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G (const. Net injected P. V (specified) at p.u. values.

V). (Pg Pd.), converted to p.u. This is const. and the angle, is to be
values. re adjusted after each iterations to
meet the V.
Calculate the Qi for obtaining the A for
the loadflow equations.

The Q depends on the voltage and the
voltage to be brought back to the
original specified V after each
successive iterations, so the Q value
remains unchanged. Change the .
L. Net injected P. Net injected Q.
Slack. Voltage. Phase angle, .

Upto k 1 Upto nth buses (except


Adjuested K with
i or
new .
If the computed Qi is within the specified. upper yii.
& the lower of Q set for the systems, the the
adjusted V (with new phase angles) to be used,
else use the upper & lower values in the High Tapping changed to (1 +
equation for A in the eqns. Treat it as PQ bus. t): 1.


Total active power losses =
kW = sum of all the bus

Total reactive power losses

= kVAr = sum of all the

The non zero algebraic

sum of all the powers into
and leaving the buses will
form the losses.

Ni = x. (ei. ek + fi. fk) r. (fi. ek ei.


Nik = -x. (ei. ek + fi. fk) + r. (fi. ek ei.


Pi = -2 x Xi ( ei2+ fi2 ) - x. (ei. ek + fi. fk) r. (fi. ek

Cos (atan (fi/ ei).). Sin (atan (fi/ ei).).

Pik = -x. (ei. ek + fi. fk) + r. (fi. ek ei.

Cos (atan (fk/ Sin (atan (fk/
ek)). ek)).