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1 Please describe strengths and weaknesses of basic sampling techniques.

Secondary data are normally published data collected by other parties. Government

agencies such as Bank Negara, the Department of Statistics, Ministry of International

Trade and Industry and other agencies publish their data regularly and provide

secondary sources of data to many researchers. In addition, bulletins, journals,

newspapers and other publications also provide useful secondary data to researchers.

However, some of the secondary data are not current. A researcher needs to choose

wisely the secondary data for his research. One advantage of secondary data is that it is

easily accessible from the internet, journals, annual reports and newspaper. It is

relatively inexpensive because there is no fieldwork required. It also requires less time

to collect. Some data such as import and export data are only available from secondary

sources. However, there are some disadvantages of secondary data as well. The

secondary data may lack accuracy because the measurement procedure and the method

of data collection are not explained by the previous researchers. The data may be biased

because the original purpose of data collection is not known. Finally, the data may not

meet the specific needs and objectives of the current research, or there may be too many

constraints involved.

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2 Please describe secondary data.

The following table provides a summary of strengths and weaknesses of basic sampling


a) Non-probability sampling

Techniques Strengths Weaknesses

Convenience sampling Less expensive, less time Selection bias, sample not

consuming, most representative, not

convenient recommended for

descriptive or causal

Judge mental sampling Low cost, convenient, not Does not allow

time consuming generalization, subjective

Quota sampling Sample can be controlled Selection bias, no

for certain characteristics assurance of

Snowball sampling Can estimate rare Time consuming


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b) Probability sampling

Techniques Strengths Weaknesses

Simple random sampling Easily applied. Result can Difficult to obtain sampling

be projected on population frame, expensive,

sometimes no assurance of

Systematic sampling Easier to implement than Can decrease

simple random sampling representativeness if certain

patterns exist in sampling

Stratified sampling Includes all important Difficult to select relevant

subpopulations, precision is stratification variables, not

improved feasible to stratify on many

variables, expensive
Cluster sampling Easy to implement, cost Imprecise, difficult to

effective and work is compute and to interpret

reduced results

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