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Design and control of a prosthetic leg for above-knee amputees operated in semi-active and

active modes

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2016 Smart Mater. Struct. 25 085009

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Smart Materials and Structures

Smart Mater. Struct. 25 (2016) 085009 (13pp) doi:10.1088/0964-1726/25/8/085009

Design and control of a prosthetic leg for


above-knee amputees operated in semi-
active and active modes
Jinhyuk Park, Gun-Ha Yoon, Je-Won Kang and Seung-Bok Choi
Smart Structures and Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University,
Incheon 402-751, Korea

E-mail: seungbok@inha.ac.kr

Received 4 January 2016, revised 9 May 2016


Accepted for publication 22 June 2016
Published 11 July 2016

Abstract
This paper proposes a new prosthesis operated in two different modes; the semi-active and active
modes. The semi-active mode is achieved from a ow mode magneto-rheological (MR) damper,
while the active mode is obtained from an electronically commutated (EC) motor. The knee joint
part of the above knee prosthesis is equipped with the MR damper and EC motor. The MR
damper generates reaction force by controlling the eld-dependent yield stress of the MR uid,
while the EC motor actively controls the knee joint angle during gait cycle. In this work, the MR
damper is designed as a two-end type ow mode mechanism without air chamber for compact
size. On other hand, in order to predict desired knee joint angle to be controlled by EC motor, a
polynomial prediction function using a statistical method is used. A nonlinear proportional-
derivative controller integrated with the computed torque method is then designed and applied to
both MR damper and EC motor to control the knee joint angle. It is demonstrated that the desired
knee joint angle is well achieved in different walking velocities on the ground ground.

S Online supplementary data available from stacks.iop.org/SMS/25/085009/mmedia


Keywords: magneto-rheological uid, prosthetic leg, above-knee amputees, MR damper, joint
angle control
(Some gures may appear in colour only in the online journal)

1. Introduction without any assistance is impossible. Therefore, many types


of the prosthesis have been researched continuously. Most of
Recently, smart materials such as magneto-rheological (MR) conventional prosthesis for above-knee (AK) amputees are
uid have been widely applied in mechanical and medical operated based on passive mechanisms. The conventional
areas. As well known, MR uid has liquid-like properties passive type is normally made with elastic materials such as
without magnetic elds and forms chain-like structures when carbon ber reinforced composite material or titanium. The
external magnetic elds are applied. In this phase change, the elastic of these materials helps the patients to walk more
yield stress of MR uid can be controlled by the strength of easily. However, the patients who wear the passive prosthesis
external magnetic eld. Thanks to this salient property, MR may walk awkwardly because the passive type does not
uid has been actively researched and applied to dampers, consist of any actuator and external controller.
clutches, brakes, and various other mechanical systems [1, 2]. By contrast, the active-mode prosthesis is able to control
Recently, Choi et al developed a medical haptic device using the desired knee joint angle like an ordinary leg. However,
MR uid [3]. Furthermore, several research works on the not only it is expensive and heavy, but it also consumes
application of MR uid to medical devices such as prosthesis signicant energy [4]. On the other hand, the semi-active
[46]. Walking is the essential part of human life. However, mode of type prosthesis can provide a stable motion without
in the case of people without one or both legs, walking using any expensive sensors and actuators. Therefore, several

0964-1726/16/085009+13$33.00 1 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK


Smart Mater. Struct. 25 (2016) 085009 J Park et al

works on the semi-active mode type of prosthesis using MR


uid have been actively undertaken. Xie et al [5] proposed a
prosthetic knee joint using an MR damper, and Li and Xie [6]
researched an AK prosthesis using an MR damper. On the
other hand, Herr [7] fabricated the MR brake for the pros-
thetic knee joint and the performance of MR brake was
experimentally investigated. In addition, in this work, the gait
algorithm has been discussed in details. It is known that the
semi active AK prosthesis using MR uid technology only is
hard to extend the leg during swing phase due to its lack of
any active actuator. Moreover, it is very hard to apply the
previous proposed prosthesis [5, 6] to patients in real Figure 1. Classication of the human gait cycle.
environment because its size is too large and its weight is
relatively heavy compared with the passive or active pros-
thesis due to the attachment of MR damper. exion to extension. The knee reaches maximal exion and
Consequently, the main technical contributions of this then begins to extend. During this phase, the body is sup-
work are given as follows; (1) design and test of a new ported by one single leg. At this moment, the body begins to
prosthesis operated in both the semi-active and active modes move from force absorption at impact to force propulsion
to achieve high stability and wide controllability of the knee forward. The HO begins when the heel leaves the ground. In
joint angle, and (2) apply directly to the patient in real the TO, the thigh becomes less extended, and the toes leave
environment with compact size and light weight. The pro- the ground. In the MSW, the knee exes about 55 but then
posed AK prosthesis is composed of MR damper and elec- extends approximately 30 [911]. Because AK amputees do
tronically commutated (EC) motor. The MR damper can not have the knee joint, shank and foot, the knee joint angle
mimic characteristics of human muscle by changing the should be predicted. In this work, a PPF using statistical
hardness with the intensity of the external magnetic eld. In method is used. Gyro sensors are attached to the thigh and
addition, MR damper effectively absorbs the impact and knee. Each sensor measures the joint angles. Figure 2 shows
vibration from the heel by controlling damping property like the measured angle data of the experimenter who is one of
the muscle [8]. It is also noted that the MR damper consumes authors of this work; a non-disabled. Figure 3 shows a
less energy than the active type when the prosthesis supports corresponding PPF that obtained from the results shown in
the body weight. On the other hand, in order to extend the leg gure 2. It is noted here that in general the PPF is separated
during the swing phase, the EC motor is equipped for the by two one-to-one functions at the swing and stance phases so
proposed AK prosthesis. In this work, the proposed prosthesis that the knee angle can be predicted from the hip joint angle
is manufactured and tested on different walking conditions. In [12, 13]. In this work, the prediction is conducted at various
order to control knee joint angle, a nonlinear proportional- times to achieve high repeatability of the PPF. The PPF
derivative (PD) controller is used associated with the pre- obtained in this work is given by
dicted joint angle from a polynomial prediction function Swing phase
(PPF). The effectiveness of the proposed control system is q = 8.72 + 0.33 f + 0.028 f 2 - 0.015 f 3
demonstrated by one of authors of this work who wears the
prosthesis and walks on the ground with different walking + 0.002 f 4 - 4.8e - 5 f 5 - 5.6e - 6 f 6
speeds. + 3.3e - 7 f7 - 4.8e - 9 f8.
Stance phase
q = 29.25 + 4.16 f + 0.057 f 2 - 0.022 f 3
2. Dynamics of human walking - 5.0e - 5 f 4 + 4.0e - 5 f 5.
Prior to formulating the dynamic control model, the basic gait
cycle of a human is explained to understand how to control It is noted that the above equations are obtained through
the knee joint angle. Classication of the gait cycle consists of experimentally measured values of the joint angles. In this
two main phases: the swing phase and the stance phase. experiment, we measured 20 times and the average values
Generally, the stance phase occupies approximately 60% of were used to achieve PPF. The comparison results of the
the gait cycle and the swing phase occupies approximately actual knee joint angle and predicted knee joint angle are
40% of the gait cycle [7]. A more detailed classication of the shown in gure 4. It is identied from the result that the error
gait recognizes six events: heel contact (HC), foot at (FF), between the prediction and actual data is within 10% which is
mid-stance (MST), heel-off (HO), toe-off (TO) and mid- acceptable to predict the knee joint angle from the hip joint
swing (MSW) as shown in gure 1. The HC begins when the angle.
foot contacts the ground. The hip joint is bent and the knee For the designing of an appropriate MR damper in terms
joint is stretched. The thigh absorbs the impact from the foot. of damping force and size, both the kinematic and dynamic
In FF, the thigh moves slowly into extension. The knee exes equations should be analyzed. Normally, the required damp-
to 1520 of exion. In MST, the thigh moves from 10 of ing force of the MR damper should be calculated by solving

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Smart Mater. Struct. 25 (2016) 085009 J Park et al

Figure 2. Hip and knee joint angles of the participant.

Figure 4. Prediction results for random movement.

Figure 3. Polynomial prediction function.

the dynamics of the leg during walking, while the use of the
kinematic model in the overall gait cycle is important for the
analysis of two main phases; stance and swing. The thigh and
shank are taken to be rigid links connected by pins at the knee Figure 5. Kinematics of a human leg.

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Smart Mater. Struct. 25 (2016) 085009 J Park et al

Figure 7. Control torque.

Figure 6. Control performance of the nonlinear PD controller to leg


motion: simulation.

Table 1. Parameters of the human body.

Parameter Specication Value


lt Length of thigh 419 mm
ls Length of shank 421 mm
rt Distance between knee joint 181 mm
and hip
rs Distance between knee joint and 182 mm Figure 8. Schematic conguration of the prosthetic knee.
ankle joint
ra Distance between ankle joint and 250 mm
tiptoe ankle joint angle is assumed to be xed on . In the gure,
mt Weight of thigh 5.664 kg (7.552%) and are the hip and shank joint angles, and the subscripts t,
ms Weight of shank 4.889 kg (6.519%) s, and a denote thigh, shank and ankle, respectively. mt,s are
It Moment of inertia of thigh 0.0982 kg.m2 the masses, rt,s are the distances from each joint to the mass
Is Moment of inertia of shank 0.0402 kg.m2 center, ra is the distance from the foot touching the ground to
W Weight of body 75 kg the ankle joint, It,s are the moments of inertia in the mass
Angle between sole and instep 15 center, and lt,s is the length of the thigh and shank, respec-
q Knee joint angle tively. The equations of dynamic motion can be written as
f Hip angle
written as follows [14]
f Vf Gf t
joint and hip joint as shown in gure 5. The amputees stance
leg is modeled as a two-link rigid body chain representing the
M (q , f) + + = th ,
q Vq Gq
{}k
(1 )

thigh and the shank in sagittal plane motion. In kinematics, where, M (q, f ) is the inertial matrix, Vf, q are the centripetal
the center of mass of each body is assumed to be xed and the and Coriolis torques, Gf, q are the gravitational torques, and

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Smart Mater. Struct. 25 (2016) 085009 J Park et al

Table 2. Parameters of the prosthesis.

Parameter Specication Value


a Hinge radius 40 mm
l Length of magnetic pole 240 mm
W Weight of entire prosthesis 5 kg

th,k are the torques of the hip and knee joint. AK amputees
can move the thigh like a non-disabled; therefore, the hip joint
angle can be assumed to be perfectly controlled by the patient.
In this research, the patient controls the hip joint angle. Thus,
the equation of motion to be considered is written as by
Iq q + If f + V + G = tk . (2 )
In the above

(Is + m s rs 2) ,

Iq = (Is + m t ls 2 + m s ra 2 + m t ra 2 + m s rs 2

+ 2 (m s ls + m t rs) ra sin k) ,
- (Is + m s rs 2 + m s lt rs cos q ) ,

(Is + m s ra + m t ra + m s rs
2 2 2

Ij = + m t ls 2 + m t ls rt cos q ,
Figure 9. Conguration of the ow-mode MR damper.
+ 2m s ra rs sin k + 2m t ra ls sin k

+ m t ra rt sin (k + q )) ,

m l r sin q f 2,
Table 3. Parameters of the MR damper.
V= st s Parameter Specication Value
- m r rt (ra cos (k + q ) - ls sin q ) f ,
2

da Gap between the magnetic pole and core 1 mm


g m s rs sin (q - f)) ,
lp Length of annular duct 57 mm
G = g ((m s ra + m t ra ) cos (k + q + f) lm Length of magnetic pole 5 mm
- (l m + m r ) sin (q + f)) + W . h Viscosity of MR uid of 140CG
s t s s 0.280 Pa
d Diameter of shaft 10 mm
The top and bottom components denote the swing phase and do Housing inside diameter 28 mm
di Diameter of core 20 mm
stance phase, respectively.
On the other hand, in order to nd the required torque,
the knee joint angle is controlled using a mathematical
simulation. In this work, to control the desired knee joint negative. Thus, the poles can be calculated as follow
angle, a nonlinear PD controller which consists of PD feed-
back control term and computed torque term is used. The - Kd Kd2 - 4Iq Kp
. (5 )
computed torque term cancels the nonlinear terms in the 2 Iq
dynamic model of the leg. Therefore, the dynamics system of
the leg is linearized and stabilized. The control input torque is In this work, the control gains of Kp and Kd are chosen 1.5
then written as follows and 1.75, respectively. It is noted here that these values are
determined by undertaking many time of simulation works
Iq q + Ij j + V + G = tk , observing tracking accuracy, required damping force of MR
damper and stability violation due to the different walking
tk = Iq qd + Kp (qd - q ) + Kd (qd - q ) + Ij j + V + G ,
speeds.
(3 ) The MR damper supports the body weight in the stance
phase. Moreover, the MR damper can control the knee joint
where, qd is the desired knee joint angle, and Kp and Kd are
angle by controlling the damping force during stance phase.
control gains of the proportional and derivative terms,
The EC motor controls the knee joint angle during overall gait
respectively. Then, from equations (2) and (3), the following
cycle. Therefore, the control torque is generated by the MR
error dynamic equation is obtained
damper and EC motor except during the swing phase. The
Iq e + Kd e + Kp e = 0. (4 ) MR damper is turned off when the leg swings. Figure 6 shows
In the above e = q - qd. In order make equation (4) to be the control performance of the nonlinear PD controller
stable, the poles of the error dynamic system should be obtained from computer simulation. The parameters of the

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Smart Mater. Struct. 25 (2016) 085009 J Park et al

Figure 11. Field-dependent yield stress of MRF 140CG.

Figure 12. Relationship between current and magnetic intensity of


the solenoid coil.

supports the body weight and controls the knee joint angle
with the EC motor before the HO phase. After the HO phase,
the EC motor only swings the prosthesis.

Figure 10. Analysis results of the axisymmetric 2D magnetic eld of


the MR damper.
3. Design of the prosthesis

The schematic conguration of the prosthesis proposed in this


human body are shown in table 1; the gait cycle time is 3 s. work is shown in gure 8. In the gure, a is the distance from
An actual knee joint angle matches well to the desired knee center of the hinge to the piston of the MR damper and l is the
joint angle as shown in gure 6(a). The relative error is distance from the bottom side of the prosthesis to the center of
dramatically reduced after 1.5 s as shown in gure 6(b). the hinge. Fd is the damping force of the MR damper and q is
Figure 7 shows the control torque to achieve the result shown the angle of the hinge which is a degree of freedom. x is the
in gure 6. In the TO, the thigh becomes extended and hence displacement of the piston of the MR damper; that displace-
the hip joint angular velocity is zero at changing motion from ment depends on the angle of the hinge. The bottom side of
the stance to the swing phase. It is clearly seen that at the MR damper is connected with the prosthesis and the 15.
approximately 1.55 s, the control torque is suddenly reduced MR damper piston is connected with the hinge. The pros-
because that time is the HO phase, whereas the MR damper thesis has the parameters listed in table 2.

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Smart Mater. Struct. 25 (2016) 085009 J Park et al

Figure 14. Photograph of wearable connector.

Figure 13. Field-dependent damping force characteristics of the MR


damper: simulation.

The MR damper generates a linear damping force which


transfers to damping torque [15]:

al
tk = a Fd = Fd cos q k , (6 )
x

Where, x = a2 - 2al cos q + l 2 . From the control torque


and equation (6), we can calculate the required damping force
from equation (3). The required maximum damping force is
120 N. Figure 9 shows the conguration of the ow mode
MR damper used for the proposed prosthesis. Normally, the
MR damper includes an air chamber to balance oating
motion. However, the MR damper used in this work does not
include the air chamber to reduce the size as well as weight.
The ow mode MR damper consists of a housing, piston, MR
uid (MRF-140CG, Lord Corporation), solenoid coil, oil seal,
and magnetic core, as shown in gure 9. The oil seal causes
friction with the piston that deteriorates the performance of
MR damper. Moreover, this friction disturbs the swing of the
prosthesis during the swing phase. Accordingly, the piston is Figure 15. Conguration of the AK prosthesis.
coated using teon to reduce the friction coefcient. The
magnetic core is made of pure steel for high permeability, and damper, with the dimensions and parameters listed in table 3,
the piston and housing are made of aluminum for low is fabricated. According to the Bingham plastic model of
permeability. Thus, the magnetic eld, which is generated by plates, the damping force Fd is divided into the induced yield
the solenoid coil, ows through the magnetic core. The MR stress F and viscous components F. The damping force is

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Smart Mater. Struct. 25 (2016) 085009 J Park et al

Figure 16. Photography of the manufactured MR damper.

Figure 18. Field-dependent damping force characteristics of the MR


damper: measured.

written as follows [16, 17]


12hlp Q l
Fd = Fh + Ft = A p + c m ty sign (v) , (7)
d i p da
3
da
where

Q = Ap v ,
b
A p = p d o 2 - d 2 -
360{da (da + d i ) + da2 ,
}
12Qh
c = 2.07 + .
di da
12Qh + 0.8p + ty da
2
2 2

In the above, Q is the volumetric ow rate of the MR uid, Ap


is the effective cross-sectional area of the piston, do is the
inner diameter of the housing, di is the diameter of magnetic
core, d is the diameter of the piston rod, v is the piston
velocity, y is the yield stress of the MR uid, is the off-
state (no magnetic eld) viscosity of the MR uid, lm is the
effective axial pole length, lp is the annular duct length, and
sign(v) is used to consider the semi-active force.
In order to analyze the magnetic eld between the yield
stress of the MR uid and input current the nite element
Figure 17. Experimental apparatus for damping force measurement. method is used. This is undertaken using a commercial

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Smart Mater. Struct. 25 (2016) 085009 J Park et al

Figure 19. Experimental system apparatus to control the joint angle of the AK prosthesis.

software (ANSYS), and the results are presented in gure 10.


Figure 10(a) shows the 2D magnetic ux lines of the MR
damper around the solenoid coil and gure 10(b) shows the
axisymmetric 2D elemental solution in the form of the
magnetic induction distribution. For this purpose, the rela-
tionship is developed between the yield stress and the
magnetic intensity using the graphical data provided by the
Lord Corp., USA, as shown in gure 11. The polynomial
equation is shown as follows

ty = 543H - 1.29H 2 - 0.15 10-3H 3, (8 )

Figure 20. Block diagram of the AK prosthesis to control the knee where, H is magnetic intensity. Its unit is A m1. The relation
joint angle. between magnetic intensity and current is shown in gure 12

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Smart Mater. Struct. 25 (2016) 085009 J Park et al

Figure 21. Photograph of the tted AK prosthesis.

where, i is the current which ows through solenoid coil in


MR damper, and Cq is the polynomial coefcients. Now, the
yield stress value obtained at various levels of current is
substituted into equation (7) to obtain the damping force
shown in gure 13. Figure 13(a) shows the displacement of
the piston versus damping force. The damping force is
nonlinearly increased by increasing the current. Figure 13(b)
shows the velocity of the piston versus damping force. The
excitation frequency is 0.7 Hz. The maximum damping force
is approximately 150 N. It is remarked here that in this work
the MR damper is designed with a high viscosity term
depending on the angular velocity of the knee joint angle
because the bending angular velocity of the knee joint angle is
fast when the person falls down while walking.
It is noted here that the wearable connector is fabricated
Figure 22. Hip joint angle for each walking velocity: measured. using a gypsum mold for the non-disabled as shown in
gure 14. In gure 15, the AK prosthetic consists of an
encoder (A-5400, Mutoh Engineering), EC at motor (EC 90
in which the curve tted polynomial equation is given by at, Maxon Motor), planetary gearhead (GP 52C, Maxon
Motor), gyro sensor (MSENS-GY), the fabricated MR dam-
H = 172i + 2460 i 2 - 34 900 i 3 - 20 200 i 4 per, and the hinge. The EC at motor is used because it
+ 4.80 10 6 i 5 - 2.48 107 i 6 + 4.19 107 i 7. occupies a small space and can provide high torque. The EC
(9 ) at motor plays a role of a servo motor by obtaining the knee
joint angle data from the encoder.
To calculate the relation between the yield stress and the
current, equation (9) is subsequently substituted into
equation (8):
4. Results and discussions
21
ty = Cq i q , (10) An appropriate size of MR damper is manufactured to
q=0 implement the proposed prosthesis as shown in gure 16 and

10
Smart Mater. Struct. 25 (2016) 085009 J Park et al

Figure 24. Control inputs for each walking velocity.

Figure 23. Control performance for each walking velocity: Figure 25. Knee joint angle versus hip joint angle at different
measured. working speed.

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Smart Mater. Struct. 25 (2016) 085009 J Park et al

its principal design parameters are given in table 3. Prior walking on at ground. Figure 21 shows the photograph of the
attaching the MR damper to the prosthesis, the led-depen- tted AK prosthesis fabricated in this work and tted to the
dent performance of the MR damper is tested using an experimenter who is one of authors of this study. In order to
experimental apparatus shown in gure 17 [18]. The shaker acquire high repeatability of the test result, each experiment is
exciting system consists of a servo motor (GM), and the repeated ve times in the same environment condition. The
rotary linear variable displacement transducer (rotary LVDT; acquisition results of this test are control performance, tracking
MTA-5E, Celesco), load cell (Summ-20k, Senstech), data error and control signals of the EC at motor and the MR
acquisition quantity (DAQ) assistants (PCI-6229, National damper. Figure 22 shows the hip joint angle during the gait
Instrument), and current amplier. The rated peak-to-peak cycle for each walking velocity. The x-axis of gure 22 indi-
amplitude of the excitation is xed by 40 mm. The shaker cates the gait cycle from HC to MSW. According to the gure,
setup has a compatible PC-based data acquisition and the range of the hip joint angle increases in accordance with
instrumentation system that can provide the data in the form increasing walking velocity. On the other hand, the desired knee
of force, velocity, and displacement in real time. The initial joint angle is predicted from the hip joint angle and it is com-
position of the piston in the cylinder of MR damper is con- pared with the actual measured joint angle as shown in
trolled by the PC using a software (LabVIEW, National gure 23. It is seen that the desired and actual knee joint angles
Instrument). The test is performed for a number of cycles at a agree closely. However, tracking accuracy is decreased as the
xed frequency of 0.7 Hz. The test is repeated under the same walking velocity increases. Figure 24(a) shows the control input
conditions but at different current values supplied to the applied to the EC motor, while gure 24(b) presents the control
solenoid coil of the MR damper. The current is monitored and input applied to the MR damper. It is seen from the results that
supplied through the current amplier from the PC. The the control input is increased as the walking velocity increases.
current is varied from 0 to 90 mA in steps of 10 mA. The The reason why the tracking error of the knee joint angle is
damping force is measured by a load cell that is xed at the degraded as the walking velocity increases is closely related to
top of the MR damper, and the displacement is recorded the response time of the MR damper. Moreover, the MR uid
through the LVDT. Figure 18 shows the damping force with does not rapidly return to the liquid state by turn-off the current
respect to the displacement and velocity. The damping force because the magnetic core in the MR damper is still magne-
is linearly increased until 90 mA with increasing current tized. This phenomenon resists the stretching knee joint during
(magnetic intensity). The maximum damping force under zero the swing phase. This drawback of the proposed prosthesis
eld conditions is 11.1 N. At the magnetic intensity of 90 mA, needs to be resolved by optimizing the ow path and walking
the maximum damping force becomes to 150 N. Therefore, motion. However, it is clearly observed from gure 23 that
the MR damper sufciently can provide the required damping control performance of the proposed system is fairly good until
force of the proposed prosthesis. 1. 57 m s1 of the walking speed. Figure 25 shows the rela-
Figure 19 shows an experimental system apparatus to tionship between the knee joint angle and the hip joint angle at
operate the AK prosthesis. The experimental system is com- three different walking speeds. It is observed from the result that
posed of the motor drive (EPOS 50/5, Maxon Motor), RS- as the speed increase the higher knee joint angle occurs at the
485 converter, current amplier, DC power supply, DAQ hip joint angle of 18. This directly indicates the coupled
assistant, and PC. The motor drive receives signals from the movement behavior between the knee and hip joint angles.
PC using the LabVIEW and controls the EC at motor. The
gyro sensor uses the RS-485 serial communication. The input
current is amplied through the current amplier before 5. Conclusion
applying to the solenoid coil in the MR damper. The DC
power supplies are required for the current amplier, motor In this work, a new prosthesis for AK amputees featuring both
drive, and gyro sensor. The desired knee joint angle is pre- semi-active and active modes was proposed and its effec-
dicted from the hip joint angle which is measured by the gyro tiveness was experimentally demonstrated. An appropriate
sensor. The actual knee joint angle is directly measured by the size of MR damper was designed and manufactured and its
encoder. Therefore, the AK prosthesis is a closed single input eld-dependent characteristics such as damping force were
and single output closed-loop system including the nonlinear measured. A nonlinear PD controller was designed on the
PD controller as shown in gure 20. A control algorithm is basis of the dynamic motion of the human walking. In the
the most important part of the AK prosthesis because the synthesis of the controller, a PPF has been used to predict the
dynamics of the leg is frequently changed during walking. knee joint angle which is the desired joint angle to be tracked
Therefore, the control input is completely different during the by two actuators; MR damper and EC motor. In order to
swing phase from that during the stance phase. In the swing increase the accuracy of the PPF, the joint angles were
phase, control signal input to the MR damper is turned off so measured many times during separate stance and swing
that the MR damper does not resist the rotation of the EC at phases. After establishing experimental apparatus, an
motor. However, in the stance phase the MR damper supports experimenter equipped with the proposed AK prosthesis
the body weight and controls the knee joint angle with force undertook several tests at different walking velocities. This
from the EC at motor. test was performed on the level ground. It has shown that the
In this work, the target walking velocities are set by three actual knee joint angle fairly follows the desired angle at low
cases; 0.52, 0.72, 1.02 m s1 with the experimenter who is walking velocity. However, as the walking velocity increases

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Smart Mater. Struct. 25 (2016) 085009 J Park et al

the tracking accuracy has been degraded due to the slow time [4] Gudmundsson K H, Jonsdottir F and Thorsteinsson F 2010 A
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