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The Industrial Revolution, which took place from the 18th to 19th
centuries, was a period during which predominantly agrarian, rural
societies in Europe and America became industrial and urban.
It was the transition period that included going from hand-production
methods to machine made processes. This reduces the individual
income and more people had to go the factories for income.

It gave rise to new technology: textile manufacturing, iron, printing,

paper making, engineering and steam engine.
There were new mineral sources of energy: coal as a high energy
source to smelt metals and for steam power.

Industries gave way to railways, roadways, and waterways (canals)

for transportation of raw materials to finished products. This also
increased the number of coal mines.

Machines enabled use of unskilled labour in assembly lines.

Industrialization led to huge economic differences between different
classes in the society which resulted in the growth of multi -
storeyed structures against sheds. It changed the standards of living.
The women and children were also sent to work at industries so that
the poor could get more income.


Industries became the heart of urban scenario and houses and other
buildings started coming around them. It saw the evolution of
Industrial Landscape, modern architecture and town planning.

Cast iron and steel-

- The fire proof quality made them the ideal choice for mills.
- Bridges and railroads were needed in far flung areas for faster and
better transportation and cast iron followed steel were worthy
- High densities in towns generated the need to rise vertically, cast
iron and steel provided the opportunity for structural system as well
as the vertical transportation system within the building.
- Cast iron and steel provided for faster and cheaper construction of
living and work spaces.

Glass was another important material used in architecture.

- Along with steel, glass was used to create a transparent skin and
to let natural light into space.
Glass and steel together led to making of greenhouses, skyscrapers,
large skylights in atriums adding new typologies to the history of

Cement concrete and RCC

- Modern cement was invented in the name of "Portland cement.
-Later in 1850, Lambot had constructed row boats using cement and
had reinforced with iron bars and wire mesh.
-In 1854, a small storey servant's cottage was erected by reinforcing
the concrete floor and roof with iron bars and wire rope, thus leading
to the development of RCC in building construction.
-Francois Colgnet built several large houses of concrete in England
and France, and Robert Mook was the first to build a RCC house in
- In 1938, the Ingalls building, Cincinnati with 15 storeys was the
world's first RCC skyscraper.

Industrial revolution helped in mass production of food for the world.

Adverse effects on environment, exploitation and depletion of