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John Kreisher

Student Airborne Research Program 2010

July 27, 2010
-  Mapping Evapotranspiration with Internalized Calibration
-  Conservation equations (momentum, energy, mass)
-  Advantage:
-  Calculates actual ET, not maximum or potential
-  Penman-Monteith equation finds reference ET, which is
multiplied by a crop coefficient to find potential ET for the crop
-  Disadvantage:
-  Summation of error
-  METRIC uses iterative solution to find the sensible heat flux
which absorbs error from the other terms
-  The fundamental equation for finding the energy used by
-  Net radiation
-  Latent energy
-  Soil heat flux
-  Sensible heat flux

Image from Allen, R.G. (2005)

-  Use the METRIC model to develop MATLAB program
-  Outlined by Allen, et al. (2007)
-  Map evapotranspiration for individual crop areas in the San
Joaquin Valley
-  Use the maps to evaluate crop stress and water use
-  Water-stressed crops
-  Irrigation schedules
-  Deficit irrigation strategies
-  Crop coefficients
Quantity Source Processor
Surface Temperature MASTER ENVI (Heather Sopher)
Albedo MASTER ENVI (Shawn Kefauver)
LAI MASTER Hemiview (Tennie Renkens)
Ground Data (air temp, CIMIS --
wind speed, vapor
1 mi
Image provided by Daniel Swain
mm h-1


Image from Shawn

*Penman-Monteith ET from CIMIS= 0.82 mm h-1

mm h-1

-  Calibrated data is necessary for accurate maps
-  Work done by teammates was crucial to the success of
the model
-  Developed program to find ET at each pixel of a
calibrated image
-  Good estimation for high-coverage crops
-  Obtained values for almond ET within 8% of the Penman-
Monteith potential
-  Almonds are not stressed, perhaps overwatering
-  Unmixing
-  Crop coefficients
-  Irrigation strategies
-  Detectability of METRIC
-  Shawn Kefauver, Susan Ustin, the ET group
-  Rick Shetter and NSERC
-  NASA Airborne Science Program
-  DC8 Crew
Allen, R. G., Tasumi, M., and Trezza, R. (2007). “Satellite-Based Energy Balance for Mapping
Evapotranspiration with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) – Model.” J. Irrig. Drain. Eng.,
ASCE, 380-394.

Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D., and Smith, M. (1998). “Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines
for computing crop water requirements.” United Nations FAO, Irrigation and Drainage, N.Y.,
Paper No. 56. <> (July 12, 2010).

Allen, R. G., et al. (2009). “An intercomparison of three remote sensing-based surface energy
balance algorithms over a corn and soybean production region (Iowa, U.S.) during
SMACEX.” Agriculture and Forest Meteorology, (149). 2082-2097.

Allen, R. G., et al. (1996). Chap. 4 “Evaporation and transpiration.” ASCE handbook of hydrology,
ASCE, New York, NY., 125–252.

Allen, R. G. (2005). “METRIC: High Resolution Satellite Quantification of Evapotranspiration.”

Presentation. Kimberly, University of Idaho, Id.

Venkatram, A. (1980). “Estimating the Monin-Obukhov Length in the Stable Boundary Layer
for Dispersion Calculations.” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, (19). 481-485.
-  Difference of all outgoing radiation from all incoming radiation
-  Shortwave radiation
-  SW = 0.4-1 μm range
-  Albedo
-  Bare Soil: 0.17
-  Coniferous forest: 0.08
-  Snow: 0.87
-  Longwave (terrestrial) radiation
-  Emissivity
-  Solar radiation: shortwave (SW) radiation from the sun
-  Principal source of energy for ET
-  SW = 0.4-1 μm range

-  Percentage of SW radiation reflected from surface is albedo

-  Bare Soil: 0.17
-  Coniferous forest: 0.08
-  Snow: 0.87
-  Terrestrial radiation: long wave radiation emitted from the Earth
and its atmosphere
-  Emissivity: ability of a surface to emit energy by radiation
-  Perfect emitter: Black body
-  Highly polished silver: 0.02
-  Radiation emitted in all directions, downward part is proportional
to air temperature, upward part is proportional to surface
-  Rate of heat storage in the soil, vegetation, and water
-  Dependent on surface temperature, albedo, and NDVI
-  Percentage of net radiation
-  Transport of energy related to difference in temperature between
two (or more) layers
-  Two unknowns and one equation → iterative solution
-  Monin-Obukhov length: height at which stability and mechanical
mixing are equal
-  Residual energy from the energy balance equation
-  Refers to amount of energy released or absorbed when a
substance undergoes a phase transition, in this case water to water
-  Latent energy is not ET, it is the energy used by ET
-  Latent heat of vaporization is the heat absorbed when one
kilogram of water is evaporated