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IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Formulae & equations)

1. Write the formula for:

(a) potassium nitrate ...........................................................................................................


(1)

(b) calcium hydroxide ........................................................................................................


(1)

(c
[2]

(e) A sample of a hydrocarbon contains 0.240 g of carbon and 0.050 g of hydrogen.


(i)
n and 0.16 g of oxygen.
Calculate the empirical formula for this acid. [2]

(d) Ethanoic acid reacts with magnesium oxide.


Name the products formed and write a balanced equation for the reaction. [2]

(e) Describe how ethanoic acid can be converted into ethyl ethanoate. [2]
) ammonium sulphate ......................................................................................................
(1)

(d) iron(III) chloride. ..........................................................................................................


(1) Q1

(Total 4 marks)
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Formulae & Equations, Organic compounds)

2. Complete the table. Calculate the empirical formula of this hydrocarbon.


(ii) The hydrocarbon is one of the compounds in the table. Which one? [3]

(f) State a reagent used to distinguish between an alkane and an alkene. [1]

IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Organic Compounds, Formulae & equations)

B9 The table gives information about the first five members of the homologous series of carboxylic
acids.

relative
name of acid formula melting point / C boiling point / C
molecular mass

methanoic acid HCO2H 46 8.4 101

ethanoic acid CH3CO2H 60 17 118

propanoic acid C2H5CO2H 74 22 141

butanoic acid C3H7CO2H 88 8 164

pentanoic acid
(a) (i) Predict the formula and the relative molecular mass for pentanoic acid.
[
(ii) Explain why it is easier to predict the boiling point of pentanoic acid than the
melting point. 1
[3]
]
(b) Draw the displayed formula for propanoic acid.
(
[1]
c
(c) Analysis of an organic acid isolated from red ants shows that it contains 0.060 g of
carbon,
)
0.010 g of hydroge
S
Particle Number of protons Number of neutrons Number of electrons
e

31 l
15P 15
e

c
27
13 Al3+ 14
t

d
35 46 36
a
Q2
t
(Total 7 marks)
a
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Formulae & equations, Alkane and alkene)

B8 The table shows the energy released when one gram of an alkane or an alkene is
f
completely burned.
r
molecular Energy released per gram / kJ
formula
o
CH4 55.6
m
C2H4 50.3
C4H8 42.5
C4H10 t
49.6
C20H42 47.2 h

e
(a) Draw two possible structures for the compound with molecular formula C4H8.

[2] t

(b) Explain how you can tell that C20H42 is an alkane. a


ble to show how the energy released per gram varies with the number
of carbon atoms in one molecule of an alkane.

[1]

(d) Write the equation for the complete combustion of C4H8.


Mg +
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Formulae & equations, Mole calculations)

B9 Dilute ethanoic acid and dilute hydrochloric acid both react with magnesium ribbon to form
hydrogen.

(a) Give the formula of one ion found in both of these dilute acids. [1]

(b) Magnesium ribbon reacts with hydrochloric acid as shown in the equation.
A 0.24 g sample of magnesium ribbon is added to 5.0 cm3 of 2.0 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid.

(i) Which reactant, magnesium or hydrochloric acid, is in excess? Use calculations to explain
your answer. [2]

(ii) Calculate the maximum mass of magnesium chloride that can be formed in this reaction.
[2]

(iii) A 0.24 g sample of magnesium ribbon is added to 5.0 cm3 of 2.0 mol/dm3 ethanoic acid.
Explain why this reaction forms the same volume of hydrogen but takes place much more
slowly than the reaction of the same mass of magnesium with 5.0 cm3 of
2.0 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid. [3]

(c) (i) Write an equation for the reaction between dilute ethanoic acid and sodium
carbonate. [1]

(ii) What observations would be made during this reaction? [1] [Total: 10]
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Formulae & equations, Acid & Rate of reaction)

A2 The

2+
Cu

copper ion sulphide ion [2]

[Total: 7 marks]
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Formulae & equations, Bonding, Acids)

3 Ammonia is a gas which forms an alkaline solution when dissolved in water.

(a) Complete the diagram below to show the arrangement of the molecules in ammonia gas.

O represents a single molecule of ammonia.

[2]

(b) Which one of the following values is most likely to represent the pH of a
dilute solution of ammonia?
Put a ring around the correct answer.

pH2 pH6 pH7 pH9 [1]

(c) The structure of the ammonia molecule is shown below.

N
H
H
H

(i) Write the simplest formula for ammonia.

[1]

(ii) Describe the type of bonding in a molecule of ammonia.

A student heated some solid ammonium chloride, NH4Cl, in a test-tube.


Ammonia and one other gas were formed.
He tested the gases coming out of the tube with litmus paper.

solid chloride
ammonium
re litmus paper blue
d litmus paper

HEAT

The red litmus quickly turned blue.


A few seconds later, both pieces of litmus paper turned red

(b) Name the process which causes the gases to move along the tube.

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(c) Which gas turned the red litmus paper blue?

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(d) Which gas turned the litmus paper red?

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(e) Explain why the two gases

(iii) Ammonia is a gas at room temperature.


Suggest why ammonia has a low boiling point.
[1]

table shows some information about three gases.

relative molecular
name of gas formula
mass

chlorine Cl2 71

ammonia 17
HCl

(a) Complete the table by filling in the boxes. [3]


travelled along the test-tube at different speeds.
Use information from the table.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[2]

IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Formulae & equations, Bonding)

6 The table below shows some information about two copper ores, tenorite and cuprite.
Both contain copper oxide.

formula of copper oxidation number of percentage of copper


ore
oxide in ore copper by mass

tenorite +2 80.0%

cuprite Cu2O

(a) (i) What is the formula of the copper compound in tenorite?

...................................................................................................................................

(ii) What is the oxidation number of copper in cuprite, Cu2O?

...................................................................................................................................

(iii) Calculate the percentage of copper by mass in Cu2O.

[5]

(b) Another ore of copper contains copper(II) sulphide.


Complete the dot and cross diagram below for copper(II) sulphide showing outer electrons
only.
(e) A student repeats the experiment using excess sulphuric acid.
She obtains 24 g of magnesium sulphate from 4.8 g of magnesium.
How much magnesium sulphate can the student obtain from 1.2 g of magnesium?

[1]

(f) A sample of 20 g of impure magnesium sulphate contains 19.5 g of


magnesium sulphate.
Calculate the percentage purity of the magnesium sulphate.

[1]

[Total: 10]

IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Formulae & equations, bonding)

5 Buckminsterfullerene is a form of carbon which was discovered in 1985. It is shaped like a football
and has the formula C60. Its structure is shown below.

carbon atom

(a) Is buckminsterfullerene a compound or an element?

Give a reason for your answer.

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) Choose a word from the list below which best describes the bonding shown on the
diagram of buckminsterfullerene.

Put a ring around the correct answer.

covalent ionic metallic [1]

(c) Buckminsterfullerene reacts with diphenyldiazomethane (DDM).


The structure of DDM is shown below.

(i) State the total number of atoms in one molecule of DDM.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Write down the molecular formula of DDM.

[1]

(iii) When buckminsterfullerene reacts with DDM, nitrogen gas, N2, is given off.
State the total number of protons in one molecule of nitrogen.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(d) Buckminsterfullerene is one of the three forms of solid carbon.

State the names of the two other forms of carbon and give a use for each.

name of first form ...................................................................................................... use of first form

...................................................................................................... name of second

form ...................................................................................................... use of second form

......................................................................................................
[4]

(e) (i)
carbon. 0.03 moles of this compound reacted with excess water to form 0.12 moles of
Al(OH)3 and 0.09 moles of CH4.

Write a balanced equation for this reaction.


(c) 0.07 moles of silicon reacts with 25 g of bromine.

Si + 2Br2 SiBr4

(i)

nitrogen gas

solution of
organic compound

The results of this experiment are shown on the graph below.

volume of
nitrogen

0
0
time
(i) How does the rate of this reaction vary with time?

[1]
(ii) Why does the rate vary?

[2]

(iii) The reaction is catalysed by copper powder. Sketch the graph


for the catalysed reaction on the same grid. [2]

[2]

(iv) Why is copper powder more effective as a catalyst than a single


piece of copper?

[1]

IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Formulae & Equations)

A5 One of the largest uses of phosphorus is in the making of safety matches. A safety
match ignites when it is rubbed against the striking surface of a match box.

The match head contains the following substances.


phosphorus, P4
potassium chlorate(V), KClO3
sulphur, S
a hydrocarbon wax Which one is the limiting reagent? Explain your choice.

[3]

(ii) How many moles of SiBr4 are formed?

[1]
[Total: 8]

IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Formulae & equations, Rate of reactions)

3 An organic compound decomposes to form nitrogen.

C6H5N2Cl(aq) C6H5Cl(l) + N2(g)

(a) Explain the state symbols.

aq

g [2]

(b) Draw a diagram to show the arrangement of the valency electrons in one molecule of
nitrogen.

[2]

(c) The rate of this reaction can be measured using the following apparatus.
.........
.........
20 40 60 80 100 cm3 .........
.........
.........
.........
(a) The friction between the match head and the striking surface generates enough .........
.........
heat for the phosphorus to burn.
......
Phosphorus burns to form phosphorus(V) oxide. This oxide is covalently bonded
with a molecular structure.
........
(i) What is the molecular formula of phosphorus(V) oxide?
.........
...........................................................................................................................
... [1] .........

.........
(ii) Suggest one physical and one chemical property of phosphorus(V) oxide.
.........
physical property
.......................................................................

chemical property

.....................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
... [2]

(b) The heat from the combustion of phosphorus provides enough energy for
the decomposition of potassium chlorate(V) to oxygen and potassium chloride.
Construct the equation for the decomposition of potassium chlorate(V).

...................................................................................................................................
... [2]

(c) The sulphur on the match head ignites.


Write an equation to show the combustion of sulphur.

...................................................................................................................................
... [1]

(d) Finally the wax on the match head begins to combust.


One compound in the wax has the formula C18H38.
To which class of hydrocarbons does this compound belong? Explain your
answer.

...................................................................................................................................
.......

...................................................................................................................................

...

[1]

[Total:

7]
IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Formulae & Equations, Structure) Complete
the word equation for the incomplete combustion of carbon.

carbon + oxygen ............................... ............................... [1]

(ii) Write down the chemical formula of the product in this reaction.

...............................................................................................................................[1]
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Formulae & equations, Bonding)

4 This question is about compounds.

(a) What do you understand by the term compound?

(b) Complete the table below to show the formulae and uses of some compounds.

9 Quantities of chemicals, expressed in moles, can be used to find the formula of a compound, to
establish an equation and to determine reacting masses.

(a) A compound contains 72%

......................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

[Total: 10]
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Atomic structure, Formulae & Equations)

A3 Dry air contains mainly nitrogen and oxygen together with small amounts of argon and carbon
dioxide.

(a) State the approximate percentages of nitrogen and oxygen in dry air.

nitrogen ...............................% oxygen .........................................% [1]

A compound of xenon contained 9.825 g of xenon, 1.200 g of oxygen and 5.700


g of fluorine.
Determine the empirical formula of this compound.

[3]
TOTAL / 8
9 This question is about atoms, ions and molecules.

(a) Draw a straight line from each particle to the correct example.

particle example

atom Na

ion O2

molecule K+

[2]

(b) Magnesium reacts with chlorine to make magnesium chloride.

In this reaction, magnesium atoms lose electrons to make magnesium

ions, Mg2+. At the same time, chlorine atoms make chloride ions, Cl .

Describe how chloride ions are made.

..........................................................................................................................................
.........

..........................................................................................................................................
.....[1]

(c) Water is a compound.

It is made of water molecules, H2O.

(i) Complete this sentence about compounds. magnesium and 28% nitrogen. What is
its empirical formula?

[2]

(b) A compound contains only aluminium and

B9 This question is about the chemistry of the elements in Period 3 of the Periodic Table.

(a) Compare the reactions of sodium and of magnesium with cold water. In each case identify the
products formed.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [3]

(b) Draw electronic structures, including the charges, of the ions present in sodium oxide.
Hence deduce the formula for sodium oxide.

......................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(c) Write an equation for the formation of aluminium oxide from its elements.

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(d) Pure sand is silicon(IV) oxide. It has a giant molecular structure similar to that of diamond.
Suggest two physical properties of silicon(IV) oxide.

......................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(e) Chlorine(VII) oxide, Cl2O7, has a simple molecular structure.


Suggest one physical and one chemical property of Cl2O7.

A compound is 2 or more different .................................................................. chemically

joined together. [1]

(ii) The atoms in a water molecule are held together by shared pairs of electrons.

What is the name of this type of bonding?

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

[Total: 5]

1 Potassium sulfate and ammonium nitrate are both fertilisers.

Potassium sulfate has the formula

K2SO4. Ammonium nitrate has the

formula NH4NO3.

Fertilisers contain one or more of the essential elements needed by plants.

(a) Ammonium nitrate contains the essential element nitrogen.

Potassium sulfate, K2SO4, contains another one of these essential

elements. Which one?

..........................................................................................................................................
... [1]

(b) What is the total number of atoms shown in the formula K2SO4?

.............................................................................................................................................
18
[1] (b) Dry air contains about 1% of the argon-40 isotope, 40Ar.

(i) What do you understand by the term isotope?


..................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii) State the number of electrons and neutrons in this isotope of argon.

number of electrons .....................................................................

number of neutrons ..................................................................... [1]

(c) Argon is used in the manufacture of titanium. In this process titanium(IV) chloride, TiCl4, is
reduced with hot sodium. The products are titanium and sodium chloride.

(i) Write an equation for the reaction between titanium(IV) chloride and sodium.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii) During this reaction argon is blown over the mixture of sodium and titanium(IV)
chloride.
Suggest why the reaction is carried out in an atmosphere of argon.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(d) A small amount of xenon is present in the air. Several compounds of xenon have been
made in recent years.

(c) Ammonium nitrate has a relative formula mass (Mr) of 80.

What is the relative formula mass of potassium sulfate, K2SO4? The

relative atomic mass of O is 16, of S is 32 and of K is 39.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

relative formula mass = .................................................. [1]

(d)
Potassium sulfate dissolves in water.

A neutral solution is made.

(i) What is the pH of potassium sulfate solution?

Choose from the list.

14

answer ....................................................... [1]

(ii) Why is it important that a fertiliser dissolves in water?

...........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(e) Clare makes ammonium nitrate.

She neutralises 25.0 cm3 of an alkali called ammonia.

She slowly adds an acid until the alkali is just neutralised.

(i) What is the name of the acid she must use?

Choose from the list.

hydrochloric acid nitric

acid phosphoric acid

sulfuric acid

answer ......................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) Look at the apparatus she uses.

acid

25.0 cm3 ammonia

What is the name of the apparatus labelled X?

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(iii) Clare makes 0.45 g of ammonium nitrate.

She predicts she should make 0.50 g. What is

her percentage yield?

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

percentage yield = .............................................. % [2] [Total: 9]

1 Ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate are both fertilisers.

Ammonium sulfate has the formula (NH4)2SO4.


Ammonium nitrate has the formula NH4NO3.

(a) What is the total number of atoms shown in the formula (NH4)2SO4?

............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(b) Ammonium nitrate has a relative formula mass (Mr) of 80.

ser dissolves in water?

...................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(d) Clare makes ammonium nitrate.

Look at the apparatus she uses.

acid

25.0 cm3 ammonia

She uses 25.0 cm3 of an alkali called ammonia.

She slowly adds an acid until the alkali is just neutralised.

(i) What is the name of the acid she must use?

Choose from the list.

hydrochloric acid

nitric acid

phosphoric acid

sulfuric acid

answer .......................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) The pH value in the beaker


.

O
H O
O O H H
H C H + C +
O O O
H O
H H
methane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water

(i) Write down the name of one of the reactants in the equation.

.................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) Look at the displayed formula of methane in the equation.

Write down the total number of atoms in one molecule of methane.

answer ....................................................... [1]

(iii) Look at the displayed formula of carbon dioxide in the equation.

Write down the number of different types of atoms in carbon dioxide.

answer ....................................................... [1]

(b) Complete the sentence.

The burning of methane is an exothermic reaction.

Energy is the surroundings. [


What is the
relative formula 1
mass of
ammonium ]
sulfate?
(c)
The relative atomic mass of H is Am
1, of N is 14, of O is 16, and of S moni
is 32. um
sulfa
...................................................................................... te
............................................................. diss
olve
...................................................................................... s in
............................................................. wate
r.
......................................................................................

............................................................. relative formula W

mass = .................................................. hy is it

[1] Ammonium nitrate contains 35% by mass of important

nitrogen. that a

What is the percentage by fertili


mass of nitrogen in
ammonium sulfate?

......................................................................................
.............................................................

......................................................................................

............................................................. percentage by

mass = ...................................................
[1] [Total: 4]
3 The table shows the concentration of some ions present in seawater.

concentration of
name of ion formula of ion
ion in g / dm3


bromide Br 0.07

calcium Ca
2+ 0.4


chloride Cl 19.1

magnesium Mg
2+ 1.2

potassium K
+ 0.3

+
sodium Na 10.6

SO 2
4 0.8

(a) Which negative ion has the highest concentration in seawater?

[1]

(b) State the name of the ion with the formula SO 42 .


changes as the acid is added.

Describe how the pH value changes.

........................................................................................................................................... Explain

why.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [2]

(iii) Clare makes 0.45 g of ammonium nitrate.

She predicts she should

make 0.50 g. What is her

percentage yield?

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

percentage yield = ................................................ % [2]


[Total: 9]

4 (a) Look at the equations. They show what happens when methane burns

[1]

(c) Which two ions in the table are formed from Group I elements?

and [1]

(d) When seawater is evaporated a number of different compounds are formed.


State the name of the compound which is present in the greatest quantity.

[1]

(e) State the names of two ions in the table which move to the cathode when seawater is
electrolysed.

and [2]

(f) When concentrated seawater is electrolysed, chlorine is formed at one of the electrodes.

(i) To which Period in the Periodic Table does chlorine belong?

[1]

(ii) Draw the electronic structure of a chlorine molecule. Show only the outer electrons.

[2]

(g) Drinking water can be obtained by purifying seawater.


Explain why distillation rather than filtration is used to purify seawater for drinking.

[2]

[Total: 11]
compound relative number of atoms present formula use

Ca = 1
calcium oxide CaO
O=1

Na = 1
sodium chloride table salt
Cl = 1

Ca = 1

calcium carbonate C =1

O=3

NH4NO3 in fertilizers

[6]

(c) Calculate the relative formula mass of NH4NO3.

[1]

1. Complete the table.


1. Complete the table.

Name of Formula of Formula of Formula of


compound compound cation anion

magnesium chloride MgCl2 Cl


Mg2+

lead(II) nitrate Pb2+

aluminium sulphate Al3+ SO42

manganese(III) oxide Mn2O3


O2

calcium phosphate Ca3(PO4)2

Q1

(Total 6 marks)