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OISD 141

FOR RESTRICTED
CIRCULATION
No.

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

FOR

CROSS COUNTRY HYDROCARBON PIPELINES

OISD STANDARD 141


First Edition, April 1990

OIL INDUSTRY SAFETY DIRECTORATE


Government of India
Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas

1
OISD STANDARD - 141
First Edition
April 1990

FOR RESTRICTED
CIRCULATION
No.

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

FOR

CROSS COUNTRY HYDROCARBON PIPELINES

Prepared by

COMMITTEE ON
DESIGN AND INSPECTION OF
PIPELINES

OIL INDUSTRY SAFETY DIRECTORATE


2ND FLOOR, KAILASH
26, KASTURBA GANDHI MARG
NEW DELHI -110001

2
NOTE

OISD publications are prepared for use in the oil and gas
industry under Ministry of Petroleum & Chemicals. These are the
property of Ministry of Petroleum & Chemicals and shall not be
reproduced or copied and loaned or exhibited to others without
written consent from OISD.

Though every effort has been made to assure the accuracy and
reliability of the data contained in these documents. OISD hereby
expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage
resulting from their use.

These documents are intended to supplement rather than


replace their prevailing statutory requirements .

3
FOREWARD

The Oil Industry in India is 100 years old. Due to various


collaboration agreements, a variety of international codes, standards and
practices are in vogue. Standardisation in design philosophies and
operating and maintenance practices at a national level was hardly in
existence. This, coupled with feed back from some serious accidents that
occurred in the recent past in India and abroad, emphasised the need for
the industry to review the existing state of art in designing, operating and
maintaining oil and gas installations.

With this in view, the then Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas in
1986 constituted a Safety Council assisted by Oil Industry Safety
Directorate (OISD) staffed from within the industry in formulating and
implementing a serious of self regulatory measures aimed at removing
obsolescence, standardising and upgrading the existing standards to
ensure safer operations. Accordingly OISD constituted a number of
Functional Committees comprising of experts nominated from the industry
to draw up standards and guidelines on various subjects.

The present standard on Design and Construction Requirements


for Cross Country Hydrocarbon Pipelines was prepared by the Functional
Committee on Design and Inspection of Pipelines. This standard is
based on the accumulated knowledge and experience of industry
members and the various national and international codes and practices.
This standard is meant to be used as a supplement and not as a
replacement for existing codes and practices. It is hoped that the
provision of this standard if implemented objectively, may go a long way
to improve the safety and reduce accidents in the Oil and Gas Industry.
Users are cautioned that no standard can be a substitute for the
judgement of responsible and experienced engineer. Suggestions are
invited from the users after it is put into practice to improve the standard
further. Suggestions for amendments to this standard should be
addressed to the Coordinator, Committee on Inspection of Design and
Inspection of Pipelines, Oil Industry Safety Directorate, 2nd Floor, Kailash,
26, Kasturba Gandhi Marg, New Delhi-110 001.

This standard in no way supersedes the statutory regulations of


Chief Controller of Explosive (CCE), Factory Inspectorate or any other
Statutory body which must be followed as applicable.

4
COMMITTEE
ON
DESIGN AND INSPECTION OF PIPELINES

List of Members
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Name Designation & Position in
Organisation Committee
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Sh.V.T. Karode Chief Engr. (P/L), OIL Leader

2. Sh.R.A. Shanbhag GM (Proj), IOCL (P/L) Member/


Leader *

3. Sh.Rao Rudravajala COM, IOCL (P/L) Member

4. Sh.S.K. Goyal DGM, ONGC Member

5. Sh.C.N. Char CE (C & M), ONGC Member

6. Sh.E.M Bhumgara DGM, (T&P/L), HPCL Member

7. Sh.R.K. Mulla COM (P/L), HPCL Member

8. Sh.R.K. Dhadda Manager (P/L), EIL Member

9. Sh.G.V.S. Saiprasad Sr. Manager (P/L), GAIL Member

10. Sh.K.K. Dutta Dy.CE (P/L), OIL Member

11. Sh.R.K. Baruah SE (M), OIL Member

12. Sh.M. Bhandari Jt.Director, OISD Member


Co-Ordinator
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In addition to the above, several other experts from the industry contributed in the preparation,
review and finalisation of this document.

*(Took over as Leader w.e.f June/89 on Shri Karodes retirement from Oil India Ltd).

5
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
FOR
CROSS COUNTRY HYDROCARBON PIPELINES

CONTENTS

SECTION PAGE NO.

PART-I Liquid Petroleum Transportation Systems

1.0 Introduction, Scope and Definitions


2.0 Design
3.0 Materials
4.0 Dimensional Requirements
5.0 Construction, Welding and Assembly
6.0 Inspection and Testing
7.0 Operation and Maintenance Procedures
8.0 Corrosion Control
Appendix - A
Appendix - B

PART-II Gas Transportation Systems


9.0 Scope, General Provisions and Definitions
10.0 Materials and Equipment
11.0 Welding
12.0 Piping System Components and Fabrication Details
13.0 Design, Installation and Testing
14.0 Operating and Maintenance Procedures
15.0 Corrosion Control
16.0 Miscellaneous
Appendix - C

6
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
FOR
CROSS COUNTRY HYDROCARBON PIPELINES
PART-I
LIQUID PETROLEUM TRANSPORTATION
SYSTEMS

1.0 INTRODUCTION, SCOPE AND


DEFINITIONS (B 31.4-CHAPTER I) Note: For the design, material, construction,
assembly, inspection, testing and safety
aspects of operation and maintenance of
1.1 INTRODUCTION 'Submarine Pipeline Systems' the ' Rules For
Submarine Pipeline Systems', Det Norske
Safety in petroleum installations and Veritas (DNV) 1981 shall be followed as
pipelines comes through continuous efforts at guideline standard together with established
all stages and as such it can be ensured by industry practice. A 'Submarine Pipeline
observing that installations and pipelines are System' by definition (Ref. DNV) is 'an
designed, constructed and tested as per interconnected system of submarine pipelines,
recognised engineering standards and they are pipeline risers, their supports, all integrated
periodically inspected and maintained. piping components, the corrosion protection
system and weight coating'.
1.2 SCOPE
1.3 DEFINITIONS (400.2)
The minimum requirements for the design,
materials, construction, assembly, inspection, Following definitions are added:
testing and safety aspects of operation and
maintenance of piping transporting liquids such a) High vapour pressure (HVP) pipeline - A
as crude oil, condensate, natural gasoline, pipeline transporting hydrocarbons or
natural gas liquids, liquefied petroleum gas hydrocarbon mixtures in the liquid or
(LPG) and liquid petroleum products between quasi- liquid state with a vapour pressure
producers lease facilities, tank farms, natural in excess of 240 kPa (35psi) at 38 0C
gas processing plants, refineries, stations, (1000F).
terminals (marine, truck and rail) and other
delivery and receiving points shall be governed b) Low Vapour Pressure (LVP) pipeline - A
by American National Standard Code for pipeline transporting hydrocarbons or
Pressure Piping ASME/ANSI B 31.4 - 1986 hydrocarbon mixtures in the liquid or
Edition "Liquid Transportation Systems for quasi-liquid state with a vapour pressure
Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, of 240 kPa (35psi) or less at 380C (1000F).
Anhydrous, Ammonia and Alcohols" with the
following additions, exceptions and c) Multiphase fluids - Multiphase fluids means
modifications. All requirements contained in oil, gas or water in any combination
the code ASME/ANSI B 31.4 shall be fully valid produced from one or more oil wells or
unless cancelled, replaced or amended in this recombined oil well fluids that may have
standard. Only those clauses of Code been separated in passing through
ASME/ANSI B 31.4, which are cancelled, treatment/processing facilities. For the
replaced or amended, are referred herein. purpose of this standard, multiphase fluids
Clause numbers of Code ASME/ANSI B 31.4 are considered to be low vapour pressure
are included in the parenthesis. Whenever any fluids.
reference is made to the ASME/ANSI B 31.4s
undermentioned clauses in Code B 31.4 or in d) On shore - Areas not covered by 'Offshore'
any other code incorporated into ASME/ANSI B as defined in B 31.4 clause 400.2-
31.4 by reference, the undermentioned clauses Definitions is defined as 'Onshore'. The
of this standard shall be referred. definitions of 'Offshore' as per B 31.4 is
reproduced hereunder for easy reference:
For convenience 'ASME/ANSI Code B
31.4 herein after is referred' as 'B 31.4'. Offshore - Areas beyond the line of
ordinary high water, along that portion of
7
the coast that is in direct contact with the extend at least 200 meter from that
open seas and beyond the line marking facility.
the seaward limit of inland coastal
waters. 2.3.5 While classifying the Zone locations,
due consideration shall be given to the
e) Shall - The word 'Shall' is used to indicate possibility of future development of the
that the provision is mandatory. area. If at the time of planning a new
pipeline this future development
f) Should - The word 'Should' is used to appears likely to be sufficient to change
indicate that the provision is the zone location, this shall be taken
recommendatory as sound engineering into consideration.
practices.
2.4 ALLOWABLE STRESS VALUES (402.3.1)
2.0 DESIGN (B 31.4 - CHAPTER-II)
2.4.1 B 31.4 Clause 402.3.1 (a) is replaced by
2.1 DYNAMIC EFFECTS (401.5) the following clause:

The following paragraph is added: The allowable stress value S to be used for
design calculations in B 31.4 clause 404.1.2 for
Other Loadings: new pipe of known specification shall be
established as follows:
Unusual loadings such as those caused by
scour, erosion soil movement and slides, S = F X E X Specified Minimum Yield Strength
installation forces, vortex shedding and other of the pipe in psi (MPa)
phenomena shall be considered and provided
for in accordance with sound engineering where
practice.
F = Design factor in accordance with Table 2.4
2.2 WEIGHT EFFECTS (401.6) of this standard.

Live Loads (401.6.1) In setting design factor, due consideration has


been given to and allowance has been made
Weight of water during hydrostatic testing for underthickness tolerance and maximum
shall also be considered. allowable depth of imperfections provided for in
the specifications approved by B 31.4.
2.3 HVP PIPELINES - ZONE LOCATION
(ADDITIONAL CLAUSE) E = Weld joint factor (in accordance with
B 31.4 clause 402.4.3 and Table 402.4.3)
Zone locations as described in this clause shall
apply only to HVP pipelines. Table 2.4
-------------------------------------------------------------
2.3.1 A Zone 1 location is an area extending Pipeline Category F
200 metre on either side of the centreline -------------------------------------------------------------
of any continuous 1 km. length of LVP 0.72
pipeline that contains 5 or fewer dwelling HVP, Zone 1 0.72
units intended for human occupancy. HVP, Zone 2 0.576
'Offshore' shall be considered as Zone 1 -------------------------------------------------------------
location. Note: The allowable stress values given in
B 31.4 Table 402.3.1(a) shall not be valid
2.3.2 A Zone 2 location is an area as defined as the same shall stand modified for
in clause 2.3.1 above that contains more different values of design factor (F) given
than 5 dwelling units intended for human in Table 2.4 of this Standard.
occupancy, or is a facility that contains
20 or more persons during normal use.
2.4.2 B 31.4 clause 402.3.1(c) is replaced by
2.3.3 Each dwelling unit in a multiple dwelling the following clause:
unit building shall be counted as a
separate unit. The allowable stress value S to be used
for design calculations in B 31.4 clause 404.1.2
2.3.4 When a facility creates a Zone 2 location for new or used (reclaimed) pipe of unknown or
requirements, the Zone 2 area shall ASTM A120 specification shall be established

8
in accordance with the following and limitation
in B 31.4 clause 405.2.1(c). The minimum radius of field cold bends
shall be as follows:
S = F X E X Minimum yield strength of the pipe _____________________________________
in psi(MPa)[24,000 psi(165MPa) or yield Nominal Pipe size Minimum Radius of Bend
strength determined in accordance with in in Pipe Diameter
B 31.4 clause 437.6.6 & 437.6.7]. _____________________________________
NPS 12 and smaller 21D
Where NPS 14 u/i 18 30D
NPS 20 and larger 40D
F = Design factor determined from Table 2.4 of _____________________________________
this standard.
2.8 MITERED BENDS (406.2.2)
E = Weld joint factor (See Table 402.4.3 of
B 31.4). A mitered bend is not permitted with the
exception of deflections upto 3 degrees that are
2.5 CORROSION (402.4.1) caused by misalignment.

The clause is modified as under: 2.9 VALVES (407)

A corrosion allowance on the design wall B31.4 clause 407.1 (b) is cancelled and
thickness need not be made unless internal or replaced by the following:
external corrosion is expected, nor is an
allowance required where a corrosive fluid is to Valves having shell (body, bonnet, cover
be transported or soil conditions are conducive and/or end flanges) components made of case
to corrosion, or both, provided the pipe and iron or ductile iron shall not be used.
components are protected against corrosion in
accordance with the requirements and 2.10 THREADED JOINTS (414)
procedures prescribed in Chapter VIII of B
31.4. Following paragraph is added:

Where there is a possibility of internal Threaded joints shall not be used in


corrosion taking place, a corrosion allowance
should be made. Such corrosion allowance a) HVP pipelines
shall provide that the increase in wall thickness b) Buried Multiphase pipelines
is additional to the wall thickness requirement c) Offshore pipelines
for pressure. The allowance should be based
upon a specialist investigation of the corrosive 2.11 SLEEVE, COUPLED, AND OTHER
process involved and will also be influenced by PATENTED JOINTS (418)
the required life of the pipeline.
The following clause is added:
2.6 PRESSURE DESIGN OF COMPONENTS
(404) HVP Pipelines

Straight Pipe (404.1) Sleeve, coupled and patented joints shall not
be used on HVP Pipelines.
Following requirement is added to B 31.4
clause 404.1.1: 2.12 PROPERTIES (419.6)

The least nominal wall thickness (tn) for Stress Valves (419.6.4)
steel pipe, as indicated in B 31.4 clause
404.1.1 shall not be less than the dimensions Add the following para in B31.4 clause
indicated in the specifications for line pipe 419.6.4 (a) 'General'. Consideration shall be
approved by B 31.4. Further, pipe having a given to the use of lower allowable design
D/tn ratio greater than 150 shall not be used, stresses if there is the likelihood of repeated
where D = outside diameter of pipe. stress changes giving rise to fatigue conditions.

2.7 BENDS MADE FROM PIPE (406.2.1) 2.13 DESIGN OF PIPE SUPPORTING
ELEMENTS (421).
B 31.4 clauses 406.2.1 (b) and 406.2.1 (c)
are cancelled and replaced by following: Supports, Braces and Anchors (421.1)

9
2.13.1 Clause 421.1 (c) add as below: CE = C + Mn + Cr+Mo+V + Ni+Cu
6 5 15
Wherever non integral attachments,
such as pipe clamps and ring girders 3.2.2 Additional test requirements shall be
are used, adequate precautions shall specified as per Appendix-B of Part-I of
be taken to prevent corrosion at or near this standard for steel pipes
the contact points. manufactured by Electric Resistance
Welding and/or Electric Induction
2.13.2 Clause 421.1 (d) stands modified as welding.
under:
3.3 MATERIALS FOR SOUR MULTIPHASE
If a pipeline is designed to operate at SERVICE (ADDITIONAL CLAUSE)
stress level of more than 50% of the
specified minimum yield strength of the 3.3.1 Definition:
pipe, all connections welded to the pipe
shall be made to a separate cylindrical NACE Standard MR-OI-75 'Sulfide Stress
member which completely encircles the Corrosion Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials
pipe, and this encircling member shall for Oil Field Equipment defines limiting
be welded to the pipe by continuous concentrations on hydrogen sulphide in the
circumferential welds at both ends. fluid transported' for it to be considered as sour
service.
3.0 MATERIALS (B31.4 - CHAPTER-III)
Note: While past experience has indicated this
3.1 LIMITATIONS ON MATERIALS (423.2) to be the accepted minimum
concentration at which sulphide stress
Following clauses are added to B 31.4 clause corrosion cracking may occur, the
423.2.1 presence of other constituents in the
phases making up the multiphase fluid,
Notch Toughness Requirements (Additional such as carbon dioxide in the gas and
clause) salt in the water or larger amounts of
free water or gas, may cause problems
3.1.1 For steel pipe and associated steel to occur at lower concentrations of
components in LVP pipeline systems of hydrogen sulphide.
all sizes and in HVP pipeline systems
smaller than 2" NPS, no proven notch 3.3.2 General
toughness shall be mandatory.
In addition to these applicable
3.1.2 For steel pipe and associated steel requirements of B31.4 and this standard, all
components in HVP pipeline systems of materials used in sour multiphase service shall
2" NPS and larger, notch toughness meet the following requirements.
properties shall be specified based on
the design operating stress and the 3.3.2.1 Pipe, valve, fittings, flanges bolting and
lowest expected operating temperature. other equipment exposed to or which
are necessary to contain sour
3.1.3The lowest expected operating multiphase fluids may be susceptible
temperature shall be taken lowest stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen
expected operating or metal temperature induced stepwise cracking and thus
when the hoop stress exceeds 50 due consideration shall be given to
MPa(7000psi), having due regard to past material selection in design.
recorded temperature data, the minimum
fluid temperature that may occur, and the 3.3.2.2 Materials for sour multiphase service
effect of lower ambient temperatures in shall conform to the requirements of
the area. NACE Standard MR-01-75, 'Sulphide
Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistant
3.2 STEEL (423.2.3) Metallic Material for Oil Field
Equipment'. Depending upon the
Following clauses are added: service and the materials involved, the
Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking
3.2.1 Carbon Equivalent shall be calculated (SSCC) and Hydrogen Induced
based on the formula given below: Cracking(HIC) tests should be

10
conducted as per NACE standards but shall be transported to site for use only at
referred in Appendix A of this standard. the time of installation.
The acceptance criterias shall be based
on current established industry 5.3 DITCHING (434.6)
practice.
5.3.1 Following is added to B 31.4 clause 434.6
3.3.2.3 Pressure containing components (b)
(excluding pipe) intended for sour The width of trench shall be such that a
multiphase service shall be fully minimum clear distance of 200mm for
identified with a permanent marking. trench normal soil and 300mm for trench
in rock is maintained between edge of
3.3.3 Pipes made of cast iron, ductile iron, pipe and the trench wall at the bottom of
bronze and other copper based trench.
materials shall not be used in sour
multiphase service. 5.3.2 The following paragraph is added:

4.0 DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS Pipelines shall be buried below ground


(B31.4 - CHAPTER-IV) level, unless construction above ground
is found to be desirable for exceptional
All provisions of B 31.4 Chapter IV shall apply. technical, economic or topographical
reasons.
5.0 CONSTRUCTION, WELDING
AND ASSEMBLY (B31.4 5.3.3 Minimum cover for Buried Pipelines
[Table 434.6(a)]
CHAPTER-V)
B 31.4 Table 434.6(a) stands cancelled and is
5.1 LOCATION (434.3.1) replaced by Table 5.3.3 given below.
Following paragraph is added TABLE 5.3.3
Minimum Cover for Buried Pipelines
The location of a new underground ____________________________________
pipeline, when running parallel to an existing Location Minimum Cover in meter
underground pipeline, should be at a minimum ____________________________________
clear distance of 5.0 meter from the existing Industrial, Commercial 1.0 (2)
underground pipeline when heavy conventional and Residential Areas
construction equipment is excepted to be Stream, Canal and other minor 1.5 (3)
utilized. This distance may be reduced after water crossings
careful assessment of construction Drainage ditches at roadways 1.0
methodologies. Such that it does not result in and railroads
unsafe conditions during construction. In any Rocky Areas 1.0
case the minimum clear distance shall not be Uncased/Cased Road 1.2 (1)
less than 3.0 meter. These areas shall be Crossings
distinctly identified on ground during Railroad Crossings 1.4 (1)
construction. Other Areas 1.0
------------------------------------------------------------
No pipeline should be located within
15.0 meter of any private dwelling or any 1. Cover shall be measured from the top of
industrial building or place of public assembly road or top of rail, as the case may be.
in which persons work, congregate or
assemble, unless it is provided with at least 300 2. Minimum cover for pipelines transporting
mm of cover in addition to that provided in LPG and other HVP liquids shall be 1.2
Table 5.3.3 of this standard. meter of normal excavation in zone 2
areas.
5.2 HANDLING, HAULING, STRINGING
AND STORING (434.4) 3. In case of rivers/water bodie, which are
prone to scour and erosion, adequately
The following paragraph is added: safe cover (minimum 1.5 meter) shall be
Pipe shall not be strung along the right of provided below the predicted scour profile
way in rocky areas where blasting may be expected during the life time of the
required, until all blasting is complete and the pipeline.
area cleared of all debris. Material other than
line, pipe shall not be strung on the right of way
11
5.4 BENDS, MITERS AND ELBOWS In laying parallel pipelines in the same
(434.7) trench, the minimum clear distances between
the pipelines shall be 500mm.
Bends made from pipe (434.7.1)
5.6 SPECIAL CROSSINGS (434.13)
5.4.1 Clause 434.7.1 (d) is modified as
follows: 5.6.1 Water crossings (434.13.1)

The ends of each bent length shall be The following is added:


straight and not involved any way in the
bending. The length of the straight Special considerations shall be required
section shall permit easy jointing. for submerged crossing by pipelines of rivers
Tangents approximately 1 meter in which are characterized by their perennial
length shall be provided on both ends of nature, meandering course, steep and
cold bends. A field bend shall not be potentially erodable banks, potentially scouring
made within two pipe diameters of a bed, large erodable flood plain and wide water
field weld, which has already been course (high water mark to high water mark)
made. both during the design and installation of such
crossings.
5.4.2 Pipes with longitudinal welds shall be
bent in such a way that weld lies in the For river crossing such as those described
plane passing through neutral axis of the and established as above the following
bend which shall be installed positioning additional requirements are to be considered.
the longitudinal weld in the upper
quadrants. a) Hydrological and geotechnical surveys to
establish the river bed and water current
5.5 INSTALLATION OF PIPE IN THE profiles to predict the behaviour of the
DITCH (434.10) river with respect to change of course,
scour of bed and erosion of banks and to
The following paragraphs are added: obtain all other parameters related to
design and installation of such crossings.
Before lowering operations are
commercial particular attention shall be paid to b) The pipeline at such crossings shall be
the suitability of the trench to allow the pipeline installed with extra depth of cover. The
to be lowered without the coating being cover provided shall be adequate to
damaged and to give a reasonably even prevent exposure of the pipeline for the
support to the pipeline. entire design life of the pipeline.

When already coated pipes are being c) To ensure the stability of the underwater
lowered, a complete check of the pipe coating pipeline. It may be necessary to add
and field joint coating shall be carried out and weight to sink and hold the pipeline in
all damages repaired. position.

Wherever pipeline is laid under tension d) A heavier wall thickness pipe shall be
as a result of an assembly error(for example provided for the river crossing section.
incorrect positioning of bends, either horizontal
or vertical), the trench shall be rectified or in e) A detailed stress analysis for the pipe
exceptional cases a new assembly shall be section for river crossings should be
carried out so that it fits the excavation and the carried out, taking into consideration the
laying bed. effect of all loads during laying and it
shall be ensured that the stresses remain
Care must be taken that during laying, within permissible limits in accordance
the deformation caused during the raising of with B 31.4.
the pipe from the support does not exceed the
values for the minimum allowable radius of f) Whenever considered desirable, the
elastic curvature, so as to keep the stresses in section of the pipeline corresponding to
the steel pipe and on the coating within safe the river crossing should before
limits. installation be subjected to hydrostatic
pre-testing. However, the complete
pipeline corresponding to river crossing
shall be tested after installation.

12
be as close as possible to 90 but in no
5.6.2 Crossing of or by Utilities case less than 45.
(Additional Clause)
5.7 BLOCK AND ISOLATING VALVES
5.6.2.1 A minimum clearance of 300mm shall (434.15)
be maintained at the point of crossing
and the utility or pipeline shall be Following requirements are added for HVP
installed at a uniform depth for the full pipelines:
width of the right of way, provided that,
where it is not practicable to obtain the 5.7.1 Requirements of Mainline valves for
above mentioned clearance special piping systems transporting LPG as
design and construction shall be used. given in B 31.4 shall be fully applicable
to all piping systems transporting HVP
5.6.2.2 A clearance sufficiently large to avoid liquids.
electrical fault current interference shall
be maintained between the pipeline 5.7.2 Valves shall be installed outside cities,
and the grounding facilities of electrical towns and villages at the transition from
transmission lines. Zone 1 to Zone 2. In Zone 2 the
maximum spacing between valves shall
5.6.2.3 Interference with, or from, other not exceed 12 K.M.
systems through the application of
cathodic protection shall be dealt with 5.8 PUMP STATION, TANK FARM AND
by mutual action of the parties TERMINAL CONSTRUCTION (434.20)
involved.
5.8.1 Location (434.20.2)
5.6.2.4 When laid parallel to , along or near
underground power and/or The following paragraph is added:
communication cables, conductors or
conduit, underground pipes shall Minimum distances from property lines
maintain a horizontal clearance and road allowance limits to buildings and
between vertical planes through the equipment etc. shall meet the requirements of
adjacent external surfaces on the OISD Standard 118 "Layouts for Oil and Gas
pipelines and cables, conductors or Installations".
conduct, or structures of the
underground utility of at least 300 mm. 5.8.2 Pump Station, Tank Farm and
Where these clearances cannot be Terminal Piping (434.20.5)
maintained, extra precaution shall be
taken to ensure the maximum possible All HVP piping and components shall be
clearance and to prevent future designed to Zone 2 stress levels as defined in
contact. If pipelines and this standard.
communication and/or power utilities
share the same trench, the above 5.9 AND WORKING TANKAGE STORAGE
horizontal clearance shall be (434.21)
maintained with the pipeline preferably
at a lower level. Underground Storage (Additional Clause)

5.6.2.5 A minimum separation of 3.0 metre Prior to design and construction of an


should be maintained between pipeline underground storage chamber, an engineering
and transmission tower, footings, and geological investigation shall be carried out
ground cables and counter poise. to determine the feasibility of such a system at
Regardless of separation, consideration the proposal site. Such chambers shall be
should always be given to lightning constructed and operated in accordance with
fault current protection of pipelines and GPA Publication 8175, Method for Underground
safety of personnel. Storage of National Gas Liquids

5.6.3 All crossings shall be made in such a 5.10 ASSEMBLY OF PIPING COMPONENTS
manner that the angle between the (435)
centerline of the railway, highway, river,
stream, canal or utility being crossed Auxiliary Liquid/Petroleum or Liquid
and the centerline of the pipeline shall Anhydrous Ammonia Piping (435.5)

13
The requirements covered in this clause doses of corrosion inhibitors are added
B31.4 shall be fully applicable to HVP pipelines depending upon quality of water, shall be used.
also.
6.2.2 Test Pressure (437.4)
6.0 INSPECTION AND TESTING
(B31.4-CHAPTER-VI) Hydrostatic Testing of Internal Pressure
Piping (437.4.1)
6.1 TYPE AND EXTENT OF EXAMINATION Following amendment is made to B31.4
REQUIRED (436.5) clause 437.4.1(a). The duration of hydrostatic
proof test shall be minimum 24 hours.
Construction [436.5.1 (b)] Following requirement is added for HVP
pipelines.
The following paragraphs are added:
For Zone 2 HVP pipelines, the minimum
6.1.1 Field pipeline coating shall be applied pressure for hydrostatic proof test shall be 1.4
on a properly prepared surface and times the internal design pressure and the
visually inspected during application. minimum pressure for leak test shall be 1.1
Any cutting or removal of the coating times the internal design pressure.
shall be promptly and carefully
repaired. 6.2.3 Acceptance of Test (Additional
Clause)
6.1.2 Yard-coated pipe shall be examined
after field bending to ensure that the The test is successful when the pipeline
quality of the coating has not been has withstood the strength and leak tests and
impaired. during the test period there is no observable
drop in pressure that cannot be accounted for
6.1.3 Additional precautions such as double by temperature changes.
coating, rock shield, selected backfill,
and ditch padding shall be taken where 6.2.4 Termination of Testing (Additional
conditions are such that damage to the Clause)
pipe coating could occur.
6.1.4 If moisture is present on the surface of The pipeline shall be slowly
the pipe, no coating materials shall be depressurized at a moderate and constant rate.
applied. During dewatering, care shall be taken to
properly dispose the discharging water in order
6.1.5 Unless special procedures can be to avoid pollution, damages to fields under
taken, no coating shall be applied when cultivation and/or existing structures and
the ambient temperature might have a interference with the traffic.
detrimental effect on the coating either
during or after application. 6.2.5 Pre- tested Pipe (Additional Clause)
6.2 TESTING (437) Pipe used for making repairs shall be
pre-tested to a pressure equal to or greater
6.2.1 General (437.1) than the original pipeline strength test pressure.
The following paragraphs are added: 6.2.6 Preservation of Pipeline (Additional
Clause)
All sections which have been previously
hydrostatically tested viz. road/rail crossings If the pipeline is to be preserved for a
and river crossings shall be retested alongwith specified duration before it can be
the completed mainline sections. commissioned, the pipeline shall be completely
filled with water with sufficient quantities of
A gauging pig shall be passed through corrosion inhibitors depending upon the quality
the pipeline to prove the internal diameter of of water and the period of preservation and at a
the entire line. The gauging plate shall have a suitable pressure.
diameter of 95% of the internal diameter of the
pipeline. 6.3 COMMISSIONING ADDITONAL
CLAUSE)
When water is used as the test medium,
inhibited water, i.e. water to which suitable

14
6.3.1 Commissioning shall consist of
displacing the hydrostatic test water All joints, fittings, repairs and tie-ins
from the pipeline by pumping in the shall be coated with a material compatible
liquid to be transported. Batching pigs with the existing coating.
or spheres shall be used not only to
minimize mixing at the interface but also 8.2 CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM
to enable the progress of the interface to (461.1.3)
be followed.
The following paragraphs are added:
6.3.2 In cases where the water has to be
cleared from the pipeline before a) Existing Bare Pipelines Systems
commissioning because of possible
chemical or physical action between the Investigation shall be made to determine
water and the liquid to be transported, the extent or effect, of corrosion on existing
the pipeline shall be first drained and bare pipeline systems. When these
then dried as thoroughly as possible. investigations indicate that continuing
After drying, the pipeline shall be filled corrosion will create a hazard, corrosion
with the liquid. Care shall be taken to control measures or other remedial action
clear pockets of water from valves and shall be undertaken.
fittings.
b) Cathodically Protected Pipeline
6.4 RECORD (437.7) Systems Temporarily Out of service.

The following is added as an additional Cathodic Protection system shall be


requirement maintained on any pipeline that is
temporarily out of service.
Pipe Book
8.3 ELECTRICAL ISOLATION (461.1.4)
A pipe and welding book shall be
maintained for all projects. The purpose of the The following is added to clause 461.1.4 (b) of
pipe book shall be to indicate and maintain as a B 31.4
permanent record the exact position in the
pipeline of each pipe length and each pipeline Whereas such insulating devices are
material like valves, scraper traps, bends, installed, they shall be properly rated for
flanges, and other fittings installed in the temperature, pressure, electrical
project. Each item shall be recorded by its properties, and shall be resistant to the
identification number. Location of each weld commodity carried in the pipeline
including weld number, welder number, type of systems.
welding and electrode, weld treatment and
details of equipment used for radiography shall 8.4 TEMPORARY CATHODIC PROTECTION
be recorded in the pipe book. SYSTEM (ADDITIONAL EQUIREMENT)

7.0 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE When considered necessary a temporary


PROCEDURES (B31.4-CHAPTER- cathodic protection system with sacrificial
VII) anodes shall be installed to ensure adequate
protection of pipeline from external corrosion
All provisions of B 31.4-Chapter-VII shall apply. from the time the pipeline is laid in the trench
till the permanent cathodic protection system is
commissioned.
8.0 CORROSION CONTROL (B31.4-
CHAPTER-VIII) The temporary C.P system shall
preferably be installed simultaneously keeping
8.1 PROTECTIVE COATING (461.1.2) pace with the pipeline laying/installation work
and shall be monitored periodically.
a) The following is added to clause 461.1.2 (a)
of B 31.4: ANSI B31.4 APPENDIX-A
Coatings shall electrically isolate the The following is added to B31.4 Appendix-A
external surface of the piping system from
the environment. List of numbers and subjects of those
standards and specifications, which do not
b) The following paragraph is added:
15
appear in the text of B 31.4, but may be of
informational benefit. B.1 Reverse Bend Tests

DIN Reverse bend tests shall be performed


on the pipe piece cut from the crop end from
30670 Polyethylene Sheathing of Steel the front end of the first length and the back
Tubes and of Steel Shapes and end of the last length produced from each coil.
Fittings. The specimen shall be 100mm to 115mm long
and shall be reverse bend tested in accordance
30672 Corrosion Protection Tapes and Heat with procedure given below and Figure B.1.
Shrinkable Sleeves- Coatings made
from Corrosion Protection Tapes and
Heat Shrinkable Sleeves for
Underground Pipelines.
AWWA

C203-86 Standard for Coal-Tar Protective


Coatings and Linings for Steel Water
Pipelines-Enamel and Tap-Hot
Applied.
BSI

BS 4146 Specifications for Coal-Tar Based Hot


1987 Applied Coating Materials for protecting
iron and Steel, including suitable
Primers where required.
NACE

TM-01-77 Testing of Metals for Resistance to


Sulphide Stress Cracking at
Ambient Temperatures. a) Selection of Mandrel

TM-02-84 Testing of Metals for Resistance to The reverse bend test shall be carried out
Stepwise Cracking. with a mandrel, who radius(R), width(A) shall
be calculated for any combination of diameter,
Name and address of the organisation wall thickness and grade with the formula.
whose standards and specifications appear
above. A = 2R = 1.4 (D-t) t
------------- -t
DIN: Deutsches Institute for Normung e(D-2t)-1.4t
Obtainable from:
Foreign Standards Distribution where, D - Outside diameter of pipe
Beuth Verlag GmbH t- Wall thickness of pipe
Burggrafen Strasse 4-10 1.4 - Peaking factor
D-1000 BERLIN 30 e- Strain

BSI British Standards Institution Minimum values of 'e' shall be as follows:


2, Park Street, Grade of Steel Min 'e' value
London : WIA 2BS -------------------------------------------------------------
Telephone : 01-6299000 ASTM A53 B 0.1425
Telex : 266933 ASTM A 135 B 0.1425
API 5L B 0.1425
AWWA American Water Works Association API 5L X-42 0.1375
6666 West Quincy Avenue, API 5L X-46 0.1325
Denver, Colorado 80235 API 5L X-52 0.1275
-------------------------------------------------------------
APPENDIX - B (ADDED APPENDIX)
b) Procedure
ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR
ELECTRIC RESISTANCE/ELECTRIC The mandrel is to be plugged into the
INDUCTION WELDED LINE PIPE specimen, with the weld in contact with
16
mandrel, to such a depth that the angle of
engagement between mandrel and specimen A test specimen shall be taken across
reaches 600 (see Fig. B1). If the combination the longitudinal weld from one length of
of diameter and wall thickness of pipe, and finished pipe from each lot of maximum 50
radius of mandrel is such that the angle of lengths from the same heat manufactured from
engagement does not reach 60, the mandrel the same process.
shall be plugged into the specimen until
opposite walls of the specimen meet. These specimens shall be polished and
etched for micro-examinations. The
c) Acceptance Criteria examinations shall provide evidence that heat
treatment of weld zone is adequate and there is
A specimen which fractures completely prior no untempered martensite left.
to the specified engagement of mandrel and
specimen, or which reveals cracks and ruptures The Manufacturer shall make hardness
in the weld or heat affected zone longer than measurements on each specimen as indicated
4mm, shall be rejected. Cracks less than 6mm in Fig. B.2 in accordance with ASTM E-32.
long at the edges of the specimen shall not be The maximum difference in hardness between
cause for rejection. base material and any reading taken in the heat
affected zone shall be less than 80 points
B.2 Micrographic and Hardness Vicker's HV10.
Examination

17
18
PART-II
GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS
9.0 SCOPE, GENERAL 9.2 PIPING SYSTEMS DEFINITIONS
PROVISIONS AND (803)
DEFINITIONS General Terms (803.1)
9.1 SCOPE The following definition is added:
The minimum requirements for the On shore-Areas not covered by 'Offshore' as
design, fabrication, installation, inspection, defined in B 31.8 clause 803.17 is defined as
testing and safety aspects of operation and 'Onshore'. The definition of 'Offshore' as per B
maintenance of gas transmission and 31.8 is reproduced hereunder for easy
distribution systems including gas pipelines, reference:
gas compressor stations, gas metering and
regulation stations, gas mains and service 'Offshore-Areas beyond the line of ordinary
lines upto the outlet of the customer's meter high water, along that portion of the coast that
set assembly shall be governed by American is in direct contact with the open seas and
National Standard Code for Pressure Piping beyond the line marking the seaward limit of
ANSI/ASME B 31.8-1986 Edition "Gas inland coastal waters.'
Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems"
with the following additions, exceptions and 10.0 MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT
modifications. All requirements contained in
the Code ANSI/ ASME B 31.8 shall be fully (B 31.8 CHAPTER-I)
valid unless cancelled, replaced or amended
in this standard. Only those clauses of Code 10.1 MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT (810):
ANSI/ ASME B31.8 which was cancelled,
replaced or amended are referred herein. Following is added to Clause 810.1
Clause numbers of Code ANSI/ ASME B 31.8
are included in the parenthesis. Whenever When the maximum design
any reference is made to the ANSI/ASME B temperature exceeds 120 deg.C (250 deg. F),
31.8's undermentioned clauses in Code B 31.8 particular attention shall be given to the tensile
or in any other code incorporated into ANSI/ properties of the material to ensure that the
ASME B 31.8 by reference, the derating for temperature specified by Clause
undermentioned clauses of this standard shall 841.11 of B31.8 is adequate.
be referred.
10.2 Operating Conditions, Temperature
For convenience, "ANSI/ ASME Code B 31.8" and Notch Toughness
hereinafter is referred as 'B 31.8'. Requirements (Additional Clause):

NOTE : For the design, material, construction, 10.2.1 For steel pipes smaller than 2" NPS
assembly, inspection, testing and and steel valves, fittings and flanges
safety aspects of operation smaller than 2" NPS, proven notch
maintenance of 'Submarine Pipeline toughness properties are not
System' the 'Rules For Submarine mandatory.
Pipeline Systems' Det Norske Ventas
(DNV) 1981 shall be followed as 10.2.2 For steel pipes and associated steel
guideline standard together with components of size 2" NPS and
established industry practice. A larger, Notch toughness valves shall
'Submarine Pipeline System' by be determined to provide protection
definition (Ref. DNV) means 'an against fracture initiation and
interconnected system of submarine propagation. Notch toughness valves
pipelines, pipeline risers, their (minimum absorbed energy valves)
supports, all integrated piping shall be specified based on the design
components, the corrosion protection operating stress and the minimum
system and weight coating' design temperature.

19
10.2.3 The minimum and maximum design Note: While the limiting conditions defined in
temperatures shall be determined as NACE standard MR-01-75 for
follows: considering gaseous hydrocarbons as
sour is the normally accepted minimum
a) The minimum design temperature shall be concentration of hydrogen sulphide at
taken as the lowest expected operating which material problems occur, the
pipe or metal temperature when the hoop presence of other constituents in the
stress exceeds 50 MPa (7000 psi), having gas stream, such as CO 2 and Salts in
due regard to past recorded temperature water, may cause problems at occur at
data and the minimum gas temperature lower concentrations of hydrogen
that may occur. The minimum design sulphide.
temperature shall take into account the
effect of lower air or ground temperatures 10.4.2 General
in the area.
In addition to the applicable requirements of
b) The maximum design temperature shall B 31.8 and this standard, all materials used in
be taken as the highest expected sour gas service shall also meet the following
operating pipe or metal temperature, requirements.
having due regard to past recorded
temperature data and the possibilities of 10.4.2.1 Pipe, valves, fittings, flanges, bolting
higher temperatures occurring. and other equipment exposed to or
which are necessary to contain sour
10.3 MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS (813) gas may be susceptible to Sulphide
Stress corrosion cracking and
Following is added to B 31.8 clause 813.2 hydrogen induced step-wise cracking
and thus due consideration shall be
10.3.1 Carbon Equivalent given to material selection in design.

Carbon Equivalent shall be calculated based 10.4.2.2 All materials used in sour gas service
on the formula given below: shall conform to the material
requirements of NACE standard MR-
CE = C + Mn + Cr+Mo+V + Ni+Cu 01-75, "Sulphide Stress Corrosion
6 5 15 Cracking Resistant Metallic Material
10.3.2 If steel pipe is intended to be heated for Oil Field Equipment". Depending
during fabrication and/or installation, upon the service and the materials
the effect of the time-temperature involved, the Sulphide Stress
relationship on the mechanical Corrosion Cracking (SSCC) and
properties of the pipe shall be Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC)
determined and taken into tests should be conducted as per
consideration. NACE standards referred in
Appendix-C of this standard. The
10.3.3 Additional test requirements shall be acceptance criteria shall be based on
specified as per Appendix B of part I current established industry
of this standard for steel pipes practices.
manufactured by Electric Resistance
Welding and/or Electric Induction 10.4.2.3 Pressure containing components
Welding. (excluding pipes) intended for sour
gas service shall be fully identified
with a permanent marking.
10.4 REQUIREMENTS FOR SOUR GAS
SERVICE (ADDITIONAL CLAUSE) 10.4.2.4 Cast iron line pipe shall not be used
to convey sour gas.
10.4.1 Definition:

NACE standard MR-01-75 "Sulphide Stress 11.0 WELDING (B 31.8-CHAPTER-II)


Corrosion Cracking Resistant Metallic Material
for Oil Field Equipment" defines specific Carbon equivalent (CE) wherever referred in
conditions, which a gaseous hydrocarbon shall this chapter, shall be calculated based on the
be considered to be sour. following formula:

20
CE = C + Mn + Cr+Mo+V + Ni+Cu size. Unless such movements are
6 5 15 restrained by suitable anchors, the
necessary flexibility shall be
12.0 PIPING SYSTEM COMPONENTS provided.
AND FABRICATION DETAILS
(B31.8 CHAPTER-III) 12.2.2.2 Means of providing Flexibility

12.1 VALVES AND PRESSURE If expansion is not absorbed by


REDUCING DEVICES (831.1) direct axial compression of the pipe,
flexibility shall be provided by the
B 31.8 Clause 831.11(b) and(c) are cancelled use of bends, loops, or offsets or
and replaced by the following: provision shall be made to absorb
thermal strains by expansion joints
Valves having shell (body, bonnet, cover or couplings of the slip joint, ball
and/or end flanges) components made of cast joint, or bellows type. If expansion
iron or ductile iron shall not be used in gas joints are used, anchors or ties of
piping systems. sufficient strength and rigidity shall
be installed to provide for end
Note:- Manufacturing standards for cast iron forces due to fluid pressure and
valves viz. MSS-SP-70, MSS-SP-71 other causes.
and MSS-SP-78 referred in B 31.8
clause 833.11 (a) stand cancelled. 12.3 COMBINED STRESS
CALCULATIONS (833)
12.2 EXPANSION AND FLEXIBILITY (832)
B 31.4 clauses 833.1, 833.2, 833.3, and 833.4
12.2.1 B 31.8 Clause 832.1 stands cancelled stand cancelled and are replaced by the
and is replaced by the following: following:

"This section is applicable to both above 12.3.1 General


ground and buried piping and covers all
classes of materials permitted by this In addition to satisfying the requirements of
standard. Formal calculations shall be clause 841 of B 31.4, it may be necessary to
required where reasonable doubt exists as to calculate the longitudinal, axial, and bending
the adequate flexibility of the piping". stresses, the torsional stresses, the hoop
stresses, the stress interactions and the
Note : For the purpose of this standard, reactions at significant points in the system.
'unrestrained' means that the pipe is In calculating these stresses and reactions and
able to strain along its length, move the effects of various loadings on the piping
laterally, or both. Pipe that does not the designer shall use established
meet both of the above requirements fundamental analysis methods.
is referred to as 'restrained'. Typically,
long straight lengths of buried pipe 12.3.2 Loading Considerations
and above ground pipe on closely
spaced rigid supports are classified as 12.3.2.1 Consideration shall be given to the
restrained, whereas buried pipelines stresses and reactions caused by,
adjacent to bends or unanchored end but not necessarily limited to the
caps could be regarded as restrained following loadings.
or unrestrained, depending on specific
circumstances. (a) Internal pressure;

12.2.2 Following clauses are added to B 31.8 (b) Thermal expansion and contraction;
Section 832 "EXPANSION AND
FLEXIBILITY" (c) Differential support movements;

12.2.2.1 Expansion calculations are (d) Self-weight and gravity dead loads;
necessary for buried lines if
significant temperature changes are (e) Static wind loads and static fluid loads. ]
expected. Thermal expansion of
buried lines may cause movement 12.3.2.2 In addition to the requirements of
at points where the line terminates, Clause 12.3.2.1 above, consideration
changes in direction, or changes in shall be given, where applicable, to

21
the service conditions to which the
pipe and support system are to be T2 = Maximum or minimum operating
subjected. Consideration shall also temperature degrees F(degrees C)
be given to, but not necessarily
limited to the effects of the following E = Modulus of Elasticity of steel, psi (MPa)
additional loadings:
a = Linear coefficient of thermal expansion,
(a) Overburden loads; inch per inch per degree F (mm per
mm per degree C)
(b) Live loads;
v = Poisson's ratio = 0.30 for steel
(c) Buoyancy;
Note that the net longitudinal stress becomes
(d) Dynamic and seismic loads; compressive for moderate increases of T2 and
that according to the commonly used
(e) Cyclic and vibratory loads including the maximum shear theory of failure, this
effect of Stress Intensification. Factors on compressive stress adds directly to the hoop
the fatigue life of components); stress to increase the equivalent tensile stress
available to cause yielding. This equivalent
(f) Internal pressure fluctuations; tensile stress shall not be allowed to exceed
90 per cent of the specified minimum yield
(g) External hydrostatic pressure (including strength of the pipe, calculated for nominal
collapse, wave loadings and all significant pipe wall thickness. Beam bending stresses
fluid loads to which a submerged line shall be included in the longitudinal stress for
might be submitted); those portions of the restrained line which are
supposed above ground.
(h) Geotechnical loads (including slides,
differential settlement, loss of support, 12.3.3.3 Unrestrained Lines:
and thermal effect of the pipeline on soil
properties). Stresses due to expansion for those portions
on the piping without substantial axial restrain
12.3.3 Stress Values shall be combined in accordance with the
following equation:
12.3.3.1 General:
SE = Sq. Root of (Sb2 + St2 )
There are fundamental differences in loading
conditions for the buried, or similarly Where,
restrained positions of the piping and the
above ground portions not subject to SE = Stress due to expansion.
substantial axial restraint. Therefore, different
limits on allowable longitudinal expansion Sb = Sq. Root of{ ( i 1 M1)2 + ( i0 M0)2}/Z
stresses are necessary.
= equivalent bending stress, psi (MPa)
12.3.3.2 Restrained Lines:
St = Mt/2Z = torsional stress, psi(MPa)
The net longitudinal compressive stress due
to the combined effects of temperature rise M1 = Bending moment in plane of member (for
and fluid pressure shall be computed from the members having significant orientation,
equation: such as elbows or tees, for the latter
SL = Ea (T2-T1) - v Sh the moments in the header and branch
portions are to be considered
in which, separately) in.lb. (N.m)

SL = The longitudinal compressive stress, M0 = bending moment out of, or transverse,to


psi(MPa) plane of member, in lb. (N.m)

Sh = Hoop stress due to internal fluid pressure, Mt = torsional moment, in lb. (N.m)
psi (MPa)
ii = stress intensification factor under
T1 = Temperature at time of installation bending in plane of member (B 31.8
degrees F(degrees C) Appendix E)

22
Due consideration shall be given to the
io = stress intensification factor under effect of such attachments on possible fatigue
belonging out of, or transverse to, failures and local stress concentrations.
plane of member (B 31.8 Appendix E)
12.5 PRE-OPERATIONAL STRESSES
Z = section modulus of pipe, inch 3(mm 3) (ADDITIONAL CLAUSE)

The maximum computed expansion stress It is desirable to limit stresses during pre-
range, SE without regard for fluid pressure operational manipulation of the pipe so as to
stress, based on 100 per cent of the avoid damage that might impair the operability
expansion, with modulus of elasticity for the of the line. The designer shall ensure that pre-
cold condition, shall not exceed 0.72 times the operational stresses are controlled and that
specified minimum yield strength of the pipe. they are non-injurious to the pipe.
Consideration shall be given to, but not
The total of the following shall not exceed restricted to, the effect of the following pre-
the specified minimum yield strength, S. operational loads:

a) the combined stress due to expansion, SE. a) Transportation and stockpiling of the pipe;

b) the longitudinal pressure stress. b) Stringing, coating and wrapping, and


laying.;
c) the longitudinal bending stress due to
external loads, such as weight of pipe and c) Backfilling;
contents, wind etc.
d) Loads imparted by construction traffic;
The sum of the longitudinal stresses due to
pressure, weight, and other sustained external e) Field bending;
loadings shall not exceed 0.75 time the
allowable stress in the hot condition (ref. B f) hydrostatic test pressure loads
31.8 clause 841.11, (SXFXT) (particularly when the pipeline is
constructed as an above grade installation
The sum of the longitudinal stresses produced or is buried in unstable soils).
by pressure, live and dead loads, and those
produced by occasional loads, such as wind or 13.0 DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND
earthquake, shall not exceed 80 per cent of TESTING (B 31.8 CHAPTER-IV)
the specified minimum yield strength of the
pipe. It is not necessary to consider wind and 13.1 GENERAL PROVISIONS (840.1)
earthquake as occurring concurrently.
The following clause is added to B 31.8 clause
Stresses due to test conditions are not subject 840.1 (a):
to the above limitations. It is not necessary to
consider other occasional loads, such as wind The selection of design for pipeline system
and earthquake, as occurring concurrently with shall be based on the following evaluation of
the live, dead and test loads existing at the the properties and required flow rate of the
time of test. fluid to be transported, together with the
environment in which the pipeline is to be
12.3.4 Following correction is made in B 31.8 installed.
clause 833.5
a) Sweet or sour natural gas, single or
R' = CsR when Cs is between 0.6 to 1.0 multiphase flow conditions, vapour phase
LPG.
12.4 SUPPORTS AND ANCHORAGE FOR
EXPOSED PIPING (834) b) Operating pressures and temperatures.

Attachment of supports on Anchors (834.5) c) Gathering system, transmission system,


distribution system, or service lines;
The following sentence is added to B 31.8
clause 834.5 (b) d) Onshore or offshore pipeline.

13.2 POPULATION DENSITY INDEX


(840.2)
23
Other areas 1.0 (2)
The following is added to B 31.8 Clause
840.2 (b) (4) Class 4 Locations. (1) The above mentioned minimum cover
requirements shall be valid for all class
A Class 4 location ends 220 metre from the locations.
nearest building with 4 or more stories above
ground. (2) Minimum depth of cover shall be
measured from the top of pipe coating to
13.3 STEEL PIPE DESIGN FORMULA the top of undisturbed surface of the soil,
(841.11) or top of graded working strip, whichever
is lower. Fill material in working strip shall
The following is added to B 31.8 clause not be considered to add to the depth of
841.11: cover.

Corrosion Allowance: (3) Cover shall be measured from the top of


road or top of rail, as the case may be.
A corrosion allowance on the design wall
thickness need not be made unless internal or (4) In case of rivers/water bodies, which are
external corrosion is expected, nor is an prone to scour and erosion, adequate safe
allowance required where a corrosive fluid is cover (minimum 1.5 metre) shall be
to be transported or soil conditions are provided below the predicted scour profile
conducive to corrosion, or both provided the expected during the life time of the
pipe and components are protected against pipeline.
corrosion in accordance with the requirements
and procedures prescribed in Chapter VI of B
31.8 13.5 CLEARANCE BETWEEN PIPELINES
OR MAINS AND OTHER
Where there is a possibility of internal UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES
corrosion taking place, a corrosion allowance (841.143)
should be made. Such corrosion allowance
shall provide that the increase in wall Following clauses are added to B 31.8 clause
thickness is additional to the wall thickness 841.143
requirement for pressure. The allowance
should be based upon a specialist 13.5.1 In laying parallel pipelines in the same
investigation of the corrosive process involved trench, the minimum clear distances
and will also be influenced by the required life between the pipelines shall be
in the pipeline. 500mm.

13.4 COVER REQUIREMENTS FOR 13.5.2 The location of a new underground


PIPELINES (841.142) pipeline, when running parallel to an
existing underground pipeline should
Table for cover requirement for pipeline in B be at a minimum clear distance of 5.0
31.8 Clause 841.142 stands cancelled and is metre from the existing underground
replaced by the following: pipeline when heavy conventional
------------------------------------------------------------- construction equipment is expected to
Location Minimum cover in be utilized. This distance may be
meter reduced after a careful assessment of
------------------------------------------------------------- construction methodologies, which do
Industrial, Commercial and 1.0 (2) not result in unsafe conditions during
Residential Areas construction. In any case the
minimum clear distance shall not be
Drainage ditch, Canal, Nala, 1.5 less than 3.0 meter. These areas shall
small, rivers and other minor be distinctly identified on ground
water crossings during construction.

Drainage ditches at roadways 1.0 No pipeline should be located within


& railroads 15.0 metre of any private dwelling, or
any industrial building or a place of
Rocky areas 1.0 (2) public assembly in which persons
Uncased/Cased road crossings 1.2 (3) work, congregate or assemble, unless
Railroad crossings 1.4 (3) it is provided with atleast 300 mm of
24
cover in addition to that provided in has already been made. Tangent
clause 13.4 of this standard. lengths should not be reduced in the
field.
13.6 CASING, REQUIREMENTS UNDER
RAILROADS, HIGHWAYS, ROADS, 13.8.2.2 Pipes with longitudinal welds shall be
OR STREETS (841.144) bent in such a way lies in the plane
passing through neutral axis of the
Following is added to B 31.8 Clause 841.144: bend which shall be installed
positioning the longitudinal weld in
Pipeline, casing pipe and vent pipes the upper quadrants.
shall be at least 1.2 metre away (vertically)
from aerial electrical wires and shall be 13.8.3 B 31.8 Clause 841.232 is cancelled
suitably insulated from underground conduits and replaced by the following:
carrying electric wires on railway land.
A mitered bend is not permitted with
13.7 FOLLOWING IS ADDED TO B 31.8 the exception of deflections upto 3
CLAUSE 841.15: degrees that are caused by
misalignment.
Design and construction of gas pipelines
crossing Railroads, Highways, Roads or 13.8.4 The following sentence is added to B
Streets shall be done in accordance with the 31.8 Clause 841.233.
provisions of "Recommended Practice for
Liquid Petroleum Pipelines Crossing Railroads Field-cut segments of elbows NPS 12"
and Highways" API RP 1102 and applicable and larger are not recommended.
clauses of B31.8 and this standard.
13.9 MISCELLANEOUS OPERATIONS
13.8 BENDS, ELBOWS AND MITERS IN INVOLVED IN THE INSTALLATION
STEEL PIPELINES AND MAINS OF STEEL PIPELINES AND MAINS
(841.23) (841.25)

13.8.1 B 31.8 Clause 841.231 (b) and 13.9.1 Handling, Hauling, and Stringing
841.231(c) are canceled and replaced by the (841.251)
following :
The following paragraph is added:
The minimum radius of field cold bends shall
be as follows: Pipe shall not be strung on the Right-of-Way
in rocky areas where blasting may be
required, until all blasting is complete and the
area cleared of all debris. Material other than
_____________________________________ line pipe shall not be strung on the Right-of-
Normal Pipe Size Minimum Radius of way but shall be transported to site for use
in Bending in Pipe only at the time of installation.
Diameters
_____________________________________
NPS 12 and smaller 21 D 13.9.2 Installation of Pipe in the Ditch
NPS 14 u/i 18 30 D (841.252)
NPS 20 and larger 40 D
_____________________________________ The following paragraphs are added:

13.8.2 Following clauses are added to B Pipelines shall be buried below ground
31.8 clause 841.231. level, unless construction above ground is
found to be desirable for exceptional
13.8.2.1 The ends of each bent length shall technical, economic or topographical reasons.
be straight and not involved anyway
in the bending. The length of the Before lowering operations are commenced,
straight section shall permit easy particular attention shall be paid to the
jointing. Tangents approximately 1 suitability of the trench to allow the pipeline to
metre in length shall be provided on be lowered without the coating being damaged
both ends of cold bends. A field and to give a reasonably even support to the
bend shall not be made within two pipeline.
pipe diameters of a field weld, which

25
When already coated pipes are being necessary to add weight to sink and
lowered, a complete check of the pipe coating hold the pipeline in position.
and field joint coating shall be carried out and
all damages repaired. (d) A heavier wall thickness pipe shall be
provided for a river crossing section.
Wherever pipeline is laid under tension as a
result of an assembly error (for example, (e) A detailed stress analysis for the pipe
incorrect positioning of bends, either section for river crossings should be
horizontal or vertical), the trench shall be necessary taking into consideration
rectified or in exceptional cases a new the effect of all loads during laying
assembly shall be carried out so that it fits the and it shall be ensured that the
excavation and the laying bed. stresses remain within permissible
limits in accordance with B 31.8 and
Care must be taken that the deformation this standard.
caused during the raising of the pipe from the
supports does not exceed the valves for the (f) Whenever considered desirable, the
minimum allowable radius of elastic curvature, section of the pipeline corresponding
so as to keep the stresses on the steel pipe to the river crossing should, before
and on the coating within safe limits. installation, be subjected to
hydrostatic pretesting. However, the
The width of trench shall be such that a complete pipeline corresponding to
minimum clear distance of 200mm for trench river crossing shall be tested after
in normal soil and 300mm for trench in rock is installation.
maintained between edge of pipe and the
trench wall at the bottom of trench. 13.11 CROSSING OF OR BY UTILITIES
(ADDITIONAL CLAUSE)
13.10 WATER CROSSINGS (ADDITIONAL
CLAUSE) 13.11.1 A minimum clearance of 300mm shall
be maintained at the point of crossing
Special considerations shall be required for and the utility or pipeline shall be
submerged crossing by pipelines of rivers installed at a uniform depth for the full
which are characterized by their perennial width of the right-of-way, provided
nature, meandering course, steep and that, where it is not practicable to
potentially erodable banks, potentially obtain the above mentioned
scouring bed, large erodable flood plain and clearance, special design and
wide water course (high water mark to high construction shall be used.
water mark) both during the design and 13.11.2 A clearance sufficiently large to avoid
installation of such crossings: electrical fault current interference
shall be maintained between the
For river crossings such as those described pipeline and the grounding facilities of
and established as above, the following electrical transmission lines.
requirements are to be considered:
13.11.3 Interference with, or from, other
(a) Hydrological and geotechnical surveys systems through the application of
to establish the river bed and water Cathodic Protection shall be dealt with
current profiles, to predict the by mutual action of the parties
behaviour of the river with respect to involved.
change of course, scour of bed and
erosion of banks and to obtain all 13.11.4 When laid parallel to along or near
other parameters related to design underground power and/or
and installation of such crossings. communication cables, conductors, or
conduit, underground pipes shall,
(b) The pipeline at such crossings shall maintain a horizontal clearance
be installed with extra depth of cover. between vertical planes through the
The cover provided shall be adequate adjacent external surfaces of the
to prevent exposure of the pipeline for pipelines and cables, conductors, or
the entire design life of the pipeline. conduit, or structures, of the
underground utility, of at least 300mm.
(c) To ensure the stability of the Where these clearances cannot be
underwater pipeline, it may be maintained, extra precaution shall be
taken to ensure the maximum

26
possible clearance and to prevent
future contact. If pipelines and For all buried and submerged piping, the
communication and/or power utilities test pressure shall be maintained for a period
share the same trench the above of 24 hours after temperature stabilization and
horizontal clearance shall be stabilization of surges from pressurizing
maintained with the pipeline operations. The test pressure for above
preferably at a lower level. ground piping and offshore platform piping
shall be maintained for a minimum period of 4
13.11.5 A minimum separation of 3.0 metre hours, during which time the piping shall be
should be maintained between inspected for leaks.
pipeline and transmission tower
footings, ground cables and counter All sections, which have been previously
poise. Regardless of separation hydrostatically tested viz. road/rail crossings
consideration should always be given and river crossings, shall be retested along
to lightning fault current protection of with the completed mainline sections.
pipelines and safety of personnel.
A guaging pig shall be passed through the
13.11 6 All crossings shall be made in such a pipeline to prove the internal diameter of the
manner that the angle between the entire line, the guaging plate having a
centerline of the railway, highway, diameter of 95% of the internal diameter of
river, stream, canal or utility being the pipeline.
crossed and the centreline of the
pipeline shall be as close as possible When water is used as the test medium,
to 90 deg. but in no case less than 45 inhibited water, i.e. water to which suitable
deg. doses of corrosion inhibitors are added
depending upon quality of water, shall be
13.12 TESTING AFTER CONSTRUCTION used.
(841.3)
13.12.2.2 B 31.8 Clause 841.322 (a) and
13.12.1 General Provisions (841.31) 814.322 (b) stand cancelled and
are replaced by the following:
B 31.8 Clause 841.31 stands modified as
follows: Pipelines and mains located in class 1 and
class 2 location shall be tested with air, gas or
a) All Pipelines, mains, and service lines water to at least 1.25 times the maximum
shall be tested in place after operating pressure. Testing, wherever
construction, except as provided for in practicable, shall be by means of water rather
(b) below. than a gaseous medium. Where a gaseous
medium is used, the test pressure shall not
b) Tie-ins exceed 1.25 times the maximum operating
pressure. Sour gas shall not be used as a test
For pipelines intended to operate at medium.
hoop stresses of 30% or more of the
specified minimum yield strength 13.12.2.3 Following is added to B 31.8 clause
pretested pipe shall be used in tie-in 841.322 (c):
sections and for those sections where
in-place testing is not practicable. Compressor station, regulator station and
measuring station gas piping, including the
13.12.2 Test Required to Prove Strength of piping connecting the station to valving
Pipelines and Mains to Operate at employed for isolating the station from the
Hoop Stresses of 30% or More of the pipeline and designed in accordance with
Specified Minimum Yield Strength of Type-C construction (Design factor = 0.5) shall
the Pipe (841.32) be tested to atleast class 3 location test
requirements.
13.12.2.1 The following paragraphs are added
to B 31.8 Clause 841.321 13.12.2.4 Following is added to B 31.8 clause
841.322 (d):
All test assemblies used in testing shall be
fabricated and installed in accordance with Where testing of offshore platform gas piping
provisions of B 31.8 covering permanent and pipe riser cannot be accomplished
assemblies and fabrications. separately from the main offshore pipeline, the

27
piping components shall be pretested to Mains to Operate at Hoop
atleast 1.4 times the maximum operating Stresses of 30% or More of the
pressure, provided that all final welds are Specified Minimum Yield
inspected in accordance with the provisions of Strength of the Pipe' stands
B 31.8 and all such piping is retested with the cancelled and is replaced by Table
main offshore pipeline to class 1 location test 13.12.2.5 of this standard.
requirements.

13.12.2.5 B 31.8 Table 841.322 (e) 'Test


Requirements for Pipelines and

(1) For exceptions, see B 31.8 clause


GENERAL NOTES: 841.322 (d)

mop = Maximum operating pressure (not (2) For definition of terms S, D, t, E and see B
necessarily the maximum allowable 31.8 clause 841.11 (a).
operating pressure)
dp = design pressure 13.12.2.6 B 31.8 Clause 841.323 (c) is
tp = test pressure cancelled and is replaced by the
following:

This table brings out the relationship between In such cases an air test to 1.25 times the
test pressures and maximum allowable maximum operating pressure shall be made
operating pressures subsequent to the test. If and the limitations on operating pressure
an operating company decides that the imposed by Table 13.12.2.5 of this standard do
maximum operating pressure will be less than not apply.
the design pressure, a corresponding
reduction in prescribed test pressure may be 13.12.2.7 Records (841.327)
made as indicated in the pressure Test
Prescribed, Minimum, column. However, if B 31.8 Clause 841.327 is cancelled and is
this reduced test pressure is used, the replaced by the following:
Maximum operating pressure cannot later be
raised to design pressure without retesting the The operating company shall maintain in its
line to the test pressure prescribed in the file for the useful life of each pipeline and
Pressure Test Prescribed. Maximum, main, records showing the procedures used
column. See B 31.8 clause 805.214, 845.213 and the data developed in establishing its
and 845.214. maximum allowable operating pressure.

The record shall contain at least the


NOTE: following information:

28
(a) Time and data of Test;
Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure for
(b) Pipe Specifications of sections under test; Steel or Plastic Pipelines or Mains (845.213)
Consistent with Table 13.12.2.5 of this
(c) Elevation profile and the location of the standard the following exception is made to B
test section and testing points, if 31.8 Clause 845.213(b):
applicable;
For determination of maximum allowable
(d) Testing medium used; operating pressure (for steel lines) based on
test pressure column no. 5 of Table 13.12.2.5
(e) Test pressure at lowest elevation; of this standard shall be referred to.

(f) Test duration; 13.14 VALVES(846)

(g) Pressure and temperature recording Location of valves (846.2)


charts, if applicable;
Transmission Valves (846.21)
(h) Pressure-Volume chart, if applicable;
(i) Location of leaks or failures and The following clause is added:
description of repair action taken.
Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of
13.12.2.8 Acceptance of Test (Additional this clause, sectionalizing block valves
Clause) equipped with automatic closing devices
should be provided for sour gas pipelines in
The test is successful when the pipeline has order to minimize the volume of hydrogen
withstood the strength test, and during the test sulphide that could be released in the event of
period there is no observable drop in pressure a pipeline failure.
that cannot be accounted for by temperature
changes. 13.15 PIPE BOOK (ADDITIONAL CLAUSE)

13.12.3 Termination of Testing (Additional A pipe and welding book shall be maintained
Clause) for all projects. The purpose of the pipe book
shall be to indicate and maintain as a
The pipeline shall be slowly permanent record the exact position in the
depressurized at a moderate and constant pipeline of each pipe length and each pipeline
rate. During dewatering, care shall be taken material like valves, scraper traps, bends, and
to properly dispose the discharging water in flanges and other fittings installed in the
order to avoid pollution, damages to fields project. Each item shall be recorded by its
under cultivation and/or existing structures identification number. Location of each weld
and interference with the traffic. including weld number, welder number, type of
welding and electrode, weld treatment and the
13.12.4 Pre-tested Pipe (Additional Clause) details of used equipment for radiography
shall be recorded in the pipe book.
Pipe used for making repairs shall be pre-
tested to a pressure equal to or greater than 14.0 OPERATING AND
the original pipeline strength test pressure. MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
(B 31.8 - CHAPTER-V)
13.12.5 Preservation of Pipeline (Additional
Clause) All provisions of B 31.8 Chapter V shall apply.
If the pipeline is to be preserved for a
15.0 CORROSION CONTROL (B
specified duration before it can be
commissioned, the pipeline shall be 31.8 CHAPTER-VI)
completely filled with water with sufficient
quantities of corrosion inhibitors, depending 15.1 COATING REQUIREMENTS (862.112)
upon the quality of water and the period of
preservation, or with a non-flammable, non- The following clause is added to B 31.8
toxic gas and at a suitable pressure. clause 862.112 (b)

13.13 CONTROL AND LIMITING OF GAS Coatings shall:


PRESSURE (845)

29
a) Electrically isolate the external surface of 15.3 ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS AND
the pipeline system from the environment; MONITORING POINTS (862.115)

b) Have sufficient adhesion to effectively 15.3.1 The following paragraph is added to B


resist underfilm migration of moisture; 31.8 Clause 862.115 (b)(1):

c) Be ductile to resist cracking; Where a higher current carrying capacity is


required, a multistrand conductor shall be
d) Have a strength or otherwise be protected used and the strands shall be arranged into
to resist damage due to normal groups no larger than No.6 AWG. Each group
handling (including concrete coating shall be attached to pipe with a separate
application, or river weight charge. Attaching test leads directly to the
installation, where applicable) and soil pipe by other methods of brazing is prohibited.
stress; 15.3.2 The following paragraph is added:

e) Be compatible with cathodic protection When a thermit welding process is used for
system. electrical lead installation on pressurized
pipelines, precautions shall be taken to avoid
15.2 ELECTRICAL ISOLATION (862.114) possible failure of the pipeline during
installation due to loss of material strength at
The following clauses are added: the elevated welding temperatures. Where a
thermit welding process is not deemed
a) This clause shall not take precedence suitable. Consideration shall be given to other
over recognized electrical safety practices methods of installation.
and codes.
b) Where insulating devices are installed to 15.4 ELECTRICAL INTERFERENCE
provide electrical isolation of pipeline (862.116)
systems to facilitate the application of
corrosion control, they shall be properly Following is added to B 31.8 Clause 862.116
rated for temperature, pressure, and Electrical Interference-Alternating Current and
electrical properties, and shall be resistant Lighting.
to the commodities carried in the pipeline
systems. These devices shall not be 15.4.1 Fault Current Interference
installed in enclosed areas where
combustible atmospheres are likely to be Fault current interference shall be taken
present unless precautions are taken to into consideration.
prevent arcing. (After refer Clause 15.4 of
this standard) NOTES:

c) Pipeline system shall be installed so that a) Fault current resulting from lighting or
the belowgrade or submerged portions are upset conditions of electrical facilities
not in electrical contact with any casing, could result in serious damage to
foreign piping systems or other metallic coating and pipe wall and danger to
structures. This shall not preclude the use personnel. These adverse effects may
of electrical bonds where necessary. occur where a pipeline is close to the
grounding facilities of electrical
d) Provision shall be made to prevent transmission line structures, sub-
harmful galvanic action at below-grade or stations, generating stations or other
submerged connections between copper facilities that have high short circuit
and steel piping. current-carrying grounding networks.

Consideration should be given to: b) Where a buried pipeline system is close


i) Installing an insulated coupling or to grounding facilities, remedial
insulating gasket set between the copper measures may be necessary to control
and steel, or the effect of these fault currents in order
to reduce the resultant rise in potential
ii) Protecting the piping with an insulating gradient in the earth near the pipeline
coating material to provide a spatial system to an acceptable level.
separation of not less than 0.5m between
bare copper and steel. 15.4.2 Induced Potential Interference

30
Pipelines paralleling alternating current Cathodic Protection systems shall be
electrical transmission lines are subject to maintained on any pipeline system temporarily
induced potentials as well as the effects out of service.
mentioned in Notes to Clause 15.4.1 above.
15.6 TEMPORARY CATHODIC
a) When studies or tests show that PROTECTION SYSTEM
alternating current potentials will be or (ADDITIONAL CLAUSE)
are being induced on a buried pipeline
system, devices shall be installed to When considered necessary, a temporary
reduce these potentials to a tolerable Cathodic Protection system with sacrificial
level. anodes shall be installed to ensure adequate
protection of pipeline from external corrosion
b) When such pipelines are under from the time the pipeline is laid in the trench
construction, or when personnel are in till the permanent Cathodic Protection system
contact with the pipelines, special is commissioned.
precautions shall be taken to nullify the
possible effects of induced alternating The temporary cathodic protection system
current potentials. shall preferably be installed simultaneously
keeping pace with the pipeline
15.4.3 Safety Requirements laying/installation work and shall be monitored
periodically.
Following precautions shall be taken:

a) Employ blowdown connections that will


direct the gas away from the electric 15.7 INTERNAL CORROSION CONTROL
conductors; (863) General (863.1)

b) Install bonding across points where the B 31.8 Clause 863.1 is deleted and is replaced
pipeline is to be separated and maintain by the following:
this connection while the pipeline is
separated; 15.7.1 Any gas whose water dew point is at all
times below the minimum pipeline
c) Make a study in collaboration with the operating temperature is considered to
electric company on the common be non-corrosive, unless tests or
problems of personnel safety, corrosion, experience indicate otherwise.
electrical interference and lighting
problems. 15.7.2 Any gas whose water dew point
exceeds the minimum pipeline
15.5 EXISTING INSTALLATIONS (862.2) operating temperature is considered to
be corrosive, unless tests or
The following clauses are added: experience indicate otherwise.

15.5.1 Existing Coated Pipeline Systems 15.7.3 Any gas containing hydrogen sulphide
or carbon dioxide whose water dew
Cathodic Protection shall be applied and point exceeds the minimum pipeline
maintained on all existing coated pipeline operating temperature is considered to
systems. be corrosive, unless tests or
experience indicate otherwise.
15.5.2 Existing Bare Pipeline Systems.
15.7.4 Any gas containing hydroten sulphide
Investigations shall be made to determine or carbon dioxide whose water dew
the extent or effect of corrosion on existing point is maintained below the
bare pipeline systems. Where these minimum pipeline operating
investigations indicate that continuing temperature by dehydration, or is
corrosion will create a hazard, corrosion suitably inhibited, is considered to be
control measures or other remedial action non-corrosive, unless tests or
shall be undertaken. experience indicate otherwise.

15.5.3 Cathodically Protected Pipeline 16.0 MISCELLANEOUS (B31.8


Systems Temporarily out of Service CHAPTER-VII)

31
All provisions of B 31.8 Chapter VII shall
apply. AWWA
C203-86 Standard for Coal-Tar Protective
ANSI B 31.8 APPENDIX-C Coatings and Linings for Steel Water
Pipelines-Enamel and Tape-Hot
List of numbers and subjects of those Applied.
standards and specifications which do not
appear in the text of B 31.8 but may be of TM-02-84 Testing of Metals for Resistance to
informational benefit. Stepwise Cracking.

Following is added to B 31.8 Appendix-C Name and address of the organisation whose
standards and specifications appear above:
DIN
30670 Polyethylene Sheathing of Steel DIN Deutsches Institute fur Normung
Tubes and of Steel Shapes and Obtainable from:
Fittings. Foreign Standards Distribution
Burggrafen Strasse 4-10,D-1000
30672 Corrosion Protection Tapes and Heat BERLIN 30
Shrinkable Sleeves-Coatings made
from Corrosion Protection Taps and BSI British Standards Institution
Heat Shrinkable Sleeves for 2, Park Street,
Underground Pipelines. London: WIA 2BS
Telephone : 01-6299000
Telex : 266933

BSI AWWA American Water Works Association


BS-4146Specifications for Coal-Tar BasedHot 6666,West Quincy Avenue,
1987 Denver, Colorado 80235.
Applied Coating Materials for
protecting Iron and Steel, including
suitable Primers where required.

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