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AMS- LECTURE-15

THICK CYLINDER

The difference between a thin cylinder and thick cylinder is that cylinder has a stress in the
radial direction as well as a circumferential stress and longitudinal stress. A rule of thumb is
that radial stress become important when the wall thickness exceeds 1/20th of the diameter.

Lames theory:

Assumptions :-

Material of the cylinder is homogeneous and isotropic.


Plane sections of the cylinder perpendicular to the longitudinal axis remain plane
under the pressure.(The second assumption implies that the longitudinal strain is
same at all points, i.e., the strain is independent of the radius.)
The material is stressed within elastic limit
All the fibers of the cylinder are free to expands or contract independently without
being constrained by the adjacent.

r0 = outer radius of cylinder

ri = inner radius of cylinder

L = Length of cylinder

t = thickness of cylinder

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AMS- LECTURE-15

r = Radial stress
l = Longitudinal stress
= Circumferential stress
we have 3 stress in mutually perpendicular directions, the corresponding strain are :

= { ( + )}

= { ( + )}

= { ( + )}

Consider the forces acting on the cylindrical wall:

Under equilibrium = (. , )
Consider the elemental section of unit length (length of the section is 1)
Width of the section is radius x angle
Area of the top curved surface is (r + r) x 1 = (r + r)

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AMS- LECTURE-15

Area of the bottom curved surface is (r) x 1 = (r )

Forces acting on wall surface: (force x area)


Radial outward force is ( + )( + )

Radial inward force is ( )+( )

As is very small quantity, =

( )+( )

Under equilibrium outward force is equal to inward force

( + )( + ) =( )+( )

+ + + = +
Neglecting higher order of small quantity
+ =
+ =

+ =

= ------------------------------------------------------(1)

Assuming now that the plane section remain plane ; i.e. the longitudinal strain l is
constant across the wall of the cylinder,
Then = { ( + )}= constant

It is also assumed that the longitudinal stress is constant across the wall
( + )= = ---------------------------------------------------------(2)

On putting the value of in equation(1)

Multiplying r in both the side and rearranging the equation:

+ =

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AMS- LECTURE-15

Intigrating both the side = =

( )=

= -----------------------------------------------(3)

On putting the value of in equation (2)

= + ------------------------------------------------(4)

/ " "
= +

" "
= + +

Determination of longitudinal stress " "

When the one end or both ends of the cylinder is closed the longitudinal stress is developed.

Where =

" "
+ ( )

Determination of strain/ change in dimension of the cylinder

In general we know that = + , , ,& +

Longitudinal strain l

" "= [ ( + )]

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AMS- LECTURE-15

" "= [ + ( )]

" "=

Where = & =

" "= = [ + ( )]

Circumferential strain

" "= [ ( + )]

" "= [ + ( )]

" "=

Where = & =

" "= = [ + ( )]

From change in radius , change in thickness can be calculated.

Volumetric strain v

" "= = + ( )

Where V = change in volume at inner radius &V= initial internal volume of the cylinder.

Maximum shear stress developed in the cylinder wall max

+
=

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