2ih
L3 ( S lll n (t2i ) f lll ( x)) A2 ( ) ( S lll n (t2i ) f lll (t2i ) f lll (t2i ) f lll ( x2i )
2h
x 2ih
( x x2i ) f ( 4 ) ( )) A2 ( ) (13) .
2h
From (5) we have
2 ( 4)
f lll (t 2i ) f lll ( x 2i ) hf (10, 2i )
3
where x2 i 10 , 2i t2i , but (3t2i x2i ) 2h
Hence L3 (S lll n (t2i ) f lll (t2i ) 2h f ( 4) (0 ) f ( 4) ( ) , x2i , 0 x
On using the above result with lemma (4.1)(iii), we obtain
77 1
L3 hw( f ( 4 ) ; ) ......(14)
22 m
putting (12) ,(14) in (11) ,we obtain
956 1
S lll n ( x) f lll ( x) hw( f ( 4) , ) 4h f ( 4 ) .......(15)
88 m
this prove (2) for r=3 to prove (2), when r=2
x
Since S
ll
n ( x) f ( x) ( S lll n (t ) f lll (t ))dt ( S ll n (t 2i ) f ll (t 2i ))
ll

t2 i
on using lemma (4.1)(iv) and (15) we obtain
987 2 1
S ll n ( x) f ll ( x) h w( f ( 4 ) , ) 8h 2 f ( 4 ) .......(16)
44 m
which is proof (2) for r=2
the proof (2) for r=1
since
x
S l n ( x) f l ( x) ( S ll n (t ) f ll (t ))dt S l n (t 2i ) f l (t 2i )
t2 i
On using lemma (4.1)(v) and (16),we get

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The Change Effect for Boundary Conditions to Minimize Error Bound in Lacunary Interpolation by Forth Spline
Function

884509 3 1
S l n ( x) f l ( x) h w( f ( 4 ) , ) 16h3 f ( 4 ) .......(17)
19602 m
Which proof (2) for r=1, if r=0, we have
x
S n ( x) f ( x) ( S l n (t ) f l (t ))dt S n (t 2i ) f (t 2i )
t2 i

sin ce
S n (t 2i ) f (t 2i ) 0
Thus
884509 4 1
Sn ( x) f ( x) h w( f ( 4 ) , ) 32h 4 f ( 4 )
9801 m
1
Since 2mh=1 , then h put it in above result this completes the proof of theorem (1.2) .
2m

V. CONCLUSIONS:
Throughout this paper we mentioned that some time the
changes of boundary conditions effect on minimizing error
bound in the subject of lacunary interpolation by Spline
function .

REFERENCES
[1] Ahlberg,J.H., E.N.Nilson and J.L.walsh ,(1967) .The theory of Spline
and their applications ,Academic press ,new york and London.
[2] Bokhary,M.A.,H.P. Dikshit and A.A. Sharma .(2000),Birkhoff
Interpolation on some perturbed roots of unity. Numerical Algorithms.
Vol.25,No.(1-4),(2000),pp.(47-54).
[3] Kincaid, D and W. Cheney,(2002). Nuumerical analysis , Mathematics
of scientific computing third edition, printed in USA.
[4] Lenard , M., (1999), Modified (0,2) interpolation on the roots of Jacobi
polynomial ,I(Explicit formulae), Acta Math.,Hungar ,Vol.84,
No.(4), pp.(317-327).
[5] Schoenberg, I.J. , (1986),On Ahlberg Nilson extention of Spline
interpolation : the g-Spline and their optimal properties .J math. Anal
.Appl.,Vol.4,No.(2),pp.(207-231).

Muhannad A. Mahmoud, Department of Mathematics, College of


Science , University of Kirkuk, Iraq

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