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B B
. 3.7

B ();
3 ().
B
2 , (. . 3.6, ) -
3
2
. ,
C 1,
C , . 3.5, . -
A
A , , 5, (.
. 3.6)
. 3.5 ( ).

E E . -
5 -
4 3 G
C 3 D C . -
, ,
2
.

2 F :
B
F W;
5 4 ,
1
D ,
B G
,

. 3.6 .
54 3 55

3.1

(3.6)(3.10) , -
-

. . /

. 1 II 2 I

. -
,
, - 2 III 3
Y
Z. ,
,
, 3 IV 2
.

.
, (. . 3.4, ), ,
- (. 3.1).
. , - -
- .
,
, - , -
[3]. - -
, .
, - -
, - (
. , . . 3.5).
- , -
, , B, C D (. . 3.5, ).
,
I , D ,
. (. . 3.5, ). , C -
, , , (. . 3.5, ). -
, - ,
, A C ,
. - (. . 3.5, ). , ,
I . A B ,
- (. . 3.5, ).
, , - ,
. -

56 3 57

. , 2.
, - : M = W + + .
, - 2
.
1 3 5
-
1
, -
. . .
+ +
( )
4
.
, ,
, -
.
W = 1 ( ) -
: 4
W = 1
5
(q = 0) 2
,
- 1
;
-
, 6
-
- 3
.

(. 3.8, 3.9).
1.
: M = W + 1 + 1.
1 1 . 3.9
W=1 2 4
1
+ 3 + , . -
5

6 , .
4
2 2
4 5 , -
1 3 1 3 5 .
, -
-
. 3.8 (. 3.10).
58 3

3.
: - .
W = 3n 2p; 4 5
D
F
W = 3 5 2 7 = 1;
W = 1. E 6 4
1 2
B
A
3
, -

C V ,
4 D - .
, -
F
-
5 , . ,
E , ,
+ ( ),
,
3
.
2 - -
B
III
+ 1
W=1 -
.
C

. 3.10 . -
,
3 ,
. , -
1. ? -
2. ? .
3.

.
4. .
-
5. ?
,
6. ? - . -
. ,
60 4 61

. - -
,
, - , -
. - . , -
- , -
.
, .
, -
-
, . ,
- -
. .
, - ,
. -
. .
, ,
, - .
, . , -
, , -
, - , ,
, . ,
.
, -
. .
[19] 1. ,
. -
-
, - .
, . 2. , ,
, -
[9, 12, 14, 15, 20], - .
- -
. ,
- . -
. - ,
, ( , ).
. - ,
, .
-
, .. .
. -

. . 4.1.
62 4 63

2 C 2


B B C
2


B C C
1 B 1 3 3
3 1
A D A D A D A D
4 4 4

C l2
B
() B l2 C

B l1
l3 l3

l1 l1 l2
l4

, A D A D A D

l4 l3 l4
C

. 4.2

() (l1 < l4);
-
-

() (l1 > l4). : -


1; 2; 3 4.

-

(. 4.3):
(); - -
(); - () (l1 < l2); -
- () (l1 < l2); -
(, ) (l1 < l4);

-
(, ) (l4 < l1).
. 4.1 , -
,
- ,
[1, 2, 4, 5, 6].
, -
,
(. 4.2), - [14, 7, 20].
- -
(): - -
(); (); .
(); () (l1 = l3, l2 = ,
= l4); ,
64 4 ... 65

B B [1]. -
C ABCD (. 4.4, ) -
A C
A a, b, c d. AB
, -
(AB1) (AB3)
B .
B
l1 l2 l1 l2 , a ,
A C d , ,
C ( -
A ),
B :
B1C1D
l3 B
l1 l1 d + a < b + c; (4.1)
A l4 C l3
A C B3C3D
l4
d a < b + c. (4.2)

B b c (4.1)
B (4.2).
l1 l3 l3 l1
l4 l4 C1 C3 a
A C C C2 C4
A

c 90 max
. 4.3 b
d b
B4
, - a A
D c
. B1 B3
- d
, . B2
-
D
(, - 2
, y h B
B l1
, ). max 3 1
4 C2 C C1
B1 A 3

e
A 1 x

l4
B2 C2 C1 C e
l1
l2
C
2
B 4

(-
), . 4.4
66 4 67

BC = 90 270,
CD (b > c > d c > b > d), -
.
l1 < l2 e, (4.3)
AB2 AB4
CD. BC 4.4, e ( ).
AD - , e < 0. l1 > l2 e, 1
. ,
(4.1) - -.
(. 4.4, ) l
, : - , CD () ,
, = 270, -

. -
l1 > l4 + e, (4.4)
.
, - e ;
: . l1 < l4 + e, CD
1) - (. 4.4), ( ).
, - ,
; e = 0.
2) ,
-

; , ,

, - . -
- - ( e = 0,
; . 4.5, ) 3 ( )
3) , : h = 2l1. -
, - -
, = 0 180.
, ,
(. 4.4, ), , - , -
, , -
, ( ,
. ,
, (4.1) - ; -
, ).
. : max .

( , - ,
). . 3, F32 -
- (. 4.4, 32, 1,
) 1 , F12 12 V.
68 4 69

y
VB ( ).
12 , , -
F12
2 1 2 = 3...5,
B 2 32max = 19...11.
1 F32 3 -
32 C
A B0 CK C0 (. 4.4, ) ( )
BK
x AC1C1 AC2C2
VC
4 h h = lC C =
1 2
(l1 + l 2) 2 e 2 (l 2 l1 )2 e 2 , (4.5)

h, e 2 = l2 / l1 l1 (-
y , ,
1
l1, h / 2, -
B2 B1 ). -
l2 2 32max e < 0, , = 270;
2
l1
3 e < 0, = 90.
1 C2 C1 (. 4.5, ), -
1 2, s
2 ( : . 4.5, sC < 0) 2 = l2 / l1

e
A 1 = e/ l1, l1 l2
XC2 x .
sC
l1 + l2 y,
XC1 l1 sin + l2 sin = e, -

2 1 2:
. 4.5 e sin 1 , 2
1 , 2 = arcsin .
2
12
( x, :
) , 90.
sC = xC xC = (l1 cos 2 + l2 cos 2 ) (l1 cos 1 + l2 cos 1 ),
2 1
, -
l2 = 2 l1
1.
32max - sC
32max = 32max () . l1 = . (4.6)
cos 2 cos 1 + 2 (cos 2 cos 1)
(e = 0)
32max = arcsin l1 / l2 = 90 270.
2 l2.
, 2 = l2 / l1, -
( -
), . 1
, . . / . . .
32max, , , ., 1967.
70 4 71

VC F12
C1 max
y 32max
C2 VB2 h
B2
F32
l2 l3
90
3 N VB1
2
1 max B1 l3
h
l1 l1
B1 2
1
2 1 l4 90
A 1 D 2
1
x
A l4 3
4 C
4
B2
. 4.6

- (. 4.6). F12
l4, l3 =
1, 2
l1 l2 . - B2
V B2
C1 C2 A, F12
lAC = l1 + l2 ; lAC = l2 l1 , V B1
1 2

l l l l l1
AC1 AC2 AC1 AC2 B1
l1 = ; l2 = . (4.7) h
2 2 D
32max = 0
180. 1
A 90 2
- ()
. , -
, . 4.7, AB1C l4 C
4 l3 3
AB2C.
2 h ( ),
1 l1
. - C0
,
l3 lB1C h k = l3 / h > 1,
; , k = 1,3; 1,4
.. . 4.7
72 4 73


, -
F12 , V h = b 2 + b2 4 c ,
. ,
, b = 4 l1(k + 1) sin (/2) cos ( /2) (k + 1);
. 2
2l1 sin ( / 2)
l1, k, c= .
2k + 1
(. . 4.7, ). AB1 AB2 -
1, h = lB B . l 3 = kh
1 2
B2B1 l3 = lB C = kh, AC0B2
1
C. ,
AB1N ANB2, l 4 = l 12 + (l 3 + h )2 2 l1 (l 3 + h ) sin . (4.10)
: max = /2.
-
, B B1 ,
B2 , , - ,
. AB1N < < ,
F 12
h = 2 l1 sin (/2). (4.8) A
AB1C, , .
,
l4 = lAC = l12 + l 32 + 2 l1 l 3 sin 2 . (4.9) , ,
,
max . -
, ( ), A -
- , B C ,
l4. . , ,
- W = W0 + W = 1 + 2 = 3 (
max = (. 4.7, ).
l1, k, , . - ), -
, C C0, - q = 0.
2
: = .
C 1 : -
, , 0, -
.
. -
h = lB D < lB B ; , -
2 1 2 (. 4.8, )
, C0B1B2 : 1 - -
(B1C0)2 = (B1B2)2 + (C0B2)2 2B1B2 cos ( /2), 5, v
Kv v
B1C0 = kh, B1B2 = 2l1 sin (/2), C0B2 = kh + h = (k + 1)h. . h
74 4 75

() CD
h E 4 5 l3, l6 = lAC () l1 = lAB
f
X N X
D l3 = l6 + l1 + a, (4.13)

a
1 D 6
max 5 6
h/2 4 a
3 . ,
A /2 3
ABC
1 B l1 = l6 sin ( / 2). (4.14)
2
b

2
1 1
l1 (4.13)
B ( )

l6


3 /2 l3 a
/2 6 5 E E
A
l6 = . (4.15)
1 + sin ( / 2)

l5
E1 2
B2 C B1
C h l6 (4.14) l1;

4 D l6 / l1 2.
, -

() 2 3,
. 4.8
32 = 0, .

5 4 5 -
Kv = v /v. XX , -
, f . NDE -
4
, () f
; - l4 = lDE , (4.16)
2 sin
Kv > 1.
Kv ( ) f = l3 l3 cos ( /2); -
( 1 = const) max .
h / t 180 + -
Kv = = , (4.11) 5
h / t 180
b = l3 f / 2. (4.17)

Kv 1
= 180 . (4.12) 4, 5 -
Kv +1
(. 4.8, ).
- : 54 = 0.

.
h -
l 3 = lCD = .
2 sin ( / 2) . 4.8, . : l1 = lAB ,
76 4 4 77

h 5 - 4
Kv = v /v > 1.
1.
5 -
.
1 = 180 + , -
= 180 . 2. -
1 = const .
3. .
h / t 180 +
Kv = = , (4.18) .
h / t 180 4. .
.
Kv 1 5. --
= 180 . (4.19) ?
Kv + 1
6.
l6 = lAC 1 ?
3 AB1C 7.
?
l6 = l1 sin (/2).
8. ( -
E (E1 E2) - ) -
B (B1 B2), - ?
3 4 , -
CD:
lCD = h/2.
4 , -
= 54 -
,
h
l4 . (4.20)
2 sin

4 -
, .
23 (-
) 1
, ,
.
-


; . [5].
79


-

-
5 .
, -
, .
, 1,
, .. 2 -
(. 5.1, ),
-
: 1, 1, 1. 1,
. - , .. 2 -
. (. 5.1, ),
, , - , ,
. 1. , -
, (. 5.1, ),
,
xB. -
. 1
, - (. 5.2, , ) (. 5.2, )
.
, - Z Y 1 Y
, - Z1 1
. 1
-
3 Y1 1 B 1
. A 1n
1. - A O x
2 Y 1b X B X
, - N 2
. X 2
2. , 1
1

( - X1
-
). . 5.1
3. -
( 1 1
). n
1 1 V
4. , , 2
, - n
, 1 n 1 2
.
5. . . 5.2
80 5 ... 81

, d 2 SC d 2 SC ~
. a~C = ; a~qC = ; a~qC = a~qC 2 + VqC ~ qC ;
1, - dt 2
d 2

, -
: 2, 3, ... , i, ... , 1. d 2 SC d 2 dSC d 2
a~C = + .
- d 2 dt d1 dt 2
-

, -
,
, -
. -
:

, .. -
( - - -
), .
- , -
, - , :
. 1) l1
- l2
2) 2 = ;
l1
.
- e
3) c = ;
l1
. - 4) ;
5) 1 .
( Vq , q ), - (. 5.3).
(-
aq , q ).
Y
-
-
. ( B lBS
2
V, ), ( a, ). l2
Vc ( ac) l1
S2 C C
(. 5.3)
VqC ( aqC ) - 1
: S
2 B1 e e
1 Xc
~ A, S1 C* X
~ dSC ~ dSC ~ VC ~ dSC d
VC = ; VqC = ; VqC = ; VC = = VqC ;
dt d 1 d dt
. 5.3
82 5 ... 83
*
ABCC A ABS2 A -
- :
S = l 1 + l BS .
l1 + l = xc + e . 2 2

AX
AY, S2 :
AX AY , , .. -
- XS = l1 (cos + 2 S cos ); (5.7)
2 2
XC :
YS = l1 (sin + 2 S sin ). (5.8)
l1 cos + l2 cos = XC , (5.1) 2 2
(5.7) (5.8) ,
l1 sin + l2 sin = e. (5.2) S2:
(5.2) l2 dX S VS
VqS = 2
= 2X
= l 1 (sin + 2 S U 21 sin ); (5.9)
2X d 1 2
e l 1 sin e sin
sin = = , (5.3)
l2 2 dYS VS
2Y
VqS Y = 2
= = l 1 (cos + 2 S U 21 cos ); (5.10)
e = e/l1; 2 = l2/l1;
2 d 1 2

(5.4) l BS
cos = 1 sin 2 > 0. VqS = VqS2 + VqS2 Y ; S = 2
.
X
2 2 2 2 l2
(5.2) , -
(5.5), -
d 2 ():
l 1 cos + l 2 cos = 0,
d dU 21 sin cos U 21 cos sin
(5.5)
d d / dt 2 cos VqS = = = q 2 (). (5.11)
U 21 = = = = = U 21 (). 2X d 2 cos2
d d / d t 1 2 cos
(5.6), -
(5.1) , :
d dX C dV qc
l 1 sin l 2 sin = . a qc = = l 1 (cos + 2 q 2 sin + 2U 21
2
cos ). (5.12)
d d d
: -
dX C dX C / dt Vc S2, -
Vqc = = = ; (5.9) (5.10) :
d d / dt 1 (5.6) dVqS
2X
Vqc = l 1 (sin + 2 sin U 21 ). a qS = = l 1 (cos 2 B); (5.13)
2X d
84 5 , 85

dVqS Y ,
a qS Y = 2
= l 1 ( 2 1) sin , (5.14)
2 d

B = q 2 sin + U 21
2
cos . (5.15) --
( ) -
, ,
, = (t),
, , -
:
.
d 2 d
2 = = (U 21 ) = q 2 2 + U 21 , (5.16) -
dt dt .
: ,
,
dVc d -
ac = = (Vqc ) = aqc 2 + Vqc . (5.17)
.
dt dt
, -
- , -
- ,
(AR210) . 5.4. .

(. 5.5) .
1 ,
p b
N, l1, 2 , S , e, 1H , 1max V= V , . 1 ,
2 VB 1
:
1max 1H pV b
=
N1 V= , .
VB 1

b
VS
2B

1, sin , cos , U21, Vqc, VqS X , VqS Y , VqS VB VS


2
2 2 2
s2
VCB
(),
()

c pV
VC

. 5.4 . 5.5
86 5 87

. - a C pa
c
, S2:
V1B = 1 l AB , [/c]; V C = V B + V CB ;
AB BC ; aS
2
VCB
a CB
2
= ; VS = 2 S B
l .
l BC 2B 2
a Bn
VS VS S2
VC VC pV c pV S 2
VqC = = l1 = l1 , ; VqS = 2
= 2
l1 = l1 , ;
1
VB pV b 2
1
VB pV b
V BC / l BC l1 bc nCB n
U 21 = 2
= = . a CB
b
1
VB / l1 l2 pV b a B nB
. . 5.6
:
a B = a Bn + a B , -
, -
AB AB -
.

a B = 1 l AB ;
n 2
a B = 1 l AB ; aC = a B + aCB
n
+ aCB ; -
. . 5.7 -
CB BC; -
- -.
aCB = 2 l BC .
n 2

:
(. 5.6)
-
p n , -
a = a n b , . ( 2) -
aB 1 -

;
aCB
2 = . , -
l BC

;
-
. ,
,
- . -
.
.
88 5 89

n = 2
x
4 I= ( y 0 + 4 y1 + y 2 );
R 3
5
D SD = f(t) n = 6
3
2 I= x ( y 0 + 5 y1 + y 2 + 6 y 3 + y 4 + 5 y 5 + y 6 ).
10
1
N S , -
1
3 (, QTFG
ND = f(t)
QSF).
-
6 aD = f(t) .
t1

. 5.7
(t) = dt
t0

(t), .
, - (t) -
, - -
. : t . -
t0 ti ti ,
, -
ti -
.
, . 5.8,
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, -
, .
. - , ti 1 ti ,
,
, .
y = y(xi) n + 1 - y ( i 1) + yi
xi = x0 + i xi (i = 0, 1, 2, ...) y i ,
: 2
n .. , -
x 0 + nx yi
1 1 xti .
I= y(x) dx x 2 y
x
0
+ y1 + y 2 + ... + y n 1 + y ;
2 n y1 ,
y2 , ... , yi -
n = 1 1, 2, 3 , ... , i D, -
x 0D
I= ( y 0 + y1); K, (. . 5.8, a).
2
90 5 91
1, 2, ... , i ,
y i
i
.. tg i = .
3 x ti
2 -
1 -
i
D 2
:
1
0 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 13 I yi = i ; yi = i ; xti = t ti .
K
-
I i , :
13 y i y y x ti
8
8 = i
yi = i
.
7
7 x i K K


6
6 *
t
5
* = , [ ] = . (5.18)
5 K

4
*

i -
3 . -
2

2
2 1 . -
1 1 -
0 t, c , -
xti .
. 5.9, 3 = 3(t),
. 5.8
(. . 5.8).
( ) -
D1, D2, D3, ... , D, -
1, 2, ... , i -
yi Y
, tg i = . d 3
K dY
d 3 t
(, t) (. 5.8, ) 3 = = = 3
= t tg . (5.19)
01, 12, 23, ... , - dt X dXt
D1, D2, D3, ... . d 3

01 0, - t
1, 2
.. 3(t)
i -
92 5 93

1, . 1 4 Yi
= ... /( . 1) = tg , K
K
4 t = ... /c (. 5.9, )
1 i

(5.19)
t t Yi Yi
3 = tg = = , (5.20)
t, c K
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 I
1, . 2 Yi ;
K
= (5.21)
1 = ... ( . 2) t
yi = i
i
i (t); : [Yi ] = ;
D 0 t, c [ ] = /( 2).
1 2 3 4 5 6 I = (t) -
.
k , -
.
= ... /( . 1) -
1, . 1 2 .
i t = ... /c
1 i -
(i 1) 3 (. 5.9, ).
4 5 1, 2, 3, ...,
, .. -
1 . :
, -
t, c , i -
0 1 2 3 4 5 I .

, .
1 1* , -
= ... ( . 2) .

1 -
2 2* . D0 = k (); ,
i
D t, c 1, 2, ... , i , ... , -
0 1 2 3 4 5 I 1, 2, 3, ... , -
4 ,
3 3* . 1*, 2*, 3* ..., -
k
d i
. 5.9 = (t ) = .
dt
94 5 95

-
(5.21),
-
. -
f(x), ( - .
) , -
. -
x , .
-
: ,
[ f ( x + x ) f ( x )]
f ( x ) .
x . -
. , -
. -
f ( x ) i +1 f ( x ) i f ( x ) i + 2 f ( x ) i +1 x(0) y(0) z(0) .
1 .
f ( x ) i +1 = + ( 1)
2 x x ( 2). -
i i +1
, -
- . -
, -
- , -
, , , .
, ( - , -
) , . 24.2 24.
, .. - . 24.2, 01 x(0), 02 x(2),
. 03 x(3), 04 x(4) ( 00 x(0)) (1, 2, 3, 4) -
, - ,
. (x), - (. 24.2, ). z(i) ,
x, y(i) 0(i) x(i) y(i) z(i).
- i-
: , -
.
x i = x 0 + i x (i = 0; 1; 2; ...); z(1), z(2), ... , z(r) -
1 1 1 , ,
yi = yi (x i ) = y 2 y i + 3 y i ... ; -
x i 2 3 .
1 2 11 4 5 5 i- -
yi = yi (x i ) = y i y i + y i y i + ... .
3
(i + 1) -
( x ) 2 12 6 , -
.
- -
, , . 25 .
96 5

5
1.
?
2. ?
3.
?
6
4. , -
-
?
5. - .
? 1. ( -
) -
, -
.
2. ,
,
.
-
.
,
.

. ,
( -
), , .
.
:
) ;
) .
-
.

, ,

(),
, .
1. , -
,
.
98 6 , , 99

, - ()
. (.. ). -
2. , - . -
.
. , -,
, - , -
, . ,
, , -, -
(, ), - ,
. .
, - , -
, - .
- , -
. , , , -
3.
. .
, -
. : -
, , -
. ( ) -
4. , .
() . - , .
() - . 6.1 -
. , -
(), . -
. ab,
5. , -
.. , . .
, 3- , - , -
. , , , -
, .. , - , , (. 6.2)
, - .
.
- , -
. - .
. , ,
. ,
4- . , .
. .
5- , - , .
, , - . 6.3 -
. ()
. ( ), . F ,
100 6 , , 101

M M 3, .
( )
(
a czd). ( )
0
F ( dac). -
,
( 1)
F = F (Sc ) . , F
.
b F , -
0
F (Sc ). . 6.3
: ,
. 6.1 . 6.2 . F -
. , F
F , . ,
, ,
z , -
.
, ,
( -
, ,
, ,
..),
, -
S d F .
a , -
, .. ,
; = const
. 6.4, , . -
M > 0,
(.. ) M < 0.
1

B 2 M M
1
= const = const
1
A C F

3


. 6.3 . 6.4
102 6 , , 103

, - M = M4
y H ()
1
(. 6.5, ): ( h -
), . - M4 B 2
4 1 S2 3
-
(. 6.5, ): 1 F3
D A
(- x C
G2 F3
h), . 4
- S
(. 6.5, ):
( h), - F3min
. F3max
, h,
, -

,
. h . 6.6
, -
, .. - .
. -
- W = 1,
, , :
. , -
, .
(. 6.6). T T = A. (6.1)
3 ,
4 . ,
, ,
, -
.
- mV2 J 2
() T= Ti = 2
i si + si i
2
(6.2)

F M M
h
h
h J ( )2
T = . (6.3)
2

0
S
0 0
SK K

P (cosP dS ) dS + M d .
j
A = j j j K K
(6.4)
. 6.5 SH H
104 6 . 105

= 1
m (V ) 2
J iS ( i )
2

i Si

2
+
2
T =

M
SK K

= P j (cosP j dS j ) dS j + M K d K .


SH H J
-
.
, .. = 1
.
A
-
(W = 1). , -
,
.

. . 6.7

W = 1 - -
, -
. , -
, - ,
.
(. 6.7) : .
1 = m ; -
1 = m ; , (.
M ( . 6.6), -
1 = m.
,
); M ,
F3

J , - F3c.
.
M F d1 = F3C d SC cos(F3C d SC );
3

,
. M -
F3
, - ,
,
. VC
M F = F3C cos(F3C VC ),
3 1
, ..
106 6 107

cos(F V ) = 1;
3C C
VC pv c
M F = F3C = F3CVqc = F3C l AB , , -
3 1 pv b :
, ..
pv c , ,
F3cVqc , F l , -
3C AB pv b .
-
. 1 = M , -
-
( 1) G2, G3 M4. , ..
Vc -
M G = G3 cos(G3 , VC) = 0, .
3 1
, -
cos(G , V ) = 0. -
3 C
.
VS
M G = G3 2
cos(G3 , VS ) = G2 VqS cos (G ) . , .
2 1 2 2 2
: TM = Ti .
VS
2y J M 2M m iVS2 J iS 2i
M G = G2 = VqS yG2 .
2 1 2 = i
+ .
2 2 2 (6.6)
VqS y S2 . V
2

2

J i = m i Si +J i .
2

d 4 iS
M M d1 = M 4 d1 ; M M = M 4 . M M
4 4 d1
TM = Ti .
d 4
M M d1 = M 4 d 4 ; M M = M 4

.
d1 J M 2M nmV2 J 2
4 4
i Si
= + iS i ,
4 2 i =1 2 2
M M = M 4 = M 4U 41 .
4 1
J M 2M m iVS2 J iS 2i
M = M 1. , i
+
1 2 2 2
, ,
,
, J = J 1 + J 2 + J 3 + ... + J y + ... + J n ,
, . n (6.7)
M = M F + MG + MG + M M .

3

3

2

4
(6.5) J = J
i =1

i
.
108 6 6 109

( ) 1, - 0,03
JII
J i , . 2
( ) .
J3
1 = M 0,02
J i = m iVqS2 + J iSU i21 , (6.8)
J2
i

VS i 0,01
VqS = i
, U i1 = . J2B
i 1 1

J , J 1 , J 3 K :
2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1
J = J 4
;
J 3K = J 3K 4 ; J1 = J1.

(6.9)
. 6.8
1 1
-
. ,
- 6
, , - 1. -
. .
J I = J

+ J 3K + J 1 = const. (6.10) 2. ?
3.
2- 3- ?
: ?
2 4.
V p c
2 v
J3
= m 3 c = m 3VqC 2
= m l ; (6.11) ?
3 3 1
p b
1 v 5. -
- .
J 2 = J 2

+ J 2B ; (6.12)
2 2
VS V

J 2 = m2 2 = mV 2 = m l 2 S2 ;
(6.13)
qS2 2 1
V
1 B
2 2 2
V l

J 2B = J 2S 2 = J U 2 = J CB AB . (6.14)
2S 21 2S l
1 VB BC
-

. 6.8 (
).
111

M -
, M = 1, 1 = M.
(6.2) (7.2) (7.3)
(7.1),
:
7
J 12 J 2
2

2
= M


d1 , (7.4)

-
.
, - (7.4) -
(, , .
.), , , ,
(. . 6.7). , -
J M 1.
M*. - (7.4)
, - :
.
-

2 M


() d
J 2
: = + . (7.5)
J J
T T = A. (7.1)
, ,
.
- -
. . (7.4) -
- :
. ,
d J
2
(7.1):
=M .
J 2 d 2

TM = . (7.2)
2 , -
, , - , , -
M, , J.


d J
2 2 dJ
= J d + d 1 d J 2
A = M
d. (7.3)
d 2
d 2 d

= J
d t
+
2 d
,


112 7 113

dJ
)
d 1 d J 2 d
J + = M . (7.6)
d t 2 d 1.

,
-
. (7.6)

, M,
: ,
dJ (. 7.1). ( I II) ( IV
-
d V) , -
. , .. ,
, , (
J = const (, - ). .
),
: II III
d IV
J = M . (7.7)

= const
dt I
(7.6) VI V

II [2], [4].
- t
(7.6);
. 7.1
d
= :
dt III
M 2 dJ .
= . (7.8) . -
J 2 J d

dJ . -
M (7.8) ( II) -
d ( IV).
. , , -
, , . -
, - .
. (,
dJ
- 1
, . .
d / . . . . : -
, - . . . , 1970.
. , ( , . . / . . -
, . . . ., 1964.
114 7 ... 115

..). .
( VI) , .
, -
. ,
- . -
, , , -
, , - J = var.
, .. (). -
- .
; - --
- - ,
, ,
. , , -
.
. -


. ( )
-
,
, , , - , ,
. J = J ( M ) M = M ( M ), -
() :
. - J = J ( M ) M = M ( M ),
, , , -
. ().
-
() . , :
- 2 ( A + T )
1 = M = . (7.9)
, , - J
.
- :
. 1)
, (-
)
, J = J ( M );
. 2)
- , -
-
: ;
; M = M + M ,
;
116 7 ... 117

, - J J
k m
M , ..
M = M + M + M F + M G ,
i

3) - d J d J
. >0 <0
(7.9) c - d d1
() 1
k m
M = 1 = M (M ). . 7.2
= 0,
d J
2A , M -
1 = M = . (7.10) d 1
J
(7.11) . -
0, ,
J = J ( M )
2 J
T = . .
2 (7.11)
, -
- .
() , - ,
, - , -
1: . -
M 12 d J d J
1 = M = . (7.11) -
J 2 J d 1 d 1
, 1 - ( . . ),
M 1 , .
1, - , , -
d J 1,
J = J ( M ), . 1 = 1 (1), .
d 1 ,
- d M d M d M d M
M = = = M , (7.12)
dt dt d M d M
d J
= tg , -
d1 J ( M, M) (. 7.3),
d J
J J 1 (. 7.2). (M; i ,

d 1
118 7 119

M, / (. 7.4)
(M , M). -
c
.
01, 12, (M , M)
y1 , y2 , ... , yi .

-
. y1 , y2 , ... , yi

.. ,
0 a b
x 1, 2, , i.
K,
. 7.3 1, 2, , i . -
(M , M), -
x. 3(i) i
ac 2
d
ac d(ac) 4
M = = 2 ac = 2 ac tg = 2 ab; 1
x d( x )
5
d
K

3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 I, .

M = ab. (7.13)
2 6

2 t, c 5
ab
= ; = tg (
ac
4
).
3(i)
2

1
,
d M d M
M = ; dt = ; 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 I
dt M

d M
t t =

M
, .

. 7.4
120 7

(t ; M) ,
1K, 2K, , iK ..
0, 1, 2, , i ,
t (M ), t /. t
tg i M(M ) t (M ).
i 8
tg i = ; tg i = ;
k t t
i i d M
= ; = ;
k t t k d t t -
, -
k .
t = . (7.14) 1 = 1(1) 1 = 1(t) -

, . 8.1.
. 8.1, 1 -
1,
7 -
1. - .
? -

2. ?
3. - 2 ( A + T )
1 = .
? J
4. -
, . , -
5. -
,
?
1
1max

1min

1 = const

t
. 8.1
122 8 123

, -
, . (, , , , -
).
, A = 0, .. , - ,
, . ,
AG = 0, A = A . - ,
i
, .
(T = 0) , -
. ,
- , .
: ,
1) () .
, -
1max+ 1min . .
1 = ; (8.1)
2 , ,
, -
2) , -
1 1max 1min . ,
= = . (8.2) , -
1 , -
-
, .
- ,
, - .
. , -
: -
........................... 1/101/30 .
. ....................................... 1/251/50 ,
, ............................ 1/501/100
J = J I + J II.
, ....................... 1/1001/300
.................. ~1/1000 J J
II
, J .
i - I
J , -
1max 1min: ( )
, .
1max = 1 1 + ; (8.3)
2
(), J -
I
1min = 1 1 . (8.4) ,
2 .
, -
1max 1min 1 , ..
2 , -
2%. [].
124 8 . . 125

(.. -
[]) = , :
. -
, J I ( ) = T ;
.
J I 2 = TI ,
. . TI
J = , 2 . (8.5)
- I
2

, TI(). (8.5)
, . -
-
I , -
[]. ,
: () , -
. -
J = J + J ; I II
M = + . T:
, - J 2M J I 2M J II 2M
T T = A , : T= = + ,
2 2 2
( J I + J II )( + ) 2
T = A ; J I 2M J II 2M
2 T = ; TII = ,
I
2 2
J 1
2
J I 2

J I
2
J II
2

+ + + + TI = T TII ; (8.6)
2 2 2 2
J II 2

J II 2
+ + T = A ; T = A + T , (8.7)
2 2

J I 2 TI = (A + T) TII , (8.8)
T ( ).
2 TI = A TII . (8.9)
2; ; J -
II .
J I 2 J II 2 A () ( . 8.2, , -
, .. 0; 0;
2 2 ) TII () (. 8.2, )
J II 2

II , .. , -
0, .
2 (8.6) A -

J II 2 T .
J I 2 A

= A TII = TI ; T (. . 8.2, ),
2
126 8 . . 127

A T, TI TII J I (8.5) -
A, TI .

.
Q . 8.4 ,
TI
TI 10
N , .
10 , ,
T (. . 8.3, , ),
. -
1.
.
. 8.2

F
M()*. -
. 8.2, -
-
. , (8.6), F
TII z
. 8.3, . , ,
TI (). c
Q N
- M +
Sc
T , JI (8.5). d F
, JI (8.5) a
TI , -
T . T - c
T , , , T
T , .. -
.
-
: Y
1
;
M(); B 2 3
A () 4 M 1

; 1 F
; JII (); D A
TII X C
1 4
TII = J II 2 TII ();
2
TI ()
(8.6) (
) TI ; . 8.3
128 8 . . 129

, T
: A = A . 2
- TII = JII . -
2
- , . -
2 2

, :
M d1 =
0
M
0
c
d1 . , , .
M z1 2 2 2
1 TII J . const, JII(I) -
Mc =
z4
= const, M =
c
2 M
() d. 2 II 2
0 TII(I), -
M , M = M + M (. . 8.4, );
(. 8.4). . 8.4, 2 J
, : T = 2 . , -
, . 8.4, , A II

. , , ,
, -
6, , (6.6)(6.14), .
, I 1 4, TII , TI(I)
II 2 3. - (. . 8.4, ),
JII = J2 + J3 . 8.4, . TI (. . 8.4, ) -
. [] > 0,10 -
M = ... /( . ) J = ... /( . 2)
TI , . . :
M JII TII T *I = TI [](TIIn + TIIq)1.
= ... / T = ... /
II
TIIn TIIq
TII N Q ,
2 T TIIq TI -
0 0 n IIn 2
1 q 1 ; (8.5) T *I.
10 T I (8.5)
, JI,
Jmx. -
= ... / T = A = ... /
Jmx
TI A, T
I I .
A, T Q TI -
TI
.
TI TII . -
A 2 TI
0 (. . 8.3, ) ,
0 1 0 . TI
10
N ( NQ . 8.4, ), . .
T .
T, TI
0 0
2 1 n q 2 1
1
, . . / . . // -
. 8.4 . 1953. 23.
130 8 . . 131

. -
. + 1
TI ( QN . 8.4, ), .. , 1 1.
. 2
, , 1 1 = 1,
, , TI JI1 1.
. Jmx ( , -
JI), - JI1 = const. ,
, I -
, , TI -
(8.5), : 1
. . 8.4, -
TI TI(), 1(), -
= . (8.10) ; : = T JI1.
12 J I I
1() . 8.5.
-

. , - 1max 1min 1
= = .
. - 1 1
,
., . -
-
, -
M 12 d J
. 1 = ,
J 2 J d1


, - J = JI + JII. M JII -
Jmx, , (. . 8.4, , ); 1 1.
[].
. = ... /(/)
1 1
Q
, Jmx,
, .
TI(), - 1
(. . 8.4). 1
0 TI() 10
( . 8.4, ). -
1
TI, : 0
2
N
1
J I 12 J I 12 + 1 0
TI = TI TI = = JI (1 1 )
2 2 2
. 8.5
132 8

d J d JII
= -
d d
JII() ( JI = const) ,
dJ
7. M II
. d 9
-
:

d1 d 1 d d1
= = = 1.
dt d dt d (
1() (. . 8.5), ) -
- , .
.
.

8 ;
1. ? - -
? . ,
2. - , -
?
.
3. (- ,
). , -
4. ? . ( )
- ,
? .
5. - -
? , , -
6. , -
. , .

.
-
, ,
.
. 6.6 ( 6)

.
,
.
134 9 135

, - (9.1) (9.2)

.
-
-

Fi + i = 0.
i

- i M
i
i
,
. i = m i a Si ; M = J iS i . (9.4)
i

() : M = JiS i ,
i
. Si .
i
1. ( ,
i
W = 1) . M i .
i
2. , , M
i i
.
3. - (9.l)(9.3)
. , -
, - .
, , , ,
, - (9.1)(9.3), -
.
Fx ,
Fy ,
M 0(F ).
- i i i

, - ix , iy , M ,
i
, . , -
, , . -
.
, r , -
i M , .
.
i , ,
: ,
.
F i
ix
+ ix = 0; (9.1) , -

.
F i
iy
+ iy = 0; (9.2) F12, 1
2, nn (. 9.1, ).
F12 b -
M 0
(F ) + M + M i 0
( ) + M = 0.
i
(9.3) .
i i i F21, 2 1,
- F12 F21 -
. :F21 = F12.
136 9 137

a , ,
n F a ,
21 (9.1)(9.3) .
FU12
1
U D : (. 9.2). F12, -
1
D W , ( )
90
2 F -
F12 F12.
W12
2 90 F12
b b

F12 .
n , .
-
n , .

, ,
A . -
-
F21 .
1
2 F12 -
(. 9.3). , F12
F12 ( K), ;
. ,
n (9.1)(9.3) ,
. 9.1 , -
.
b - -
(. 9.1, ). - (q = 0),
, 1 ,
:FU12 FW12 - B
. 1
1 2, 1
F12, (
. 9.1, ), - O O
.
F
, 2
(. . 9.1, , ) - O O 2
. F12
F12 F12
F12 F12 2

l l
, .. (. 9.1, ).
, B
F12 .
. . 9.2
138 9 139

n

6n = 5pV + 4pIV + 3pIII + 2pII + 1pI + W
F21
6n = 5p1 + 4p2 + 3p3 + 2p4 + 1p5 + W.

K , -
.
1 -
F12 (. 9.5).
2 :
1) ;
2) ,
(m1, J1S , m2, J2S , m3);
n 3) 1 1 1;
. 9.3 4) , F3 ;
5) .
, p p -
. - .
(9.1)(9.3),
,
Ny = 3n. () () (. 9.4).
, -
- NF = 2p + p + W, c VC

Ny = 3n, .. Ny = NF Pv
Vs
VB = 1 lAB ; VCB 2

3n = (2p + p) + W... (9.4)


VC =VB +VCB . s2 VB
-
N = 3n , NF = 3p + p , = ... /( . 1). b

n ; p
a C
; p c
.

N = NF . aB
n aS
2
aB = a Bn + a B ; aCB
-
. aC

=aC =a B +a B +aCB +aCB .
n n
aB s2
- n B nC B
n
, - = ... /( . 2). aCB
b
- a B
(-
). . 9.4
140 9 141
r r
2 Y ( S , S ) -
2 3
M B M (M , M ) -
S 2

1 2
2 1
S2 1 . 9.5.
()
3 C 2
, -
S3 G2 1 G1 .
F3 X : -
A S1 , 2 3,
S (. 9.6, , ).
3
1 23 (. 9.6, ):
G3
4
. 9.5 F 2, 3
= 0;

F34 + F3 + S 3 + G 3 + G2 + S 2 + F21 = 0. (9.5)


F12
(9.5) , -
.
2
2, -
S B F21 F n F :
2
S2 1 21 21
M
3 1
M C ( 2)
= 0; (9.6)
F3 M G2 F21
C 2
M1 G1 M C (G ) + M C ( +M )
+ M = 0;
S2) C ( F21
S 1 F14
2 S2

3
F34 A1S1
G3
F21 =
M C ( 2)
, .
a lCB
n
2 F 21 F3
B
S 21 G3
h 2 S2 S
2 F 21
3 G2 3

S3 G2 F21 F21
F3
M
2
S
C F34 2

hG F 21
S 2
F 21
n
3
F34 F32
F
G3 F = 3 ,
F3
. 9.6 . 9.7
142 9 143

F 14
21
(9.5)
F12 G1
F34 + F3 + S 3 + G + S 2 + F21 + F21n = 0. (9.5)
2

F3 F14 F14
F = ... ; F14 = , .
F = , , F
F3
. 9.10
(9.5) (. 9.7).
F34 F21:

F21 F34 (. 9.9) F14 (. 9.10), -
F21 = , ; F34 = , . 14 M1.
F F

21 F21 , M A
= 0;
x. M A (F12 ) + M + M 1 = 0; (9.9)
3 (. 9.8). S1
3
F = 0;
F3 = 0,
1

F12 + G1 + F14 = 0. (9.10)


() F32 F34.
F3 + G3 + S 3 + F34 + F32 = 0; (9.7)
9

M C (3)
= 0; 1. -
?
M (G3 ) + M (F34 ) = 0; (9.8) 2.
G3 lCS 3 ?
hF = , . 3.
34 F34 .
4. -
3 F12 .
S3 F32
C 5.
1
F3 M
1 ?
S 1 6.
3
M1 - (-
F34 ) ?
hF
G3 34
F14 G1 7. -
, -
. 9.8 . 9.9 ?
144 9

8.
?
9. ,
(. 26).

10

-

. - ,
-
.
-,

. , -
. ,
, -
,
, -
, ..

, -

. , -
-
, .

, -
, -
, .

()

(. 10.1),
1 -
. -
, S1, S2, S3
.
146 10 () 147

M 2 C -
2 3 ,
1 = const 2
B 3 3 -
2 aS S3
2 . -
1 1 S1 M aS . -
3 3
aS A 1 4 .
1 D
K N
= 0. (10.3)

C mi 0,
2
S -
B 3 (SM = 0). ,
1 M S -

A 4 D
A M0 . ,
K N K F0 N , -

.
. 10.1 -
:
1. .
, -
-

- , -

n (. 10.2).
= ,i
(10.1)
1
2 2
B

5 M
3
M = M + M A (i ) ,
4 A
(10.2) S1 S2
i S4 1
E M
1 = nst, 1 = 0. 5
2
3
4 4 D

. . 10.2
, -
. ,
- 23 45 -

0, - , S1
. (1 = 0). =1 +2 +3 +4 +5 = 0,

0, = 0 -
. .

0 0 - = 2 + 4 + (2) + (4) 0, .. -
. .
148 10 149

2. ()
(. 10.3). A Si B

mK
2
B mi, JS
i
2 A Si B
3
1
C lAS
i
miA miB
A, Sy lAB

. 10.5
mK
1
. 10.3 : -
(. 10.5, );
3. (. . 10.5, ).
(. 10.4).

4 = 1 1. :
4
1
Y 1 = const miA + miB = mi . (10.4)
D B 2. :
mk
rk 1 2 3
1 C lAS = const, miA lAS = miB (lAB lAS ). (10.5)
A i i i

rk X 3. :
mk
E 5 = 1
miA l2AS + miB (lAB lAS )2 = JS . (10.6)
mk1 i i i
,
, -
. 10.4
. (
, mi Si .)
- :
.
, , (-
) ,
, -
-
- .

, . - .
,
150 10 151

C C
B 2 B 2 3
3
: l1, l2, l3; 1
m1, m2, m3; D SM D
lAS1, lBS2, lDS3; A A
S1, S2, S3 (. 10.6). mA mD
lK1 lK3 4 4
: mK1, mK3; lK1, lK3.
mK1 mK3
, . 10.8 . 10.9
.
m1l BS m1 l AS 1 3 (-
1: m1A = 1
; m1B = 1
. ) mK1, mK3 ,
l1 l1
(m, mK1) (m, mK3) A D
m2 l SC m2 l BS ( 10.8). -
2: m2B = 2
; m2C = 2
.
l2 l2 mK1 lK1 = mB l1 ; mK3 lK3 = m l3. (10.7)
m3 l DS m3 l CS mK1 mK3 -
3: m3C = 3
; m3D = 3
. (10.7), lK1 lK3.
l3 l3 , -
, .. . -
, :
, 1 3:
mB = m1B + m2B, mC = m2C + m3C . m = m1 + m + m1;
, mD = m3D + mC + m3.
, A, B, C, D
(. 10.7). . S -
. m mD , -
S aS , , - ,
. , . ,
-
. -
C C AD = l4 (. 10.9),
S2 S2 mC
B 2 3 mB B 2
3 rSM = const
:
1 S S3 1 S S3
S1 S1 m3 D l 4
A D A D mrS = m3 D l 4 ; m (l 4 rS ) = m3 D l 4 ; rS = .
aS aS
m
m1A m3D
4 4 4 4
. 10.6 . 10.7 m = m1 + m2 + m3 + mK1 + mK3.
152 10 153

m -
- () mK2,
mK2 lK2 = mB l2 ( lK2 ),
: l1, l2, lOS1, lAS2 ;
m1, m2, m3; (m 3 + m 2 B ) l 2
S3 (. 10.10). mK 2 = .
lK2
: mK1, mK2;
lK1, lK2. -
2
m* = m + m + mK2 .
mK2
mK1:
mA = m1A + m2A
(m 3 + m 2 + m 1 + m K 2 ) l1
A S*2 m K1 = .
lK2 l K1
2 3
S2
1

S1 ( ).
B, S3
O , .. rSM = 0
S*1 mM = m1 + m2 + m3 + mK1 + mK2.
lO -
mB = m3 + m2B ( 2),
lK1
, -
() ,
() -
mK1 .
. 10.10 ,

(
- )
, .
m1l AS m1l OS -
1: m1O = 1
; m1A = 1
. (10.4)
l1 l1 (10.5).
, , :
m2 l BS m2 l AS
2: m2A = 2
; m2B = 2
. m = m1 + m2, m = m2 + m3.
l2 l2
m mK1 :
, :
(m 2 + m1 ) l1
m = m1 + m2, m = m2 + m3. m K1 = .
lK2
154 10 155


(. 10.11). ,
- ,

- (rSmin rS ):

m*
O1
= mK1 + m1 + m2 + m1 ; m = m*
O1
+ mB ; (. 10.13)
(10.4) (10.5).
rS min m = (l 2 l1 ) m B m B 2l1
r = rS max rS min ; rS = ; mA = m1A + m2A
rS max m = (l 2 + l1 ) m B S m
S2*
A
m B (l 2 l 1 ) mB 2 3
rS min = ; rS max = rS min + rS = (l 2 + l1 ). 1
S2
m m
S1 B, S3
(. 10.12) S1* O m1O
- - rS
- m* S** mB = m3 + m2B
K1
rS**
.
D m**
K1
mA = m1A + m2A
mK1 = m*
K1 + mK1
**
A S*2 . 10.13
2 3
S2
1 , , :
S1 m = m1 + m2, m = m2 + m3.
B, S3
O SM*

S*1 m1:
m1O
lK1 mK1 = m*K1
+ m**.
K1
rSM mB = m3 + m2B
m*K1 m:
mK1 l1
m*K1 = m .

. 10.11 lK1
m*K1* m.
l2 l1 HB = 2l , m* K1
m
. m*K1* m -
BD x/y, . m*K1*x = m y.
O rSM SM* B1 B2
OS** , ,
:
m* mB mB
O1
x OA OA l l
. 10.12 = = const; m K**
1
= mB = m B OA = m B OA .
y OD OD l OD l K1
156 10


(m A + m B ) l 1
m K1 = m K*1 + m**
K1
= .
l K1

- : 11
x x+y x OD
= ; OS ** = rS** = AB = AB;
OS ** AB x+y AD

l
rS** = K 1 l 2 = const .
l +l -
1 K1 -
, .
,
-
(m1 + m 2 A + m1O + m K*1 ) rS = (m B 2 + m 3 + m K**1 )(rS** rS );
. () -
(m 2 B + m 3 + m ** ) -
rS = K1
rS** = const, . , -
m
30 000 /,
m = m3 + m1 + m2 + mK1. 50 000 / .
(. 10.14) -
, .

(m1 + m2 + m1O + mK1
*) , -
,
,
.
(m2B + m3 + mK1
**)
rS
-

SM ( , -
rS** , ,
..)
S**
-
,
. 10.14 , -
.

.
-
() II
-
158 11 159

e (). -


O O M I .
O O
I S I
z
S (. 11.2) -
S I :

XA + XB = x ; YA + YB = y ; (11.1)
e
I XA a + XB b = My ; YA a YB b = Mx . (11.2)
O O

S :

I S x = 2 mxS; y = 2 myS;
(11.3)
Mx = 2 Jyz ; My = 2 Jxz .
. 11.1 : m ; Jyz , Jxz -

: (. 11.1, ), - Oxyz.
; xOy ,
(. 11.1, ), - . , -
S; (. 11.1, ), -
, . M .
- (
, (11.3))
-
, . x
: . a b
,
(-
)
. XA XB

. S xS
. A B
, - O
e z
yS
. = const
, YA YB
-
: , -
y
, , -
, . 11.2
160 11 161

. -
, -
,
. -
() . -
-
. , S -
, (II)
. e 0,
= 2 m x S2 + y S2 . D 0.
MD = 0. -
.
= 2 m e , (. 11.3).
e (- -
). , -
- .
FA +FB =G +S ;
D = m e . (11.4) S = 2D; S = 2me.
D S G,
. , = 2 D . . : G = 10 H,
M m = G/g = 1 , = 0,1 , = 100 /, S = 104 1 0,1 =
: = 103 , .. 1000
.
= 2 J yz2 + J xz2 = 2 MD . (11.5) -
, mk,
.
, Dk = mkek = D. -
MD = J yz2 + J xz2 .
e D
-

, FA FB
M, I S I
D A B
MD.
-
mk
-
. ek

, Dk
. . 11.3
162 11 163

: mk = Dk /ek , - ,
ek -
. Dk - ,
D. . -
D, ek - , -
, e. mk1 mk2 Dk1 Dk2.
- ,
. MDk ,
, :
,
MDk = MD ,
.
MDk =Dk1Lk +Dk2Lk =MDk1 +MDk2,
Dk =D1 +D2 = m1ek1 + m2ek2. Dk = mkek .
m1 = m2, ek1 =ek2.

-
. -
-
II
, S , -

II -
S ; -
(. 11. 4).
D MD
e = 0, D = 0, -
(. 11. 5):D 0,MD 0, ..
-
D MD.
MD, .. D1
-
D2, . -
mk1 mk2 -
, MD = DM2 h.
ek1 ek2, S lk1 lk2.
(FA,FB ), -
,
.

Lk

h
mk2 DK2
I DM1
ek2 FB
A B
ek1 S BI
FA mk1 z

DM2
DK1 DM2 = DM1
M N
. 11.4 . 11.5
164 11 165

MDk , m1
D1
MD: m2
S1 D2
MDk = MD , DK eS1
D1
mK
MDk =Dk1 lk1 +Dk2 lk2 =MDk1 +MDk2, D3
eS2
Dk1 = mk1ek1 Dk2 = mk2ek2, - DK
rK D2
D: S2
eS3
D = Dk = (Dk1 + Dk2 ).
m3
lki eki S3
,
mki . D3
, . 11.6
, ,
, .. -
Dk = mkrk,
, D = 0,MD = 0. - ( mk , rk ), . -
. - , ..
: ,
, ,
-
, , - , -
. .



-
, , -
. , - ,
() - . ,
. -
(. 11.6, ) . -
mi ,eSi , Di , - , -
-
(. 11.6, ) .
D =D
i 1
+D2 +D3 + ... +Dk = 0. .
, 1, 2 3.
,
, , -
, Di .
166 11 167

(I II), - D1,D2
, - D3
. - D1I,D2I,D3I,D1II,D2II,D3II, -
I II. :
-
D +D =D D +D =D D +D =D
1I 1II 1 2I 2II 2 3I 3II 3
; ; .
D1 D2
D1II L = D1l 1 D2II L = D2 l 2 D3II L = D3 l 3
D1II
S2 DkII II
S1 m1 DkI DkII
m2 m kI = ; m kII = .
e2 mkII D2II l kI l kII
D1I I D2I e1
ekII
e3
ekI D3II mkI mkII -
S3 I II , -
mkI m3 kI, kI kII, kII. ,
D3I ()
D3
DkI l1 . ,
,
l2
l3 (
).
L

. 11.7

mkI.
. 11.7.
() -
.
.
-
:
I II
D1I +D2I +D3I +DkI = 0 D1II +D2II +D3II +DkII = 0
D2II
D2I D3I
D3II

D1II
D1I DkI
DkII
. 169


.
12 1. ,
(
).
-
, -
.
2. ,
, -
, -
. (
).
, , 3. -
. , .
- ,
( , , , -
, ..). - .
- - 4.
. , , -
, . -
- , ,
- , (
-. , ).

, ; -
. , .
, -
. - :
, -
- ;
,
, - .
- -
.
- , -
- .
.
.
170 12 . 171

- F F = F0 (sin t + )
12.1.

F(t)

H t
m

c(x) T
&
(x, x)
. 12.2
0
. 12.1 m
( ) -
.

N
- F (t ) = Fi (sin i t + 1 ).
( - i =1

).
-

.
(F(t)). , -
, -
,
,
.
[1] 1987 , 10.110.9.
-
, m -

,
mx&& = F (t ) + R( x , x& ), (12.1) F = F0 cos t. (12.2)
m ;
; F(t) , ;
R( x , x& ) , -
. :
- ;
F = F0(sin t + ), ;
F0 ; (/); -
2 ;
t ; T = , ;

1 .
f= = , (. 12.2). -
T 2 ,
172 12 . 173

R0 -
x x& : F0 -
R
R( x , x& ) = cx x& . (12.3) K = 0 .
R
F0
- ,
, (). ,
(12.3) (12.1)
F0 c 2 + 2 2 F0 04 + 42 n 2
R0 = = ;
mx&& + x& + cx = F0 cos t. (12.4) m (02 2 ) 2 + 4n 2 2 m (02 2 ) 2 + 4n 2 2
c R0 04 + 42 n 2
= 02 ; = 2n (12.4) - KR = = . (12.8)
m m F0 (02 2 ) 2 + 4n 2 2
:
-
F0 n
x&& + 2nx& + 0 x =
2
cos t . (12.5) = , KR ,
m 0
:
. - 2
(12.5)
1 + 4 2
x = A cos (t ), (12.6)
KR = 0 . (12.9)
2
m; -
2

2

m F(t). 2
1 + 4

0 0

F0 (12.9) ,
A= ; (12.7) KR
m (0 ) + 4n
2 2 2 2 2
( ). -
2
n
m1 F(t) () =
0
0
2n (. . 12.3).
tg = .
0 2
2
KR < 1:

> 2 , ,
- 0
, R0, - . :
, , -
, F0. .
174 12 . 175

KR ,
, . 12.1.
5
,
m,
4 mx&& + ( x& s&) + c( x s ) = 0,
=0
S(t) .
3
= 0,2
mx&& + x& + cx = s& + cs = F (t ). (12.10)
2 S(t) -
= 0,5 , F(t),
(12.10),
1
. , (12.10)
(12.4), .
0 /0 .
1 2 2 3 4

. 12.3
, ,
m << M ,
-
- . -
, ,
(. 12.4), , ()
, .
-
O . 12.5.
m1, , -
m F(t). -
.
F = F0 cos t.
x
: -
m1 -
m2, m1.
c(x) & , -
(x, x)
, .. .
,
S(t) m1 m2,
M
m 1 x&&1+ 1 x& 1+ c 2 ( x 1 x 2 ) = F0 cos t ;
(12.11)
. 12.4 m 2 x&& 2 + 2 ( x 1 x 2 ) = 0.
176 12 . 177

(12.14) (12.11),
m2 F = F0 cos t
m 1 x&&1+ ( 1 + c 2 (1 )) x 1 = F0 cos t . (12.15)
x2
-
c2 -

(12.15).

m1 F0 F0 (c2 m2 2)
A= = . (12.16)
1+c2(1 ) m1 2 (1 +c2 m1 2)(c2 m2 2 ) c 22
F(t)
-
x1 , ..
(1 + 2 m12) (c2 m22) c22 = 0.

c1
.
1 2, -
.
(12.16), ..
c2 m22 = 0. (12.17)
. 12.5 c
A. , 2 = 2 .
A
, - m2
- (12.17)
, ( m1 , , ,
180). m1 . -
(12.11) - , A, -
, .
x1 = A cos t, x2 = A cos t, (12.12) -
m2 m1. -
. m1 -
, (12.12) (12.17).
(12.11): m2. -
2 (12.16) (12.17)
= . (12.13) F0 c2
2 m 2 2 A = .
(c1 + c2 m1 )(c2 m 2 2 ) c22
2

(12.11)
c2 F0
= A = A = .
x2 = x1. (12.14) m2 c2
178 12

, m2 ,
A c2 , -
A. ,
m2.

1012 13
1. ?
2. ?
-
.

3. -
.
4. -
? -
.
5. -
, -
.
. -
6.
()? .
7. - -
, - ? -
8. , , - ,
.

9. ?
.
10. -
?
11. ? ,
? :
12. ? -,
? ? ;
-, -
13. ? -

?
, -
;
-, -

-
,
.

().
180 13 - ... 181

-
, - :
- 1. (. 13.1).
, , 2. ( -
. ) (. 13.2).

4
1 3 2
2 3 1
2 O2

B 1
5 4 2
O O1 1 2
1

3
1

1
4 2
2

. 13.1

1

1 2

2 3 1 2 1 2
3 2

4
4 1
1



. 13.2 . 13.3
182 13 - ... 183

1
3. (. 13.3,
2
).
4. (. 13.4, ) -
(. 13.4, ) .
A 5. , -
1 3 (. 13.5, ).

4 -
B .
C , -
2 5
( )
6 .
3
,
-
, .
:
. 13.4
,

3
2 3 4 3 2 4 -
2 2 .
h 1 3 -
1
h -
1 :Vn = 0, n -
1 h h
.
.
4 1 , .. nn -
4 2 V 2
1
V i j -
h 1 V, ,
h
3 Z
2 1 n
2 3 V
h
h
n

2 5 k j
3 3 6
3
4
2 5 h
i
4

1 h
1
X Y
. 13.5 . 13.6
184 13 - ... 185

, , , - Nnn
, - n
, (. 13.6). t
1 N1 1
- D 2 2
( - K
). 1 2
. O1 2 P O2
, c 1
, Vk1
n
, . a
t Vk2
N2
, .. , - Vk2 k1
,
. B
a t
-
n 1 2
-
. 1
-, -
. 2 1 k
: 2
t

O2 P
, O1
.
. 13.7,
n
,
. nn -

.
P, . - . 13.7
K K1 K2,
- , -
. .

V1 = Vk1 = 1 l01k; V = V21 = V2 V1 . (13.2)
(13.1)
V2 =Vk2 =Vk1 +Vk2k1. 1 2:
V2 , 1 O2 N 2
. 1 r1 cos 1 = 2 r2 cos 2 ; = . (13.3)
2 O1 N 1
n n n
V1 = V2 = V ,
O1N1P O2N2P
.. ,
O2 N 2 O2 P2 N 2 P2 1
. V1 = = = (13.4)

V2 , : V1 V2 . - O1 N 1 O1 P1 N 1 P1 2
186 13 , 187

O2 P 1 1
: = - 2 1
O1 P 2
. P rw2
(. 13.7, ) O1
1 2 , (13.4) :
O2 P O2
= + 1 . :
O1 P 2
rw1
O2 P 1
= . (13.5) 2
O1 P 2
1
2
2
rw1 1
1
-
O1 rw1
P
O2
: P

VK = V = V K V K ; V = V K V K1 ; O1 1
2 K1 2 1 2

V = 2 l KN 1 l KN = 2 (l N P + l KP ) 1 (l N P l KP ); (13.6)
2 1 2 1 Vp2
V = ( 2 + 1 ) l KP . rw2 2

. 13.8
Vc = lKP (2 1). (13.7) , u = const.
lKP = 0, c, - .
Vc = 0, .. -
.
: ,
OP
) u12 = 1 = 2 (. 13.8, ); , -
2 O1 P
nn -
1 O2 P .
) u12 = =+ , Vp = Vp1 = Vp2 ,
2 O1 P
(. 13.9).
(. 13.8, ); - Ky
) Vp2 = Vp1 = 1 rw1 (. 13.8, ). ry.
- - rb
.
188 13 189

3) -
; rb -
,
n rb = ;
O rb
4) -
;
inv y
y 5)
.
Ny ry Kb
y
Ky

t
Ky
1 -
rb1, 2
90 r b2.
t
n O1 2. -
. 13.9 1 2 K (. 13.10, ).
1 -
y . rb1, 2 rb2.
, - K ,
OKb OKy, N1K KN2, N1N2
, 1 2,
inv y. .
: 1 2, -
.
K b N y = K y N y , , N1N2
, -
rb (inv y + y) = rb tg y y, inv y = tg y y. (13.8) . , .. , -
N1N2 .
.
inv y y, . 1.
ry , rb y KyONy - :

rb 1 O2 P
ry = . (13.9) u 21 = = = const.
cos y 2 O1 P

-
(. . 13.9): ( ) -
1) , .
Kb , - -
; .
2) - , .
;
190 13 13 191

aw 2. . 13.10, , -
w = rw1 + rw2 -
1
1 N1 rw2 2 .
K 1
O1 w O2
P 1 O2 P rw 2 rb1 cos w rb 2
rb1 rw1 K w rb2 u12 = = = = = ;
2 O1 P r w1 rb 2 cos w rb1
w
N2 1 O2 P rw 2 rb1 cos w rb 2
2 =
u 12 = = = = .
2 2 O1 P rw 1 rb 2 cos w rb1
x Nx2
1 2 3. -
-
aw N1N2.
1 2 , , -
N1
1 N1N2 N2 (. . 13.10, ),

rw2 2 . ,
O1 w P O2 , .
rb1 w N1 N1N2.
rb2

rw1
w 13
N2
1. ?
2. -
. 13.10
.
3. -
- ?
rw1 rw2 .
4. .
rw 2 5. -
u 21 = . .
r w1
6. .
w , - 7. , .
, - 8. ?
.
rb1 = rw1 cos w ; rb 2 = rw 2 cos w ; 9. -
?
rb1 rb 2
r w1 = ; rw 2 = ;
cos w cos w
rw 2 rb 2
u 21 = = .
r w1 rb1
193

4
3
5
2
6

14
1

-
-
.
-
, . 14.1

. , -
, - , , -
. , -
. 1416 - .
.
. - -
. ,
-
. , -
.
, - , ,
, . - , ,
, ,
. - , -
, - .
. ,
(. 14.1). .
(1), - ,
, .
(2), , . . 14.2, -
, . - ,
(3) . (,
, (4), ), ,
. . -
(5) - KK, N,
(6) . 1 .
194 14 195

1 1 . 14.3,
rb rb . r a
n 2 n 2 . . 14.3,
O O
Kb Kb .
n ,
n
. ra
K K
N N rf ,
, , .
. 14.3, ,
Kb Kb , ,
( rb), r
K* ry.
K
K t y t
ey py K
y
Sy e K 90 pt
. 14.2 S
t 90 N
ry
h
- ra 2
KbKb .
rf
r
rb
2 (, y t
KK). - O t py Ky
ey p
. Sy e t
S
. h t
rf rb r ry
(. 14.2, ) Sy ra
2
S
(, ), ,
; KK ry
N 2b
. r rb 2 O
N 1
KbKb 2y
.
2 inv
inv
KK*, . inv y
inv y
.
,
, O
, .. ,
, . . 14.3
196 14 197

. 14.3, KON,
K,
. p cos cos
py = = pm . (14.5)
20. , cos y cos y
,
, m
= 20. z. -
, . -
z, ,
, -
, , .. (.
, pb (14.1)).
py. , pb py
= p/r =
= pb /rb = py /ry. , , -
. .
: = 360/z. -
s y -
. ey, ..
z: 2r = pz. py = sy + ey ;
d = (p/)z = mz. p/
m p = s + e = m.
( ). , ,
. ,
.
, : :
r = mz/2; (14.1) 1) , -
p = m. (14.2)
, , ,
KON
(. . 14.3, ): s = e = m/2;
mz 2) , s > , .. s > m/2;
rb = r cos = cos . (14.3)
2 3) , s < , .. s < m/2.
. 14.3, 2 2,
s s,
: inv inv y. :
r cos mz cos
ry = = . (14.4) b = + inv = y + inv y,
cos y 2 cos y

, - y = + inv inv y.
y = sy /(2ry )
pb = p cos = m cos , = s/(2r) ,
198 14 ... 199

y, .
:
sy = ry (s/r + 2inv 2inv y). (14.6)
- .
sy : -
.
sy = ry (s/r 2inv + 2inv y).
, . -
, , . -
z =
, - : -
, . . -
z = (. 14.4). -
.
, . , -
UU, , ,
, .. , ( , , ), -
. , ,
, , . -
p = m. , .
nn , m cos , .. , -
b , , -
, . . -
, . ,

p = m
,
.
p/2 p/2 -

C
(, ,
n ..).

U U h . , -
,
Pb
-
,
D ,
n . , -
,
. ,
. 14.4 ,
200 14 ... 201

(-
, ).
-
, -
-
, .
. . , -
-
. -
,
( ) -
( )
, -
-
.
-
(.. ,

) ()
-
. ,
(. 14.5, ),
(. 14.5, ). -


, .. -
.
(. 14.5, )
(. 14.5, ), -
(. 14.5, ) -
.
,
(. 14.5, ), (. 14.5, ),
-
(. 14.5, ).
,
, -
.
()
-
() . -

-
(. . 14.5, , ). . 14.5
202 14 ... 203

, : = 20. (-
, - DE)
().
c*m
- pf = 0,4m. (14.7)
. 1 sin
, .. ,
, -
. -
: m, , ha*, c*.
. -
-
( ),
. , -
,
, . --
:
-
. -
, .

, -
-
rw0 - -
.
r.
-
w0 -
. -
(
. (. 14.6, )
).
. -
, ,
p0 = pf . , -
.
, , D, . - -
CD , . -
DE . , -

,
-
. , -
: 1) -
-
; 2)
, -
D. ; 3) -
- .
ha* = ham
.
C = c*m, ha* ; * - m
. ha* = 1,0; . -
* = 0,25. , D, - m = 0, = 0.
. m > 0, > 0. -
, , -
. - ; mx < 0,
, , - x < 0.
, , . 14.6, -
m, m . -

s 0 = e 0 = m/2, . , .
204 14 ... 205
p = m 0. : *m, ym,
m/2 m/2 .
ym -
A
C c*m .
C0
B xm ha*m (. . 14.6, )
90
P0 K w0 = ha*m
Q B1
F
D 0 Q da = 2ra = m(z + 2ha* + 2x 2y). (14.8)
c*m
N E h
w0
rf
rl
h = m(2ha* + c* y). (14.9)
rb
rw0 = r ra x = 0 ( ) = 0,
da = m(z + 2ha*), h = m(2ha* + *), -
0
0 ha* = 1,0 * = 0,25 da = m(z + 2) h = 2,25m.
- -
- ( ) -
m/2
p= . s -
m

1 - (. 14.6, ).

xm
2
e0 = m/2 ,
0 M P0 M xm tg ,
S t t
s = m/2 + 2xm tg . (14.10)
p/cos

(xm = 0), s = m/2; , s
rw0 = r ,
s + = m. -
s = e. xm > 0, s > m/2 , -
, s > e. xm < 0, s < m/2, s < e.

. 14.6
1, ,

tt () (. 14.6, ). -
N P0 . 2 ,
1 B, -
QQ . tt
(. . 14.6, ).
- p/cos , ,
. - , m/cos .
,
rl = OB1. , , -
m m/cos ,
d = zm/cos .
206 14 14 207

. 14.7 ,
,
, : x1 < x2 < x3.
-
; ,
a b c f
. -
s1, ( ab), s2 ( ), s3 ( af)
ra1 r a1, r a2, r a3 .
ra2 -
rb ra3
r , , .. -
. ,

, -
, -
.

14
O
1. ?
. 14.7 2. .
3. -
ha*m, c*m, xm, y*m, .
(. . 14.6, ), 4. ?
.
5.
. 14.6,
?
.
. - 6. .
, ham, 7.
cm, xm, ym, (ra, s, h), -
- .
. , , -
:
da = d + 2(h*m
a
+ xm ym).


= 20,
, -
. t -


tg
tg t = .
cos
209


.
, l -

N (. . 14.6, a), ..
15
P0N P0Bl. (15.1)
(15.1), -
, .
P0ON (. . 14.6, ) , P0N = P0O sin ,
(. P0FBl, P0Bl = P0F/sin .
14) , .. , P0N P0Bl (15.1) -
z,
-
, N. - z 2(ha* x)/sin2 . (15.2)
-
, . x = 0, -
, ,
- :
, zmin = 2ha* / sin2 . (15.3)
(. 15.1).

zmin. -
(ha* = 1,0; = 20) zmin 17.
(15.3)

zmin = 2ha* cos /sin2.
,
, t > , cos < 1. -
14 , -

. z < 17,
, -
. , -
,
. (15.1),
, (15.2), -
:
z
sin 2 ha* x .
. 15.1 2
210 15 211

sin (15.3) -
2
w
,
h* ( z z)
x a min ; (15.4) N1
z min rb1
r1 r2
1 rb2 2
xmin, - B C
w
O1 P O2
h* ( z z )
xmin = a min . (15.5) C w
z min
K B
(15.5) , , rw1
rw2
z > zmin, , -
, N2
xmin < 0. ,
z = zmin, - ym
, , z < zmin, -
. aw
,
sa . - . 15.2
, (xmax),
(sa = 0). - , B -
(- .
15). B -
- ;
, . -
sa 0,2m (sa > 0,2m). , B -
sa , N1N2. B
r y = r a y = a ; (14.2) , -
cos a = rb /ra. .
-
; -
() .
,
. . 15.2 ,
w ( . . 15.2 -
), P, .
w , rw1 rw2. - -
( 13) , -
. . . 15.2
B - ,
; * , .. = *m, * = 0,25.
212 15 213

-
(. . 15.2):
- w = r1 + r2 + ym, (15.9)
w aw
, - ym .
, ,
, . , , .
- (15.8) (15.9) (14.3),
, sw1 = ew2 sw2 = ew1, sw1 sw2
, ew1 ew2 - :
. z cos
y= . (15.10)
, pw1 pw2 o 2 cos w
: pw1 = pw2 = pw.
pw = sw1 + ew1, , sw2 = ew1: -
, , -
pw = sw1 + sw2. (15.6) m m/cos t , x tg m
.
, -
cos .
pw = m . : 1) -
cos w
;
(14.2), (14.3) (14.6), - 2) -
sw1 sw2 (14.6) (15.6). = c*m = 0,25m.
, ,
:
(15.9). ,
inv w = inv + 2x tg /z , (15.7)
aw = ra1 + *m + rf2. (15.11)
x = x1 + x2, z = z1 + z2.
(15.7) w - (15.9) (15.11)
.
r1 + ym + r2 = ra1 + C + rf2

w = rw1 + rw2.
r1 + ym + r2 = ra1 + C + ra2 h.
(14.4),
r1, 2 , ra1, 2 h -
mz cos
rw = , 14,
2 cos w
ym = x1m ym + x2m,
-
mz cos , ,
aw = . (15.8)
2 cos w = x y. (15.12)
214 15 ... 215

, ym (. - , . -
) -
.
.
- 1 2
(x1 = 0, x2 = 0, x = x1 + x2 = 0), - N1N2. ,
(15.7), (15.9), (15.10) (15.12) (15.9) - , -
: (z1) (z2) .
w = = 20,
y = 0, -
y = 0, aw = r1 + r2 = m(z1 + z2)/2, . ,
.. . -
N1N2. , z1 z2
rw1 = mz1 /2 = r1, rw2 = mz2 /2 = r2, .. .
. , ,
- , z1 20,
. . 15.3 z2 85, z2 z1 8. -
. (), 1, , z2 z2 z1 -
; , .
2, . -
-
, .
( ), -
.

,

,
, -
.

.
1 2
.

.
, -
. -
, -

.
,
. 15.3
,
216 15 ... 217

, B (. 15.4, a). gf ga -
, - (. . 15.4):

gf = rb2 (tg a2 tg w ); (15.14)



a = a1 = a 2 . (15.13) ga = rb1 (tg a1 tg w ). (15.15)
1 2
(15.14) (15.15) (15.13) (14.3)
1 = 2/z1 ; 1 = g /rb1, g = gf + ga
. :
z1 tg a1 + z 2 tg a 2 ( z1 + z 2 ) tg w
a = . (15.16)
2
(15.16) < 1,
ra1 -
N1 :
rb1 gf , . -
g
B 1,05,
ga
O1 P O2 5%- .
1 1 , -
x1 x2.
B
,
ra1 rb2 1,05.
N2 -
( 0) , ( = 0).


N1 = + . (15.17)
B gf
rb1
(15.16). = b/pt. b = m -
w ;
O1 a1 P ga O2 , -
w ; pt = m/sin . -
t a2 b pt ,
B
a1 = sin /. (15.18)
rb2
t (15.17)
N2 (15.18),

( 0)
. 15.4 ( = 0), .
218 15 ... 219



-
.
lK

. N1 B P B N2

1 = v /vK1 K ; 2 = v /vK2 K ,


v ; vK1 K vK2 K 1 2

.
-
z1 . -
, u12 , . 15.5
, -
. -
, 2 ( )
u12 = w1 /w2 = z2 /z1: , -
1 = v /vK1 K; 2 = v /(vK2 K u12). .
,
1 2 :
.
1 l K 1 l K
1 = 1 + ; 2 = 1 + , (15.19)
u12 l K + l P 1 u12 l K l P 2

Q 1
= 0,418 E ,
lK , b

(. . 15.2); lP1 lP2 Q ; b
N1 N2. ; E = 2E1E2 /(E1 + E2)
- ; -
( ,
) ( - -
). , lK - .
(P) (+P). (. . 15.2)
, (15.19), + 2
1 2 - 1 1 1
= + = 1 ,
. 1 , 1 2 1 2
2 B (. 15.5).
1 2 -
x1 x2 . x1 x2, - N 1N 2
1 2, 1
= .
. N 1K N 2 K
220 15 15 221

- -
.
m mN 1 N 2 1 2 -
= = . (15.20) : 1) ;
N 1K N 2 K 2) ; 3) .
,
,
1 -
m, .
min1. -
K -
1 -
, N1K , -
max1 max1. ,
N2K (. . 15.2). ,
(15.20), xmax1,
. - . , 1 -
. 15.6. ,
, : min1 < 1 max1. To -
2 , min2 < 2 max2.
Q E 1
= 0,418 .
b m 2 , -
,
( , , ), -
1 2. .
, - : , -
1 2 , - , , -
. .

15
N1N2 N1N2
1. -
2 2 .
2. zmin? zmin.
3. xmin? xmin.
4. -
.
5. -
?
6. ?
7. -

.
P min
8. ?
N1 B B N2 .
9. -
. 15.6 ?
, 223

, , -
(. 14),
. -
,
, (. 16.2). -
16 , -
3 -
, . . 16.2
-
, .
( )
, , ,
, - .
,
(. 16.1). - , , -
, ( ) .

. . - .

P
1
A
O

r1
O1 1

1 T 90
A
E 3

pt P
O
90 C
b K

O1
pt
1 0
1
O
A C D
2
C K
. 16.1 . 16.2
224 16 , 225
. -
-, - :
, -
(. . 16.1), . , ,
. 16.1 16.2 , - . -
1 2 ,
. : , ,
, m, , h*a , c*
- mt, t , h*at , c*t , -
(. 14), - . :
-
.
mz mz
rb = cos ; rb = t cos t ;
, , - 2 2
. , -
h = m (2h*a + c* y) h = mt (2h*at + c*t y)
(),
. ..
, - ( )
OO ; . :
, m tg
- mt = ; tg t = ;
cos cos (16.1)
, -
, - hat* = ha* cos ; ct* = c * cos .
. , pt
p t = p/cos (. . 16.2),
. mt = m/cos , m . .
. -
m, , ha , c* , - , .
t: mt, t , hat , c*t . , , 1 1
(. . 16.1).
, - -
, , ,
. .
. 1 1 -
(. . 16.2), , 1,
, .. , . , a
(. . 16.2),
1 = 1 + 1.
, ,
. - -
, - = 1 /1 = 2 /2. :
,
. , = 1 /1 = 1 /1 + 1 /1 = + .
226 16 227

, -
, (15.8).
:
= 1 /1 = AC/AE = b tg /pt (. . 16.1).
t = mt ,
. -
b tg
= . (16.2)
mt
-
- .
: ,
, ..
z1 z2 b tg
= (tg a1 tg w ) + (tg a 2 tg w ) + . (16.3) .
2 2 m t . . -
,
( = 0) . -
= 0, = . , - ,
( 0) ,
-
, - (. 16.3).
. . . -
, 1, 2; .
.
(15.2)
K
2hat KK,

z min = .
sin 2 t PP.
K;
(15.2) h at < h a, t > , .

z min < zmin, .. - ( = 0),
, . -
. . - ( = 822) -
, ceo - > 1.
. -
, -
( ) , (-
zmin, - K . 16.3
. ) -
1316 . -
,
- ,
. . [10] . -
. -
228 16 229

,
-
.
-

,
,
, -
.
KK KK, -
(. 16.4).
da1 KK P, KK .
dw1 -
-
.
df1
.
aw O1
.
1 P
,
n K
,

P 2
.
e :
1 , (. 16.5, ).
.
da2 K
( )
2 .

df2
.
n

O2 (. 16.5, )
1502376.
dw2 ,
bw
.
mn.
-
, 1418669.


. 16.3 .
230 16 231

p
SK
i2

a K a
hf2 h
a1
hK p f
a

da1 1
hp
i1
hf1 e
dw1
a
df1 p
S e
O1
K SK
q
K
K ha a 1
hK K
a a
P K hK
1 f hf
K l i
l K
1
eK
2

w . 16.5
df2
bw
O2 px (. 16.6):
dw2
da2 bw bw sin
bw = = . (16.4)
px m x

-
, .
, -
(bw mn), .

= 1,15...1,35
. 16.4 = 1020.
232 16 16 233

, -
P
n = :
m
32 n m z
31 d= n . (16.5)
cos
22
21 a2 :
K2 f2 K1
da1 = d1 + 2ha*1 mn; da2 = d2 + 2ha*2 mn. (16.6)
11 12
w :
K1
df1 = d1 2hf*1 mn; da2 = d2 2hf*2 mn. (16.7)
1 :
K2 ( z1 + z 2 )
aw = mn . (16.8)
2 cos

K1 :
b = bw = px . (16.9)
Px = mx
q bw 16
1. ?
2. ?
3.
K1 ?
4. -
?
2
5.
. 16.6 ?
?
- 6. ?
= 1,15...1,2 7. .
. -
3040% , 8. -
. .
-

aw , U12
. -

.
235


:
,
, ;
,
17 ;
, , ;
, ,
.
, h.
- . 17.1 -
,
. U
, - .
() -
. , - 17.1


-

, - U

, .
2 3
-
1 z
1 h u 1(3) = =1+ 3
1 h h z1 0,97...0,99
. - 3...10
, , 1 h
, 2 3
. 1 zz
- 1 h u 1(3) = =1+ 2 4
2 h h z1 z3 0,96...0,98
.
7...16
1 h
, -
. 2 3
1 zz
, u 1(3) = =1 2 4
1 h h h z1 z 3
, - 3 0,9...0,3
. : 1 ... 1
; 1 h 25 150

; 2 3 1 zz
- u 1(3) = =1 2 4
1 h h h z1 z 3
; 4 0,9...0,3
1 ... 1
- 25 150
1 h
.
236 17 ... 237


B

VB
-
, -
B
i i
.
, :
. A
. 17.1.
:
, ,
l , /, - i
V , / 1. i - . 17.2

VB BB l
i = = l = tg i = c tg i . (. 17.2).
l AB V AB V
.
, - -

1 r z
= w2 = 2 ;
2 r w1 z1
l , /
3
-
2

1 2 3 2 r z
= w4 = 4 .
2 3 rw 3 z3
1
O3 3
O1 rw1 P1 P2 rw3 O2, 4
P2 z z
1 rw4
u13 = 1 = 1 2 = u12 u 23 = 2 4 .
VP2 3 2 3 z1 z 3

rw2
P1 , -
VP1
, -
.
V , / . c1 -
. 17.1
. l , /,
238 17 239

. 1 h 2
P1, 2 h
V , / 1 11. -
1 h
1 1 2 1 VO2
O1 O2 , O1 2
P O2
, ,
. - VO2
1 2. 2 - h
3 4. - O h

2 3 , VP
2 , -
22, 2 2 1
V , / 1. 2 -
3,
3, . 1 h 2
, , - *2
3. *1
*2
*1 O2
O1 P
l l
1 = tg 1 = c tg 1 ; 3 = tg 3 = c tg 3 .
V V


O
VP*
1 tg 1 *2
u13 = = . *1
3 tg 3
. 17.3

. -
.

. 17.2.
17.2
-
.
(. 17.3). -

: 1 2 3(h) 0(h)

W = 3n 2p1 1p2 = 3 3 2 3 1 1 = 2, 1 2 h 0 = 0

.. - 1* = 1 h 2* = 2 h h h = 0 h

240 17 ... 241

- l , /
- 3 r,
. h
2 - C c
2
(. . 17.3, ), - B b b 1
(. . 17.3, ). h h
1
- A a a a
. 1
, O O
1 h V, /
:
*2 2 h z1 2
V , / . c1
= = .
*1 1 h z2
. 17.4

-

1 h 2 h z z
= 2 4;
2 h 3 h z1 z 3

=0

1 h z2 z4
: , 1, ri , - = ;
h z1 z 3
zi .
: . 1 z2 z4
. u1(3) = =1+ .
, . 17.4, ,
h
h z1 z 3
2 :
z2, z1 1; .
z3, - riOVi -
z4 3. (. 17.4, ). -
r1
V , / 1 aa.
z1 z2 , -
1,
1 h z
= 2; ri. ri 1.
2 h z1 2 3 -
, , a,
z4 z3 2.
2 h, -
2 h z4 a , rB = (r1 + r2),
= .
3 h z3 V , / 1 bb.
242 17 ... 243
b , l , /
. 3 r,
ri h. -
C c h
,
, : 2 B b b
1
tg 1 aa h
u1h(3) = 1 = = . 1
A a a a
h
tg aa
h 1
O O V, /
1 h
2
h V , / . c1
. 17.5, , .
- . 17.5
.
c
z1 z2
1 h z
= 2;
2 h z1 .
, . 17.6, ,
c z2 z3 2 :
z2, z1 1;
2 h z3 z3, z4 -
= .
3 h z2 3.

h l , /
r,
1 h 2 h z
= 3; 2
2 h 3 h z1 B b
b
=0 C c 1
h
1 h z3 1 A 3
= ; a
h z1 a 1 a
1 z3 O V, . c
u1(3) = =1+ . 1 O h
h
h z1
2
h V , / . c1
(. 17.5, ).
tg 1 aa
u1h(3) = 1 = = . . 17.6
h
tg aa
h
244 17 ... 245

1 h z2
c = ;
z2 z1 2 h z1
1 h z
= 2; c z4 z3
2 h z1
2 h z4
c z4 z3 = .
3 h z3
2 h z4
= . -
3 h z3
1 h 2 h z z
- = 2 4;
2 h 3 h z1 z 3
1 h 2 h z z =0
= 2 4; 1 h z2 z4
2 h 3 h z1 z 3
= ;
=0 h z1 z 3
1 h z2 z4 1 z2 z4
= ; u1(3) = =1 .
h z1 z 3 h
h z1 z 3
1 z2 z4
u1(3) = =1 .
h
h z1 z 3 (. 17.7, ).
tg 1 bb
u1h(3) = 1 = = .
(. 17.6, ). tg
h
bb h
tg 1 aa
u1h(3) = 1 = = .
tg aa l , /
h h ri ,
1 3
c 1
C
A a h
2 a
B
.
, . 17.7, , b b b
1
2 : h
2
z2, z1 1;
z3, - 1
O
h
O V, /
z4 3.
h V , / . c1
c
z2 z1 . 17.7
246 17

17
1. ?
2. ?
3.
?
18
4.
?
5. ()
-
?
.

-
-
,
. -
-
. -
,
,


mzi
ri = .
2
-
. -

. -
. 17.1.

, -
. -

.

; -
.
-
,

248 18 . ... 249

, .. - 3
C1
. C
( - 2
B B1
) : -
awI A awII
( k) - A1
u zi , O
O
. 1 h B2 B3
1 C2 C3

. h
h
,
. 18.1

,
:
- ( ), ..
; awI = awII ; awI = rw1 + rw2 = r1 + r2 ;
;
() - awII = rw4 rw3 = r4 r3.
;
, xi = 0 rwi =
; = ri = zim/2.
-
;
- r1 + r2 = r4 r3 mI ( z1 + z2) = mII (z4 z3).
; , mI = mII = m, -
.
-
z1 + z2 = z4 z3.
(. 18.1).
3. (
1.
k > 1).
.
aw.
5%,
,
z z max (da 2, 3 ) < lB2B3.
u1h = 1 + 2 4 (0,95...1,05).
z1 z 3 (ha* = 1, x2, 3 = 0,
2y = 0)
2. .
, - max (da 2, 3) = max [(z2, 3 + 2ha* + 2x2, 3 2y)m] =
( ) - = max [(z2, 3 + 2)m ].
250 18 251

h -
p , ..
lB2B3 = 2aw sin (h /2) = 2(r1 + r2) sin (/k) =
h = 2/k + 2 = 2/k (1 + k).
= (z1 + z2) m sin (/k).
-
-
:

U1h z1 /k (1 + k) = B.
max [(z2, 3 + 2) m] = (z1 + z2) m sin (/k);
sin (/k) = max [(z2, 3 + 2)/(z1 + z2)]. 5.
. ,
4. -
- zi > zmin.
k > 1. - 6.
. . -
, , ,
1. - :
z1 z4
- z . > 20, z . > 85;
. - zd = z . z . > 8.
, h
z1 . 7. .
z1 z4 -
, - R :
. R = min [max (z1 + 2z2), (kK z4)], kK , -

.
h = 2 /k.


1 = 2 /z1.
, -
, -
, -
h ,
.
1 = h u1h 1 = 2 u1h /k. ( 1, 2, 5 6). -

1 . -
1 B = 1 1, .

B . , ..
B - .
z z u1h BD
u14 = 2 4 = =
h
.
2 u1h z1 / (k 2) = B u1h z1 / k = B. z1 z 3 (0,95...1,05) 1 AC
252 18 ... 253

u14 h

A, B, C D.
A z1, B z2 ,
C z3 D z4.
1.
, (BD)/(AC)
h .
u14.
- : , u1h = 13, k = 3.

: : zi ( ).
B/A = z2 / z1 = 16 ;
D/C = z4 /z3 = 1,18 .
u1h
z2 z4 BD 3 4 2 6 4 3
z1 + z2 = z4 z3 u1hh = = = 12 = = = = = ...
z1 z 3 (0,95...1,05) 1 AC 1 1 1 1 1 1

:
a (A + B) = b (D C).
z1 = (D C)Aq = (4 1) 1q = 3q; z1 = 18 > 17;
, a b
z2 = (D C)Bq = (4 1) 3q = 9q; q = 6; z2 = 54 > 17;
a = (D C); z3 = (A + B)Cq = (3 + 1) 1q = 4q; z3 = 24 > 20;
b = (A + B), z4 = (A + B)Dq = (3 + 1) 4q = 16q; z4 = 96 > 85.
. :
:
sin (/k) > max [(z2, 3 + 2)/(z1 + z2)];
z1 = (D C)Aq;
sin (/3) > (54 + 2)/(18 + 54);
z3 = (A + B)Cq;
0,866 > 0,77 .
z2 = (D C)Bq;
:
z4 = (A + B)Dq,
(u1h z1 /k) (1 + kp) = B;
q , -
5 6. (13 18/3) (1 + 3) = p.
, - , ..
, 1, 2, 5 .
6. 3 () 4 R = (18 + 2 54) = 126.
() , , - :
. z1 = (D C)Aq = (6 1) 1q = 5q; z1 = 45 > 17;
-
, z2 = (D C)Bq = (6 1) 2q = 10q; q = 9; z2 = 90 > 17;
7. z3 = (A + B)Cq = (2 + 1) 1q = 3q; z3 = 27 > 20;
, -
R. z4 = (A + B)Dq = (2 + 1) 68q = 18q; z4 = 162 > 85.
254 18 ... 255

: C
3
sin (/k) > max [(z2, 3 + 2)/(z1 + z2)];
2
sin (/3) > (90 + 2)/(45 + 90); B
0,866 > 0,681 .
:
A
(u1h z1 /k) (1 + kp) = B;
(12 45/3) (1 + 3) = .
, - O
. 1 h
R = (45 + 2 90) = 225.
:
1 h
z1 = (D C)Aq = (3 1) 1q = 2q; z1 = 18 > 17; . 18.2
z2 = (D C)Bq = (3 1) 4q = 8q; q = 9; z2 = 72 > 17;
z3 = (A + B)Cq = (1 + 4) 1q = 5q; z3 = 45 > 20; -

z4 = (A + B)Dq = (1 + 4) 3q = 15q; z4 = 135 > 85. . -
: 17 u1h k.

sin (/k) > max [(z2, 3 + 2)/(z1 + z2)];
z1 = 18 > 17.
sin (/3) > (70 + 2)/(18 + 72);

0,866 > 0,8 . :
:
u1h = (1 + z3 /z1 ) (0,951,05);
(u1h z1 /k) (1 + kp) = B;
z3 = [u1h /(0,951,05) 1] z1;
(14 18/3) (1 + 3) = .
, - z3 = [7/(0,951,05) 1] 18 = 108.
. -
R = (18 + 2 72) = 162. :
- z1 + z2 = z3 z2;
. -
. z2 = (z3 z1)/2 = (108 18)/2 = 45.
:
2.
(. 18.2). sin (/k) > max [(z2 + 2)/(z1 + z2)];
: , u1h = 7; k = 3. sin (/3) > (45 + 2)/(18 + 45);
: zi ( ). 0,866 > 0,73 .
256 18 ... 257

:
(u1h z1 /k) (1 + kp) = B; z1 + z2 = z4 + z3.
(7 18/3) (1 + 3) = ( :
). (A + B) = (D + C).
-
, - :
z1, = (D + C), = (A + B)
.
:
3. - z1 = (D + C)Aq = (1 + 2) 12q = 36q; z1 = 36 > 17;
(. 18.3).
z2 = (D + C)Bq = (1 + 2) 25q = 75q; q = 1; z2 = 75 > 17;
: , uh1 = 24; k = 3.
z3 = (A + B)Cq = (12 + 25) 2q = 74q; z3 = 74 > 17;
: zi ( ).
z4 = (A + B)Dq = (12 + 25) 1q = 37q; z4 = 37 > 17.
:
:
u1h = 1/uh1;
z2 z4 1 u1h 25 BD 5 5 5 5 25 1 sin (/k) > max [(z2, 3 + 2)/(z1 + z2)];
u1hh = = = = = = = = ...
z1 z 3 (0,95...1,05) 24 AC 4 6 6 4 12 2 sin (/3) > (75 + 2)/(36 + 75);
0,866 > 0,694 .
:
(u1h z1 /k) (1 + kp) = B;
2
B [18/(24 3)] (1 + 3) = = 1.
, ..
C .

1 A 3 R = (36 + 2 75) = 186.


-
, , -
, , -
O .
1 h
4. -
.
: (. 18.4), uh1 = 55;
k = 2.
h
. 18.3 : zi ( ).
258 18 ... 259

:
A C
2 3 sin (/k) > max [(z2, 3 + 2)/(z1 + z2)];
B sin (/2) > (37 + 2)/(110 36);
1 1,0 > 0,527 .
:
(u1h z1 /k) (1 + kp) = B;
O [110/(55 2)] (1 + 3) = .
1 h , ..
.
-
h , , -
. 18.4 , , -
.
:
u1h = 1/uh1;
1 u1h
z2 z4 54 BD 69 18 3
u1hh = = = = = = = ...
z1 z 3 (0,95...1,05) 55 AC 11 5 55 1



z1 z2 = z4 z3.
:
. , ,
(A B) = (D C). -
. -
- (
: ) -
= (D C), = (A B) . -
: (,
), -
z1 = (D C)Aq = (3 1) 55q = 110q; z1 = 110 > 85; -
.
z2 = (D C)Bq = (3 1) 18q = 36q; q = 1; z2 = 36 > 20; -
z3 = (A B)Cq = (55 18) 1q = 37q; z3 = 37 > 20; -
-
z4 = (A B)Dq = (55 18) 3q = 111q; z4 = 111 > 85. .
260 18 18 261

3
W = 2 r, l , /
3
4 h
C c c 2
2
B b
W = 2 E e
b
, , , - A D ad d a
. , F
f f
O O V, /
. 1 h
, 1 4 1
, - V , / . c1
h
.
. 18.5
. -
, -
(. 18.5, ). . -
- . 18.5.
z2 z1
(1 h )/(2 h ) = z2 /z1; 18
z4 z3 1. -
(2 h )/(3 h ) = z4 / z3. ?
2. -
? .
-
: 3.
K = 3.
1 h 2 h z2 z4 4.
= ;
2 h 3 h z1 z 3 ?
5. ( ) -
1 h z2 z4 ?
= = u13 ;
(h)

3 h z1 z 3 6. -
(h) (h)
u1h = 5 K = 3.
u13 3 u13 h = 1 h ; 7. -
?
1 (1 + u13 ) h u13 3 = 0.
(h) (h)

-
, -
,
(, -
) . ,
263

w0
h
h

D = Db1 + 2w0
3 Db1

19 1 3
h

w0
1 2

w

, -
- 2
- hc

(. 19.1).
() -
(. 19.1, , , ): 1, -
2 h. 1

3
, - Db1
( ), h
.
-
, -
,
z . - D
2w0 . -
-
(. 19.1, ).

,
. 19.1
.
.
- -
,
, .
z z = 2. (. 19.2, ).
1 2 3, 1 2,
h. 3 . -
. - -
.
3 (. 19.2, ) - ,
. .
264 19 265

1 2 z1 z2
, = 2(z z)/z .
, -
4
3 :
h z1 z2
3
h h 2 z z
z 1
h u h( ) = = = = . (19.1)
4 2( z z ) z z
z


2

= 2
= 2(z z)/z.
-

h h 2 z z
u h() = = = = . (19.2)
2( z z ) z z


(. 19.2, ). 1
z1 z2 ,
1 2 4, -
z1 z2 . 2
2 , -

3 , 4. -


. 19.2 z 1 z 2
uh(24) = . (19.3)
z 1 z 2 z 1 z 2



. -

- . -
. z z, , -
= 2/z = 2/z, . 1 -
. - 2, -
- h. ,
h = 2, 2 (. 19.3),
266 19 267

.

W0 , ,
, -
. -
( 40%
) ,
P
. ,
r -
rc rwy cy N
r N .
rw
-
r
60320,
0,85...0,80. -
2 103 104
aw 0,7 0,1.

O -
aw , -
.
O -
-
,

.
-
. -

W0 , -

. 0,5 1,1d ,
d
P . h
r r rN Ny 0,01d.
rw
r rw
Oy

aw
O
-
aw .
,
O
. . . , -
, -
-
. 19.3
, 2
268 19 269

(. . 19.3, ). - (.
. . 19.3, ):
-
(4 / ) (4 / ) cos 2 sin
K = , (19.7)
z , - / 2 sin cos
z.

-
(40 < < 65).
, , -
-
,
(. . 19.3):
, , -
. r = m (z /2 + h* + c* + hc /2m + x ), (19.8)

, h*, c* ; x -
- :
[16]. x = (h* + c* + hc /2m) , (19.9)
m = d /z ,
- = 1,0...1,4 .
. , -
h -
: .
.
d = mz ; d = mz ;
(19.4)
h = (60 + z / 5) mz 10 4.
z
r = r . (19.10)
- z
-
: , -
,
w0 z z
= , (19.5) aw = e = r (1 w0 /r ) r . (19.11)
r z


= 0,9...1,2
. (z z ) m cos
w = arccos . (19.12)
2 a
w
z
z = . (19.6)
1 K (w0 / r ) , -
, z0.
(19.6), , -
,
(inv inv w )(z z ) 2 x tg
inv w = inv , (19.13)
, 0 z z
0
270 19


z z0
[ 0
]
x = (cos / cos w ) 1
2
. (19.14)

-
, - 20
.
.
- .
:
,
- -
, -
, - ,
, , . -
,
, . .

19 , -
,
1. ()? . 1 2
. (. 20.1).
2. - 90, -
? . .
3. - , 180
?
4. - O1
?
1
5. ? O2
6. ? w2 c1
w1 1 c
d we2
C
P 2 P O
w1
1
O wc = 90
O1 w1
21

dwe1
21 2 w2
1 w2

. 20.1
272 20 ... 273

1 2 1 = 90
2, (. 20.1, a). (20.4) (20.5) :
1 2 1 2 -
1 z
w1 = arctg = arctg 1 ;
u z
2 =1 +21. (20.1) 12 2
(20.6)
1 2 - z
21, w2 = arctg u12 = arctg 2
.
z
1
,
. , - , -
, w. ,
w1 w2 - wc = 90 (. 20.1, ).
(20.1) - , -
(. . 20.1, ): , (:
sin w1 sin w 2 z , c ). -
= . (20.2) ,
2 1
, .
| 1 | | 2 | - 1 2 -
: w1 w2
, .
1 sin w 2 , -
u12 = = . (20.3)
2 sin w 1 a
f (. 20.2).
-
u12 -

h ae

he
(20.2) (20.3):

h fe
Re b
sin w 2 sin( w1 )
u12 = = = f a
sin w1 sin w1 Ri
sin cos w1 cos sin w1 sin f a
= = cos .
sin w1 tg w1 O
dfe de dae
w1 w2
:
sin sin
w1 = arctg = arctg ; (20.4)
u + cos z / z + cos
12 2 1 B C
A
w2 = w1. (20.5)
. 20.2
274 20 ... 275

b ; c ; d, e, f -
. .
, ,
. - ( < 1000 /). -
. , -

( )
. .
, -
(. 20.3): a ; . 20.4.
.
KL -
,
(K, L .) ,
rf ,
.




b

rm

db
O
N L
K

c d
rbe
rm

db
Re



e f
. 20.3 . 20.4
276 20 ... 277

, , (, N1PN2)
. .
. -
: , , . . , -
-
(. . 20.2), , -
, m, - , ,
i, . -
Re - (. 20.6).
. -
- ,
b (, v1 Ov2 . 20.6)
(. . 20.2).
- . -
- ,
(. 20.5). -
, N1ON2, - .
, , -
. - , , -
1 2 ,


Z1

b

Re1
de1
O Ov1
1 O1 Zvt1
2
P Ov1 ravte1
N1 rfvte1
O2
rvte1
Z2 Z1
de2
rvte2 Z2

N2
Ov2 wvte Zvt2
r avte2
r fvte2
Ov2
. 20.5 . 20.6
278 20 ... 279

Ove1N1 Ove2N2 -
. - -
- , -
vt. , -
- , zvn (
zvt1 zvt2 z1 z2 - zvn1 zvn2).
.
z1 zvt1 z2 zvt2 -

- , :
:
z1 z2
rvte1 = 0,5de1 /cos 1 = 0,5mez1 /cos 1 = 0,5mezvt1; z vn1 = ; z vn 2 = , (20.9)
cos 1 cos n
3
cos 2 cos3 n
rvte2 = 0,5de2 /cos 2 = 0,5mez1 /cos 2 = 0,5mezvt2.
n , -
me, - , , -

.
, -
. zvt1 zvt2
. -
zvt1 = z1 /cos 1; zvt2 = z2 /cos 2. (20.7)
,
zvt1 zvt2
, - . ,
0,01. , ,
- , -

8- .
z vt 2 z 2 / cos 2 cos 1 -
u v12 = = = u12 . (20.8)
z vt 1 z1 / cos 1 cos 2
. -
wvte
, ravte1 ravte2 , -
rfvte1 rfvte2 (. . 20.6) - ,
, .
. . -
-
(. . 20.3) - .
, . -
. -
. - , -
, ,
280 20 ... 281

( -
). ( -
woc = 90 ). ,
(. 20.7, , ) woc = 90 fwo1 . 20.7, ,
(. 20.7, ) wo1 - ,
. (90 fwo1),
- fwo1
, - . -
, .
fwo1 (.
. 20.7, )
90 f wo1 ,
.
woc = 90
-

,
, -
f wo1
fwo1 -
.
,
wo1 -

.
.
, . 20.8, -
90 woc = 90

+ S) (s S) x m
(s S) (s 1
Re hae1
hae1
h*am
f1 h*a m
o1
wo1
Oo a1 Po Po No
c*m

f1 vte hfe1
1 hfe1 vte rvte1
a1
90 ravte1
rfvte1
Re
woc = 90 f wo1 Ove1
Ove1
b dfe1
de1
wo1 dae1


. 20.7 . 20.8
282 20 ... 283

- -
-
. ,
, x = 0,03 0,008(z2 /z1 2,5); x = x . (20.17)
1 2 1
, -
: = 20; ha* = 1,2; c* = ,
= 0,2; 0,3. - (. . 20.8):

. , ,
hae1 = (ha* + x1)me; hae2 = 2ha*me hae1; (20.18)

; -
hfe1 = hae2 + c*me ; hfe2 = hae1 + c*me ; (20.19)
.

. .
- he = hae + hfe ; (20.20)
(. . 20.8):

1 2 2
se1 = (0,5 + 2x1tg + x )me ;
zc = z1 + z 2 + 2 z1 z 2 cos ; (20.10) 1
(20.21)
sin se2 = me se1;
= 90
2
z c = z1 + z 2 ;
2
f1 = arctg (hfe1 /Re ); (20.22)
(20.11)
f2 = arctg (hfe2 /Re ); (20.23)


Re = 0,5mezc ; (20.12)
a1 = f2 ; a2 = f1; (20.24)
b 0,3Re b 10me ; -
kbe = b/Rwe = 0,20,3;
a1 = 1 + a1; a2 = 2 + a2; (20.25)
1 = arctg (sin /(z2 /z1 + cos )); (20.13)
2 = 1 ; (20.14) f1 = 1 f1; f2 = 2 f2; (20.26)
= 90
1 = arctg (z1 /z2 ); (20.15) de1 = mez1; de2 = mez2; (20.27)
x1 = 00,6
z1
; x2 = x1; dae1 = de1 + 2hae 1 cos 1;
(20.28)
x1 x1min = 1,068 0,058z1 /cos 1; (20.16) dae2 = de2 + 2hae2 cos 2.
284 20

-
u12
, .

12 100.
-
: u12 < 5 ,
21
u12 0,35 .
-
1375481.

20 -
,
1. - ,
? .
2. -
. ,
3.
, -
?
. , ,
, -
4. - , -
. .
5. - ,
- , -
? . -

, -
(. . 13.3, ).

, -
-
1 (. . 13.3, ) , -
2 .
(. 21.1) -
,
, -
, ,
.
= w1 w2 = 90, w1
w2 ( ) -
; -
, -
.
286 21 287

, nn
1 w1 . -
w1 w2 , .
rw1 -
rb1
Eb1 b2, -
ra1 ,
N1 Eb2 N1 , b1 b2,
wt1 B1 B1
P P . -
B2
N2 aw ,
B2 wt2 N -
Eb1 2
, . -
w2 rb2
ra2 N1 N2
O2
.
rw2 1 2

ra1 ra2.
2 1 2, -
1 2, . 21.1,
, 1 -
2.
n V1n, -
w1
,

N1 1 rw 2 cos w 2
w2 U 12 = = . (21.1)
V1 B1 2 rw1 cos w1
b1
P
, -
B2
V : U12
N2
, rw2 /rw1
V2
cos w1 /cos w2.
n

, -
. 21.1 (21.1) . (21.1) -
-
. -
- ,
.
.
. 21.1 - , ,
rw1 rw2 - ,
rb1 rb2. = pw1 = pw2 = p = ; -
: m/cos w1 m/cos w2.
288 21 289

-
: 2
mz1 mz2
rw1 = r1 = ; rw 2 = r2 = . (21.2)
2 cos w1 2 cos w 2

m z z2
a w1 = r w1 + r w 2 = 1
+ . (21.3)
2 cos w1 cos w 2

-
(. 16).

1
,
(. . 21.1),
V1 1 r w1 mz1
V = = = 1 . (21.4)
sin w1 sin w1 2 cos w1 sin w1



,
-
. r
,
, -
-
. . 21.2

90.
: ) .
(. 21.2, ) ( --
); ) (. 21.2, ), . ,
. - , ,
- . ( -
- ) - .
. . 21.2,
( ), .
( ) , -
. - , -
- , -
, ,
290 21 291

. , -
.
20
500. , , - (. 21.3, ).
, - AA
. 2
-
. Ph
1. - P
0,50,7.
2.
1
-
. A A
3.
- 2

.
4.
1
,
.
. AA
1849873 - dao
. ,
ZA, ZN, ZJ dfo
.. .
-
- , KL fL aL
.
, , - dbo
aR
- (. 21.3, ) , KR
fR
( 1), -
, ,
, , -
90 1
. -
, KR
. -
( 1903681) KL
= 20. A fL
A
( 2) , - 90
2
,
,
, , . 21.3
292 21 293

1 , d w2 O
d 2= O2 da2
2
da2 a dw2
dbo /2, . 2, -

xm
h
S2 aw S2
S
, . - P h
h P
aL fL aR fR da1 d1
, - O1 da1 df1 O1
xm
, ,
, .

, -
, . 21.4
.
. -
, -
, , -
, . : ,
. d1, , dw1, d1, -
- d, :
. - , , .
u12 = z2/z1, z2 -
( z2 = 18 300); z1 ( : d1 = mq.
z1 = 1 4), i12 = 1 /2 = -
= u12, 1 2 - dw1 = d1.
. -
- x 0,
aw, - :
(. 21.4) dw1 = m(q + 2x).
214476.
-
q. - -
, -
. pz1 mz1 z1
. - tg = = = .
d1 d1 q
,

ha1 hf1
. q
:
:
q = d1 /m. ha1 = ha*m; hf1 = hf*m,
q - ha* = 1,
19672-74. -
, q . h*f = 1, 2, h*f = (1 + 0,2 cos ).
294 21 21 295

, -
.
da1 = m(q + 2h*a ).
21
df1 = d1 2h*f m. 1. -
?

2. ?
m
s1 = . 3. ?
2 .
14 15 - 4. ?
5.
.
- 6. -
: ?

7. ?
d2 = mz2; .


da2 = m(z2 + 2x + 2h*a );

df2 = m(z2 + 2x 2h*f );

h = m(h*a + h*f );


s 2 = m + 2 x2 tg ;
2

q + z2
aw = m + x2 .
2

-
. -

1.
... 297

3 3
3 3
2 2 2
VB VB VB V
4 2
22 1
B R2
B 1 B

RO RO P
P rO O RO O
rO
, , RO O O
1
( - 3 1 1
), , 1 e 1 e 1
( )
(,
). 2 2 4 1 2 C 2
C
B 2 2
,
. - C B
P
, .. - RO O 1
RO O
, - 1 3
3 rO
, . 1 V1
1
-
( VB 3
), , 4 2 1
1
,
. 3 B
,
1 O 1
. -
, -
. 2 V2
, , -
- - -
. . 22.1

(. . 22.1, , , , , ). -
. . -
-
, , (
. 22.1 . 1 ). -
2 (. (. . 22.1, , ), -
. 22.1 , , , ) 4,
298 22 299

( ); ( . 22.1 , , ).
, .
, -
- - .
- . -
-- ,
(. . 22.1, ). -
, , , .
(. . 22.1, , ), - . ,
(. . 22.1, ), , , . 22.1, , -
. . 22.1, .
, -
(. . 22.1, ) - .
(. . 22.1, ), W = 3n 2p p -
(. . 22.1, ) (. . 22.1, , , -
, , ). . ,
(. . 22.1, , , , ) W = 3 3 2 1 1 =
(. . = 2 = 1 + 1 = W + W.
22.1, , ) (. . 22.1, , ). W = 2
W = 1 W = 1. -
, - (),
: - . -
, , , -
-
; . .
- (. . 22.1, , ,
, ), (-
- ) ,
. - : W = 3 2 2 2 1 = 1 = W.
, , -
, ,
.
-
-
(. . 22.1, ) -
(. . 22.1, ).
-
: ,
, .
2
F21, -
1 (. 22.2, ). ,
( ) F 2 F 2
300 22 301

( . 22.2, F2 -
F2C
), V. F21
2 n -
3 3 2
l , / nn ,
b .
n F2T VBA ,
VB , -
a VA , ,
B
F21 VB VB D (. . 22.2, ).
B A Sb l F21 -
B ||VB
F21 -
E BO .
P ro2 e 2 l
O rO l O ,
n M n
1 , .
M1 F2
1
1 1 e l F21, -
-

. F2
,
n B VB n ||nn l , /
VB ,

D 1 2 2 F21 -
B 2 B D
C C . ,
F21 2 F21 ||VB , .

(. . 22.1)
||VB 1 VB O VB -
O P D 1
B E , -
E n P B D .
1
||nn n ,
1 1
( -
), .
2 2
VB 1
SB 1 VB SB
DK B D BK D
Di B
K
B DV Bi K Di
Bi B
B2
B2 VB l , /
D2 B1 D2
D1 B1 1 BO D D1
||VB DO BO
rO O O ||VB
O r -
1 i i
O
.
1 Ei , -
Ei 1
(. . 22.2, ) -
.
. 22.2 , V -
302 22 303

, , , (..
e VqB
sB) r0 -
V =V +V, (22.1) ( r0 ). ,
nn
,
V , - . -
-
;V - .
, -
2 1. , -
, , .. - , , -
nn.
(Aba OPA) (
V ,
OP = B ; , ). , -
OA V A -

VB VB VB
OP = OA = OA = l = l VqB . (22.2) . (22.5)
VA 1OA / l 1
(. . 22.1, )
VB
V = . ,
qB
1 .
(. (. . 22.1, , ) -
. 22.2, ) (22.5) -
, .
MP OP l e
tg = = = . -
MB MB0 + B0 B : -
(22.3)
l (VqB e) VqB e
= = ; = 30... 35, -
l ( r02 e 2 + s B ) r02 e 2 + s B (. . 22.2, , ) = 40... 50.

r0 , -
(); sB
( B0).
,
O ( -
). (. . 22.2, ), -
. l
VqB, .
VqB m e BD -
tg = (22.4) OPBD: B , -
r02 e 2 + s B V,
304 22 305

, nn. - ,
, l BD.
VqB l -
(22.6). -
VB
BD = l VqB = l , (22.6)
1 1 . 22.2, , .
a
. - B0 BK;
(BD V); ( B0)
, - ( BK).
D. D - D , , -
V DE (. . 22.2, ) (22.6), VB (
OD , ( - 1 1).
). (B1, B2 ... Bi ... BK1) -
, , (B1D1, B2D2 ... BiDi ... BK1DK1).
V (-
B , , B0BK) -
, , ( - , ..
= 90). . 22.2, . 22.2, . ,
D0, D1, ... Di ... DK (
, D )
. (VqB, sB),
V VqB , sB (
, V = B (- ) B.
qB
1
) D i -
l, ODi Ei (. . 22.2, , ) Di Ei, -
. VB (.. Bi Di),
- Oi Di,
1 Di .
. 22.2, , . V 2 ,
F21,
( nn - (VqB, sB ). -
), . BD
V, -
D , O , ( -
nn (. . 22.2, , ). ) -
D DE, (VqB, sB ).
V , , ( -
).
. 22.2, , , -
BD: V , -
90 1 ,
... 307

VqB, . 1 VB, . 1
Vq, /( . 1) V, /( . 1)
b
yVq 6 7 8 t, c; t , /c
1, ; , /
23 (1)1
K 1 2 3 4 5
(1)2
yS max
(yS)2=(SB)2S
SB,
S, /

1, ; , /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1
- * *
= 1
, -
.
- l , /
SB VB *
VB 1
; - ||nn B 1
VB B D4 B5 6 B D
n D B4 y
D B S max
r0 , - 2 3 3 B7
yS2 D7
B
- VqB, D2 2 B1 VqB,
D B D1
, .. - O B0, D0 ( *1)
: . BO E7
O O
3 E
(, - RO P 3
). rO n K e*l
: 1 3 O 1 r0l O*
1) VB 2 - *1 e A
1 1 (pc. 23.1, a);
II
2) O**
(. 23.1, ); 3 ** * O <
3) h ( );
el
4) 1 1 = const
( , 5 7 8
C
.. , , 0 2 3 4 1
);
5) p ,
p (. 23.1, , ); ( 1 ) * *
1
6) ;
7) () -
( ). . 23.1
308 23 ... 309

(. . 23.1, ) ( -
B0 B), (SB , 1). -
(VB, 1), Bi Di
(1 = const) - :
: (VB, t), - YB l l
V Bi D i = l i
= yVi Bi Di = l VqB = yVqi ; (23.1)
1 = 1t, (VqB, 1), V = B 1 V 1 i Vq
qB
1
(. . 23.1, ). l , -
(. . 23.1, ) - B0Bi.
- -
t 1
,
(VqB, 1), s = V dt , s B = VqB d 1 .

B B -
0 0
(. 22). (23.1)
-
180 b Y , .. 0 5 (.
= , /; t = 1, /; = s max , /;
p
s
h . 23.1, ); 0 5 VqB = 0 (.
s . 23.1, ) B0 D0 = B5 D5 = 0. Bi Di -

V = k , /( 1), = k s , /( 1),
t Vq B ( SB) -
k ; Ys max - , .. B0 B5 B
; b ; p (. . 23.1, ), V -
. . 23.1, (), 90 -
- 1 ( ), -
( ): , . D0(B0) D1 D2 ... D5(B5)
. (VqB, SB)
*, - .
D0
h. D3 :
B0K
D3O* D3 E3, -
B3 D3 (.. V).
I,
(, O),
-
0...5

. , I -
-
,
r0 (VqB, 1) -
( -
l , / (. 23.1, ). -
).
(. . 23.1, )
, O,
, B0B1 = l (SB)1, B0B2 = l (SB)2, ... ,
;
B0Bi = l (SB)i SB
310 23 ... 311

, B3 B 3, - O * B0
, : r * = . -
OD3E3, (. . 23.1, ).
0 l
e*, . 23.1,
, ( - e*l .
), -
* - (e = 0),
8 6 (. . 23.1, ), ,
(VqB, sB). (. . 23.1, ) B7D7 (. . 23.1, ) .
B - O** (. . 23.1, )
: - r0**
(), 90 O **B0
, . - : r ** = .
0 l
, D7
D7E7, B7D7, - . 23.1,
O* , D3. e, -
(VqB, SB), .
,
. ,
II (. . 23.1, ), e l . -
, r0 ,
OB0
(. . 23.1, ) ; r0 = .
. - l
, - r0 ( r0*
r0**) -
, -
, , B0, -
Di (VqB, SB), - e.
Bi Di ro (- . 23.1, -
, ( -
). ):
(*, 1), (**, 1) (, 1)
O*, O** O.
, -
22 -
. ,
, - 3 -
, 3 (. . 23.1, )
O* - OD3, D3 -
(. . 23.1, ). O* , D3E3,
B0 B , .. OD3E3 = 3. -
l r0* -
312 23 313

( B0), SB, S, /
3 , OD3E3, .. -
r0 = l OB0 .
- YS = S B S
(22.4).

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1,
(1)1

(1)2


- p = p
: ) (SB, 1)
(. . 23.1, 23.2, , ) r0
, - M
(. . 23.1, , )
; ,
. 3* = (1) 2
- M0
M M1
: e
- M2 (1)
3 (1)2
(1), - O * = *3 = (1)
e (1)1
1 1, . 2
, 3, - R l (SB4 l )
3 N 4
(3 = 0), (. . 23.2, ) N 1
1
3* = 1. B0
2 (p)
MN 2, 1 2 3
e, - (1)2 3
MN* = 3*, 4
1 - (1)1
el 4 5
(.. ) . O 5
MN p = p
RO l 6 6
* = 3* = (1).
MN (23.2) 7
rO l 7
MN e N2 N
( , - 1 B8
e). (23.2) - 1
.
l = S, /
B0 r0 l (. 23.2, ), -
M0N0 , . 23.2
314 23 315

( ) - 2) VB -
e l. l , - 2 1 1 (.
S (. . 23.2, ). - . 23.1, );
2 3) lCB 2 (. . 23.3, );
B0. , (23.2), MN - 4) hB
( -
* )1 = (1)1, (MN
(MN * )2 = (1)2, ..., (MN
* )8 = P , );
(1)1, (1)2, ... , P 5) (
(. . 23.2, ). );
(1)1, (1)2 .. OB0, - 6) P : P = +
r0 l 1, 2 .. (. + + c (. . 23.1, . 23.3, );
. 23.2, ). , 7) .
e l , -
MN . 1, 2 , -
.. (1 1) = (SB )1 l = yS1; (2 2) = : 1)
= (SB )2 l = yS2 .., , r0
l ( yS1, a = lOC , -
yS2, ... (SB, 1) . 23.2, ). B0, ;
1, 2, ... , 7, B7 , 2) .
; -
,
(. . 23.2, ).
-
; -

, RP 4.
-
RP l , - (VqB, SB)
(. . 23.2, ). - . -
. 23.1, (VqB, 1),
RP = (0,2...0,4) r0; - 1 = const (VB, t)
. - VB ,
R0 (VqB, 1) -
: R0 = r0 RP. . (SB, 1)

(VqB, 1) (. . 23.1, , ); -
, 22.
-
, (VqB, SB)
l (
. 23.3, S . 23.1, ). -
: 2 . 23.3, CB0 = lCB l ,
1)
(. 23.3, ); Bi Di , (23.1).
316 23 317

SB, B0 b
nn VB n VB B6 Di l ,
D4 B5 B4 D7
lCB . l Bl B3
(SB, 1) . 23.1, ; , B0B2 = (SB )2 l = yS2
D E
B2 B7 i i
E .. (. 23.3, ). B1D1, B2D2, ... -
2 C D3 D2D1 B1 7
B ( 0...5) V,
VqB, B0, D0 VqB
a E
B0 3 ( * 1
) .. ,
a . l I
1 E0 (. . 22.2, ), ,
1 r0 p a* . l -

O r0 . l
n O . (VqB, SB)
O*
3 3 l , D0, D1, D2, ... , D5 -
II
*1 <
(. . 23.3, ).
D0

D3
SB , l*,

D0E0 D3E3, -
CB0 CB3 ( ,
V -
1, 1 ).
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
(1)1 I, -


(1)2 (. . 23.3, ),
(1) (1) (1) ( 1)
* ( * )
1
= ( ). -
(
),
* )2 = (1)2
(oc * (. . 23.3, ),
3 lCB . *l
2 1 2 , D
4
0
(SB)4 . *l
(. . 22.2, ). , D7
(SB)2 . *l
5 D7E7, -
* )1 = (1)1
(oc
6 B7D7, O ,
B0 1 2 D3 (. . 23.3, ). -
3* = (1) 3
21

4 7 (VqB, SB).
F

1 2
() VB II, -
a . *l n 4 5 (. . 23.3, ), -
8 -
O .
6
7 -
3 hB . l*
1 r0 . l* B8
.
1
*l ,

, O -

OB0 OC
, r0 = a=
. 23.3 l l
318 23 22, 23 319

(. . 23.3, ). a* , -
a*l , C0 . -
B O* , (23.3), -
O*, r0* = 0 . -
l * )1 = (1)1, (OC
* )2 = (1)2, ... , (OC
* )8 = P ,
(OC
II. - (1)1, (1)2, ... , P
r0 ( r0*)
, 1, 2, ... , C8. -
. lCB l* 1, 2, 3, ,
r0 l*,
, O (1 1) = (SB )1 l*, (2 2) = (SB )2 l*
Di (VqB, SB) Di Ei , .. . -
Bi Di , , V , (SB , 1) . 23.3, . B0, 1, 2, , 7, B8, -
i- (. , -
. 22.2, , ). - (. . 23.3, ). ,
, (, 1), , , -
- , . 23.2, .
(. . 23.3, ). -

, , 2
(. . 22.1, ). -
-
,
, R2 -
- .
(SB , 1) -
2 (. . 23.3, ), -
r0 22, 23
a = lOC (. . 23.3, ). 1. , -
.
: - 2. ?
(. . 23.3, ), -
O (1), 3.
, .
. 4. -
3 (3 = 0) - ?
3* = (1). 5. -
OC = a l*. .
6. -
* = 3* = 1.
OC (23.3) .
7.
a l*, l* (. 23.3, ). ?
320 23

8. -

?
9.

? 24
10. -
?

11. ()
? ,

. ,
,
-
.
, -
. -
.
-

.
,

,
,
.
-
,
, .
-
, , ,
, -
.

,

, -
-
, . -
,
322 24 , 323

,
. 1940- . .

, - . -
- (),
. - , -
, (
. ). -
-
. - : , .
Master-Slave
(Slave), , .
(Master), -
. .
. -
. 24.1. -
, , ,
. - ,
. .

-
. - .

,
XX .: -
. -
-
,
-, -
. -

, -
0 0
.

-
. -
. ,
(),

.
: -
, -
- ,
. . 24.1
324 24 , 325

3 10. . -
, , -
- , -
. .
-
. .
, , , ,
. - , -
, . -
-
. .
-
- , -
-: , - .
. -
, , : , -
- .
. , -
, - . -
. , .. . -
, ,

. - .
-
(, , )
. - . -
, , ,
,
. - .
, .
.
, - , -
,
- .
.
, -

- . -
. - : , .

, -
, , -
.
326 24 , ... 327

, , - 3 x (3)
, - 1 O(2) x (1) D
O(0) O(1) O(3)
. x (0) B
x (2)
O(4) 4 A x (4) 2


.

,
y (3)
y (1) y (2)
, -
, , D
. O(3)
y (0) O(1) x (1)
O(2) x (2)
. z (1) x (3)
z (3)
, O z (2)
. , ( x(0)
), - z (0)
,
4 ( ) . 24.2

(. 24.2): 1 (); - -
2 (); - ,
3 (). - : ,
.
( ), W = 7; -
W = 27. -
- .
, .
( ) . ,
- .
, ,
, .. ,
. .
- , -
, ,
, - .
.
, , - , -
. .
328 24 , ... 329

, .
, -
- .
- ;
: (. 24.6),
, (- , -
) (. 24.3), - ,
.

: , z (.. , -
-);
,
(. 24.4). -
, .
,
, , -
-
;
, ( -
) (. 24.5). -
. -

.

y . 24.4

. 24.3 . 24.5
330 24 , ... 331

.
,
, . -
, .
-
,
;

SCARA (. 24.7), -
. -

, -
.
.
- . 24.7
. , Spine (. 24.8),
. -
,
, -
,
.
, , , -
.

. 24.6 . 24.8
332 24 , ... 333

-
.
,
.
, IR B1000, B
ASEA; r1 C
A D
r2
(. 24.9). - 1
ASEA, 1,5 - B B
, , C 2
. D 3
C
, - D
, , E
, . -

.
-
. ,
. D

C
, B
r1
, , , - A
, , , ..
- 1
, B
,
, , - C 2
. 3
D
- E

.
(3.1) ,

.
-
(. 24.324.7) r

W = 6n 5p1 = 6 3 5 3 = 3,

n ; p1 -
. . 24.9
334 24 , ... 335

, -
. - .
- -
,
. .
, ,
. , , -
. 24.9, , , , .
, - , . 24.9, , -
1, 2 , r1 = AD
. , , r2 = AD,
, ( . 24.9, );
- , . 24.9, , -
1, 2, - ( ) r1 = AD
r = BD (. 24.9, ),
. ( . 24.9, ).
(. 24.9, ), - (.
. 24.3) -
: .
W = 6n (6 i)pi = 6 2 5 1 3 2 = 1;
(. . 24.4)
.
, -
2 ,
, , -
- . , -
- , ,
1, 2. ,
4r 2
- = = 4 ().
max
r2

, - = (4)
, .
. ,
- ,
2568685 . ,
, .
.
-
- .
. -
- -
, - (. . 24.9, ).
.
336 24 , ... 337

- Rd
- B d
y R
, , D ; 2
D l1 l2 O
4 (. 24.10, ). 1 C C
CD () , - B
- m
3 l3
AD O, A 4 D E D
r,
Oxyz. r l3 x
z l1l2l3
, = 1, l1
= 4. , l2 l3
DC = l3 - a
D.
CD , .. - 1
. (. 5), -
0,8
,
0,6
<1 =1 <1
. , , 1 0,4
, 3 , l1 + l3 r + l2, 0,2 I II III
rmin = r1 = l1 l2 + l3 (. 24.10, ). 0
AD = r, - r0
r1 = l1 l2 + l3 r
3, r + l3 l1 + l2, rmax = r2 = l1 + l2 l3. r2
r1 r2 = 1 (- r3
II . 24.10, ).
3 , < 1. - . 24.10
, 1, 2, 3 -
, = 0. r = r0 = l1 l2 l3 R = l3 S = 2l32(1 cos m ); -
r = r3 = l1 + l2 + l3. , I III ,
. 24.10, < 1. S / l 32 1 cos m
I III, - = = = .
, D, - 4 4 2
. - . 24.10, r = AD cos m 0,24
m CD, = 0,38. ,
, . 24.10, , r
R = l3 = m . 24.10, . -
(. 24.10, ). S , -

dS = 2R sin R d = 0 = m. .
m , -
S= 2R sin d = 2R 2 (1 cos m ). , ,
2

0
, , -
..
339

z (4)
x (3)
z (0), z (1)
E

25 l32 43 4
z (3), z (2)

(2)
x (2) E
x (4) D
2
(3)
C 3 O
E = lED
z (4)
- 21 S32 = q3
- x (1) 43 = q4
O(1), O(2)
21 = q2 E
(0)
y (4), y (3
( ),
(, ). - 1

. l10
y (2), y (1)
-
- 5(0)
A; O(0)
. 10
. x (0) y (0)
10 = q1
, -
. 25.1
, . -
x (0), y (0), z (0)

, -
: -
,
10 = q1(t), 21 = q2(t),
, .
43 = q4(t) 3
. 24.2, O(1)x (1), O(2)x (2),
S32 = q3(t) (. . 25.1).
O(3)x (3), O(4)x (4) ( O(0)x (0))
- E(0)
1, 2, 3, 4,
O(0)x (0)y (0)
(. . 24.2, ). z (i) -
z (0), 5 ( 0).
, y (i)

O(i) x (i) y (i) z (i).
:
-
z (0) -

;

1 O(1)x( 1)y (1)z (1), -
(. 25.1). 1, 2, 3 4
l10 O(2) z(1). z (1) -
, -
z (0), y (1)
.
;
:
2 O(2)x (2)y (2)z (2), -
W = 6n 5p1 = 6 4 5 4 = 4. O(2), O(1). y (2)
340 25 341

y (1), .. - T3(2x) O(3)x (3)y (3)z (3)


; O(2)x (2)y (2)z (2) (
O(3)x (3)y (3)z (3) - x):
l32 O(2) z(2). z (3) - 0 0 0 0
z (2);
z (4) 4 O(4)x (4) 0 0 0 S 32
(x)
T32 = ;
y (4)z (4), y (4) - 0 0 0 0
D. 0 0 0 1
- (0) -
T4(3y) O(4)x (4)y (4)z (4) -
O(0)x (0)y (0)z (0):  O(3)x (3)y (3)z (3) (
(E0) = T40 (E4) = T43T32T21T10 (E4) . (25.1) x):
cos 43 0 sin 43 0
. 0 1 0 0
-
( y)
T43 = .
sin 43 0 cos 43 0
,
. 0 0 0 1
-
(25.1), -
:
O(0)x (0)y (0)z (0).
x E(4) 0 x E(0) , ,
  . -
(E4) = y E(4) = 0 (E0) = y E(0) .
z E(4) l ED z E(0)
.
T1(0z) O(1)x (1)y (1)z (1)
O(0)x (0)y (0)z (0) ( -
z z): ,
- E(0), ,
cos 10 sin 10 0 0 :
 
sin 10 cos 10 0 0 E(0) = E (q1 , q 2 , q 3 , ... , q n ),
T10( z ) = ;
0 0 1 l 10 vE -
0 0 0 1
r r
T2(1y) O(3)x (3)y (3)z (3) d E n
E
O(1)x (1)y (1)z (1) ( - vE = = q& i , (25.2)
dt i =1 q i
y):
cos 21 0 sin 21 0
d x E(0) d y E(0) d z E(0)
0 1 0 0 v Ex = x& E =
(0)
; v Ey = y& E =
(0)
; v Ez = z& E =
(0)
;
( y)
T21 = ; dt dt dt
sin 21 0 cos 21 0 (25.3)
0 0 0 1 v E = v Ex
2
+ v Ey
2
+ v Ez
2
.
342 25

j-
-
:
j

j0 = ; (25.4)
26
i /(i 1)
i =1

i (i 1) ,
, : ( )
40 = 10 + 21 + 32 + 43 .


-
, .
- () -
, - -
. .
(-
, , ..) -
24, 25 .
1. , , .
? -
2. ? (,
), -
3.

?
.
4. :
? , ,
5. ? - ,
? ( , -
6. , - -
( ). , , ,
;
);
-
; -
;
-
-
;
-
(-
).
344 26 345


, . .
, -
. - ,
. -
. ().


.
:
() ;
, .
-
. , -
, , .
, -
- tg = f.
. (. 26.1) F12 -
2 1 nn
, . F 12
, (90 + ) V12, c -
, , 1 2. F12 -
. N12 F 12 . -
- F 12
. .
,
- NF = 2p + p + W, n
N = 3n, .. NF = N.
3n = 2p + p + W.
-
V12
F12
, .. 1
.

2 F12 90 +
6n = 5pV + 4pIV + 3pIII + 2pII + 1pI, N12


6n = 5p1 + 4p2 + 3p3 + 2p4 + 1p5.
h n
,
. . 26.1
346 26 347

n 12
d

1 -
M : 1
A 2 -

.

V12 (. 26.3).
N12, k,
, .
90 +
2
MF = k N12.
N12

F12
, : -
n
. 26.2 , (90 + ).

. h F12 12
. 1
n
F12 = N12 f,
tg = f. 2
(. 26.2) F12 -
nn , F12
, , - M
.

d N12
= sin .
2
, sin tg F12
90 +
d V12
f.
2
N12
F12 2 1 k
= F12 , - n
12.
.
. 26.3
348 26 349

(F21,F2,G2 S2)
D,
FU FW,
, . -
: (90 + 23) V23.
( -
F23 FU FW -
);
H ( )
.
( D) (90 + ) V23.
. ,
, ,
,
. , - F2 + G 2 + S + F21 + FW + FU = 0, (26.1)
2

. F23 FU
- FW:
,
. , , F2 + G 2 + S + F21 + F23 = 0. (26.2)
2
.
, . . - , -
. . 26.6.
F . , -
, , , . 26.7.
.
F2
- F2 FU(32)
. FW(32)
: (. 26.4); 1, 1; F2; m1, J1S, m2; 3 23
H U
f13, f12, f23.
23
: . S2 W
F23 V23
- S G2 S2
, .. , 2 2
G2 +S
2
90 +
. 1 D

K F
.
, . A O1
, , V21
. 26.5. 1 M1 F21
F2,G2,S2 - N21
1
:
21
F21; FU ,FW (
V21 V23). . 26.4 . 26.5
350 26 351

FW ..FU G1 S1 = m1aS , -
1
S = 1 J1S, F12 = F21. -
F23 1
1
F13, A -
FU . .
..FW
M(F13) 1.

:
F21 F2
G1 + S + F 12 + F 13 = 0.
1

-
. . 26.8 , -
G2 +S .
2
M1 -
= 0.
. 26.6
M 1 + M A (G1 ) + M A ( S ) + M S + M A ( F12 ) + M A ( F13 ) = 0.
1 1

n -
F12 .
, -
, ,
.

1 1 1 -
, .
F12 F13 ,
A . -
F13 -
B1, S1 .
, .

S
1
M1 G1 ,
-
G1
, .
S
1

M
1
n

. 26.7 . 26.8

. .
. .
. .
. .

84108 1/32 . Petersburg. .


. . . 18,4. 1000 . .


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