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DOI: 10.2478/s11600-011-0053-x

for a Multiple Media Reservoir

Ren-Shi NIE1, Ying-Feng MENG1, Yong-Lu JIA1,

Jian-Lin SHANG2, Yong WANG2, and Jian-Guo LI2

1

State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation,

Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China

e-mail: nierenshi2000@163.com (corresponding author)

2

Petrochina Xinjiang Oilfield Company, Karamay, China

Abstract

The paper deals with unsteady inter-porosity flow modeling of un-

derground fluid in a multiple media reservoir. Assuming spherical vugs,

symmetrically distributed pressure, negligible inter-porosity flow be-

tween matrix and vug systems and centrifugal flow of the fluid from ma-

trix blocks or vugs to fractures, and treating media directly connected

with wellbore as the fracture system, we establish and solve a model of

unsteady inter-porosity flow for dual and triple porosity media reservoirs.

We provide simulated graphs of pressure and pressure derivative log-log

type curves, and analyze the transient flow process and characteristics of

type curves affected by different parameters. The new type curves of un-

steady inter-porosity flow modeling are evidently different in shape and

characteristics from those of pseudo-steady inter-porosity flow modeling.

The location of dimensionless pressure of unsteady inter-porosity is

lower than that of pseudo-steady inter-porosity, which indicates that un-

steady inter-porosity flow accelerates an energy supplement during pro-

duction. Qualitatively, the unsteady inter-porosity flow modeling reduces

the classical V-shaped response. We also estimated parameters from well

test data in real applications using this model.

ervoir, type curves.

________________________________________________

2011 Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences

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UNSTEADY INTER-POROSITY FLOW FOR MULTIPLE MEDIA 233

1. INTRODUCTION

Many theoretical models have been proposed to understand the nature of

fluid flow in porous media (Nepf and Ghisalberti 2008, Kumar and Dalal

2010, Shapiro and Fedorovich 2009). In multiple media reservoirs, such as

carbonate reservoir and volcanite reservoir, however, the flow behavior is

still not completely understood (Corbett et al. 2010). Ongoing research in

this area answers important questions in petroleum industry, geosciences,

fluid mechanics and rock mechanics (Bahrami et al. 2008, Gu and Cha-

laturnyk 2010, Popov et al. 2009, Rawnsley et al. 2007, Sarma and Aziz

2006).

Fractures and vugs result in multiple porosity properties of reservoirs.

A reservoir with fractures is known as dual porosity media reservoir and

a reservoir with fractures and vugs as triple porosity media reservoir. The

dual media reservoir includes matrix subsystem and fracture subsystem, and

the two subsystems are relatively independent in physical properties. The

triple media reservoir has matrix subsystem, fracture subsystem and vug

subsystem, and the three subsystems are also relatively independent in phys-

ical properties. The development of fractures and vugs differs across reser-

voirs (Abdassah and Ershaghi 1986, Mai and Kantzas 2007), so each

reservoir has a distinct set of fluid transport behaviors. Well testing analysis

peeks at the black box of flow behaviors in invisible underground reservoir.

Therefore, a vital task of researchers is to establish various well test models

for the industry to evaluate the properties of underground reservoirs. This

paper models the unsteady inter-porosity flow and establishes well test anal-

ysis in dual-porosity and triple-porosity media.

There have been many models specific to oil flow in multiple media

reservoirs. Bourdet and Gringarten (1980) invented a method to determine

the fissure volume and block size in fractured reservoirs by use of type

curves analysis. Lai et al. (1983) established a well test data analysis model

for naturally fractured reservoirs. Braester (1984) studied the influence of

block size on the transition curve for a drawdown test in a naturally fractured

reservoir. Wijesinghe and Culham (1984) studied the single-well pressure

testing solutions for naturally fractured reservoirs with arbitrary fracture

connectivity. Wijesinghe and Kececioglu (1985) proposed a well test analy-

sis model of interference pressure tests in naturally fractured reservoirs.

Jalali and Ershaghi (1987) investigated the pressure transient analysis of

heterogeneous naturally fractured reservoirs, the log curves of pressure ver-

sus time were draw-up. Al-Ghamdi and Ershaghi (1996) examined the pres-

sure transient analysis of dually fractured reservoirs, and plotted the log-log

curves of pressure against time. Bui et al. (2000) made transient pressure

analysis for partially penetrating wells in naturally fractured reservoirs.

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234 R.-S. NIE et al.

Rasmussen and Civan (2003) researched the full, short-, and long-time ana-

lytical solutions for hindered matrix-fracture transfer models of naturally

fractured reservoirs. Liu et al. (2003) made the analysis of flow behavior in

fractured lithophysal reservoirs. Wu et al. (2004, 2007) studied triple conti-

nuum pressure transient model for a naturally fractured vuggy reservoir.

Camacho-Velzquez et al. (2005) wrote on oil transient flow modeling in

naturally fractured vuggy carbonate reservoirs and analyzed its pressure

transient and decline curve behaviors. Pulido et al. (2006) established a well-

test pressure theory of analysis for naturally fractured reservoirs, considering

transient inter-porosity matrix, micro fractures, vugs, and fractures flow.

Izadi and Yildiz (2007) presented transient flow in discretely fractured por-

ous media. Corbett et al. (2010) studied the numerical well test modeling of

fractured carbonate rocks, and he found that the numerical well test has its

limitations especially in simulating disperse vugs.

The rest of the paper is structured as follows: Section 2 will introduce the

simplifying assumptions on physical properties of the reservoir and flow;

Section 3 establishes the model of pseudo-steady flow, and Section 4 estab-

lishes the model of unsteady inter-porosity flow and provides the solutions to

the inter-porosity flow model. The rest of the paper discusses the type

curves, application of the model to real data and conclusions.

2. PHYSICAL MODELING

2.1 Model assumptions on the properties of the reservoir

The dual porosity media reservoir is composed of fracture and matrix (see

Fig. 1), and the triple porosity media reservoir is composed of fracture and

matrix and vug (see Fig. 2). For dual media systems, there exist two subsys-

tems of fracture and matrix. Triple media consist of fracture, matrix and vug

subsystems.

scheme. reservoir scheme.

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UNSTEADY INTER-POROSITY FLOW FOR MULTIPLE MEDIA 235

The shape of matrix block is arbitrary in real reservoirs (see Fig. 3a).

Matrix block is assumed to have a simple shape in modeling (Bourdet and

Gringarten 1980, Braester 1984, De Swaan 1976, Ertekin and Sung 1989,

Lai et al. 1983, Warren and Root 1963), mainly a slab matrix block, cylin-

drical matrix block, spherical matrix block and cubic matrix block. The same

is assumed for vugs (see Fig. 4).

Given a single well production at constant rate in dual or triple media reser-

voir, fluid in reservoir flows into wellbore under the pressure drop between

bottom hole and formation pressures.

For most of triple media reservoirs it is usually supposed that the per-

meability relationship between three subsystems is kf > kv > km , so the flow

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236 R.-S. NIE et al.

system (Al-Ghamdi and Ershaghi 1996, Bourdet 2002, Ertekin and Sung

1989, Jalali and Ershaghi 1987, Liu et al. 2003, Wu et al. 2004, 2007, Yang

et al. 2005). There exists the inter-porosity flow from matrix subsystem to

fracture subsystem, and the inter-porosity flow from vug subsystem to frac-

ture subsystem is also considered. Because the fracture subsystem is the

main flow pathway, and the outflow fluid from both the vug and matrix sub-

systems is towards the fracture subsystem, the inter-porosity flow between

the matrix and vug subsystems is assumed negligible.

The flow relationship schemes for dual and triple porosity media reser-

voirs are shown as Figs. 5 and 6, respectively.

Other basic assumptions are as follows:

external boundary of reservoir may be infinite or closed or at constant

pressure;

total compressibility (rock and fluid) is low and constant;

we assume isothermal and Darcy flow, ignoring the impact of gravity and

capillary forces;

we consider wellbore storage effect (in the beginning of opening well, the

fluid stored in wellbore starts to flow, the fluid in the formation does not

flow);

we consider skin effect (near wellbore, formation could be damaged due

to drilling and completion operations; there would be an additional pres-

sure drop from well production, so skin is the reflection of additional

pressure drop);

at time t = 0, pressure is uniformly distributed in reservoir, equal to ini-

tial reservoir pressure, pi.

Fig. 5. Flow scheme for dual media Fig. 6. Flow scheme for triple media

reservoir. reservoir.

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UNSTEADY INTER-POROSITY FLOW FOR MULTIPLE MEDIA 237

Pseudo-steady inter-porosity flow

The pseudo-steady inter-porosity flow hypothesizes means equal pressure in

matrix subsystem and/or vug subsystem. That is to say, the pressure in ma-

trix subsystem or vug subsystem is independent of location (coordinate r).

But the pressure in matrix subsystem or vug subsystem is a function of time, t.

For pseudo-steady inter-porosity flow manner, the shape of matrix block

and vug is arbitrary (see Figs. 3a and 4a), and different shapes have different

shape factors, .

At present, many scholars consider the pseudo-steady inter-porosity flow

manner in their modeling (Jalali and Ershaghi 1987, Ertekin and Sung 1989,

Al-Ghamdi and Ershaghi 1996, Bourdet 2002, Liu et al. 2003, Wu et al.

2004, 2007, Yang et al. 2005).

Unsteady inter-porosity flow

The unsteady inter-porosity flow means that the pressures everywhere in ma-

trix subsystem or vug subsystem are not equal. That is to say, the pressure in

the matrix subsystem or vug subsystem is a function of time and coordinate.

For unsteady inter-porosity flow manner, the shape of matrix block and

vug is assumed of some ideal shape (slab, cylindrical, spherical, and cubic)

to facilitate establishing and solving mathematical modeling.

We consider the unsteady inter-porosity flow manner for multiple media

reservoir by assuming that both matrix blocks and vugs are spherical (see

Figs. 3b and 4b).

Now we make the following assumptions:

the radius of spherical matrix block is r1 (see Figs. 5 and 6), and every

matrix block is the same, so the radius r1 is equivalently the average ra-

dius of all matrix blocks;

the radius of spherical vug is r2 (see Fig. 6), and every vug is the same, so

the radius r2 is equivalently the average radius of all vugs;

the pressure distribution in matrix block or vug is spherically symmetric;

fluid flows from the center of matrix block or vug into fracture, and the

pressure at spherical surface is equal to the fracture pressure pf.

The above postulation is a simplification, which is a limitation of the mod-

eling.

INTER-POROSITY FLOW

The equations of initial conditions, inner boundary conditions and external

boundary conditions for pseudo-steady inter-porosity flow are the same as

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238 R.-S. NIE et al.

those for the unsteady inter-porosity flow (see Section 4), so we only show

the governing equations.

Dual porosity media reservoir

The governing differential equations in radial cylindrical system are as fol-

lows (e.g., Al-Ghamdi and Ershaghi 1996, Bourdet 2002, Jalali and Ershaghi

1987):

fracture subsystem

2 pf 1 pf km f Cft pf

2 + + m ( pm pf ) = , (1)

f r rf rf k f kf t

matrix subsystem

m Cmt pm

m ( pm pf ) = . (2)

km t

The governing differential equations in radial cylindrical system are as fol-

lows (e.g., Wu et al. 2004, 2007, Yang et al. 2005):

fracture subsystem

2 pf 1 pf km k C p

+ + m ( pm pf ) + v v ( pv pf ) = f ft f , (3)

rf

2

rf rf kf kf kf t

matrix subsystem

m Cmt pm

m ( pm pf ) = , (4)

km t

vug subsystem

v Cvt pv

v ( pv pf ) = , (5)

kv t

where p is the pressure (in MPa), t the time (in s), the rock porosity, frac-

tion, k the permeability (in m2), the oil viscosity (in mPas), Ct the total

compressibility of rock and oil (in MPa1), r the radial coordinate, is the

geometric shape factor of matrix block or vug (in m2), and the subscripts

m, v, and f represent matrix, vug, and fracture, respectively.

Because of the pseudo-steady inter-porosity flow manner, the governing

differential equations of matrix and vug subsystems (Eqs. (4) and (5)) do not

contain the pressure partial differential terms related to location (coordinate r).

The dimensionless mathematical modeling is shown as Appendix A.

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UNSTEADY INTER-POROSITY FLOW FOR MULTIPLE MEDIA 239

INTER-POROSITY FLOW

4.1 Establishment of mathematical model

Governing differential equations

Governing equations of fracture subsystem in radial cylindrical system:

for dual porosity media reservoir

2 pf 1 pf f Cft pf

+ + qm = , (6)

rf 2 rf rf kf kf t

2 pf 1 pf f Cft pf

+ + qm + qv = ; (7)

rf 2

rf rf kf kf kf t

system

2 pm 2 pm m Cmt pm

+ = (0 < rm < r1 ) ; (8)

rm 2 rm rm km t

tem

2 pv 2 pv v Cvt pv

+ = (0 < rv < r2 ) ; (9)

rv 2 rv rv kv t

where qm is the inter-porosity flow volume in unit time from unit volume

matrix (in 1/s), qv the inter-porosity flow volume in unit time from unit vol-

ume vug (in 1/s), r1 the spherical radius of matrix block (in cm), and r2 is the

spherical radius of vug (in cm).

Inter-porosity flow equations

Fluid flows from the center of matrix block to fracture. By Darcys law, the

flow velocity at a spherical surface (rm = r1) of matrix block is

0.1km pm

v = rm = r1 , (10)

rm

Because the outflow volume in unit time from unit volume matrix block

is qm, the velocity at spherical surface is equal to the result that the surface

area of a spherical matrix block divides the outflow volume of fluid from a

matrix block in unit time, that is

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240 R.-S. NIE et al.

4 4

v = r13 qm

3

( 4r ) =

1

2

3

r1qm . (11)

Upon combining Eq. (10) with Eq. (11), the inter-porosity flow volume in

unit time from unit volume matrix block becomes

0.3 km pm

qm = rm = r1 . (12)

r1 rm

By the same method, we can get the inter-porosity flow volume in unit time

from unit volume vug:

0.3 k v pv

qv = rv = r2 . (13)

r2 rv

The well production at a constant rate

0.2kf h pf dp w

rf rf = rw = qB + Cs , (14)

rf dt

where q is the surface oil rate of wellhead (in cm3/s), h the formation thick-

ness (in cm), pw the wellbore pressure (in MPa), Cs the wellbore storage

coefficient (in cm3/MPa), and B is the oil volume factor, dimensionless.

At the center of matrix block

pm

rm = 0 =0 . (15)

rm

At the center of vug

pv

rv = 0 = 0 . (16)

rv

Infinite reservoir

lim pf = pi (infinite) . (17)

rf

pf rf = Re = pi (constant pressure) . (18)

Closed boundary

pf

rf = Re = 0 (closed) . (19)

rf

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UNSTEADY INTER-POROSITY FLOW FOR MULTIPLE MEDIA 241

pressure

pm ( rm , t ) rm = r1 = pf . (20)

pv ( rv , t ) rv = r2 = pf , (21)

where Re is the external boundary radius of reservoir (in cm), and pi is the

initial reservoir pressure (in MPa).

Initial conditions

pf t =0 = pm t =0 = pv t =0 = pi . (22)

The dimensionless mathematical model is shown as Appendix A, and all

kinds of dimensionless definitions are shown as Appendix B.

We introduce the Laplace transform (Nie-Ding 2010) based on TD, that is

L pD ( rD , TD ) = p ( rD , z ) = p (rD D , TD ) e zTD dTD , (23)

0

TD = tD CD , (24)

pressure in Laplace space, tD the dimensionless time in real space, CD the

dimensionless wellbore storage coefficient, and z is the time in Laplace

space.

Governing equations of fracture subsystem in radial cylindrical system:

for dual porosity media reservoir

+ 2S rmD =1 = pfD , (25)

fD r 2

rfD rfD 5e rmD CD e 2 S

+ 2S rmD =1 rvD =1 = pfD . (26)

rfD

2

rfD rfD 5e rmD 5e 2S

rvD CD e 2 S

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242 R.-S. NIE et al.

tem

2 pmD 2 pmD 15 zm

+ = pmD (0 < rmD < 1) . (27)

rmD 2

rmD rmD m CD

2 pvD 2 pvD 15 zv

+ = p vD (0 < rvD < 1) . (28)

rvD 2

rvD rvD v CD

Well production at a constant rate

pfD 1

z pfD rfD rfD =1 = . (29)

rfD z

pmD

rmD = 0 = 0 . (30)

rmD

pvD

rvD = 0 = 0 . (31)

rvD

Infinite reservoir

lim pfD = 0 (infinite) . (32)

rfD

pfD rfD = R eD =0 (constant pressure) . (33)

Closed boundary

pfD

rfD = ReD =0 (closed) . (34)

rfD

pressure

pmD ( rmD , tD ) rmD = r1 D = pfD . (35)

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UNSTEADY INTER-POROSITY FLOW FOR MULTIPLE MEDIA 243

pvD ( rvD , tD ) rvD = r2 D = pfD . (36)

Firstly, we seek the solution to the partial differential flow equation of ma-

trix subsystem under its definite conditions, Eqs. (27), (30), and (35). The

general solution of Eq. (27) is

(

pmD = Am e m rmD + Bm e m rmD ) rmD , (37)

m = 15m z ( m CD ) . (38)

Substitute the general solution, Eq. (37) into Eqs. (30) and (35), we have

1

Am = pfD , (39)

e m e m

1

Bm = pfD . (40)

e m e m

pfD e m rmD e m rmD

pmD = . (41)

rmD e m e m

d pmD

rmD =1 = m cth ( m ) 1 pfD , (42)

d rmD

m m m m

d pvD

rvD =1 = v cth ( v ) 1 pfD , (43)

d rvD

v = 15v z ( v CD ) . (44)

Substitute Eq. (42) into Eq. (25), and substitute Eqs. (42) and (43) into

Eq. (26). The governing differential equations of fracture subsystem,

Eqs. (25) and (26), can be unified by

d 2 pfD 1 dpfD

2

+ f ( z ) pfD = 0 . (45)

d rfD rfD drfD

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244 R.-S. NIE et al.

m zf

f ( z) = m cth ( m ) 1 + . (46)

5e 2 S CD e 2 S

m zf

f ( z) = 2S

m cth ( m ) 1 + v2 S [ v cth( v ) 1] + . (47)

5e 5e CD e 2 S

pfD = Af I 0 rfD ( )

f ( z ) + Bf K 0 rfD ( )

f ( z) . (48)

At the wellbore bottom, r = rw, rfD = 1, pf = pw, pfD = pwD, so Eq. (48)

becomes

I0 ( )

f ( z ) Af + K0 ( )

f ( z ) Bf pwD = 0 . (49)

Substitute the general solution, Eq. (48), into the constant rate well produc-

tion condition, Eq. (29):

f ( z ) I1 ( )

f ( z ) Af f ( z ) K1 ( )

f ( z ) Bf z pwD =

1

z

. (50)

Substitute the general solution, Eq. (48), into the external boundary condi-

tions, Eqs. (32)-(34):

lim I 0 rfD

rfD

( )

f ( z ) Af + lim K 0 rfD

rfD

( )

f ( z ) Bf = 0 , (51)

( )

I 0 ReD f ( z ) Af + K 0 ReD ( )

f ( z ) Bf = 0 , (52)

I (R

1 eD f ( z) ) A f K (R 1 eD f ( z) ) B f =0 , (53)

where Am, Af, Bm, Bf are the undetermined coefficients, I0( ) is the modified

Bessel function of the first kind, zero order, I1( ) the modified Bessel func-

tion of the first kind, first order, K0( ) the modified Bessel function of the

second kind, zero order, and K1( ) is the modified Bessel function of the sec-

ond kind, first order.

From Eqs. (49)-(53), there are 3 unknown numbers (Af, Bf, pwD ) and

3 equations, so the solutions in Laplace space can be easily obtained by use

of linear algebra to Eqs. (49)-(53), such as GaussJordan reduction. In real

space, the dimensionless wellbore pressure (pwD) and pressure derivative

(dpwD/dTD) can be obtained using Stehfest numerical inversion (Stehfest

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UNSTEADY INTER-POROSITY FLOW FOR MULTIPLE MEDIA 245

type curves of pressure, pwD , and pressure derivative ( pw D tD / CD ) are ob-

tained.

5. TYPE CURVES

5.1 Type curves of dual media reservoir

Type curves reflect properties of underground reservoirs. Intuitively, type

curves graphically show the process and characteristics of fluid flow in res-

ervoirs.

Figures 7-9 show the type curves of transient well test analysis for mul-

tiple media reservoir. It can be seen from the figures that different parame-

ters (inter-porosity flow factor, external boundary conditions, and fluid

capacitance coefficient, etc.) have different influences on type curves.

Figure 7 shows the whole transient flow process of well production at con-

stant rate in dual media reservoir; it can be divided into six flow stages:

Stage I. Pure wellbore storage stage. The pressure and pressure deriva-

tive assume unit slope. There is no difference between unsteady inter-

porosity modeling and pseudo-steady inter-porosity modeling.

Stage II. Skin effect stage. The shape of derivative curve is just like

a hump. The location of dimensionless pressure of unsteady inter-porosity

is lower than that of pseudo-steady inter-porosity, which indicates that

unsteady inter-porosity flow accelerates the energy supplement during pro-

duction.

Stage III. Fracture subsystem radial flow stage. The slope of pressure

derivative curve is zero, and the pressure derivative converges to 0.5 line,

which means the logarithmic value of pressure derivative is 0.5. This stage

usually does not appear for a big vm (e.g., vm = 108 in Figs. 8 and 9).

Stage IV. Inter-porosity flow stage of matrix subsystem to fracture sub-

system. The pressure derivative curve is concave, which is the reflection of

the inter-porosity flow of matrix to fracture. Compared with the classical

matrix-fracture dual porosity modeling (Al-Ghamdi and Ershaghi 1996,

Corbett et al. 2010, Warren and Root 1963), the V-shaped type curves are

flattened due to the unsteady inter-porosity flow manner (see curve and

in Fig. 7). It can be said that the unsteady inter-porosity flow manner for

flow from matrix subsystem reduces the classical matrix-fracture (V-shaped)

response.

Stage V. Whole radial flow stage of fracture and matrix subsystems. The

inter-porosity flow of matrix to fracture has stopped. The pressures between

matrix system and fracture system have gone up to a state of dynamic bal-

ance. The derivative curve also converges to 0.5 line.

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246 R.-S. NIE et al.

curve goes down for constant pressure boundary and tilts up for closed

boundary. For a constant pressure boundary the transient flow would

ultimately become steady state flow. For closed boundary the transient flow

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UNSTEADY INTER-POROSITY FLOW FOR MULTIPLE MEDIA 247

would ultimately become pseudo-steady state flow, in which the type curves

converge to a straight line with unit slope.

According to definition of m = 1.5 ( rw r1 ) ( km kf ) , the matrix permea-

2

bility, fracture permeability and the radius of spherical matrix block, r1, are

contained in m, so we analyze the influence of m upon type curves and do

not analyze the influence of r1, km , and kf. Figure 8 reflects the shape charac-

teristics of type curves affected by m. Because m represents the starting

time of inter-porosity flow of matrix subsystem to fracture subsystem, so the

bigger the m , the earlier the time of inter-porosity.

Fluid capacitance coefficient of fracture subsystem, f, represents the

fluid storage capacitance of fracture subsystem. A bigger f is the response

of relatively more reserves in fracture subsystem. Figure 9 displays the shape

characteristics of type curves affected by f ; a greater f leads to shallower

concave.

Varying parameters can have significant influence on the shape of type

curves. This possibility is due to the fact that well testing analysis, an inverse

problem, has multiple solutions. In addition, the shape rendered from real

data may be distorted by noises, which makes it necessary to establish the

stylized shapes under different parameter conditions. Therefore in Figs. 8

and 9 we showed type curves of a control group, whose parameters are

fixed. We later vary parameters to show how the shape of the type curves

may be changed. Such an exercise is important to both theoretical research-

ers and empiricists.

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248 R.-S. NIE et al.

Figure 10 shows the standard type curves of triple media reservoir under in-

finite boundary; the flow can be divided into four main stages:

Stage I. Pure wellbore storage and skin effect stage.

Stage II. Inter-porosity flow stage of vug subsystem to fracture subsys-

tem. Because the vug permeability is better than the matrix permeability, the

inter-porosity flow of vug subsystem to fracture subsystem takes place

firstly. The pressure derivative curve is concave (the first concave on the

left). The unsteady inter-porosity flow manner for flow from vug subsystem

reduces the classical vug-fracutre (V-shaped) response.

Stage III. Inter-porosity flow stage of matrix subsystem to fracture sub-

system. The inter-porosity flow of vug subsystem to fracture subsystem has

stopped. The pressure derivative curve is also concave (the second concave

on the right).

Stage IV. Whole radial flow stage of fracture, vug and matrix subsys-

tems. The inter-porosity flow of matrix to fracture has stopped. The pres-

sures between the three subsystems have gone up to a state of dynamic

balance. The derivative curve converges to 0.5 line.

In a word, the differences between unsteady inter-porosity modeling and

pseudo-steady inter-porosity modeling are mainly showed in inter-porosity

flow stages. The unsteady inter-porosity flow manner reduces the classical

matrix-fracture (V-shaped) response for dual media reservoir and reduces the

classical matrix-vug-fracture (W-shaped) response for triple media reservoir.

Fig. 10. Type curves of triple media reservoir under infinite boundary.

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UNSTEADY INTER-POROSITY FLOW FOR MULTIPLE MEDIA 249

Fig. 11. Type curves of triple media reservoir affected by fluid capacitance coeffi-

cient.

coefficient of vug subsystem, v , and fluid capacitance coefficient of matrix

subsystem, m . The bigger the v , the deeper the first concave on the left.

The bigger the m , the deeper the second concave on the right.

The calculated new type curves can be applied to well testing analysis by

use of type curves matching method (Bourdet 2002, Zheng et al. 2003) to

judge flow characteristics in real reservoir and obtain reservoir property pa-

rameters, such as permeability, skin factor.

6. APPLICATION

There is a pressure buildup testing well of carbonate reservoir. The testing

time is 19 June through 3August 2008. The curve of wellbore flow pressure,

pwf, with shutting-down time, t, is shown as Fig. 12. Formation and well

parameters are shown in Table 1. The matching curves of well testing inter-

pretation are shown as Fig. 13. Well test interpretation parameters are shown

in Table 2. Three main flow stages can be observed: (i) Stage I, wellbore

storage and skin effect stage; (ii) Stage II, inter-porosity flow stage of vug

subsystem to fracture subsystem; and (iii) Stage III, inter-porosity flow stage

of matrix subsystem to fracture subsystem. The curve of the field data is flat

concave. We graphed the well testing interpretation using unsteady inter-

porosity flow modeling of triple media reservoir. The theoretical predictions

and the real data match well (see curve in Fig. 13). However, the classical

pseudo-steady inter-porosity flow modeling of triple media reservoir deviates

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250 R.-S. NIE et al.

35

30

25

pwf(MPa)

20

15

10

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

t(h)

Fig. 12. Curve of buildup pressure with shutting-down time.

from the real data substantially (see curve in Fig. 13). This new modeling

and estimation strategy is a new tool to petroleum engineers for evaluating

reservoir properties and will predict the engineering condition more accu-

rately. Therefore, for a reservoir that yields flat concave curves like real data

used in our example, we recommend using the unsteady inter-porosity flow

modeling. On the other hand, for very distinct V-shaped or W-shaped con-

cave of real data like the examples in Wu et al. (2004, 2007), we should

choose the pseudo-steady inter-porosity flow modeling.

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UNSTEADY INTER-POROSITY FLOW FOR MULTIPLE MEDIA 251

Table 1

Formation and well parameters

h Ct rw q tp

e B

[m] [MPa1] [m] [mPas] [m3/d] [h]

50.32 0.0366 0.00021 0.08 1.58 1.03 12.94 15 840

sibility, rw well radius, oil viscosity, B oil volume factor, q average oil rate

before shutting-in, tp production time before shutting-in.

Table 2

Well testing interpretation parameters

kf Cs

modeling S f v m v m

[103m2] [m3/MPa]

unsteady 23.74 0.0053 1.6 0.01 0.16 0.83 0.00014 0.000003

pseudo-

23.82 0.0053 0.9 0.22 0.33 0.45 0.00023 0.000006

steady

Explanations: kf permeability, Cs wellbore storage coefficient, S skin factor,

f fluid capacitance coefficient of fracture subsystem, v fluid capacitance coef-

ficient of vug subsystem, m fluid capacitance coefficient of matrix subsystem,

v inter-porosity flow factor of vug subsystem to fracture subsystem, m inter-

porosity flow factor of matrix subsystem to fracture subsystem.

7. CONCLUSIONS

We established and solved a model of unsteady inter-porosity flow and

applied it to a set of real data. We summarize the findings in the following:

Ideal spherical shape in matrix blocks and vugs and centrifugal flow are

assumed in our new modeling, so the fluid flow has an unsteady inter-

porosity flow behavior.

Type curves are dominated by inter-porosity flow factor, external bound-

ary conditions and fluid capacitance coefficient, etc. Different parameters

have different influences on type curves.

The V-shaped type curves are flattened due to the unsteady inter-porosity

flow manner, unlike the V-shaped convex curves in the classical multiple

media reservoir modeling.

Successful field data application reveals the unsteady inter-porosity flow

modeling would be better than the classical pseudo-steady inter-porosity

flow modeling when we encounter a flat concave of real data like the ex-

ample in this paper.

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252 R.-S. NIE et al.

viewers and editors. They thoroughly reviewed the manuscript and their crit-

ical comments were very helpful in preparing this paper.

The authors would like to especially thank the Dr. Chen-Yu Yang from

Economics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. He tho-

roughly checked the writing and polished the English.

APPENDIXES

A. Dimensionless mathematical modeling

Governing differential equations

Governing equations of fracture subsystem in radial cylindrical system:

for dual porosity media reservoir

2 pfD 1 pfD m pmD f pfD

+ 2S rmD =1 = ,

rfD rfD rfD 5e rmD TD

2 2S

CD e

TD = tD CD ,

+ 2S rmD =1 rvD =1 = .

rfD rfD rfD 5e rmD rvD TD

2 2S 2S

5e CD e

tem:

2 pmD 2 pmD 15m pmD

+ = (0 < rmD < 1) .

rmD 2

rmD rmD m CD TD

+ = (0 < rvD < 1) .

rvD 2 rvD rvD v CD TD

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UNSTEADY INTER-POROSITY FLOW FOR MULTIPLE MEDIA 253

Well production at a constant rate

dpfD p

rfD fD rfD =1 =1 .

dTD rfD

pmD

rmD = 0 = 0 .

rmD

pvD

rvD = 0 = 0 .

rvD

Infinite reservoir

lim pfD = 0 (infinite) .

rfD

pfD rfD = ReD = 0 (constant pressure) .

Closed boundary

pfD

rfD = ReD = 0 (closed) .

rfD

At spherical surface of matrix block, the matrix pressure is equal to the frac-

ture pressure

pmD ( rmD , tD ) rmD = r1 D = pfD .

At spherical surface of vug, the vug pressure is equal to the fracture pressure

pvD ( rvD , tD ) rvD = r2 D = pfD .

Initial conditions

pfD TD = 0 = p mD TD = 0 = pvD TD = 0 = 0 .

The governing differential equations in radial cylindrical system:

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254 R.-S. NIE et al.

2 pfD 1 pfD p

+ + m e 2 S ( pmD pfD ) = f e 2 S fD ,

rD 2

rD rD t D

pmD

m e 2 S ( pmD pfD ) = m e 2 S .

t D

2 pfD 1 pfD 1 2 pfD p

+ + 2 + m e2 S ( pmD pfD ) + v e2 S ( pvD pfD ) = f e2 S fD ,

rD 2

rD rD hD zD 2

tD

pmD

m e 2 S ( pmD pfD ) = m e 2 S ,

t D

pvD

v e 2 S ( pvD pfD ) = v e 2 S .

t D

B. Dimensionless definitions

The dimensionless definitions are as follows:

dimensionless fracture pressure

pfD = 0.2kf h ( pi pf ) (qB ) ,

pmD = 0.2kf h ( pi pm ) (qB ) ,

S = 0.2kf hps (qB ) ,

dimensionless radius based on effective radius

rD = rf (rw e S ) ,

2005)

m = 15 / r12 ;

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UNSTEADY INTER-POROSITY FLOW FOR MULTIPLE MEDIA 255

2

km r k

m = 0.1 m rw 2

= 1.5 w m .

kf r1 kf

Dual porosity media reservoir

dimensionless wellbore storage coefficient

tD = kf t rw 2 (f Cft + m Cmt ) ,

f = f Cft (f Cft + m Cmt ) ,

m = m Cmt (f Cft + m Cmt ) .

dimensionless wellbore storage coefficient for triple media reservoir

2

rw k v

v = 1.5 ,

r2 kf

f = f Cft (f Cft + m Cmt + v Cvt ) ,

m = m Cmt (f Cft + m Cmt + v Cvt ) ,

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256 R.-S. NIE et al.

v = v Cvt (f Cft + m Cmt + v Cvt ) .

All dimensionless definitions of pseudo-steady inter-porosity flow modeling

are the same as those of unsteady inter-porosity flow modeling, except:

inter-porosity flow factor of matrix subsystem to fracture subsystem

km

m = 0.1 m rw 2 ,

kf

kv

v = 0.1 v rw 2 .

kf

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Received in revised form 5 July 2011

Accepted 15 July 2011

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