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DEFINITEANDINDEFINITE Butsomegeneralnounsusethe:

ARTICLES theenvironmentPeopleareincreasinglyworried
abouttheenvironment.
theweatherWhat'stheweatherliketoday?

thecountrysideIlovewalkinginthecountryside.
thesea/oceanI'dlovetolivenearthesea.
Use:
theradioThere'saninterestingprogrammeonthe
1)Useabeforeasingularnoun. radio.
I'vegotabrotherandasister. thetheatre/cinemaWewenttothetheatrelast
Useanifthenounbeginswithavowel. night.
theeconomyTheeconomyisaffectingeveryone.
I'vegotanauntinTexas.

Commonmistakes:
2)Usepluralnounsoruncountablenounstotalk

aboutthingsingeneral.Don'tuseanarticlehere.
1)Somestudentsusethewhentheytalkaboutthings
ingeneral.
Ilikecats.
Ilovetheromanticfilms!=>Iloveromanticfilms!
Dolphinsareveryintelligent.
Crimeisincreasing. 2)Somestudentsusesingularnounswithoutaorthe.

Iwantbookabouttheweather.=>Iwantabook
3)Usethetotalkaboutoneparticularthing,ora
abouttheweather.
particulargroupofthings.
Booksareinteresting.Thebookonthetableis 3)Somestudentsusethewhentheytalkaboutthings
interesting. ingeneral.
Childrenarenoisy.Thechildreninthisclassarenoisy. Iwantthebookabouttheweather.=>Iwantabook
abouttheweather.
4)Useatointroduceanewthingorperson.
Usethewhenyoualreadyknowthispersonorthing.
Thereisarestaurantnearmyhouse.Therestaurant
servesgoodfood.
UNCOUNTABLENOUNS
5)Usethewhenthereisonlyoneofthesethings. Use:
Themoonisverybigtonight. Somenounsarecountableyoucancountthem.
Mydadistheonlydoctorinourvillage. Theseinclude:
Joeisthebeststudentintheclass. apples,books,cars,trees
Somenounsareuncountableyoucannotcount
6)Usethewhentherearemanythings,butitisclear
them.Theseinclude:
whichoneyoumean.
water,oil,rice,fruit,bread,information,money
Let'sgotothepub!Weneedtogo
tothesupermarket. Uncountablenounshavedifferentgrammarrulesfrom
countablenouns.
7)Most'general'nounsdonotuseanarticle.
LifeisnotthesameasitusedtobeNOT:Thelife countable countableplural uncountable
singularnouns nouns nouns
Healthisimportanttoeveryone.NOT:Thehealth
e.g.apple e.g.apples e.g.fruit
We'reworriedaboutpollution.NOT:Thepollution

Singular Pluralcountable Uncountable


countable nounsdonotneedanounsdonot
nounsalways determiner.

needa
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A2Grammartopics1

determiner: Ilikeapples. needa HOW


a,this,that,my,Dogsarefriendly. determiner.
theetc. Use:
Buttheycanbe Ilikefruit.
UseHowtogetinformationaboutnumbersand
Look usedwith
Buttheycanuse quantities.
atthatcat! determiners:
singular Youcanuseittofindoutaboutage,size,length,cost
CanI Where
determiners: andmuchmore.
haveanapple? aremyshoes?
Isthisyourbag?Arethosepens Thisfruitisnice. Form:
yours? 1)Dimensions

UseHowbigtofindoutaboutsize.
Howbigisyourcar?

Youcancount Youcannotcoun UseHowlongtofindoutaboutlength,andHow


countablenouns. tuncountable widetoaskaboutwidth.
CanI nouns. HowlongistheRiverNile?Howwideisit?
havefiveapples CanIhavefive
Usethewordslongandwideinyouranswerstomake
please? breadsplease?
themclear.
Itsahundredmileslong.Itsamilewide.

Usesingular UsepluralverbsandUsesingular 2)Age


verbsand determiners. verbsand UseHowoldtofindoutaboutage.
determiners. Theseapplesarenic determiners. Howoldisyoursister?
Thisappleisnic e. Thisbreadisnic Youcanreply:ShestenorShestenyearsoldNOT
e. e. Shestenyears.

Somedeterminerscanbeusedwith 3)Time
bothcountableanduncountable AlsouseHowlongtoaskabouttime.
nouns. Howlongisthefilm?Itsabouttwohourslong.
Howlongdoesittaketogetthere?Aboutthree
some,alotof,lotsof,loadsof,
hours.
plentyof,any
4)Quantity
Wevegotsomepotatoes.We
UseHowmuchtoaskaboutcost.AlsouseHow
needsomebread.
muchwithuncountablenouns.
Wedonthaveanypotatoes.We
Remembertoputanyuncountablenounsdirectly
donthaveanybread.
aftermuch.
Somedeterminers Some Howmuchisthisbag?
canonlybeused determinerscan Howmuchmoneydoyouhave?NOTHowmuchdo
withcountable onlybeused youhavemoney?
nouns: with
UseHowmanytoaskaboutcountable
uncountable
several,various,a nouns.Remembertoputanycountablenouns
nouns:
few,many directlyaftermany.
much,abitof,a Howmanypeoplearecoming?NOTHowmanyare
little comingpeople?

Howmanyquestionsoftenusethewordthere.
Howmanypeoplearethereinyour
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A2Grammartopics2

class?NOTHowmanypeopleareinyour Areyoustudents?Wereyoutired?Aretheyinthe
class? classroom?Wereyourparentsthere?

2)UseQuestionword+tobebeforenouns,
pronouns,placesandthis/that.
SUBJECTANDOBJECT
Questionword be
QUESTIONS
Where is/was he/she/it/my
Use: Who bag?
Somequestionsaskabouttheobjectofasentence.
What this/that?
Whodidyousee?=>IsawHelen. When attheparty/inthe
Helenistheobjectofthesentence. classroom?
Somequestionsaskaboutthesubjectofasentence.
are/were we/you/they/
Whosawyou?=>Nobodysawme.
mykeys?
Nobodyisthesubjectofthesentence.
these/those?
SubjectandObjectquestionshavedifferent attheparty/inthe
structures. classroom?

Form: Whoisit?Whenwasit?Wherewasmybag?Who
wasattheparty?
ObjectQuestions
Wherearemykeys?Whatarethose?
1)Tobe
3)Use(Questionword)+auxiliaryverbbefore
Usetobebeforeasubject+nouns,adjectiveor
asubject+verb
place.
Question auxiliary Subject

word verb
tobe Subject
is/are doingseeing
Is/Was he/she/it/ ateacher/a was/were goingeating
Where you
Tom student?
Who do/does he dosee
happy/cold/tired
What did she goeat
/ready?
When it
attheparty/inthe can/could dosee
Why we
classroom? will/ goeat
they
here/there? would
should
Are/Were we/you/they/ teachers/
yourparents students? have/has donesaw
happy/cold/tired had goneeaten
/ready?
Whereareyougoing?Whodidyousee?Whatdidyou
attheparty/inthe
do?Whenwillwego?Whyhavetheygone?
classroom?
here/there? SubjectQuestions
1)Subjectquestionshavenosubjectinthequestion.
IsTomateacher?Isitcold?Washeattheparty?Is
Anypresent/pastsimpleverbsshouldgointhepast/
shehere?
presentsimpletense,nottheinfinitiveform.

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A2Grammartopics3

OnlyWhatandWhocanbeusedinthiskindof fast>fastHerunsfast.
question. late>lateHearriveslate.

Question verb object 3a)Usually,theadverbgoesaftertheverbit


word describes.
ShetalksquietlyNOTShequietlytalks.
Who likes/needs/wantsme/you/him/
Herunsfast.NOTHefastruns.
isfollowing/calling her/us/them?

saw/called thefilm? 3b)IftheverbhasadirectobjectWITHOUTA


PREPOSITIONtheadverbshouldgoaftertheobject.
Yousangthatsongnicely.NOTYousangnicelythat
What happened(to me/you/him/
song.
her/us/them?)
ishappening(to Hedidthejobwell.NOTHedidwellthejob.

Wholikesme?Whathappenedtoyou? 3c)Iftheverbisfollowedbyaprepositionandan
object,youcanputtheadverbindifferentplaces.
Inthepresenttense,alwaysusethethirdperson
Hequicklywalkedtotheshop.
singularformoftheverb.
Hewalkedquicklytotheshop.
Whathappensnext?NOTWhathappen
Hewalkedtotheshopquickly.
next?
4)AdverbsareNOTusedtodescribethefollowing
Commonmistakes:
verbs.Theseverbsuseadjectives.
1)Somestudentsuseanauxiliaryverbinan
BeIamquiet.NOTIamquietly.
subjectquestion.
SeemItseemsstrange.NOTItseemsstrangely.
Whatdidhappen?=>Whathappened?
LookThatlooksnice.NOTThatlooksnicely.
Whodidmeetyouatthestation?=>Whomet
SmellThatsmellsgood.NOTThatsmellswell.
youatthestation?
SoundThatsoundsgreat.NOTThatsoundsgreatly.
FeelThatfeelsfunny.NOTThatfeelsfunnily.

ADVERBSDESCRIBINGVERBS 5)Somewordsendinlybuttheyarenot
adverbs.Friendlyisanexample.Friendlyisan
Use: adjective.WecansaySheisfriendlybutnotShe
Adverbscanbeusedtodescribeverbs.Theydescribe talksfriendly.Thereisnoadverbforfriendly,butwe
HOWyoudosomething. cansayShetalksinafriendly
Examples:Shewalksquickly;Hesingsnicely. way.Elderlyandlonelyarealsoadjectives,not
adverbs.Kindlyandearlyareadjectivesandadverbs.
Form:
1)Youcanmakemanyadverbsbyaddinglytoan
adjective.
slow>slowly;loud>loudly
ADVERBIALPHRASESOF
Ifanadjectiveendsiny,changeittoani. FREQUENCY,TIMEANDPLACE
heavy>heavily;funny>funnily
Use:
Addallytoadjectivesendinginic.
Anadverbialphraseisagroupofwordswhichalways
Physical>physically;energetic>energetically
gotogether.theydescribewhere,whenorhowoften
2)Someadverbsareirregular,anddonotend somethinghappens.
inly.Theseinclude:
Adverbialphrasesoffrequencydescribehow
good>wellShedanceswell.
oftensomethinghappens.
hard>hardHeworkshard.

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everymorning,everyafternoon Firstofall,wehadadrinkatacaf.
everydaydaily Wehadadrinkatacaffirstofall.
everyweekweekly
Imgoingtothesupermarket,andafterwardsIm
everymonthmonthly
goingtothelibrary.
everyyearannually
Imgoingtothesupermarket,andImgoingtothe
everySundayonSundaysonSundayafternoons libraryafterwards.

onceaday 2)Itismorecommontousethenatthebeginningofa
twiceaday sentenceorclause.
three/four/fivetimesaday Thenwearrivedatthecastle.
ImgoingtofinishmyworkandthenImgoingtohave
allthetime
adrink.
Form:
Itismorecommontousesoonandnowattheendof
1)Adverbsoffrequencyoftengoinpresentsimple
asentence.
sentences.
Weregoingonholidaysoon.
Ihavetoastforbreakfasteveryday.
Imgoinghomenow.
Wevisitourgrandparentstwiceamonth.
Commonmistakes
2)NotethatonSaturdayreferstooneday.On
1)Dontuseanadverboftimebetweenthe
SaturdaysmeanseverySaturday.
subjectandtheobjectofasentence.
Commonmistakes Iwentyesterdaytothezoo.=>Iwenttothe
1)Somestudentswriteadverbsoffrequencyinthe zooyesterday./YesterdayIwenttothezoo.
wrongplace. Imgoingnowtothebank.=>Imgoingto
Weeverydaygothepark.=>Wegotothepark thebanknow.
everyday.
2)YoumustuseanounafterAfterandBefore.
2)Somestudentsusethepluralformwithevery. Otherwise,useafterwardsorbeforehand.
Johngoesswimmingeverydays=>Johngoes Illbelatetoclasstomorrow.Imgoingtothedoctors
swimmingeveryday. before.=>Illbelatetoclasstomorrow.Im
goingtothedoctorsbeforehand.
____________________________________________
ImgoingtomyEnglishclassandImgoingtothebar
Use:
after.=>ImgoingtomyEnglishclassand
Useadverbsandadverbialphrasesoftimetotalk
Imgoingtothebarafterwards.
aboutwhenyoudosomething.
____________________________________________
Adverbsoftimeinclude:
Use:
today,tomorrow,tonight,yesterday,tomorrow,
Useadverbsandadverbialphrasesofplacetotalk
nowadays
aboutwheresomethinghappens.
now,firstofall,beforehand
soon,afterwards,later,next,then Adverbsofplaceinclude:
outside,inside,indoors,upstairs,downstairs
Form:
(over)here,(over)there
1)Adverbsoftimeusuallygoatthebeginningorthe
abroad,overseas
endofasentenceorclause.
Tomorrow,Imgoingtothebeach. Form:
Imgoingtothebeachtomorrow. 1)Adverbsofplaceusuallygoafteraverb.

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A2Grammartopics5

Shelivesabroad. Weusemuchinnegativesentencesandquestions
Letsgoindoors. withuncountablenouns.Wedontoftenuseitin
positivesentences.Wesayalotof/lotsof.
2)Adverbsofplacecanalsogoaftertheobjectofthe
Haveyougotmuchmoneywithyou?
sentence.
Ihaventgotmuchmoneywithme.
Rachelworksintheofficeupstairs.
Ihavemuchmoney.Ihavealotof
Yourbagisonthetableoverthere.
money.

Commonmistakes
SOME/ANY/MUCH/MANY 1)Somestudentsusemanywithuncountable
nouns.
Someandany Idonthavemanymoney.Idonthave
Use: muchmoney.
Usesomebeforepluralnounsoruncountablenouns. 2)Somestudentsusesomeinnegative
Therearesomechildreninthestreet. sentences.
Thereissomemoneyinmypocket. Ihaventgotsomebrothersorsisters.I
haventgotanybrothersorsisters.
Useany,notsome,innegativesentencesand
questions.
Therearentanychildreninthestreet.
Thereisntanymoneyinmypocket.
COMPARATIVES
Arethereanychildreninthestreet? Use:
Isthereanymoneyinyourpocket?
Usethecomparativeformtotalkabouthowtwo
However,Someispossibleinoffersandrequests. thingsaredifferent.
PleasecanIhavesomechocolate? Iamtallerthanyou.
Wouldyoulikesometea? Thisbookisthickerthanthatone.

Form:

MuchandMany 1)Ifanadjectivehasonesyllable,addertotheend.If
Use: itendsinealready,justaddr.
Usemanyinnegativesentencesandquestions.We tall=>tallernice=>nicer
dontoftenuseitinpositivesentences,especiallyin thick=>thickerlate=>later
informalsituations.Weusealotof/lotsof.
2)Ifanadjectiveendsinonevowelandone
Usemanywithpluralnouns. consonant,writetheconsonantagain,thenwriteer.
AretheremanyChinesestudentsinyourclass? Butneverwriteawtwice.
IhaventgotmanyCDs. big=>biggernew=>newer(NOTnewwer)
Therearemanycarsontheroadtoday.There thin=>thinnerslow=>slower(NOTslowwer)
arealotofcarsontheroadtoday. slim=>slimmer
Mybrotheristhinnerthanme.
However,wecanuseManyofNotManybeforethe
subjectofthesentence. 3)Ifanadjectivehastwosyllablesandendsiny,
Manypeoplethinkthattrainsaretooexpensive. changetheytoiandadder.
Notmanypeopleknowthatyoucangetfreecoffee funny=>funniersilly=>sillier
here! Whichofthesebooksisfunnier?

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A2Grammartopics6

5)Someadjectiveshaveirregularsuperlativeforms. adjective.
Thesearelistedbelow. interesting=>themostinteresting
good=>better
surprising=>themostsurprising
bad=>worse

far=>further
ItsthemostinterestingbookIveeverread.
Addthanafteracomparativeadjectivetocompare
5)Someadjectiveshaveirregularsuperlative
onethingwithanother.However,thisisnotalways
forms.Thesearelistedbelow.
necessary.
good=>thebest
Myhouseissmallerthanyours.
bad=>theworst
far=>thefurthest

SUPERLATIVES 6)a)Inisoften(butnotalways)usedaftera
superlativeadjectivetodescribewherethisstatement
Use: istrue.
Usethesuperlativeformtodescribesomethingthatis LondonisthebiggestcityinEngland.
greaterthananyotherthing. Everestisthehighestmountainintheworld.
TheAmazonisthelongestriverintheworld. Mybrotheristhetallestpersoninmy
Helenisthemostintelligentstudentintheclass. family.

Form:
1)Writethebeforeallsuperlatives.
GERUNDSANDINFINITIVES
2)Ifanadjectiveisshortandhasonesyllable,
addesttotheend.Ifitendsinealready,justaddst. Use:
tall=>thetallestnice=>thenicest 1)Agerundisaverbinitsingform,usedasanoun.
thick=>thethickestlate=>thelatest Forexample:eating,going,seeing

2)Ifanadjectiveendsinonevowelandone Gerundsareused:
consonant,writetheconsonantagain,thenwriteest. a)Asthesubjectofasentence.
Butneverwriteawtwice. Smokingisbadforyou.
big=>thebiggest
new=>thenewest(NOTnewwest) b)Aftersomeverbs,suchas:like,hate,enjoy,quit,
thin=>thethinnest suggest,dislike,deny
slow=>theslowest(NOTslowwest) Ilikecooking.Ienjoyfishing.
slim=>theslimmest Agoodlearnersdictionarywilltellyouwhetheraverb
isfollowedbyagerundornot.
Thebiggestcatintheworldisthelion.

3)Ifanadjectivehastwosyllablesandendsiny, c)Afterprepositions.
changetheytoiandaddest. Iminterestedinbuyingacomputer.Im
funny=>thefunniest scaredofwalkingaloneinthedark.
silly=>thesilliest

ItsthesilliestfilmIveeverseen! 2)Theinfinitiveformoftheverbistheoriginalverb.It
canbewithorwithoutto.
4)Forotheradjectiveswithtwoormore
Forexample:(to)eat,(to)go,(to)see.
syllables,DONTaddest.Writemostbeforethe

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Theinfinitiveformisused: Imgoingtoseemysisterattheweekend.
a)Aftersomeverbs,suchas;agree,arrange, AreyougoingtomarryPaul?
ask,promise,decide,afford
Form:
Iagreedtodothework.Iarrangedtoseethe
1)Theformofthepositiveandnegativesentences
doctor,Theydecidedtogetmarried.
andquestionsisshownbelow.
Agoodlearnersdictionarywilltellyouwhetheraverb
isfollowedbyaninfinitiveornot. Positive

am/m
b)Toshowthereasonwhyyoudidsomething.
I
Tonywenttothepostofficetopayabill. goingto verb(infinitiveform)
you are/re
c)Afteradjectives.
he/she/it is/s
IwassurprisedtoseeErica.Impleasedtomeetyou.
we are/re
3a)Someverbscanbefollowedbyagerundor
infinitivewithNOCHANGEinmeaning: they are/re
Forexample:start,begin,hate,like,prefer,
continue Negative

Shestartedtocry=Shestartedcrying. mnot
Ihatewatchinghorrorfilms=Ihatetowatch I
horrorfilms. goingto verb
you arentORre
b)Someverbscanbefollowedbyagerundora (infinitive
not
infinitive,butthereisachangeinmeaning. form)

Forexample:try,remember,stop he/she isntORsnot


Itriedtogetintothehouse.(Gettingintothe /it
houseisyourgoalorobjective).
we arentORre
Itriedclimbingthroughthe
not
window.(Climbingthroughthewindowisonething
youtriedinordertoobtainyourfinal they arentORre
objective.) not

Istoppedcleaningthewindows.(Iwas Questions
cleaningthewindowsandthenIstopped).
I
Istoppedtocleanthewindows.(Iwasdriving,
Am
andIstoppeddrivinginordertocleanthewindows). goingto verb(infinitiveform)?
Are you
Irememberedtolockthedoor.(I
remembered,andafterthatIlockedthedoor). Is he/she/it
Irememberlockingthedoor.(Iremember
Are we
(now)thatIlockedthedoor(inthepast)).
Are they

2)TheshortreplytoabegoingtoquestionisYes,I
BEGOINGTO am,Yes,sheisetc.Youcannotcontracttheseshort
sentences.
Use:
Yes,hes.=>Yes,heis.
Usebegoingtototalkaboutyourpersonalplansfor
thefuture. Theshortnegativerepliesare:
No,Imnot.
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No,yourenot/No,youarent. Form:
No,hesnot/Noheisnt.No,shesnot/Nosheisnt. 1)Canandcouldarethesameforallpersons.
No,itsnot/noitisnt. Ican/couldspeakEnglish
No,werenot/No,wearent. youcan/couldspeakEnglish
No,theyrenot/No,theyarent. he/she/itcan/couldspeakEnglish
wecan/couldspeakEnglish
Commonmistakes: theycan/couldspeakEnglish.

1)Somestudentsforgettoaddtheverbbebefore
2)Thenegativeformofcaniscannot,orcant.The
goingto.
negativeformofcouldiscouldnt.
Igoingtoseemyfriendstonight.=>Imgoingtosee
3)Thereisalwaysaverbaftercanandcould,andthe
myfriendstonight.
verbisalwaysintheinfinitiveform(withoutto).
2)Somestudentsforgettoinvertthesubjectandbein Sallycanhelpyou.NOTSallycanhelpsyou./Sally
questions. cantohelpyou.

4)Makequestionsbyinvertingcanandthesubject.
Whattimeyouaregoingtoleave?=>Whattimeare
Icanseeyouthisafternoon.=>CanIseeyou
yougoingtoleave?
thisafternoon?
Youcouldhelpme.=>Couldyouhelpme?

CAN/COULD 5)Usecan/cantandcould/couldntinshortanswers.
Canyourbrotherswim?=>Yes,hecan.No,
Use:
hecant.
1)Usecan/canttotalkaboutyourabilitiesnow.
Couldyoudothetest?=>Yes,Icould.No,I
IcanspeakEnglish.IcantspeakGerman.
couldnt.
Usecould/couldnttotalkaboutabilitiesinthe
Commonmistakes:
past.
1)Somestudentsmakequestionsincorrectly.
IcouldspeakFrenchwhenIwasachild,butIcan't
YoucanspeakEnglish?=>Canyouspeak
now.
English?
IcouldntspeakEnglishwhenIwasachild,butIcan
Icouldsithere?=>CouldIsithere?
now.

2)Usecanandcouldtomakerequests.Couldismore
polite. HAVETO
Canyoucookthiseveningplease?
Couldyoupassmethesalt? Use:
Usehavetototalkaboutsomethingyoumustdo.
Usecantoreplytorequests.
Ihavetostartworkateight.
CanIsithere?=>Yes,you
can.Sorry,youcant. Usedonthavetototalkaboutsomethingthatisnot
Canyoucookthiseveningplease?=>Yes, necessary.
Ican.Sorry,Icant. Youdonthavetoworktomorrow,its
Saturday.
DONTusecouldinrepliestorequests.
Couldyoulendmesomemoney? Form:
Yes,Icould.=>Yes,sure!Sorry,I Thepositive,negativeandquestionformsareshown
cant. inthetable.

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A2Grammartopics9

Form:
1)Donotuseasubjectwhengivingorders.
Positive
Youwashyourhands.=>Washyourhands.
haveto verb(infinitive
I,you,we,they form) Alwaysusetheinfinitiveformoftheverb,withoutto.
he/she/it hasto (go,sleep,work) Tositdownplease.=>Sitdownplease.

UseDonttomakethenegativeform.
Dontsitthere!
Negative
2)WritteninstructionsonsignsoftenuseDo
dont haveto verb(infinitive
not,notDont.
I,you,we, form)
Donotcrossthisline.
they (go,sleep,
he/she/itdoesnt work) 3)Whengivinginstructionstoafriend,youcan
softentheorderbyusingyou.However,thisis
usuallyonlydoneinspokenEnglish.
Question Firstyouputthemixtureintoabowl,and
thenyouaddtwoeggs.Thenyouwhiskit.
I,you,we, haveto verb ?
Do they (infinitive 4)SomewrittensignsuseMust/Mustnot.
form) Allvisitorsmustwearabadge.
Does he/she/it Passengersmustnottalktothedriver.
(go,sleep,
work) Noticehowpluralnouns(visitors/passengers)are

Commonmistakes generallyusedinsigns.

1)Somestudentsthinkthatdonthave Commonmistakes:

tomeansmustnot,butthisisnotcorrect. 1)SomestudentsusetoafterDont/Must

Youdonthavetouseyourmobilephonein Donttogointhatdoor.=>Dontgoin

class.Youmustntuseyourmobile thatdoor.

phoneinclass.

2)Somestudentsusehavent/hasnttomake PASTSIMPLE
negativesentencesandquestions.
Mysisterhasnttoworktoday.Mysister Use:
doesnthavetoworktoday. Usethepastsimpletotalkaboutfinishedeventsin
Haveyoutoleavenow?Doyouhavetoleave thepast.Useittotellstories,jokesandanecdotes.
now?
Form:
1)Manypasttenseverbsareformedbyadding
edtotheendoftheverb.
IMPERATIVEFORMS
want=>wanted

Use: start=>started

Usetheimperativeformtogiveinstructions,orders Ifaverbendsine,justaddd(liked,hoped).
andwarnings. Ifaverbendsiny,deleteyandaddied(studied,

Mustisoftenusedinsignsandnoticestogive carried).Butdontdothisiftheverbendsinavowel+

instructions. y(played,NOTplaied.stayed,NOTstaied)
A2Grammartopics
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A2Grammartopics10

Butalotofpasttenseverbsareirregular.Youneedto Notethedifferenceinmeaning:
learneachoneseparately.Herearesomeexamples.
WhenJamesgothome,Icookeddinner:Istarted
have=>hadmake=>made
cookingAFTERhegothome.
take=>tooksit=>sat
WhenJamesgothome,Iwascookingdinner:I
get=>gotfeel=>felt
startedcookingBEFOREhegothome.
Pastsimpleverbsarethesameforallpersons.
Form:
Iwent;youwent;hewent;shewent;theywent;we
Positive
went...
was
2)Formnegativesthisway:
I
verb+ing
I,you,he,she, didnt infinitiveverb You were
we,they... know,see,go
He/She/It was
Dontusethepastverbinnegativesentences.
We/They were
Ididnthaddinner.=>Ididnthavedinner.

3)Formquestionsthisway:
Negative
I,you,he,she, infinitiveverb
Did we,they... know,see,go wasnt
I
Commonmistakes: verb+ing
You werent
Somestudentsusethepastverbinquestions.
Didyousawthefilm?=>Didyouseethefilm? He/She/It wasnt

We/They werent

PASTCONTINUOUS

Use: Question

1)Usethepasttosetthesceneofastorybefore I
describingwhathappened. Was
verb+ing?
Itwasraining.Iwaswalkinginthepark.Somekids Were you
wereplayingfootballnearby.Suddenly
Was he/she/it
2)Usethepastcontinuoustotalkaboutanaction
Were we/they
whichhappenedforsometimeinthepastandwas
theninterrupted.Usethepastsimpletensetotalk
abouttheinterruption.
SpellingRules:
Iwascookingdinnerwhensuddenlytherewasa Ifaverbendsine,deletetheebeforeyouadding.
knockatthedoor. have=>Iwashavinglunch.

3)Usethepastcontinuoustotalkabouteventsthat Ifaverbendsinonevowelandoneconsonant,
wereinprogressatacertaintime. doubletheconsonant(exceptwandy).
get=>Hewasjustgettingup.
At5oclockyesterdayafternoon,Iwasdrivinghome
play=>Wewereplaying.
fromwork.

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A2Grammartopics11

Commonmistakes Are we/they


1)Somestudentsremembertheverbbebut

forgeting.
Iwaswatchtelevision.=>Iwaswatchingtelevision. SpellingRules:
2)Somestudentsmakespellingmistakes.
Ifaverbendsine,deletetheebeforeyouadding.
Iwasstuding.=>Iwasstudying.
come=>Imcoming.
Wewereeatting=>Wewereeating. have=>Heshavinglunch.

Commonmistakes
1)Somestudentsforgettheverbbe.
PRESENTCONTINUOUS
Iwatchingtelevision.=>Imwatching
television.
Use:
Shenotcoming.=>Shesnotcoming.
1)Usethepresentcontinuoustotalkabout
2)Somestudentsmakequestionsincorrectly.
actionswhicharehappeningnow.
Sheisworking?=>Issheworking?
Ellenishavingabathatthemoment.
3)Somestudentsmakespellingmistakes.
Rightnow,Markistalkingtohermanager.
Imstudinglaw.=>Imstudyinglaw.
Form:

PRESENTCONTINUOUSFOR
Positive
FUTURE
am/m
I Use:
verb+ing
You are/re Thepresentcontinuoustensehastwouses:
1)Useittodescribewhatishappeningatthe
He/She/It is/s
moment.
We/They are/re Wheresdad?
HeswatchingTVinthelivingroom.
Negative
2)Useittodescribeplansandarrangementsinthe
mnot future.
I Tomisarrivingonthethreeoclocktrain
verb+ing
You arent/renot tomorrow.

He/She/It isnt/snot Form:


Makethepresentcontinuousinthisway.
We/They arent/renot

Positive
Question
am/m verbing
I
I
Am are/re
verb+ing you/they/
Are you
we is/s
Is he/she/it
he/she/it

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A2Grammartopics12

Examples:Imgoing/Hesgoing/Weregoingto hasdied.
Spainnextweek. MichaelJacksonperformedinBritainmany
times.

NOT
Negative MichaelJacksonhasperformedinBritain
manytimes.
mnot verbing
I 3)Useittodescribeeventsthatstartedinthepast
arent/re
you/they/ andarestillhappeningnow.
not
we Ivelivedhereallmylife(andIliveherenow).
isnt/snot Johnhasworkedherefor10years(andhe
he/she/it
worksherenow).
Examples:Imnotgoing/Yourenotgoing/She
Neverrefertoafinishedtimewithapresentperfect
isntgoingtothemeeting.
verb.

Form:
Questions Makethepresentperfectinthisway.

you/they/ verbing?
Are we
Positive
Is
he/she/it
have/ve pastparticiple
Examples:Areyoucoming/IsJamescomingtothe I/you/they
has/s
party? /we
he/she/it
CommonMistakes:
1)Somestudentsusewilltotalkaboutfutureplans. Examples:Iveseenhim;theyvegone;shes
However,presentcontinuousisthecorrecttenseto takenmybag.
use.

IllvisitmycousininParisthisweekend.=>Im
visitingmycousininParisthisweekend. Negative

havent/ve pastparticiple
I/you/they not
PRESENTPERFECT /we
hasnt/s
he/she/it
Use: not
Thepresentperfectisusedforseveralreasons:
Examples:Ihaventseenhim;theyhaventgone
1)Useittodescribeeventsthathappenedinthepast
yet;shesnotbeenhere.
andarestilltruenowbecauseyoucanseetheresult.
Ivebrokenmyleg! Questions
Davidhaspaintedhishouse.
you/they pastparticiple?
2)Useittodescribeexperiencesinyourlife. Have /we
IvebeentoNewYorkthreetimesinmylife. Has
he/she/
However,youcannotusethepresentperfectto it
describeexperiencesinsomeoneslifeifthatperson

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A2Grammartopics13

Examples:Haveyouseenhim?Hasshetakenmy 2)Toformanegative,addnot/ntafterought.
bag? Yououghtnottodothat!
However,oughtisnotoftenusedinnegative
Commonmistakes:
sentences
1)Dontusethepresentperfecttorefertoafinished
time. 3)Toformquestions,invertoughtandthesubject.
Ivehurtmyarmyesterday.=>Ive Whattimeoughtwetoarrive?
hurtmyarm.
However,oughtisnotoftenusedinquestions.
JohnsbeentoNewYorklastmonth.=>Johns
beentoNewYork. Oughtisdifferenttoshouldbecause:
1)Oughtisalwaysfollowedbyto+averbinthe

infinitiveform.
SHOULDANDOUGHTTO Ioughtgo.=>Ioughttogo.

Use:
UseShouldandOughttogiveadvice.
WILL/WONT
Examples:Youshouldseeadoctor.
Yououghttofindanewjob. Use:
Form: Willandwontareusedtotalkaboutthe
Should future.Willispositiveandwontisnegative.
Shouldisamodalverb,likecanandwill,soitfollows Iwillbelatetomorrow.
thesamerules. JohnwontbeatthepartynextSaturday.
1)Donotaddstothethirdpersonsingular. Usewillandwontto:
Heshouldbuyanewcar.NOTHeshouldbuysa a)Makepredictions.
newcar. Intheyear2050,peoplewillliveunderthesea.
2)Toformanegative,addnot/ntaftershould. b)Makeanofferorpromise.
Youshouldntdothat! Illbuyyouadrink.
3)Toformquestions,invertshouldandthesubject. Johnwillhelpyouwiththatbox.
Whattimeshouldwearrive? c)Makeadecisionaboutthefutureatthesametime
4)Shouldisalwaysfollowedbyaverbin asyouspeak.
theinfinitiveform. Sorry,wedonthaveanytea.
Ishouldtogo.=>Ishouldgo. ThatsOK,Illhavecoffee.

5)Youcanalsouseshouldinthecontinuousform. Form:
Useshould+be+verbing. 1)Willisthesameforallpersons.
WhyareyouwatchingTV?Youshouldbeworking! Iwillgo,youwillgo,he/shewillgo,wewillgo,they
willgo.
Ought
Oughtisasemimodalverb.Itissimilartoshouldin 2)Alwayswriteaverbintheinfinitiveformafterwill.
someways: Youwillhappywhenyouhearthenews.=>You
willbehappywhenyouhearthenews.
1)Donotaddstothethirdpersonsingular.
Heoughtstobuyanewcar.=>Heoughttobuy 3)Youcancontractwilltollforpronouns.
anewcar. Illbuyit.Wellbelate.
Hellbelatehometoday.Theyllbedelighted.

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A2Grammartopics14

WhenwevisitGeoff,healways
Butdontcontractwillwithnames. cooksusaroastdinner.
Markllbelate.=>Markwillbelate.
Or

4)Towritequestions,writewillbeforethesubject. I presentsimple if I present


Willyoubuymeadrink? you when you simple
WillTomgetthejob? he unless he
she... she...
5)TheshortanswerforWillquestionsis:Yes,
I/you/he/she/he/they/wewill Examples:Youhavetobuyyourowndrinksifyou
No,I/you/he/she/he/they/wewont. flyonabudgetairline.
Donotcontractwillinshortanswers. Geoffalwayscooksusaroastdinner
whenwevisithim.
WillJohnbelate?
2.Youcanalsoformthezeroconditionalwith
Yes,hell.=>Yes,hewill.
theimperativeform.
Commonmistakes: Ifyouhaveamembershipcard,enter
throughthedoorontheleft.
1)Somestudentsforgettowritewillbeforethe
Enterthroughthedoorontheleftif
subjectinquestions.
youhaveamembershipcard.
Youwillbelate?=>Willyoubelate?
3.Youcanalsoformthezeroconditionalusinga
2)Manystudentsusewilltotalkabouttheirplans.
modalverb.
Butyoushouldusegoingtoorthepresent
Ifthealarmgoesoff,weshould
continuous.
leavethebuilding.
IwillmeetmyfriendsonFriday.=>Immeetingmy
Ifitsrainyandsunnyatthesame
friendsonSaturday.
time,youcanoftenseearainbow.
ImgoingtomeetmyfriendsonSaturday.
4.DifferenttensescanbeusedintheIf/When
(condition)clause.However,onlythepresentsimple,
amodalorimperativeformcanbeusedintheresult
ZEROCONDITIONAL clause.
Ifwevefinishedallourwork,wecan
Use:
leaveearly.
Thefirstconditionalstructureisusedtotalkabout
Ifpeoplearegettingenough
somethingwhichisalwaystrue.Italwayshappens,on
exercise,theyusuallyfeelbetteremotionallyaswellas
theconditionthatsomethingelsehappens.
physically.
Example:Ifitrainsalot,ourgardenfloods.

Form:
1.Makethefirstconditionalinthisway. WOULDLIKE/LIKE
If I present , I presentsimple
Use:
When you simple you
1)Wouldlikemeanswant,butitismorepolite.
Unless he he
Youcanuseitinsentencesandquestions.
she... she...
Idlikeabiscuit.
Examples:Ifyouflyonabudgetairline,youhave Wouldyoulikesometea?
tobuyyourowndrinks.

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A2Grammartopics15

2)Youcanalsouseittotalkaboutyourdreams Idlikeacupofcoffeeplease.
andambitions. Idliketoworkinachocolatefactory.
IdliketogotoJapan.

Iwouldntliketolivehere!

YoucanalsouseIdloveandIdhatetotalkabout
FIRSTCONDITIONAL
dreams.
Use:
Idhatetoliveinthecountryside.
Thefirstconditionalstructureisusedtotalkabout
IdlovetoworkwithSimon.
somethingwhichwillormayhappeninthefutureasa
Form: resultofsomethingelse.
1)Wouldlikeisthesameforallpersons. Example:Ifitrainstomorrow,Illstayathome.
Iwouldlikesometea.
Form:
Youwouldlikesometea.
Makethefirstconditionalinthisway.
He/she/Jameswouldlikesometea.
Wewouldlikesometea. If I present , I will/ verb
They/ourclientswouldlikesometea. When you simple you wont (infinitive
he he might/ form)
2)Tomakequestions,invertthe
she... she... might
subjectandwould.
not
Wouldyou/James/yourclientslikesometea?
Examples:IfIseeTom,Iwilltellhimthenews.
3)Usewouldnttomakethenegativeform.
Whenyouvisit,wemightgotothepark.
Iwouldntliketoworkthere.
Or
4)Wouldlikecanbefollowedbyanounorto+
verb. I will/ verb if I present
noun:Wouldyoulikeabiscuit? you wont (infinitive when you simple
verb:WouldyouliketogotoMalaysia? he might/ form) he
she... might she...
5)Inpositivesentences,youcancontractwould
not
tod.
IwouldliketogototheUSA.=>Idliketogo Examples:Shellbelateifshedoesnthurryup.
totheUSA. Youmightnotpassyourexamsifyouwatchtelevision
ButNOTinnegativesentences: allthetime.
Idntliketoworkinafactory.=>Iwouldntlike
CommonMistakes:
toworkinafactory.
1)Dontusewillormightdirectlyafterwillormight.
AndNOTinshortanswers:
IfIwillarrivefirst,Illmakelunch.=>IfI
Wouldyouliketohaveahorse?
arrivefirst,Illmakelunch.
Yes,Id.=>Yes,Iwould.
2)Alwaysuseaninfinitiveverbafterwillandmight.
6)Becarefulnottoconfusewould
Imighttogoouttonight,ifImnottootired.=>
likeandlike.
ImightgoouttonightifImnottootired.
Useliketotalkaboutthingsyoulikeallthetime.
Ilikechocolatecake.Itsmyfavouritefood.
Usewouldliketotalkaboutthingsyouwantnow,or

atsometimeinthefuture.

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A2Grammartopics16

INSEPARABLEPHRASALVERBS Ilookuptomyteachers.
lookforwardtosomething=beexcitedabout(a
Use: futureevent)
Phrasalverbsconsistofaverbandoneormore Imlookingforwardtotheparty.
prepositions.Theyareoftenused,especiallyin getonwithsomeone=begoodfriendswithsomeone
informalspokenEnglish.Themeaningofphrasalverbs IdontgetonwithKaren.
isoftencompletelydifferentfromthemeaningofthe getonwithsomething=continuedoingsomething
verbalone. Pleasebequietandgetonwithyourwork.
putupwithsomething=tolerate
Form:
Icantputupwiththatnoiseanylonger!
1)Somephrasalverbsneveruseanobject.
getup=getoutofbed
Igetupatsevenoclockeverymorning.
takeoff=leavetheground
SEPARABLEPHRASALVERBS
Theplanetookoffontime. Use:
lookout=beware!becareful! Separablephrasalverbsconsistoftwoparts.They
Lookout!Thatcarisgoingtohityou! alwaysrequireanobject.
Theyareoftenused,especiallyininformalspoken
geton=begoodfriends
English.Themeaningofphrasalverbsisoften
Mydadandmybrotherdontgeton. completelydifferentfromthemeaningoftheverb
breakdown=stopworking(forvehicles) alone.
OurcarbrokedownonthewayhomefromScotland. Form:
makeup=becomefriendsagainafteranargument 1)Theobjectofaphrasalverbcangoeitherbetween
Thekidsoftenfightbuttheyalwaysmakeup theverbandtheprepositionorafterthepreposition.
afterwards. Ihandedinmyhomework.
Ihandedmyhomeworkin.

2)Iftheobjectofthesentenceisapronoun,itmust
2)Somephrasalverbsneedanobject.
gobetweenthetwopartsofthephrasalverb.
geton/offsomething=exittransport
IhandeditinNOTIhandedinit.
Getoffthebusatthenextstop.
lookaftersomeone/something=takecareof Examples:
someone/something Somecommonseparablephrasalverbs:
Pleasecanyoulookafterourcatswhilewereon picksomeone/somethingup=collect
holiday? Pleasecanyoupickmeupfromthestation?
seetosomething=do,arrange,prepare,organise dropsomeone/somethingoff=takeandleave/
Dontworryaboutdinner.Illseetoit. deposit
lookintosomething=investigate IdroppedJohnoffoutsidehisschool.
Therehasbeenaburglaryattheschool.Policeare throwaway=discard
lookingintoit. Ithrewallmyoldschoolpapersaway.
getto=arriveat writedown=note
Whenyougettotheendofthestreet,turnright. IwroteSallysphonenumberdownonapieceof
paper.

makeup=invent
3)Somephrasalverbscontainthreewordsandan Henrylikestomakestoriesupaboutdinosaurs.
object. takeback=return
lookuptosomeone=respectsomeone Thisshirtistoosmall.Imgoingtotakeitbacktothe

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A2Grammartopics17

shop.
letdown=disappoint
Jamesstudiedhardbecausehedidntwanttolethis
parentsdown.
turndown=reject
Thecompanyofferedmeajob,butIturneditdown.
washup=wash(dishes)
Canyouwashyourplatesupplease?
takeoff=remove(clothes)
Pleasetakeoffyourshoesbeforeyoucomeinside.
puton=dressin(clothes)
Youllneedtoputacoaton.Itscold.
turnup/down=increase/decreasevolume/
temperature
Canyouturnthemusicdownplease?Itsveryloud.
tryon=wearandtest(clothes)
PleasecanItryonthesetrousers?
giveup=stopdoingsomething.
Shesmokesalot,butshewantstogiveitup.
takeup=startdoingsomething(anewhobby)
Ivedecidedtotakeuprunning.

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A2Grammartopics18

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