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Total marks: 50, Total time: 50 minutes, Date: 26-08-13

Q.1: After a mild hemorrhage, compensatory responses initiated by the baroreceptor reflex keeps blood pressure at or close to its
normal value. Which one of the following values is less after compensation for the hemorrhage than it was before the hemorrhage?
a) Venous compliance
b) Heart rate
c) Ventricular contractility
d) Total peripheral resistance
e) Coronary blood flow
Q.2. The constriction of a blood vessel to one-half of its resting diameter would increase its resistance to blood flow by a factor of
a. 2
b. 4
c. 8
d. 12
e. 16
Q.3. During aerobic exercise, blood flow remains relatively constant within
a. The skin
b. The heart
c. The brain
d. The skeletal muscles
e. The kidneys
Q.4. Which of the following conditions causes pulse pressure to increase?
a. Tachycardia
b. Hypertension
c. Hemorrhage
d. Aortic stenosis
e. Heart failure
Q.5. Sudden standing evokes the baroreceptor reflex. Which one of the following will be greater after a person suddenly stands up
than it was before the person stood?
a. The end-diastolic volume
b. The renal blood flow
c. The venous return
d. The pulse pressure
e. The ejection fraction

Q.6.Which one of the following is the best index of preload?

a. Blood volume b. Central venous pressure c. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressur d. Left ventricular end-diastolic
volume e. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure

Q.7. Central venous pressure is increased by

a. Decreasing blood volume
b. Increasing venous compliance
c. Increasing total peripheral resistance
d. Decreasing heart rate
e. Decreasing plasma aldosterone concentration
Q.8. Capillary permeability is lowest within the
a. Kidneys
b. Spleen
c. Liver
d. Brain
e. Skin
Q.9. Blood flow through an organ would be increased by decreasing
a. The diameter of the arterial vessels
b. The number of open arterial vessels
c. The arterial pressure
d. The diameter of the venous vessels
e. The hematocrit
Q.10. Net filtration from capillaries will increase following
a. Increased contraction of the precapillary sphincter
b. Decreased arterial pressure
c. Increased plasma protein concentration
d. Decreased capillary permeability
e. Increased postcapillary resistance
Q.11. A reduction in carotid sinus pressure would cause a decrease in
a. Heart rate
b. Myocardial contractility
c. Total peripheral resistance
d. Venous compliance
e. Cardiac output

Q.12. Which one of the following organs has the highest arteriovenous O2 difference under normal resting conditions?
a. Brain
b. Heart
c. Skeletal muscle
d. Kidney
e. Stomach
Q.13. The percentage of the total cardiac output distributed to any single organ is most dependent on
a. The contractile state of the heart
b. The magnitude of mean blood pressure
c. The magnitude of diastolic pressure
d. The ratio of an organs vascular resistance to total peripheral resistance (TPR)
e. The magnitude of cardiac output
Q.14. At which of the following sites does the blood flow lose the greatest amount of energy?
a. Mitral valve
b. Large arteries
c. Arterioles
d. Capillaries
e. Venules
Q.15. Which one of the following decreases during aerobic exercise?
a. Circulating blood volume
b. Heart rate
c. Skin temperature
d. Cerebral blood flow
e. Mean blood pressure
Q.16. Based on the following values, the flow of fluid out of the capillaries will be zero if the average interstitial hydrostatic pressure is
Average capillary hydrostatic pressure 18 mmHg, Average capillary oncotic pressure 27 mmHg
Average interstitial oncotic pressure 7 mmHg
a. 4 mmHg
b. 2 mmHg
c. 0 mmHg
d. 1 mmHg
e. 2 mmHg
Q.17. Which one of the following characteristics is most similar in the systemic and pulmonary circulations?
a. Stroke work
b. Preload
c. Afterload
d. Peak systolic pressure
e. Blood volume
Q.18. Which one of the following statements correctly describes the ductus arteriosus?
a. It prevents the flow of blood into the lungs of the fetus
b. It delivers oxygenated blood from the placenta to the left ventricle
c. It allows blood to flow from the aorta to the pulmonary artery in the fetus
d. Its resistance to blood flow decreases soon after birth
e. It is located in the septum between the left and right atrium
Q.19. Which one of the following values is greater in the pulmonary circulation than in the systemic circulation?
a. The mean arterial pressure
b. The arterial resistance
c. The vascular compliance
d. The blood flow
e. The sympathetic tone
Q.20. The greatest percentage of blood volume is found in the
a. Heart
b. Aorta
c. Distributing arteries and arterioles
d. Capillaries
e. Venules and veins
Q.21: In a resting, healthy man, the ejection fraction is approximately?

a. 0.1 b. 0.2 c. 0.3 d. 0.6 e. 0.9

Q.22: Increasing vagal stimulation of the heart will cause an increase in

a. Heart rate b. PR interval c. Ventricular contractility

d. Ejection fraction e. Cardiac output

Q.23: During exercise, there is an increase in a persons

a. Stroke volume b. Diastolic pressure c. Venous compliance

d. Pulmonary arterial resistance e. Total peripheral resistance

Q.24. Lymph capillaries differ from systemic blood capillaries in that they
a. Are less permeable
b. Are not lined by endothelium
c. Lack valves
d. Are absent in the central nervous system
e. Collapse when interstitial pressure increases
Q.25. Pulmonary lymph flow exceeds that in other tissues because
a. Pulmonary capillary pressure is higher than systemic capillary pressure
b. Pulmonary endothelial cells contain a large number of fenestrations
c. Alveolar epithelial cells secrete a fluid that is added to the lymph formed from the blood plasma
d. Pulmonary interstitial fluids contain more proteins than the interstitial fluid in other tissues
e. Pulmonary capillaries have a lower oncotic pressure than systemic capillaries
Q.26. At birth, changes that occur in the fetal circulation include
a. Increased systemic arterial pressure
b. Increased pulmonary vascular resistance
c. Increased pulmonary arterial pressure
d. Decreased left atrial pressure
e. Decreased pulmonary blood flow
Q.27. Turbulence is more likely to occur in a blood vessel if:
a. The velocity of blood within the vessel increases
b. The viscosity of blood within the vessel increases
c. The diameter of the vessel decreases
d. The density of the blood decreases
e. The length of the vessel increases
Q.28. Systemic arteriolar constriction may result from an increase in the local concentration of
a. Nitric oxide
b. Angiotensin II
c. Atrial natriuretic peptide
d. Beta receptor agonists
e. Hydrogen ion
Q.29. Which of the following will be lower than normal in a patient with an abnormally high intracranial pressure?
a. Ventricular contractility
b. Heart rate
c. Mean blood pressure
d. Stroke volume
e. Total peripheral resistance
Q.30. After an episode of exercise training, the trained individual will have a:
a. Decreased density of mitochondria in the trained muscles
b. Increased resting heart rate
c. Decreased maximum oxygen consumption
d. Increased stroke volume
e. Decreased extraction of oxygen by exercising muscles
Q.31. Which one of the following increases during aerobic exercise?
a. Diastolic blood pressure
b. Cerebral vascular resistance
c. Mixed venous oxygen tension
d. Blood flow to the kidney
e. Circulating blood volume
Q.32. Pulse pressure increases when:
a. Heart rate increases
b. Stroke volume decreases
c. Aortic compliance increases
d. Aortic stenosis develops
e. Mean arterial pressure increases
Q.33. The distribution of blood among the various organs of the body is regulated by regulating the resistance of the
a. Arteries
b. Arterioles
c. Precapillary sphincters
d. Postcapillary venules
e. Veins
Q.34. Flow of fluid through the lymphatic vessels will be decreased if there is an increase in:
a. Capillary pressure
b. Capillary permeability
c. Interstitial protein concentration
d. Capillary oncotic pressure
e. Central venous pressure
Q.35. Which one of the following signs is observed in a patient who has lost a significant amount of blood?
a. Respiratory acidosis
b. Dry skin
c. Polyuria
d. Bradycardia
e. Low hematocrit

Q.36. A patient is diagnosed with anaphylactic shock rather than hypovolumic shock because
a. Cardiac output is higher than normal
b. Ventricular contractility is greater than normal
c. Total peripheral resistance is greater than normal
d. Serum creatinine is elevated
e. Heart rate is greater than normal
Q.37. Which one of the following will increase if massaging the neck stretches the carotid sinus baroreceptor?
a. Total peripheral resistance
b. Right atrial pressure
c. Venous tone
d. Ventricular contractility
e. Vagal nerve activity

Q.39: In the absence of compensations, the stroke volume will decrease when

a. blood volume increases.

b. venous return increases.
c. contractility increases.
d. arterial blood pressure increases.

Q.40: Edema may be caused by:

a. high blood pressure.

b. decreased plasma protein concentration.
c. leakage of plasma protein into tissue fluid.
d. blockage of lymphatic vessels.
e. all of these.

Q.41: The greatest resistance to blood flow occurs in:

a) large arteries.
b) medium-sized arteries.
c) arterioles.
d) capillaries.
Q.42: If a vessel were to dilate to twice its previous radius, and if pressure remained constant, blood flow through this vessel would

a. increase by a factor of 16.

b. increase by a factor of 4.
c. increase by a factor of 2.
d. decrease by a factor of 2.

Q.43: The sounds of Korotkoff are produced by:

a. closing of the semilunar valves.

b. closing of the AV valves.
c. the turbulent flow of blood through an artery.
d. elastic recoil of the aorta.
Q.44: Vasodilation in the heart and skeletal muscles during exercise is primarily due to the effects of

a. alpha-adrenergic stimulation.
b. beta-adrenergic stimulation.
c. cholinergic stimulation.
d. products released by the exercising muscle cells.
Q.45: Blood flow in the cerebral circulation:

a. varies with systemic arterial pressure.

b. is regulated primarily by the sympathetic system.
c. is maintained constant within physiological limits.
d. increases during exercise.
Q.46: Which of these organs is able to tolerate the greatest reduction in blood flow?

a. brain
b. heart
c. skeletal muscles
d. skin

Q.47: Which of these statements about arteriovenous shunts in the skin is true?

a. They divert blood to superficial capillary loops.

b. They are closed when the ambient temperature is very low.
c. They are closed when the deep body temperature rises much above 37 C.
d. All of these are true.

Q.48: An increase in blood volume will cause:

a. a decrease in ADH secretion.

b. an increase in Na excretion in the urine.
c. a decrease in renin secretion.
d. all of these.

Q.49: Which of these is a paracrine regulator that stimulates vasoconstriction?

a. nitric oxide
b. prostacyclin
c. bradykinin
d. endothelin-1

Q.50: The pulse pressure is a measure of:

a. the number of heartbeats per minute.

b. the sum of the diastolic and systolic pressures.
c. the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures.
d. the difference between the arterial and venous pressures.

1A 2E 3C 4B 5E 6D 7D 8D

9E 10E 11D 12B 13D 14C 15A 16B

17B 18A 19C 20E 21D 22B 23A 24D

25D 26A 27A 28B 29B 30D 31B 32E

33B 34D 35E 36A 37E 38C 39D 40E

41C 42A 43C 44D 45B 46D 47B 48D

49D 50C