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MARIME MECHANIC AL PLANS 5

Maripc Mechamcal P!ants at operatlop Jeye!.

1. Use of appropriate too!s to rnakc parts


and marjpe reoair.

1. produce marine repair maitenancc operations tht:rc mut selected,


completed in all sizes and kept in operational readiness the following main
techa.nical tools: horn wrenches, sprockets, socket wrenches, hexahedral and
torque wrenchcs, air driven. pneumatic nut wrenclles, files, scrapers, chisels.
\:;.IJIO cllisels, hammers and sledge hammers, taps, thread chasers, driUs, metal
sa\VS, r cores and others.
2. AlJ the tools have to meet safety precautions requirements and to kept in
1l1e proper order as \vell as ready to used.
3. h number oftools must sufficient to carry out any repair maitenance
\vorks.
4. When ordering the tools one sbould follow the corresponding catalogues
(for example, ISSA) and order the mos1 modem and effective tools (cutting
and grinding disks with electric and pneumatic macllines, pneumatic and electric
hack saws, scrall saws, various appliances for raising effectiveness and quality
uf \YOrks).

5. COCTOIIIIC ft KOMIICKTIIOCI> IIIICTp)'MCHTU,


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MARINE MECHANICL PLNTS 7
5. Statc and completencss of tools avai l aic for general usage are controllcd
l1y the 1vatch mechanic and passed \Vatch.

Turner 's Tools

1. ln ordcr to make 81Jd repair various parts aboard it is ncccssary to lvc


.:omplctc sct of n1mer 's tools depending 011 the machine equipmcnt in thc ship
m.:chanical 1vorkshop.
2. inimal set of tun1er's tools (cuttcrs of al types- cutting-of tools, oring
o:tJttcrs, douie-iaded cutters. face-and-side CtJtters, gcar C\1\lers, turner 's taps,
1l1rcad cl1ascrs, drills :d othcrs) allo1vs 10 carry out significant number of
ltln1cr-milling 1vorks C\'Cil ifthere are only l:1tl1e and drilling machine in tl1c
1vorkshop.
3. One should order the tumcr's tools catalogues ISSA 1vithout allo\l'ing
1l:: macllines to left 1vithout the necessary tumer's tools.
4. Tumer and Second mechanic responsie for the state and cornplcteness
ol tl1c tun1cr 's tools.

ppliances and Spccial Tools

1. \Vhile building the vessel, thc rnain cngine, auxilia.ry diescl gcncrators, standby
<lic~el generator, steam boiler, the principal mechanisms, appliances and systcms
; providcd \Vith special arrangements and tools for mech.anical dismantling,
.:pa ir and assemiing.
:!. List ofspecial appliaccs and tools is usually given in tl1e specifications of'
r:facturcr. Slrt dcscription witl1 illustratios explaining tl1e order of usage
ol ppli ances d tools is given hcrc, too.
3. t the preparation bcfore \VOrk v.ith any mechanis or its bundle first of
all it is nccessary to undcrstand the spccifications of manufacturer what
aprliances and special ttls must used. and ho\v they arc uscd. Usage of
appliaces and spcci<lllools in large degree simplifies fulfilment of \vork and
<111 is tl1c only possiie way to fulfil \\'Ork.
4. DL1ri11g exploitation and rcpair of i eq uipmct. as rule, appliances
:1r1tl tools made thc pcrsonnel are bcig invcntcd.. llese tools checked
<"( periencc, should uscd at 'vorks \vith marine equipment and they arc kept
ir1 1l1e samc way as mnufactu rer's tools.
5. Tl1e main appliances for repair of the main engine and auxiliary diesel
~;encrator the ollowing:
- lor d ismatlig d mo1tig the cylidcr cover;
- lor dismatling and mouting main, crak and crosshead carings;
for dismantling and mounting piston and cyLinder liner;
- for removing the piston ring kit;
8

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MARINE MECANICAL PLANTS 9
- for repairig inlet and disc\1argc cxhaust valves;
- for dismantling starting valve and injcctor;
- for fitting-in po\verful egine discharge valves;
- for dismantling and asscmiing the mai11 fuels pump;
- for fittig-in cylindercovcr surfaccs., thc cylinder lier and the cngine lock;
- for installing thc piston \Vith rings into the cylinder lier;
- for dismatling tJ1e gears of the camshaft drive and connected mechan.isms
and othcrs.

6. The ni appl i~ces for repairig auxiliary mechanisms and elcctric motors
arc spccial tools and rcmovcrs of di11crcnt structures and sizcs for dismantling
bearings and ventilator impellers, centrifugal pump runners as Vo'CIJ as semi
joints of elcctric motor shalls and mcchanisms.

7. Appliances babblting bering lincr ofinternal combustion cngine.

) hand babiting
There are several applianccs for hand babiting. Thc simplest one is an
appliance for vertical babblting ofbearing lier. The babiting process means
ot' this appliancc is thc following.
- Aller tinning tJ1c brass surfaces th~: bcaring halves are tigened with special
clips. Stecl l1ollow or whole rods are uscd as cores.
- Beforc babblting t.he core must hcatcd to the temperaturc of 150-200
while the tined brass must heated to 250-270.
- Babbitig is produccd at one go \vit\1 continuous spray. The spray should
~s short and thick as possiie.
- Poking oftl1e babblt is prodced in tl1e largc babblted bearings means of
heated sfccl stick in the process of solidi fying and setting the babblt.
- bearing babblted must have the smoothe silvery surfacc.
- Cut brass castings \vith the help hack saw aller cooling and saw sides.

) Cen(fifual babbiting ofearings


High quality ofbabblt Jayer and its good adl1esion to tl1e earing d is achieved
in the proccss of ccntri fugal babblring of' bcaring saving up to 50% babblt.
The processes of cen.trifugal babbltit1g are ilie following.
- Prcparing the backing- pickling, degreasing, servicing are carried out in the
same manncr as at hand babiting.
- Aller finislling the process of tinning brasses prepared for babblting are
installed in spcci:~llathe.
10 .

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500 1500 . ( ~III
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k = 1700+1900- /UI ,
r- mJ! D, .

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MRINE MECANICL PLANTS 11

- ccrtin portion of meltcd babblt is poured into bcaring prcviously hcatcd


11 10 the temperature of 60 and rotating at the speed of 500/1500 revolutions
f1\: minl.c.: (depending upon tl1c carig diameter).
Tl1c number ofthe bering rcvo lutions is defined t:1e torrnula:
k
n= -
fr
\Vhcre k = 1400+1800 for stannitcrous babblts,
k = 1700+1900 for lcad babbits,
- earing orifice radius.
- B:~bblt falling on the rotatig surfacc of bearig covcrs it with snother
tl1ick layer under the influencc of centrifugal forces.
- ficr r. of liquid metal from the signal orifice brass is cooled
1111ing 2-3 mi rncans of\\ater dust in thc air spray and then during 5-7 min
'' means of air spray.
- f1cr stopping air delivery beari g rotates 10-15 min more for strengtl1ening
tl1c.: \)abblt Jayer.
- At thc ccntrifugal babbiting mcclnical processing al\o,vancc is t more
tl ~; 2-3 mm.

. Appliances for tming :md n 'vork of bcarir.g backjng jn intcmal


\bu~t ion engines.
ficr rcbabblting brasses odcrgo rncchaical reprocessing which consists
ol scvcral operations. out thcsc opcrations there is numcr of
appliances, due 10 \vhich tcchnological process ofbrass matcblng and treatmcnt
arc lulfi\1cd:
- appliaces for rernoving tl1e bcaring brass defom:atios lcfl afler their
l1abbiting; due to tlJis appliancc dctormatibn of 1,5-2 mm is rcmovcd.
- controllig plate 'vitl1 dial indicator of having magnetic lcg.
- lor cl1ecking brass surface5 ljoiing ud thc q1rality of lheir scraping.
- spccial clips for tigl1tcniog ol' tl1e brass llvcs for boring at tl1e boring lathc.
lillsc bcds and false covers of tl1e frme bearings to matcl1 bering shanks.
- fblse nccks, framc d crank oncs, for matc!Jig the frame and crank brasses
'vitl1 paint allo\\'ace on thc neck.

9. 8 [l iar1ces for crak necks grinding of the internl combustjon engine


~ .! kshaft.
Tl1e most \vay of tl1e crank-shaft ncck restoration is t111: corrcction
ol' gcortlctrical fom1 of tl1e becaLtsc of diameter decreasc up to repair size!;.
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MARINE IL PLANT$ 13

Reprocessing necks according to the repair sizes is usua\Jy carried out


means of grinding necks at the lathes with the subsequent polishing.
Gnnding necks of the crankshafi at the 1athe is produced with thc hclp of
specinl clip \\1hich consists of the connecting clamps tightened mean~ of
hinged oJt.
Thc 1ast operation of neck reprocessing ls polishing carried out had on
the spccial lathe. Polishing 111d is produced means of \VOoden prcsscs.
At the present time there are spccia l appliances for rcprocessing framc and
crank crankshaft necks of 1argc cngiocs " 'ithout dismantling the crankshaft,
directly io the crankcase. These works arc made specia1ists of the propc:r
qualification the specia1 manul'acturer tcchnology and the agreemcnt \vith
an iru.pector of classification socicty.

1. Prcparatjon to the work of soccjaltools and applianccs.


t Lhe preparation to the repair prophylactic works \Vitll any mecl1anisms UllC
sho11ld:
- sdy 1he construction peculiari ties of this mechanism tbe man\tfacturer
instructions
- srudy the techno1ogy ofdisn1<111tlitlg, rerair, assemi ing tht: nufncturcr
instructions with the \tse of applianccs
- definc what appliace:; necessary for producing works and prcpre
thern.

2. C h aracte r jstics and res trictjons [ materja!s used jn buHdjng od


repajr of shios and eoyjpm ent.
ln the period of the ship e'ploitation one may meet the proems of the
necessary material choice \Yhtle rcpairing the marine cquipment and thc lll
structures. select materia ls propcrly is half of the matter. The kno"lcdgc of
\Yhat materials parts and structurc arc mu<Je would help in solving p3ctical
prob lcms.
vesscl is complex engioeering construction at the buildi11g ofwl1icl1 va.iotJS
matcrial$ such as stec ls, cast irons, non-fcrrous metals, interlaying materials,
plastics, composition materiaJs and othes.
Next section is dcvoted to the usagc of some of these matcrials,

Thc IISagc of steels


1. Carbon steels are mainly used for building the bulls of surface vessels for
intemal cruise and formaking less amportaotthe hull srrucrures such as plarfornns.
inncr-ottom platings d others.
14

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Rr .
ARINE MECANICAL PLANTS IS

2. Plate low-alloy stecl is used for strong structures of sea going vessels
( l'raming. extemal deck plankjng).
3. Sheet low-alloy steel is used for making the superslrUcture bulkheads,
cl1imney unnel jackets, fan pipes and others. Latlrings small foundations are
madc of bars.
4. lloy structural stecl is deli vered as shape castings, forged pieces, rolled
slcel for making parts and marine e.quipmcnt, fittings and marine system pipes,
~lrt lines, head rudders and others.
5. Stainless steel is used in various marks, for example:
cl1romiun1 steel- is used making pans of mechanisms subjected to strong
wc.ar.
chromium nickel steel - is used for making fittings and parts working under
lriction conditions witl1 large load.
higl1-alloy chromium nickel aluminium- is used for making rudders, propellcr
~lfl strut stem tues and others.
6. High-tcmperature steel is used for making steam fittings and steam pipelines,
hoiler pipes, parts of combustion internal engines - valves, props, gas pipes,
Cl!mbustion chambers.
7. Stccl castings are used for producing large vessel stemposts, propeller
:olfl ossings and catilevers, stem lues, anchor bawse boles, rudder frames
and segments, ancbors. anchor cbains, it:ts, various fittings and others.
. Steel forged pieces are used for producing Stnll parts, pins, posts, bandrails,
I)()()IS, dogs, buckets and for smaU vessels, stems and stemposts, ti llers, stocks
:111d davits as well.

Use ofcast jrons


1. Cast iroo of igher strength are used to make screw propellers, stem
1ues, fittings parts, marine arrangements pans.
2. Mallcaie cast iron is used to mak.e port11oles, d.oor knobs and oters.
3. High-duty cast iron often seves as substitute for steel in makjng differe11t
marine arrangement parts, mcchanisms.

Use ofnon-ferrous metals and Lhejr al!ovs


1. ln shipbuilding aluminium is used to make speaking tues, vessels for
k~:eping \vater and food goods. lsolation foil.
2. IUininium alloys rcprocessed under press1rre are used to make tL1e foltowing
1li1gs:
- aluminium manganese alloy- reservoirs for keeping oil and fuel, intercabln
~creens and others;
16

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 17

- a\uminiuru magnesiuf!1 alloy - fan pipes, dccorative scrcens, various stamped


~np; .
- al uinim magnesium alloy - stea di ators, super-heaters, oil and fuel
pipes, smokc tube cases, ventilation pipes; /
- aluminin magnesium alloy -vessel hulls, superstructures, masts, lifeboats;
- a\uminiu.m silicon alloy - intema l cobustion cngines pistons.

3. Foundry alloys such as silumins and magnalum (aluminium and magocsium)


arc used to make the follo\ving:
- bearing covers, cont.ainers;
- cases, bearing covers;
- electric otors cascs and watcr pumps;
- intemal combustion en.gine pistons.

4. Copper and coppcr a\[oys are used to make the follo\ving:


- tyrcs, current conducti ng parts;
- manifolds for fresh and spent steam, fresh and salt watcr, oil and fuel pipes
and others . They are used as rolled sl1ccts, tubes, bars, forged pieces d
stampi ngs;
- is used tor making cast bronzes and brasscs;
- brss anganesc iron - scre\V propellcrs and parts working in salt \Vater;
- brass manganese- coppcr tube connection parts \Vorking in air, fresl1 \Vater,
oil, fuel, stca media.
All cast brasses may \vclded and brazed \Vith soft and hard brass soldcrs:
- bronze tin-zink-nickel - coating of auxiliary rucchanism shafis, cases, pumps,
y,orking in salt water, in the fucl and steam media;
- bronze tin-lcad-nickel - complex casting~ of compressor parts, bcaring
busbes, inserts, worrn gears, rack \Vheel rims, propeUer shaft coating and auxiliary
mechanism propellcr shafls;
- bronze al uinium manganese casting - parts, \vOrk ing in salt and fresh
\vater, in fuel at the tcmperaturc of 265, hulls, covcrs, gasket boxes, tap
casc:s and tap plugs, rack and worrn whcels, different bushcs, friction node
parts, working under gcase lubrication;
- bronze silicon anganese springs, worki g in salt \Vater and parts, 1rking
at the tcmperature of300C, vaive cascs, gasket boxes, valve plates and others;
- bronze \ead - bearing bushes.

5. Tin of mark 0 \ is uscd for tinn ing kitchen \Vare and cooking boilers. Tin
04 is used to make solders.
2. 426
18 .

6. t 1 r i\"
r11 , .
7. n011 n :
- np~mo 59-1-0,3 - , ,
, 11 r .
, .
- tlpto 25 - n: .
- r 45 - , r
11r, n . 9-2
tt,\1 , J !Uf.
- nn 70- n r ,
n.
- np1mo 34 - n tt n;
; , 11 .
- - naJ<a
, , , r . n
r nur
-'r . n.
8. : 683 - 1I1< ,
n-t. , n not!llttax, n
nrm n, ,
''lfR nID.
9. 16 - tJtr r n
, n, li
, n n111 n
<JR ~~ , nn tu~, n,
. nr , n.
11 :
) .
J nm (n 11 n:) - n
-r- n.
n,mlr ,
unr, 20-30 n r .
n nr11 .

2. u - rt , n
- n n . n.
n .
3. - '11 n , , ,
n, n - n,
Ji n.
4. 1~t ' - : JW<J
. --- : , 0,5-50 .
ARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 19
'6. Zinc of mark Z 1 is used to m.ake steel and cast iron parts protectors,
washing witb salt water.
7. Solders are used to fulfil the following works:
- Solid soldertin alloy - copper, brass, caro.n steel and stainless steel soldering,
heterogeneous metals soldering. This solder is used in cases wben it bas
contact \Vith salt water.
- Solid solder silver al.loy - thin parts soldering.
- Solid solder silver alloy - stainless steel soldering, turine lade soldering,
soldering of connections and osses of bronze aluminium. manganese casting
to copper nickel pipes conti.nuously filled with salt water.
- Solder lead - soldering of wires d other parts where there is need in high
electric conductivity.
- Solid solder altminium - soldering of aluminium and its alloys; alumiuiu
bonze soldering; soldering of parts work:ing in salt water.
- Soft solder tin lead - soldering and tinning of mild steels and low-alloy
steels, brass, copper, galva.nized steel sheet. Tinning of earings of specia]
brass and bronzes of aU marks for tin lea.d babiting. Soldering with rinl wire.
:8. Tinned babit 883 is sed in bearings d bushes, internal combustion
e111gine craakshaft bearings, t.hrust bearings, rad.ial bearings ofsbaft lies, e]ectric
111otors, for babitillg other important earings.
9. Lead babit 816 is used for babiting radial bearings of electric rntors,
generators, compressors, centrifugal pum.ps, top and low busl1es ofinterm.ed.iate
and propeller sbaft bearings, radial bearings of \Vindlass, capstans, hoists. Not
to use in parts under shock loads.

The use of gasket materials and g1and packing

} Gasket materials
1. P acking board (impregnated and non-irnpregnated) is used to seal oil-fuel
flanges and water manifold flanges. Non-impregnated packing oard efore
installig is recommended to soak in water, to dry out d then to sink in lt
vamish for 20-30 mi.ntes. lt is t suitaie for high temperatures.
2. Presspan is varnjshed board, ipregnated with isolated substances for
sealing oil fuel and water pipes. It is t suitaie for higb temperatures and
pressures.
3. Fibre is an elastic and resilient material which is swalle in \vater, oil and
diesel oil and does not pass them. It is used to seal fuel, oil a.nd carbonic acid
pipes.
4. Rubber, sh.e et, techical is used as acid alkalic-resistant, heat, trost, oil
gasolie-resistant and food, with tl1ikness of 0,5-50 mm.
?
20

R . n I.
n tt n -30 +50.
n n 1n -45, n
- n n: 90.
140.
5. - n -t, .
50 / 2 450, , ,
- 40 /: n n 700. 70
r/ 1 n 200. -, napo.
-, -, rn.
6. -
nrJI. , 11, -
. , n .
n n }()! r.
7. -
600. tt . r
.

8. - :
, , ~t. . 11
200 r-1 n 250, - ,
;.
n n 600-750, }()!
.

9. - n - q.
t 110R ,
64 450.
10. - .
tt it 60
425.
11. - .
11 u 40-50 100
u. I.II 1 .tii' <
1000 / 1 , 15-30.
12. . - n ntt
, t.
13. 111 - 0,8 1.2 .
, .
n , , ,
r n 31 75 /~.
ARIHI! MECANICAL PLA.NS 21

11 is sudivided into soft, ofmedium hardness and hightened hardness. All the
types of ruber are beat resistant at the temperature of -0 to +50. Frost
r~:sistant rubbers bave workig capacity at the temperature of -45 and are
l1cat resistant at the temperatures in the air medium ttp to 90 and in the wa.ter
~tc<~m medium up to 1.40:
5. Paronite is composition of asbestos, caoutchouc at1d fillers. lt withstands
50 kg!cm 2 and temperature up to 450 and pressure up to 40 kg/cm 1 at the
t~:mperature up to 700 in the gasoline, diesel fuel and oil media, or of pressure
7() kglcm 2 at the tem.perature up to 200. (t is used to seal water-, steai'-, oil-
llnd uel pipes.
6. Asestos oard is tblck oard made of asestos fibre with mineral fillers.
11 is fireresistant, 'vith oil and heat conductivity, acid and alcaline resistanL lt
~:tcts sodd.en in pe.troleum, oil and warm water. lt is used to seal discharge gas
pipes.
7. Lisl.e t.read and asbcstos cord is heat resistant at the temperc~ture up to
.. It is used to seal and isolate in boiler d power boilers.
. Shcet copper is used to seal pipes: diesel fuel, petroleum, oi~ frcon, carbonic
acid and discharged gases at the pressures up to 200 a.trn. d temperature up
10 250 as well as air and steam pipcs at high pressures and temperature. Packjng
l~eforc istalling into the pl.ace should fired at the temperatures of 600-7500
with the fo\lowing water cooling.
9. lro <<Armc> is sofi and CO'OSion resistant material. lt is used in annealing
~ate to seal cylinders, pipes at the pressure up to 64 atm. and temperature tlp to
1 50.
10. Steel, mild steel, is used in annealing~tate to seal superbeated steam pipes
:11 tl1e pressures up to 60 atm. d temperature up to 425.
11 . Sheet lead is resistant against l1ighly agressive media. lt is suitale r
rrcssures oot more than 40-50 atm. and temperatures up to 100 at smoothe
ll:111ges. rt is possible to threaded anges and collar f1anges at the pressures
to 1000 kglcm1 but at t.he temperature of 15-0.
12. Liquid packing. Siljcone is used to seal fresb and salt water pipe connectios,
cooler covers.
13. Ferorute is sheet 0.8-1.2 mm thick, cosisting asestos and latex,
r.:i11forced with metal net. lt is applied to ose parts working in gasoline, diesel
li.tcl. oil and products of their combustion at pressures up to 75 kglcm~.
22

"-t n ynO'YliJI:eo
.

1. acettt.tii 11 n:
50 /~, 1 - 400- 11
J.

== 64 /~. 1 - 450 - ,, ((>>, .2


2. n:
- 6 /2, t = 50- t
3. n t.: :
- 6 r/ 2 1 - 50 - :
50 r/ , 1 = 50(' - 1
1

4. n:
1 /z, 1 = 140 - n
~ 50 r/ 2, t .. 250 -
2
- 100 r/ , t - 275 - ~' <<>>, .2
5. :
- 6 r/ 2, 1 90 - r-
= 25 / 2
1 = 60 -
- 50 / 2 1 - 250- r
50 /2 , 1 350"- 1
6. r:
80 /2 , 1 - 32-
= 200 r/1 1 = 32 -
7. \l:
- 35 r/ 2, =
1 35 - . rt
8.:
= =
25 / 2 ; 1 60 -
9. n :
- 25 / 2 1 == 600 -
1. n :
- 6 /~t 2, 1 = 85 - nn
2
- 80 r/ , 1 - 32 -
150 / 2 , 1 = 150 -
11 . tt:
: /2 , 1 = 85 - nrn
25 / 2, 1 = 60- .q1
= 80 / 2
1 = 32 -
150 r/1 , 1 = 150- 11
- 200 / 2 1 80 -

) 1.
1 81111I : 1, nm1 11
.
MARINE L PLANS 23
Recommended paclcing matedals dc;:pending on the sealed medjum.

1. Steam saturated and superbeated:


P=SO kg/cm\ t=400C - Paronite
=64 kglcm1 , t=450C - lron (<Arrnco
2. Drioking water:
:6 kg/cm2, t=50C - Food rubber
3. Fresb water, washing and salt:
=6 kg/cm2, t=50C - Rubber
P=SO kg/cm1 , t=S0C - Paroite
4. Water, bot and superbeated:
P=IO kg/cm2, t=1400C - Ruber heat resistant with tissue
-50 kglcm2, t=250C - Paronite
P=IOO kg/cm2, t=275C - lron Armco
5. Air:
=6 kg/cm2, t=90C - Rubbcr, heat resistant
P=2S kglcm2, t=60C - Plastics
P=SO kglcm2, t=250C - Paronite
P=SO kg/cm2, t=350C - Copper 1
6. Carbonic Acid:
=80 kg/cm 2, t=32C - Fibre
=200 kg/cm 1, t=32C - Copper
7. Gaseous ammonia:
=S kg/cm2, t=35C - Paronite, aJ11minium
8. Freon:
=25 kg/cm1 , t=60C - Copper
9. Spent gases:
=25 kg/cnr, t=600C - Asestos board
1. Heavy petrolcum f11el:
=6 kg/cm2, t=85C - Packing odrd
p:;gQ kg!cm1, t=32C - Fibre
= !50 kglcm 2, t= 1 50 - Paronite
11 . ineral oil:
=6 kg/cm2, t=85C - Packing oard
=25 kg!cmZ, t=60C - Plastics
-80 kglcm1 , t=32C - Fibre
P=ISO kg!cm1 , t= l50C - Paronite
=200 kg/cm1, t=80C - Copper

) Glad packing
Gland packing is made as soft, half-mctal and hard.
24

\. n (i. r r s
'!', sm , n oriJic).
II I1JI ynO' ieH fi aOnOltBHIIX -JIII, 8Cii'1Jiefi, "
. wr 11 .

2. r n suseeft { n
11 n'n). n ysusorne-
UI!U Q U'I.
. n ("" r,
nn coojj), n nm:
11 oopwruo- n

I .

4. r 11 ( u ,
.rr nur1 n , n
r nf1 1111 - n
! J nn "r dJJ). 11 yn.o
BCfUI --u- ".
5. (r
uo n
-r r n11.U1f 11 n n).
1J nti n , 10
.

CaJti>IIKOBe n-1t ( ,
ceteiUUI. 1r J~r

1, r ti).
)'!'rs .:t 1\'n, , .1. L

/1L11 -:ri t.1I 11 na .


1. 11 ( : )
-r n 1n 1,
Jt, . Jt .
2. n11 10 n 'l-r
- ru, n 1
- opnyclfIJ( 11!J{. , , :
, .rt rn 11 .
. r 1r noCIIAIIO/:t :
) :
OllpeeJIIIl' I
- 11 no 4-6
- r 111 n111UI , 11

- :rri1 Jt rt 2-
(6.6 . 100 rp. )
MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 25
1. Soft packing i single-braid covering (twisled braid of dircct, square or
d cross-section) is used to seal low mobile parts - glands, valves, gates,
littings or low pressure.
2. SoH packing in many-layered braid covering (the core strand is braided
1vith several layers of braid). lt is used to seal glands low-speed rods.
3. Sofl pck i ng bri<ied through (some intertaided strands). lt is t1sed to seal
~;l;md packig of rotating shafts and reciprocating shafts and rocls.
4. Complex sot"t packi11g (packing braided throg l1aving rbber core inside
to increase elasticity and l1aving antifrictioo wire or platc to improve runing-in
lo the moving parts of meclaoisms). lt is used to seal fittings of' watcr-stcam,
p~:ttolem and oiJ pipes.
5. Half -metal gland packing (made ofrubberized or asbestos tissue with inscrt
l1y iner periphery of soft anti- rictio material or hollow ring). is used in
~askel packing or piston pL1mps, rotatig shafts and others.
. Hard packig (metal ll-rir1gs oftriagularcross-section, metal split rings
ol' squarc or rectangular cross-section, split rigs of sq ttare cross-sections). It
i;; uscd to scal compressor shafts, pnps, shafts, turines.

Usc ot resin and epoxy-compounds

1. resi n (viscous liqt~id o f light-bro\vn colour) is used to repair


111<.:cl1anisms, pipes and devices ttnder rnarine condi tions <IS well as anticorrosion
parts protection.

2. resin with gla.ss abric permits to get new material - glass-fibre-


l..:inforced plastic. which is \vidcly uscd in ship bttilding - making hull structures,
masts, roos, lit'eboats. tanks for fuel d watcr.

3. Some reconunendations to trse resin:


) Crack fram.ing:
- define crack sizes;
- drill it lrom both cnds orifice of 4-6 mm;
- clean crack along its lengtl1 with fi le, emery paper or steel brush up
lltilliancc:
stir carefully thc mixture of rcsin and lrdener dttring 2-3 mi (6,6 g
ol' hardener per 100 g resin); 1
26

- nl\

- no1rre, n 20-25 1 30-35


1. t .
) 1-1, n n.
J , n, Jt
ti . .
4. n, n
, '.. . 111 n
lt .
- , n

mt nrr: n, tr., 1.
n., .
5. JI n
n : 48 n 20, 1
n 50, 5 rtp 80, 40-60 n HI0C, 30 n. 120.
6. r1
20-25.

3. ~'!i tt n , n
.

: .
1. - .
,
, J. n
. .q n .
2. . npoepl\e m1 tta
. n
. ,
; n , , n
n .
3. n :
1.
-r; urt , n, nt ;
.
11 cmeneuu .

I rr: ,
. . 1 11 nR n. ,
tJ , t
, , q. .
MARINE MECHANICAL PLANS 27
- put immediately this mixture at the prepared surface with wooden d;
- remember that the m ixture may used at the temperate of 20-25
during 30-35 min. lf the temperature is higher, the mixture readiness time is
shorter.
) Besides crack framing resins are used to correct casting defects,
tlaw framing in pipes, restoring places with corrosion and other types of
operations.
4. elimioate flaws in pipes, n cases and cylinder locks and to produce
anticorrosion covering resin is reinforced with glass tabric. get
composition close physical and mechanical properties to the rnaterial repaired,
and resio is added as tinely crushed dry powder with different fillers:
Portland cement, aluminium, bronze or cast iron powders, silver grapblte dust
d others.
5. Duratioo of bardening cover depends the temperature of part
repaired: 48 hours at 20, 1 11. at 50", 5 h. at 80, 40-60 min at 100, 30 min
at 120.
6. Temperature of vert:ical surface at the moment of putting compound
should not higher. tha 20-25.

3. Characterjstics and restrlctions of processes


used for maldng and repa.ir.
Types of defectation: pre-repair and \Vorking.
1. The mai11 purpose of tlaw detection is to detect possie flaws and specifying
the further titness ofbundJes and pats, as well as determioing tbe repair work
volume providing its defectation up to the planned repair. Pre-repair d working
tlaw detections are distinguished.
2. Pre-repair flaw detection consist of mechanism operation examinati<m at
dilferent conditions to deterrnine technical states of it etore repair. Evaluatioo
of ~tates of some parts, bundles d system is fulfilled means of visual,
acoustic control, examination of heating parts and analysis of control and
measuring instruments.
3. Operating survey of defects is carried out after mechanism dismantLing
into parts d bundles. lt inclu.d es visual inspection ot' all bundles and parts
visual method, detection of cracks, breakings, othcr damages and determining
parts wear methods of technical measues.

Determining fitness part degree


At flaw detection after general dismantling parts depending upon the technicaJ
state divided into three groups: suitale, requiring repair and non-suitaie.
For each part tl1ere are dead-lock wears, wears indjcated in instructions and
registry cards, in reference books and technical literature.
28

1-1.rr n, n
, r.
r .
, .

mexuuecoii .
1. n
n . iII
, n, J-t
, n , , n
.
2. 'l trn 3J1 11.
t II r
n n . n
l! li n n .
3. > ml CHCTe.\iy 1. n

.1 - n
t la n n
1tm ,
. r,
, t . ,

t 1 , .
. 1 , n
, ~1 ( ) D
Pz, . ,
l\:.i . CenCtll1 OII\)hl 081111 II , I~I paCXOJte II
. . n11
n :n
n .
.

4. l
>, . DeutZ>> .

N .1 .
r.
1. .1 . :1 11
nn: , . , , ,
11 , , : 11, h1
, n.
2. 1
n n.
MARINE MECHANICAL LS 29
Belonging parts to this or that group determined at defectation is marked.
Evaluation ofthread fitness is fulfilled examina1ion to detennine absence
of cracks, ending of timer, thread crumpling and stall.

Method of rechnica! dja~gostjcs


\. Technical diagnostics of mechanisms is poduced during tbe direct
operation. h purpose of techrtical diagnostics is timely detection of flaws,
evaluation of efficiency, technical state, wear degree, prognosis of residual
service Life, detennining the demanded work volume technical service and
repair.
2. Technical diagnosing is fulfilled with different methods. The most effective
method oftechnical diagnostics is dicsel wear eva\uation method means of
spectral analysis. Spectral analysis of oil nnd deposits permit to determine parts
wear.
3. Firm Burmeister and Wein has worked out system CCJ which permits
to carry out continuous control of tbe principal bundJes and the diesel
means oftimely detected failures and giving recomme:ndations how to eliminate
them on the base of using tbe date of marine diesel exploitation experience,
introduced in computer memory. The system controls air and gas consumption,
injection system operation. load distribution arnong cylinders, heat load, cylinder
bush state and piston ring state, the work of systems serving the diesel. Ln
combination with an arrangement, determining the diesel cranksbaft position.
computer displays the most exa.ct values Pz, , as well as the data of.diesel
power, fuel combustion completencss degee, specific fuel consurnption and
other pararneters to an opeator. Diagnostics of llstakes or fau lts is carried out
keeping in the computer memory the data of exploitation of diesels built
the firm and compnring them with the data, characterizing the current diesel
state. '
4. Analogous system are installed aoard many ships with new engines of
models Fiat, Sulzer, <<Deutz>> and other.

Defectation of the main bundles of iotemal combustion engjnes


Cylinder liner
\. Cylinder liners are characterized the following principal types of wears
and damages: failures, rubbings, notches, scores, nicks, corrosions, cracks,
diameter increase, ovality, draught, busb weake:ning in the fit peaces.
2. Local corrosions of cytinder bushes are watcbed often in the region of
passing the cooling surface to the top fit and.
30 .

n'l n1 n nrr :
. :
.
3. , n n
J

!Ui n.

UIItl[JQB.
1. :
-
-
- r n , n-

2. "-' rWIJ r ,
. n
- , - 1r, -
( r), <<- ..
3. -
n ,
.
4. 72
. , ,
. "-'<~ <..- ,
,
n n, n

, , n n.

n .
1. ~ n :
- 110 (rr
n):
- ( -
n n);
- ;

- n ;
-, r .
2. n
, n n ,

no .
rr 11 S = 2S,
r S = 0,01 h; 11- .
MARINE MECANIC l PlNTS 31

l).:lects are not permitted at the lit bands and in nows under seals. Cracks
d oter ier defects are dctcrmincd thc l1ydraulk test or ultrJsoic n1ctld,
,oloured \v detector.
J. Busl1 diameter increase, ovality d draught are detern1ined 111ear1s of
1 ieromctric internaJ gauge measurcs or idicator int.emal gattgc two mutually
pcrpcndicular directios.

! inder covers
1. Tlte main defects of cylinder covcrs arc the follo\\ ig:
- cracks the gaseous and extcrnal side;
- ottom scorching:
- fit places scorchig for 07.7.Ies, staning and relief valves.
2. Cylinder covers arc made of stecl and cast iron foudig. st...'CI cover.;
rtre seldom failed. CyJjder covcrs of diese\s Burmcister d Wait arc stcel.
< iota\verkem> are made of cast iron, <<Sul zem are complex (steel casc d
<.' :t$1 iro insert). MAN>> are of casl iro and so on.
J . Covers of four-stroke diesels duc to thcir complicated configuratior1 d
p:sence ofintake d disclrge valves are fai led more oftcr1 tl1en oft\VO-cyclc
lic$cl covers.
4. Defccts of diese\ ((Sulzer KD 72 covcrs are conectcd wit\1 tl1cir
o~truction. Cracks, as rule, <tre formed inside cast iron inscrt on the cast
'rlaccs of the iojcctor casc. As thc ins.:rt is cooled with watt:r. 1vater
.:r~tcks goes to ! iojector case and sometimes ito ! starting valve casc. so
llt:Jt it lcads to the failurc not only the cover insen but or injector too. the
'tarting valve as \Vell.

Pisto11s and Piston Rings

1. The main types \vears and pistOt1 fai' lures :


- pisto rings g'roovc wear (operatig time ar1d increased gap i11 caps);
- gap incrcase etween lhe pisto d tl1c cylinder busl1 (pisto dircction part
\Vo.:ar);
- draught and ellipticity appearnnce:
- orilice displacement \Vears undcr piston pin;
- cracks, scorching of the piston head.
2. Grooves wear under piston rings is deterrnined \vit r gaps et1vecn
rgs and grooves beight, using thc piston rings all ! pcriphcry of thc
rrrtg or while rolling ring groove. gap etween ring and groove
ltcigl sluld not cxcecd S _. =2S . whcre S "' O.OJ 5h: h - ring height.
'~ "~ '"U~
32

3. n .
4. n r
rr - n n
. /tn I'OJIOBO n
r Snp = (0,0175-0,0150)D, r: D-
r n.

1J n nr r .
-nn n

n.

5. 1.111 n , n nr-,
11, , , .
6. llp 100-760 n n
2,5-8,0 . KoI,uo ..r
.
7. r-<.: :r ,1 . r
, JJ .

.
1. :
- }
-,
- , r t'

- n
2. , , n
n 1-2 11
0,2 . <.- JJr' aJUJ,
n 150-500 , ~1 S : , i5-0,40
. n , 15-0,40 .
3. r
, . . n
.
n (. ).
1
1 , - 110
r-.

5. 1 m r.
. r1 - .
6. n 1i n
:ln n 110 ru .
. n J 1-ro ,
. n n ,

45 n .
MARINE MECHNICL LS 33
3. Operating time in grooves is detected with the help of an internal gauge or
templet.
4. gap etween the piston and the cylinder bush is measurcd with r
the shaft axis and perpendicuJarly to it - at the moment of staying the piston
at the upper dead centre and in middle positions. Maximum safety clearance
etweeo the piston head and cyLinder bush is s_ = (0,0 175-0,0 150)Dmm,
where D - pislon head dlameter.
While measuring pistons micrometric clamp is used Measures are made
mutually perpendicular directions in three points at the piston height.
5. Defects ofpiston rings are their wear, elasticity losses, warpagc, breaks in
the lock, crack.s, ring darnages.
6. At the cylinder diameters of 100-760 mm permissie heat gap i the rig
lock shouJd of 2,5-8,0 mm. The ring is estaished in pattem or at the top
part of the busb.
7. Elasticity of rings is controlled compressing ring hands. lf in the
lock gap chages , ring should replaced.

Crankshafis
1. h main types of wear and damages of the crankshaft are the following:
- ellipticity and conicity of crank joumals d cankpi joumals;
- accrued operatig time, scores and nicks;
- crack.s and crankshaft failures, crankshaft twisting;
- endings and elastic cranksbaft det1ection.
2. Accrued operatig time, scores and icks are determioed examinations
d measuring, not more than 1-2 necks or scores on the neck aout 0,2 mm
deep are al\owed. The most permissie cllipticity ofthe crankshaft necks at the
diameter 150-200 mm should not more than S = 0, 15-0,40 mm. The
most' permissie dmught is not more tha 0, 15-0,40mm.
3. "it the crankshaft examinations crack detection sbould taken into
conslderatio i pecuLiar way, ecausc even an insignificant crack the
k may result in the egine failure. Suspibios places the crankshaft are
checked with the l1elp of flaw detectio (m.agnetic, coloured).
4. determioe eUiptkity and draugbt of the crankpin joumals and crank
joumals measures are done in three cross-sections - vertically d borizontlly.
5. measure crankpin joumals the corresponding crank sbould put ito
top dead center while to measure frame eck.s - into top dead ccnter while to
measure crank joumals - into top center lock or ottom dead center.
6. In large diesels i the process oftbeir exploitarion ellipticity neck cootrol is
made with tbe help of an idicator not raising the cranksbaft. For this baving
put the crank ofthe first cylinder i the top dead centre, an idicalor leg is put
at zero d then idicator readings are written down in each 45revolurion of
the crankshaft.
34

!: n, ii I:-~ .l:-~ a
i lhl(;' 9()0 . 1 - r ')t t ii rt .
Be,I ti H<J mm t t>ct rt p<tiJHil :t [i J i h !-t
JIHJIHK3H1pa. Ec.l tt o\t3KCIIM.lblia > 3'!3it II HJtK3TOpa ~Ja-
6:110J.L3CTC > 1~ . ITO 0111. 1 tt
1 ~~ ;~. 13.; t:~tJ
~ n 11 11311 11 ii IIHJ\Haopa.
JkcKT3HII O<: fiOHHJ,JX IIOJ1lt<:OIo 11 1\Ctl 1po~ iiOI'O ! lal::lHI.
!I0111YLIIHOI'O KO \I ipecco pa .

>piiiHCIIhiC ; 11 1\0M i tpeccop.


1. JI ~ 11 ~mt: ~ :
- II 1(11 110
- 11ii 11 t 1 n 1\(.>:JO:ll
- 1'\'JHCH.: 1 .:; 1

- '3 11\ . 3111 : . llleCK J

o ppo1 tt Oii H OC ~: i:i .


2. 1 JJI 1 1 3 ~ HltIII,"(ponx n: 11,111
II X. llpiiiiC'JHa'IIITt::I IOM lt'JIIOCC UllJ\IIIIpa 01-pal! ti 'HII!aJc )';J:tJICIIII-
CM 111 11 . l .:t.11 ~:t 1- G
: lh IIIIJ1HitJ1~ t:OC I (IB:I C-1 ()'! (),25 5,65 II I )t (C"IlJaX 0 1 )() }10 5()()
\1; 'JJIJIIIIH OC1'1> - 0.15 ,'\0 1,9 , yBC'II: HIIt: ,;~ - 2 8
" 11 11 ; 50 ;lO 500 .
3. <1 u: 11<1 'J>te o ii r ii 11 11011 111 .
4. 11 1 J~ii J ii 110 1.:J-
11<1'" tty I'CM 1l pt-I11J1K II .

t:~J 1'11 .
1. O~ I IOBIII>IM ltc 11 :
- O-'JIIO IIOIIII 11 II . i1, 11 .:~ -
. tt .1 ~1 .
- , 1111111

- 111
- 11'11'116 63<I
- r ; r KOJtcca :1
1
2. 1-l<tCOCO!J, 111 , ROCCTH 3BJIIIIOTC ~I
\0 11 1 1 \0KC II:tl li t 11 (De:on).
3. ~ 1~<.: -1 't tJII '}
11i1 1 oii.
4. 11.1 i\'t yaJJC II II II ~1
tl . J I'OTOOJIC\ 111 1\. OKOII LJTCIO I\
1 0,06 0,40 11J JJ .
1 '>t ll .
MARINE M ECANICAL PLANTS 35
ll"maximum indicator readings difcrence is observed i each 90 revolutio
ol' the crank, it sh0\\1S ncck ellipticity.
lipticity valtre is equal to the maxirnum indicator readings differer1ce twice.
11' rnaximum indicator readings di fference is observed in each 180 revolution
/' the crank, that means coax.iality distortiort of the crank shafi. The value of
no-coaxiality is half of the maximum indicar readigs difference.

Defectation of the main parts of the piston and centrifugal pumps.


an air copressor. Marine piston pumps and compressors
1. The main dcfccts of the piston pumps and compressors :
- cylinder wear;
- piston and piston ring \Vear;
- valves and seat wear;
- 'vear of rods, gask:et bushes, shaft necks;
- coosion of parts and others.
2. Repair of cylinders consists of replaccmcnt of cylinder bushes or their
ling. At insignificant cylinder wear scores and operating time are removed.
Mtrximum permissiic draught and barrel-shaped cylinders are from 0,25 to
~.65 mm at diameters 50-500 mm; ellipticily , 15-1,9 mm, diarneter increase -
2-R rnm at diamcters of 50-500 mm.
J. Cylinder oring is connected with replacement of pistons and piston rings.
4. Valves are rcplaced or ored with the foUowing adapting necks
m~:ans of setting.

Centrifugal pumps
1. The main defccts of centrifugal purnps are:
- corrosion-crosion damages ofiade edges, pump case, sealing rings etween
tlr~: C.ase and the sltaft wheel boss;
scores, shaft neck wear and earings w,car;
- shaft jacket \vear;
- shaft cnding;
- \veakening the working wheel the shall;
joint places surface damage.
2. Pump cases, damaged with corrosio, are restored means of Devcon
(~: resi substanccs).
J. Damaged d edgcs may restarcd also means ofan compound
or gas welding \Vith the following reproccssing.
4. Sealing riog repair consists or removing them orig, making new
111rgs, cornpression and final reprocessing the gap 0,06-0,40 mm depending
upon the pump efficiency. ring may restored also means [ an
t'llpoud.

'.
36

5. 1n fi R.'1 n:~ nJI 171 20"/


n .
6. llaa HJIIt UJCi!KM 3}131 BOCCSIIaiiJII\83/0TC
n n .
7. n , . ~t
n . n 0.05 n IIOct:oc
Mt-1 .
[!k
1. 11 - 1 t 1- , ycpa
lletttt a.IJa n n.
2. 1ur ntrns ~s
ll -r.::
- .101U. npcrnn. n-tt r: no 11
k' :ur
- 1\-- n
>~ 11 s r ccii lllte
- "-.1r . nmt, r
11 n ii r11
3. 110 nt 11 n n 11 11
n.

4. tl III B 1 11.:
nn1 . rtoce
. n 'Jact'>III. ..., n 1
BiiOJIIOI l\'0 , 1
~ll npiL'Iera. n nocpxiiOCII

r.
5. 1 . 11 n
n nJ, p.ICOIIJI t CUC1"3U.111IOT 213
, r n<."111 '1 120".
lln I 6 n v .. m 1t.:~.
6 u - OIIJ)Cc:Jiec n 11'3110
~i n npocaOIIUii . n n
n HIIIIt: , n 0.03 llpoxo-
J1 11 . r-r r, r1
n 11ii , tle 11 n
0.05 11 1 11 t1 r .
7. nr 1111.1r1 n IIC r n:~
ntt 11r . 1r,
1 ii n, n
np,tO IIHCIIOt'II 11 .
8. .\1 , 111 r .1 n1:
11n. ~1 npocaJi . !
n1 n1rs 1 10.1.\UHIHIIOB.
MARINE MECANICAL PLANTS 37
5. Wom shaft jackets are ored to the depth not more than 20% of the
constructn thickness.
6. Worn shaft necks or necks with scores are restored with oring following
grinding.
7. Joint area surface, leg surface and others are restored scraping and are
controlled with paint. r 0,05 mm must not pass between joint surfaces.

Jntema\ Combustjon Engjnes Crankshi!ft lnstallatjon


1. lnstallation ofthe crankshaft is its axis levelling with the purpose to eliminate
crankshaft bend over perrnissiie limits.
2. While instalJing the crankshaft into earings ofthe fundamental frame you
should observe the follo,vig requirements:
- earing liner should adjoin compactly to the d surfaces all the contacting
area;
- crank joumals of the crankshafl. should uniformly contact the bushes in the
lower ! the all bush length;
- crank~hal't axis put ito bearings sl1ould :: uin:(;l nd parallel to the upper
part of the fundamental frame.
3. Bearing liner density contact vvith the beds are controlled for paint or with
r.
4. Cranksbaft installation is carried out means ofscraping the corresponding
main bearings. After cycle of scorig, caps are removed and after checking
thcm with the previous values, tbe following cycle ofscoring works is corrected.
Doing this operation several times one should get the necessary contact ofthe
crankshaft crankjoumals with the lower earing liner surfaces.
5. Shaft insta.IJanon at the lower eing liner is considered to over, if \vhile
controlling for paint contact surface of the neck to the earing lincr is 2/3 inner
surface of the earing liner, and surface scope angle is not less 120. Not less
than two spots of paint sluld locatcd on the bearing liner surface 1cm 2
. Next operation - to define crankshaft settling from wear of bushes
means ofa settling clamp. Cra.nkshaft nccks wben measuring tis settli11g should
rest upon lower bushes in such way that probe of 0,03 mm does not go
between necks and busbes. Dilerence of resuJts received settling clamp
in the stem and bow necks. should not exceed 0.05 mm on 1 m long of the
cra.nkshaft.
7. Good contact and insignificant shaft settling can't characterize crankshaft
axis positn in full volume. This is wby eside aove-menlioned operattons it
is neccssary 10 measure caps, to control crankshaft axis straightness keeping.
8. Thus, crankshaft instaJialion quality is controlled: measuring caps on all
thc cranks, to measure sbaft settling, frame neck contact density ar1d earing
bushes.
.

i
n
.
r tt n n
, n u
.u . , r,
, .
u ti
. ti n nu
' t .IW , '
.
u, n,
. n
, :
- , rdJ~ n r;x. ,
2 r11 1 ;
- ;
- 30% ;
- 10% ;
- :
- u ;
- u .
. 3
, , - n , n , - .
n n .

, .

ynpvroro no t UI
11 n
, . . . -
r n
nn n . n
. n 11
.
11 - ', /'
n . n
w, ~: (+).
-/, /
. n 11
(-). n n, nn
/ . n - n..
MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 39
The condjtjons !hc tin-sbell earings replacjng.

ll1c proccss ofcrankshaft installation Lhc Lhin-shell earings witl1babbiting


va~ ~ubscribcd v. 11igl1-spccd and medium-spced modcm c11gines use
ll"tlli-shell bearings witl1 electroplate ofthe antimction alloys comi t1at ion.
ll.:y are safe, ende heavy load, they a re easy to replace as they do not demand
11aksl1aft 11eck adjustmcnt.
l'l1 c ma1facturer's instruction scts the terms ol' such bearings replaci11g
cording to operating timc.
l"l:se tcrms are detcrmined during the eugine operation and usually up to
1111~ time not al.l hearings are wom, thcy have numer of damagcs and they
111.: 11eeded to replaced.
~ rule the manufacturcr's i11stnction set the terms ofthe earings spot check.
1111: hcaring should rep\aced if during the spot check one can develop some damages:
- li.:cd marks stayed after lcvcling. They have to not tha11 \\VO ones,
l1~~ tltan 2mm width and less than lmm dcep;
di11ts of the hcavy rubing;
coating wear up to 30% ofits arca~
than 10% corrosion in tl~ contact zone:
l' separation of the coati g;
- coatig cavitation;
cracks in tbe anti frictional layer.
ll"llcre are such damages i chosen spot check one should to continue the
k.1ri gs spot check and Lhen clear up thc reasons of failed lx:arings.
lt is ncccssary to makc thc spot check while supplying oil wi th \Vtcr and the
.-~i operating even not for long time.

Detection of the clastic bending of the crankshaft


under thtr craok webs discrepacy

1"11 is operation is based reveag 6r di stance change5 betwee11 tl1e


o'1:111kshaft \VCbs, i.e. on the caps tncasurements. The is t l~ dista ce
ol1l'li.:rence bctween tlte cranksbafi wcbs at two diaetrically opposi te bend
psilions. The prcsence indicntcs thc shaft axis deection. Onc 11 judge
al\otlt the direction ot' shaft deformation in the area ot' this crank under t.h e
, 1a11k \vebs discrepancy.
ll"thc distance etween the C'cJnk web in the dead centre-/ott more than lhtk
111~ shafl axis is sagged camer down . ln this case the is positive and it is
Jk>III !Cd OUt with (+). lf thc distaCC t\V t.b e crank web in the t!1 dead
~-~lltrc-/. more than /" _tbc shaft axis is sagged camer up. 111 this case the
' is negative and it is pointed out with (-). lfthe is posiuve, in Lhis case the
ra11k earings should raised, and if it is negative-they sbould lowered.
40

H.N.m .

. 1. ~ ~
: - (+); - (-)

. 2. 11 JI

n I< s
:t JI {0, 90, 180, 270),
-ii .
, n n yrnax 15 , 90,
195 270.
, .
.
n.
. I:i n .
.
MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 41

) 6)
.J--1_._ !J.I'f.m. 6. . .

.11. .

Pic. 1. Scheme of caps measurements between the crankshaft web


cranks a-caps (+); -s (-)

1
Pic. 2. Caps measrements indicator

One should measure the caps witb micrometer rod gage or with indicator
llltder four crank positions (0, 90, 180, 270), in the event of conecting rod
gcar is being dismantLed. Ln the event of connecting rod gear is not being
l.lismantled one should measure with an.gle 15 from the top dead centre and
1l1cn 90, 195 and 27rfJ.
111' measurements are carried out with indicator it stayed in its position
while crankshaft rotating. It is problited to touch indicator and rotate it during
measuring. One read the iostrumentation indications with mirror if the
tlia l is turned do\vn.
Tlle instrumentation indications should tabulated.
42

, ;\/.
N!!

... ... 11

mt. n , ,
. ,
.

n: 0,0001 S ,
S- n, . n
n- 0,00015S.
n . n 0,00025S,
.
,
n
n.
i , n n n
Ji n1 (n,
n ).
:
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- - n.

Jt I 8.
1. J WJ
n IIi.
2. n n
n . nooeFrne
1 r nu. n
n
.
3. n n1 .
n n n.
, n , . . n
n n
.
MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 43

measurements, mm
!
crank T.D.C. Port
B.D.C. Difference Staroard Difference
side

Tl1e operating meaings, its /imiting value are carried out in the
maufacturer's instruction. If there is no such information one should use the
follo1vig iforntion.
The 1vebs discrepancy must not exceed 0,0001 S for /1 cranks, 1v/Jere S-
pisto stroke, mm. The limiting value for the operating engine -0,000\SS.
should out sl1afi rep/aci1g 1vith suc/1 measurements. lt is prohiblted
to operate engine ifthe is than 0,00025S.
Jf tl1e crakshafi caps are suddenly cl1anged at the removed motion it
denote~ onthe crank~hafi tJeck~ gapping tn the lo1ver b11SI1es ofthe crankshaft
bearings.
It is much better to place the crankshaft i such way that to increase the
purposive activity to heavy IVOIJ beari11gs (for example, from the generator
si<le middle engine bearings).
n1e follo1ving conditions influece on the size and its alteratios:
- 1vear of bushes of thc crankshaft bcariilgs;
- sllip's loading
- bea1ns achor tightenig;
- quality ofthe engine aligmenl wit/1 w takeoffshaft;
- outside temperaturc.

lignment of intcmal combustion t'runk Clll;\ine movemet

\. Tl!e necessary condition of rcsponsie 1vork of driving mechanism is


coicidencc i dead points of the piston and coecting rod 1vith the cylinder
XIS.

2. control alignment tl1e piston together 1vith the connecting rod are lowered
into the cylider witlut pistOII rings. The right positio of the pisto in the
cylinder will depend upon crank bearing cotact quality. get more cxact
results crank bearing should mounted 1vithout seals.
3. Pi sto position i tiJe cylinder from the bOIV side and Lhe stem. Measures
are produced 1vith probc fro the top and upper piston faces. Besides, one
sho~ld control one-s.ide board locking, because in the position bet\vcen top
dead center d lo\v dead ceter the piston 1vi\l al1vays pressed to the cylindcr
bush only from side.
44

4. nt y3.qa n- 11
- ttt
, , -
it .
5. tt n 0,\5 1
. 11 .!t
250-750 1,6 4,5 n ft
0,2 0,65 .

n 11 n .

1. r 11t .1 ,
t1'13 nrn , r
t nnii 11 .
2. .-1 t1ooe11tte 1 tt, ~t .
Jt :
- n n t ,
t ,1 nt 30-40 11
tt
- t tt n tt
tt. trrytt
( iin
t!O!IYtta)
- ii n t-tll n1
t 40-so .
- t n nt\Jt ,
ttt ltite r10pm1t
n llr plttrta 30-40' .

~t t.
1. 01 ( t r, .
) n.
2. 11 tt (
itltn ), n t t
nr::.
3. nt \n
:
- 52-55 11 tt 2Sx25
,r {
n tt 11 m 11

r )
- n<t1 11 , t. n .
ARlNE MECHANICAL PLANTS 45
4. Non-coincidence of axJs in the bundle piston-connecting rod and cylinder are
etimiated byscraping ofthe crank earig - the crankshaft neck is covered with thin
layer paiot, collecting earig, one may produce one-twO revolutions the
cmnkshaft and the eariog and removeait in coloured parts.
5. Piston misaligoment in the cylinder should t exceed , 15 mm on 1 m long of
the pisto. Moutig gaps etween the piston and bush the avcrage are mnde up
in the diameter 250-750 mmfrom 1,6-4,5 mm in the pistOnhead d from 0,2-0,65
mm in its trunk part.

Determjjg too dead center aod iow dead r


modem low-speed diesels
1. install the piston in the positio of top dead centre, one shouJd tum tlle
crankshaft panially up to matching an indicaror pointeratrached to the engine lock
wal\ with tlle corresponding mark the flywheel rim.
2. I the position of dead points is unk:nown, it is oecessary to determine them.
For this the following operations are fultilled:
- te wm the crankshaft in the direction ofthe forward motion in such way that
the crank would not approach the top dead center approximately 30-40' and in this
position and to mark tl1e flywhee\ against sight pointer;
- the pisto position at this moment is fued from the Cia.kcase side means of
rule, measuring the distance from the lov.er edge ofthe cylinder bush to thc lower
edge of the piston (at crossltead dicsels thc slide positio is d) ;
- then the craokshaft is tumed in the directioo ofthe crank position 40-50' after
top dead center;
- further the craokshaft is made to rotate in rhe direction of the backward motion
up to the moment when the distance measured from the Jow bush edge to the lo~-er
piston edge would not m equal to the fixed positions of the crank of 30-40' to
the top dca.d centre.

Compressjo Chambcr height contro\


1,.. Compression chambcr l1eight (from t.he top piston cdge, Jocated in the
top dead center up to cylindcr cover) is determined means of lead stamps
removing.
2. Lead stamps are removed as at the defectation process (without dismantling the
cylider cover) and durig illstaiJation thc cylinder cover after engine repair.
3. Operations of compression chamer height control at crosshead engines are
the foUowig:
- two lead smaU cues of 52-55 mm high and having cross-section of 25x2S mm
installed on the extemaJ edges ofthe piston head ottom (the u instaJiation is
produced through scavcnging ports ofthe cyliderbush or orilice forthe discharge
va!ve);
- the crankshaft is tumed in such way as the piston would cross the top dead center;
46 IG1

- .;t J\ :u 01it 'I'Q1U{)' m


111 tfI .

4. ~ n, 1W'OOIJie.c ii 1
IIX n.

~, ! , .
n, n: 1. n I'0'1'08:
~ .
1. niU! w 10, 20,
330-QJf WOBIIe 3, 10 101 , 08 101 , : IIr
& 15, 20 , 15, G>:JCHOeJUfe, : ~2.
S-1 , , '11f
. .
n, n r r1n ,
ri n 11:uv .
2. JtJ:
- no
- r~. :. .l!,
rrr
- Jr,

- nt
- \f ~~
3. r : n.'! 1 n, n
'I , .: , , n
t .
4. m ellliblX ~ n ~rt\ )'
, :.r, .
5. :u, n u
lUiI. .
<J npca~~.o<rnoro n lf JI r DePJlIX n
(rr). if
JJIIll nr . , naltt
, fJ 25r/2 , n 2S.
6. r DJI , n
1f ur .Jmi, n n
n u.
7. r.t1 oncpauA:
- noro'J'OBK
- r101 , ~ r
- no.aroros
- nn ~ 11 m
- 'I n:l\
ARINE MECANICAL PLANTS 47
- aflcr removig thc lcad s1amps the thickess of 1hc compresscd past
of s1a mp is measured micro meter d is compared with formular
dat a.

4. Characteristjcs and parametcrs takep lto consideration al producin apd repair


of !he systems apd their comoonents.
Chojcc of tube materjals sealig mate rials . wetdjog electrodes. solder.
The s of resjos jo repa jr and producjg parts of tubes of dj(fe rel
syslcms
1. For pipelies seamless pipes of stecl mark 1. 20, watcr-gas-dclivcry pipcs wilh
seams. steel 3, I, 08. from low atloy s1eet 1 5, 20, 15, red copper, brass
62, copper-nicked S- 1. alumiium d aluminium alloys, from sy1hc1ic
materials are used. Ihe use ofthis or tha1 material depeods u the pipelie purpose,
pumped medium aggressivcess degree, pressure d not scldom is rcgulatcd tl1c
rules of ctassificatio society.
2. I~_!< .mai pipe defects arc:
- corrosion in lhe weiding places d atong a1t111e legth;
- corrosio of tlage parts aod pipe coections, fittings;
- cracks:
- breaks;
- tlaws d small orifices pipes;
- '\\' aod dets some pal1s.
3. During pipe rcpair il is perrnissiJe: to restore Oanges surfacig, 10 r lhem,
10 correct dets pipes, 10 '1\'Cid llaws. to melt rues after removing defec1cd pan.
4. Rcpair of copper pipcs maioly cosists of del correction, ti
suslitution , roastjg, docking.
5. Attachig w fianges d t is is produccd soldcring acctylene
g or elec1ric weldig.

of soft hard solders (electrodcs) is chose as weldjg rod depcndig


u the ecessity oflhe corrosion rcsist.ance of no-ferrous metal typc d operatig
pre5sure. For cxan1plc, to soldt:r d alloys providig pressure up to
25 kg,/cm 1 solders 25 used.
6. Repair of oil tubes more ofte ic ludes fianges repl acemel . thread
corrcctio conectios. clearig the seaJig surfaccs of ippels and
nages.
7. Making w pipes aoard consists of thc ollowig operatios:
- preparat.i o aod makig templets;
- anks, cutting and ending of pipes;
- pans prepa.ration;
- pipe mantlig with weidjg anges and o1her parts;
- hydraulic tests;
48

-
8. \ n:
, .. :I! . 11 I> ]iI
( cytte).
9. :
- n
- , ; !I raooll . n-
11 KOHI.\il 1 050-650',
11 1 050-95.
- ,
.
10. t t n
. n
II n
800-940' 2-3 1t 1 1 ,
- n 550-650' 1 1 .
11 . n
tt . lt
. 1 .

12. -r tt
n 42, 11 !l 10 20 -
42 - 1 3/45. 11
Jt n -
13/15 , - 1 3/45, - 13/II . ,
, n, r11
npftnal! 11-1f1 .
13. nt nJ
t. n
11 . n
n 2soc n'l}! n
2-3 n.
\ n u
t 1 't. n
~1 11 11 0-!SO'C.
14. n n
.1 , , 11 11 .
15. ft
n , . .
n
:
MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 49

- mounting on tbe spot


8. Bending tubes aoard ship is produced mainly t\vo \vays: bot, tha.t is,
i heated state and with t.he help of hand or hyd.raulic pipebende.r (if they are
avaiJable aboard ship).
9. The process ofhot tube bending is the following:
- befo.re bending pipe is filled with dry sand;
- pipe tubes which are to end are heated with gas bumer. Temperature of
the beginning and ending of pipe ending from ca.rbon steel 1050-650, \Vhile
tubes of alloy steel 1050-950;
- in the bending process the external side of pipe is cooled with water for
u.ni form extension.
1. Cold bending on the pipeending latches is more economical and e:fficient
than hot ending.
Before cold ending to raise plasticity general or !! annealing is produced
means ofsteel pipe eating up to 800-940 with keeping 203 min on 1 mm
thick, as.for d copper and brass pipes the temperature is 550-650 \vith keeping
to 1 min on 1 mm thick.
11. Ad.ding flanges and diffe~ent ends to pipes is produced with electric ar.c or
gas \veldiog. Before welding pa.rts and pipes a.re c\eaned from mud, rust and
grease to pure meta1.
12. We1ding ofmild, structural and low-alloy steels is cooducted with electrodes
ofthe type 42, pipes and parts of steels marks 10 and 20 with electrodes ofthe
type 42 or -13/45. Pipe welding and part welding ofmedium - car'on
and alloy steels is ma.de wit11 electrodes ofmarks -13/15, -13/
45, - 1 3/ll and others. Adding tlanges, connections, nippels, noz:zles
made of non-ferrous metaJs is produced mainly means of soldering with
acetylene oxygen flame.
13. h most common tubes are ones of polyethylene. heir repair consists of
cuttiog out damaged places and prepa.ri11g t1.1 port to install on the place cut.
Welding is carried out \Vith joint an air spray \Vith temperature 250 and
we[ding rod of diameter 2-3 mm of polyethylene.
Bending polyethylene pipes or pipes of viniplast does not differ in principle
from bending metallic ones. They are also filled \vith sand and are bended in
b.eated state at tbe temperature 110-1 50.
14. Under marine conditions to protect pipe surfaces from corrosion they are
covered with bakelite lacquer, are primed and paint.ed with minium.
15. protect tues from corrosion and repairing them under marine conditions
the resin is often used as \vell as materials made Qn tbe base of .
At present tbe most commonly used materials a.re the fo\1o\Ving:

4 9426
50

- Rapid - nii 11 ,
0110, II 1 ,
il , . t oppOI-IOIIIIX ; ii r
.
- Devcon 11 - n 11
J n.
- : - 1 uII nOitcpxoceti,
IUIII :> (ll> . .r1.).
JI t Ji. :11 ., :
w11~ (1 1, n n1n.
;ut .)
- Sttper Keramik -
n 11 n Blrc. lt
nSI IJOCC<IHO.1CHIISI li, i\ DYCODitX arpcCCIIBIIIX .
- D Z- IIIIIIOIJaOIICIIJII HIIKOppoIIOIIIII n, 38-
III u 11 ~: , II'I r-
r u1 . u>t J1 11
1 11 .

RxlliJJ>.iJ Q<I YCJ!O!!!IX Mi)CT~DCK I1X.


1. 1'10 :\r m.
npaRita n ~r. ,
:

- r , ..r r>r 1r
r , 111u r Dw 1 .
- n rr pacnQIIo-
c 11 m. 11 ii .
Corr unea.
- 11
, .
- 11 n.1 1t~t .q n 11 n
.
- 1r 113 n u
papewaccst
.1ii .
- uvr m . JI.JI n 1k1m
.~1 OJI II n11 n n nt
ICKII.

- u, 11
ll 1> 11 , no.11 r 11
.

- PyL'1ua u: rr r r . r
1 nu .
~ARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 51
- Rapid - t\vo component material, designed for rapid repair of
pipelines, restoring tbreads, sealing orifices, cracks, eliminaiing corrosions of
stee\ and cast iron parts;
- Devcon and are used for ihe same purposes at the repair of stee\ and
nonferrous pipes and mechanism parts;
- Titanium - to restore surfaces, damaged with corrosion or erosion (screw
propeller, hu\ls and pump rotors). lt is reconunended to use in tbose cases when
it is irnpossite therma\ actionon the restored surface (cylinders, bearing beds,
directions and so on);
- Super Keramik- is delivered in liquid and pasty state. lt is used to restore
parts working under aggressive media conditions;
- Devcon Z- is zincic anti-corrosion composition, its protecting properties
compared with coatings received the method of bot zincing. lt is
delivered in aerosol packs or jars having 1 1 volume. ( 1 (one) litres volume)

Safety precautions in repairing shgps.

1. Safety precautions instructions should put at every type of \athe. The


main rules of safety precautions at the \vork at tuming and drilling lathes are tbe
following:
- AJI the \athes should equipped with low-voltage \\ illumination,
providing good intensity ofthe operating zone.
- Facilities to start and to stop lattes should \ocated in suitab\e manner
and in such \vay that it would impossible to S\Vitch them on chance.
Button Stop)) should ofred co\our.
- Turning and milling lathes sluld possess safety screens, preventing chip
scattering.
- Oeck planking near bathe should have non-sliding surface or covered
with wooden grate.
- At \vork centring dri\1 to remove chips from the drilling orifice is al\o\ved
only after stopping \athe and removing drill from part which is processed.
- At \vork at drilling lathes to fix processed parts should used special
clamping facilities or machine vice.
- work at metal cutting lathes in gloves, mittens and with bandaged hands,
with hair not collected under head-dress is prohii~ed. .
- Sleeves of protective outer garments must have cuffs thickly fitted and
buttoned.
4
52

- , ~t
.
- t r
:
. .
t , .
- , .
tt . n
, n
.
- , n~
.

- n . nporo
. no .
- , n
lt r 11
, ,
10 .
- ~! wr
n .1 r
3 .
n 0,03 . 11
uJ.
- n
10%.
- n r n}~:t;
u r .
- , ~t 1
, t1, u11 .
- npana r n .
-
10.
R tf! n1
l' 11 ii .
1. .
i.
2. ,
1 n ,
n, , t
, , ..
11.
MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 53
- Abrasive tools and rotating salient ends of spindle and timber parts should
protected with protective cases.
- All grinding \athes with horizontal rotation of an instrument and hand
delivering tiJing should equipped witl1 protective screens \Vith inspection
\vindows connected to the starting deviccs. If screens are stationary, blocking is
unnecessary.
- At processing \Vith abrasive disks of articles kcpt in lands arm rests should
used. Arm rests sluld moblle, providing possibility to install then in
demanded position as the disk \VOtlld v.ork out.
- At the lathes where protective scrcen is absent, protective spectacles should
used.
- Arm rests aftereach rearrangemct should strongly fixed. Rearragement
ofarm rests dring \VOrk are not allowed.
- Arm rests should installed so that thc upper poi.nt of an article cotact
with an abrasive disk are \ocated at tl1e lrizontal surface passing throgh ihe
circle centre. or, above it, but not more than 1 mm.
- gap bet\veen the edge of an arm rest nd working surface of ar1 abrasive
disk sluld less the llf ofthe tllickness oftl1e abrasive articlc and not more
than 3 rnm.
- Spidle pulsation ofboring latl1e shot1\d not exceed 0,03 nun. While istalling
on the boring lathe <lisks shold ccntere(i.
- At work with two disks on one spindle diamctcrs should not <liiTer bel.\veen
each otl1er more tl1a11 10%.
- \Vork witl1 disk side st1rfaces is not allowe<l, if disk is rt dcsigned spccially
for tl!is kind of \VOrk.
- lt is prohiblled to work at tl1e boring lathe an abrasive disk has craves,
plsation, excentricity of fitting.
- lt is prolliited to adjust disks witl1 tools which are not designed for this
purposc.
- lt is prohiblted to work at metal cutting Jathes i rolling with listing more
than 10%.

:1 main regirements of safetv preca11tio


to tl1e elect1ic gas welding equipment d overalls of weldcr

1. \velder should provided \Vttl! overa\ls and individ11al protcction mcans.


2. protect against cold metal in c.or1fined spaces \Vel<lers should provi(led
witl1 felt covers and mats having resin layer, knee-caps and elbo\v-rests made
of cotto11 wool and canvas. \Vhile '"elding insidc boiler, tank and so on
'velder should have helmet of dielectric materials.
54

3. Jt tr oryr nlt
, ornp.\urre: 11 otGJ,

u 11 mrrnte L
t1 n.
4. arpcrar JI n11
.
S. n reepaopoiJ 1
J 80 . ii 350
, n~- 90 .
u 350 , JI 70
, 100 -75 .
6. m rr I!Ji a!l)e-
raro !t:: 1 .
7. epeatr..t<t~ie . nu11
.

8. 1 ~<."\
11 !i }'n.rt ttJt~
II~I. C6a(JOJiX , ll3 600 , OKOODOJVIII n .1
n , .
9. ."\ ns1 n
, IIMt 11t;
.
10. n .
lt r nlt3
.

11. t (:(N
,
t n J !

12 .
12. )" , , .n.,
n t1. nJ!
n 11 11 tle

ut I CCTII.
nt.
1. , , , , 11
11n . :
, 1 nn . nu nn}', 1\
J, .
2. 1 .
11 n u IVI
.
MRINE MECHNICL PLANTS 55
3. Transforrners, rectifiers and generators of direct and alternating current,
specially designcd for this may used as sources of current. Direct current
supply of \velding arc from the po,ver or lighting net is prohiblted.
4. \Vclding plants should protected \vith safcty devices from the supply
net.
5. Voltage of idling in welding direct crent generators should not exceed
80 V. For generators with rated current more than 350 is allowed to increase
idling voltage to 90 V. ldling voltages oftransformers at 350 and more should
not exceed 70 V and in transforrncrs 1- 75 V.
6. The length of cales between the supply net and moblle l\1clding plant
should not exceed 1 m.
7. Moile \velding plants during their movemcnt should S\vitched off from
tl1e nct.
8. Adjoining J to tlte elcctric holder and revcrse J to the \velding
article should relmieand is carried out \Vith meclnical clamps. At welding
currcnts exceedig 600 , cttrrent supplying i should connected to the
clcctric holder not usig its knob.
9. Connection ofl\'elding i should produced means ofhot soldering,
welding or \vith thc hclp of coupling sleeves with isolating casing.
1. An electric holder should tightly keep an electrode. k of an electric
holder shold made of dielectric heat isolating material.
11. At opcrations in extremely dangerous premises the welding plant
should have electric locking, providing automatic S\vitching tltc \velding
circuit at tl1e contact of an electrode \vit!! \Velded article and automatic
switching off the \Velding circuit at idling or dccrease of \Velding circuit
voltage to 12 V.
12. Cases of welding plant, \Vclding taies, plates and so as well as the
reverse \Vires slld grounded. Earthing ofmoblle \Vclding plants are carried
out beforc connecting tltem to the supply net and sluld not violated efore
their switching to the net.
Gas-\velding cquipment

1. Bttrners, cutters, hoses, reductors, valves and other equipmet should in


the operating state. Valves should reliaiy overlap gas, and packing not to pass
gas. Equipment exploitation \Vith lcakiness is prohibitcd.
2. Hoses shottld used in corresponde1ce vl'ith their purpose. Use of oxygen
hoses for delivering acetylene or vice versa is not allo,ved.
56

3. r, n, Ji n 20 , 40 .
4. t r .
5. r 11 n n'I' n
11 rn. 3
nn t l
.

5. ntt
npttopo , Jtr
, .~ii
11

t
r . l n.

rt n
1 n. 113 t
: , t, r, rJUr, ~
, , r, .
1. -
.
2. - lt 11 r
.

3. ru.- 113~ti\ . rt i
~ 100, 150, 200, 225, 500 ,<: t~'I' ~
II , 1 0,02 .
4. - C}".A(!rr }"<Jt . .
. 'I' : , n .
- < 0,01 .
11 1: 5075, 75-100, 100150, 150-200, 200-300, 300-
400 11 1000 .
- n
. tt 11 r ri\t,l
n .
- n 0-25
t n.
- 1t, nltJt u li u
: 1rrt n

, w n ( ) 1 , n
<J nuu ; !t .

, <Jm .
MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 57

3. The legth of hoses, as n.tle, sl10ld t exceed 20 m, sometimes 40 .


4. The use of defective hoses is prohiited.
5. Cuttcrs and bmers are controllcd for gas-tigl1tness not rarer tl1ao
month and i cases oftrouJes. Not rarcr 1han once monlh inspection and test
ot oxygen and acetylene reduclors should produced.

5. Tl1c use of manual.


Tools and instrumcnts for dismantling, technical maintenance,
rcpair and assemiing marine po"cr plant artd cquipmcnt

Manual Tools
The use of instruments and 1ools
delermine geomelrical sizes of' part different types and classes of
instrum.c.nts. nd tools arc uscd. Thc main of tl1c111 are: rulers, calipers, intcmal
gauges, slide gauges, micromelers, indicators, probes, templets and others.
1. Calipers are the simplest tools 10 measure extemal diameters of cylindrica\
surfaces.
2. Outside iside cal\ipcrs are tiJe simplest tools to measure inlernal sizes.
3. Slidc gaugcs are tbe instruments. Slide gaugcs witb tbe lcngtb of ruler
100, 150, 200, 225, 500 mm with the measuremen1 accuracy from 0,1 10 0,02
rnm.
4. micrometer serves for exlemal measttres . There are three classes of
accuracy in micrometers: zero, first and second.
- Measrement accuracy ot micrometers is equal to 0,01 mm. Micrometers
11ith measurement limits: 50-75,75-100, 100-150, 150-200, 200-300,300-400
and to 1000 m are being produced.
- Bcfore measurement micrometer check 1vith the help of an etalon is
produced. In the case of non-coincidence of zero dasiJ 1vitl1 lrizontallie
microetcr should replaced in certai order.

- micrometer 1vith measurement 1imits 0-25 mm is checked and regulated


,,ithout etalon means of measuring surfaces sl1iftiog.
- Measurement of thicknesses, legilis of parts is made i such sequence:
measured part is pressed bctlvec easured surfaces, microscrew rotation (ehid
ratchet) to the position, in 1vmch ratcl1ct begins rotating ildlig; microscre1v
is fixed 1vith an arrcsting device and size sought for is cotted scale.
58

- n I
t . r.

( ), MJUJe-rpoLI n 0,5 .
, u
, n 1 .
5. - n II
. m
50 63 , , 11
n 1500 .
- t1 , n n
n.
50 . n n .
n lt.
n , n t
J11.

- 11 n :
t.:1 !sr'!J 1 .
, t 1 n,
, n n n n
. .:1t tti lt
, 110 n
( n t) rt n11
. t n
; 11 1 n
.
6. n - n
11 r
Jii (, t1, ..) .
r n n ( n ,
tt, 1 .). 11 n n
, n 0-3,0-5, 0-10 .
- t n
1 . t
.
- r n n
n..
7. 11 ( ) - n
, 11 n
. :
) n (
) n u .
MRINE MECHNICL PLNTS 59
- Wltile counting an integer is number of fully \Vatched divisions in the
lo,ver part ofa scale under line. lfbet\veen tlte last determined division and
drum edge daslt is located thc top part scale ot stem (over Ji rte) 0,5
mm is added to thc rcceived nu mber. Hundredtlt ftactiorts are determ i ed
drum, the number ofhundrcdth fractions is equal to the figure of drum division,
coinciding \vith horizontal line on the stem.
5. Tubular typc inside micrometer is used to measure incr sizes. lt has
micrometric head \Vith measurement limits of scale from 50 to 63 1111n, and
cltangeaie attenuators \Vitlt tJ1e ltclp of which tttbular typc isidc micrometer
may made up to the limited size 1500 mm.
-Adjustment oftubular type inside micrometer efore mcasurement is produced
in tlte follo\\ing scquencc. Tubular typc inside micromctcr is istallcd for the
size of 50 mm, and is fixed \Vith an arrested scre\v. real size of tlte ltcad is
controlled \vitlt micrometer. Zero division of drum sltould coincide \Vith
longitudinal scales, \Vhile drum edge coincides wit.h the first dash of the
longi tudinal scale.
- Measurement means of tubular rype inside micrometcr is produccd in
suc\1 \vay. tubttlar rype insi<le micrometer is installed the size sot~ght for
a.nd is introduced in-to ilie rtteasttring ori fice. Otte end of tubular rype inside
micrometer is supported th..: casured surface, the oilier end of it is produced
S\\inging in lrizontal and vcrtical surfaccs. S\vinging is matched \Vith
simultancously scrc\ving up ofa tnicrometric scre\v up to tltc moment \Vltcn the
fartl1est point (from the stationary end of tubular rype i sidc micromctcr) in
the horizonta\ plane and the closcst to the vertical one is dctermined. Tl1c size
sought for is fixed with arrested scrc,v; tubular type inside micromctcr is
removcd from the orifice d thc scale readings are produccd.
6. An indicator ofthe clock rype is used to measure thc relative deflcction of
the parts sizes and to determine deflcction from geometrical form of pa.rts
(ovality, daugltt and so on), or dcflection of 111\Jtual arrangemcnt of part surfaces
(para\lelism, perpendiculariry, coaxiliary d so on). An indicator of thc clock
type-is produced in three classcs \Vith measurcment limits 0-3, 0-5, 0-\0 mm.
- Onc revolution of largc pointer of an indicator corresponds to the
displacement of measuring rod for 1 m. Thc nuber of full mimcters is
marked with small pointer.
- [ndicators of thc clock typc are used in cobination \Vith special devices.
7. An indicator \vith an intemal gauge (an indicating inteml gauge) is uscd to
cotrol deflcction of parts from geometrical form at inner measuremcnts. The
measuremet is made in the tollowing \vay:
) the rated size ofthe orificc measured is dctennined ( an intemal gauge
slide gauge) and the corresponding insert is selected;
60

) n tt ,
11 ;>
lltt

) 11,
1111r .

) HYJPOMCP I! 11
no - n

. 11
11 .~ .

8. - ,
n n 0,03 1,0 . ~
l': 1 11m n 30, 100. 200 .
N2 1 11 n
0,03 0, 1
N22 1 0,03 0,09
N2 3 11 n 0,030 0,5
N! 5, 6, 7 0,05 1
n 113 (
) n;ICTIIa n11 n
r . -, , r t1 ,
II, 11 , 11 i\ .
9. ;~ - ~ u 11
n .
110 () - n
1 n 11r, li .
1 . t
- , 20 n.
ii 16 . nI! II n
n 11 ( ) n
. cocoJL it III 11
;~ , : .l.


1. u r 1 ~~;, 1 -
31\\ IIHCTpyMC IITOB <I'f n 0 11II TCXIOI'ICC KM

II. 11 lt, 11
.

2. 1rr 11
11 11.
3. i\ IIMepetiI
II.
MARINE MECAN ICAL PLANTS 61
) an internal gauge is instal\ed micrometer at the minimal size in such
way that small pointer of an indicator is betwcen the second and third divisions
ofa scale;
) stationary insert is flxed, an indicator pointer is installed on zero tl1e
rurn of the dial;
d) an indicator internal gauge is inserted into measured orifice and
measurement is produced several bands in diametrically opposed points.
Minimal readings are selected means ofrolling device in the vertical plane.
8. Proes are used to measure gaps in the combinations of parts. They are
technical plates from 0,03 to 1, mm. Probes are made up in set \Vith the plate
lenglh 30, 100, 200 mm.
Sct No.l bas thickncsses of plates 0,03-0,1 mm.
Set No.2 has tblcknesses of plates 0,03-0,09 mm.
Set No.ghasthicknesses ofplates 0,03-0,5 mm.
Set No.5, 6, 7 has thicknesses ofplates 0,05-1 mm.
Wl1cn checking gap one may consider it equal to the platc size ( sum of
plates connected together), ifthis plate passes benveen surfaces, forming gap,
all the length with easy friction without cutting, pressing, jerks, sticking.
9. Thread templates are used to estimatc thrcad \Vear of parts and to dctcrminc
typc and size of the thread.
Threa.d templates (thread gauge) are sct offlat separatc plates \Vith cutprofilcs,
thread of different pitch. PJates arc gathered in general cassette and are
connected to each other hinged. Cassettcs have t\vo sets of plates: onc for metric
thrcad, consisting of 20 platcs, thc otl1er - for inch thrcad, consisting of 16
plates. When using tcmplates profilc of thread checked coincides (
generatrix) \Vith one of tl1e set plates. lf the state of thread is good, clearance
amog thread turns and template teeth should not exist or it should the same
everywhere.
Choice and use ofmcans in dcfectation

1. In defectation parts are considered to suitaie if \\'ears of them


instrument readings are in limits ofpermissiie standards technical conditions.
ln this connection it is not indiferent what instrurnent part is measured .
2. Measuring instruments are used depcnding upon the sizes ofparts and liits.
3. Surfaces of parts eing defected while measurig should clean.
62

4. ntm. n 11<1r l\ tt l!cpyellli'l


(~mpocpa~tlt. t 111..), , IHICT
11 .

5. : Ji pottIJO.li 11J .
6. 1 .1 . 11 , ..
oryi u tr 1 11 nop1e .
7. 1 1\1! lt TO'IJIOCI :I.11, ~I
11 u n1~ . tt .11
n<11-111.

g .

/. 8 1001/CIOCI///1 ()111 1\0HipOIIp)'e.IIOii cpedbl 11pll.41t'IIRIOIIIC C.lt>)'if(lle 1111


.I U.01''1111 1/1(',\/IIC'pamypl>i.
1. 1 ~t tt noaatli ,
IJCpXHIOt !!~I 50 500.
2. ll r ~r n :11<111 .
. .llltCr.ltIIO!IIIC ~t 11.
4. : r., 0-100.
1/. .1 u
1. 111r , IJ.1"-' n.1)'~t .111
t J ~1 rL1!t~t . ."' .
L n 1/3 2/3 1tii . ~~:r
11 1> . 11 t11.
1 (JJ npe.'tcax uopoii ). r
r t .:1n tt ul\ 11J. ~:.
11 :, npoucps~> 11:1 yc:ttutt i!
.
2. ~t 11 n~t t11 :UI
Jtt 11 tt 11 lt u r...

111. 1/,\/t 1/IOII!IOO.


~t nepT111<:\t,Oii n 11p1t u
L ru, uept<IJibHO~i wii - /111 1\\fepell\111
wr ( 3.5 J/tac}.
paGo1cc u 11 n 10 r/ 2
n cyOIIJlJIOii tJ +4 .'\0 ' a
TYIIIIO ii - 90. l!i.\u : .1 tta npJI-
o .

1V. .I .~t 11 .
1. Mcx.atttccol 1111n ; uii m l!plt~te tt
ec ;uJ t. n.11

ane111tst 11 n n pao'ICI'O u 11 Iit


r.:ii.
MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 63
4. You should not produce measuremcnt of heated parts with accurate
instruments (micrometcrs, indicators and so on) and not keep such instruments
in hands for long time.
5. One should not measure \Vith dirty hands.
6. lt is necessary to observe that an instrument \vould not llit ecause strokes
might cause accuracy losses or instrument damage.
7. With the course oftime an instrumentloses readings accuracy, this is \vhy
they should checked \vith other more accurate control measttring instntmets.

Intemal Combttstion Engine control devices

!. Depending uoon the controlled medium thc follo,ving instrurnents to measre


temoerature are used.
1. Glass mercurial thermometers \Vith lo\V limit of readings at 0 and uppcr
limit from 50 to 500.
2. Pressure-spring therrnometers \vith reading limits from 0 to 600.
3. Telethermometers \vith therrnocoples.
4. Glass alcohol therrnometers with scale of0-100C.

11. Jnstruments for measuring prcssure.


1. Technical manometers, vacuum gauges, vacuum manometers serve to
measure pressure at the exploitatio control. Operating pressure should
measured in limits from 1/3 to 2/3 scale readings. Manometers may have
control pointer fixing maximum pressure as well as red line (in the second
third scale limits). Tbere are recording manometers with pressure recording at
disc programme. Manometers being in exploitatio:t should checked on the
plant installation \Vith control manometers C\'ery 3 months.
2. Liquid manometers and vacuum manometers are used to measure pressure
and discharging in supcrcharged engine systems.

I. lnstruments to measttre fucl consumption.


Flo\v-meters v.ith vertical impeller are used at large cosumption of fuel,
1vhile flo\v-meter\vitl11rizontal impeller are used torneasure small cosumption
(to 3,5 mJ/h).
Ultimate operating pressttre for flo1v-meters does not exceed 10 kglcm2
Ultimate medium temperature 1vitl1 celluloid impeller +4 to 30, \Vith brass
impeller to 90". Flow-meters are installed all means on direct part ofa pipe.

!V. lnstn1ments for deterrnining po,ver and the numer of revolutions.


1. Mec-hanical indicator ofpressure \Yith rod spring is used to remove indicator
diagrams to deterrnine mean indicator pressure and control of operating process
in engine cyl inders.

2. It~tcprd ;rr 111111 <IJ1C.1Ccttr CJ1CIIItcru nt ;1:\ IL'tCIIII r; n


w 1.'111 .: .
3. :: rr pccollc r coGoii 110~r l'i!J II'J Ullllllllpa
II11111~1C.111 IIOCl)' llat:T ' II:IJI:'I IICIIOlllp :ITIIIolii KJiilllil11 . 13 i:I 11 Mii iiOMCTJJC
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.
11) :lcKTPII'ICCK IIc 1~1~0\IC'I(JII - Jl:II'III KII , 11 II IIX .: 110 PIIII!IIt iiY :J:tc
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;1111, )'CT<JIII)I.IJICIIIIt.lfi 11 <1 OUIIIcii OCII 0.: IIOKIOI.>IIIiiiOCii O.:(JC11I.:Oii . 0 11111UKa 11
OK;!'I;\IIIIHX n lliiXOII'I'CII 11 11\)l:,'l,t:JI:IX 1,5%.

c iHI>JO HaJIIIC l:pyJullt ii cpc;J~ll u I!J/1,\:J;l!L\11 11 s:


W rpy10Q;J'I ,6!III ol ~l S:DCIJCif1~ M .
J py JO I IO!I\!~ti!e ,\I M I\1111111 1 1\!J OC.lCII\1 !1 \!l l\11'1.'11 Bii I fi :\11
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1. 'I T<UII I ;:IIILI IIM\.: 1'1> <I'O~I<.I ICCKII J!Cik"''LIYIOIIC TU(JMOJa (p)IJO
).
2. :II pn Gma l'fiY3t1110.\1oIIHI X CpCJ!CT IIII p ll IICIICI IpaiiiiOCII ()~-
11 LIX }'1..'11JOiicm.
J. 11 O.lII I~ 11n. 11 11 :~~1t 11 rtt 11 r
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4. 1 1u :.t 0,5 , 1 IICIIOil bJI>II<J, 1'm. r:t
' l r t r 11.1.
MARI NE MECHANICAL PLANTS 65
2. Pimeters serve to determine mean pressure of gases in the cylinder
depending the time.
3. Enginc pear-indicator is maometcr to \Vhich gas from tl1e egine
cylider goes through check valvc. As result in manometcr pessue is
produced close to the pressure of gases in the cylinder. Measuremeot error is
0,2-0,3 kg/cm2
4. Taclmeters:
) hand tachometer to measure the number of revolutions \VitiJ s\vi tcl1ig of
thc measured speeds;
) mechaical stationary tachomcters are aranged like hand s. But they
have facilities to s\vitch on differet gs of the umber of rcvolutions;
) electrical tacbometers - sc1Jsors operate i them principle of d.c.
generator. Voltage produced the arnature is directly proportional to the umer
of its revolutions and is dctcrmined vol tmeter;
d) drag-cup tacbometers operatc the principle of attractio of \Vire
magnet. SteeJ..magnet receives rotation from tl1e shaft of ntor and creates
rotating magnetic field ' vhicl1 acts upo11 tlte thin-\\all cylinder instaJied the
common axis v.ith an indicating poiter. An error in instrument readings is in
limits 1,5%.

The s ofload lifting means ofan engine room and regujrernents


of safety precaions to load lifting means

Load lifting means of an engine room are the important component i the set
of \1 means and facilities 'vltich are used to fulfill various 'vorks.
Dismanlling heavy-\veight parts, mcchanisms of an engine room, large-scale
arnatures, assemling them on the spot and many other \VOrks are produced
with the help ofload facties of engie room.
Thcse facilities are hoist ciJin, levcr lock and tackle, pneuatic and gelfers
of clectric 1lnd pneumatic typc.
Load lifling 'vorks may dangorous because of occupatioal ijuries or
da1nages ol' engine room eqipme11t, tl1is is why the rule of safety precautions
dictate c.ertain requirements to tlte load lifting means and works.
1. Hand block and tackle should hnve automatically operating brakcs (loads
supportig).
2. The \VOrk of load 1iftig means is prohiitcd if brakes are out of order.
3. Sligs should bave tags \Yith indicatio of their loadlilling and should
inspected in the process of exploitation every 1 days.
4. lift load more than 0,5 t is allo\ved to use l metal slings.
5. \1-126
66

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 67
5. lt is prohibltcd:
- to strengt l1e guyropes \VIlile li fi ing hea\y parts 10 lhe occasional
arrangcmc ts;
- to pul strop on tl1e stock or fly\vheel \Vhile lifiing l1eavy armature, strop
should put on the armature case;
- to suspend k and tackle to the pipcline and ditferent marine facililies
esid es special eyes and so on;
- to put parts on lhe grid ofthe egi ne room ifthey are not cosidered on this
addi tional load;
- to raise hcavy parts during staying vcsscl in cruise or on the raid \Vithout
dircct control from tl1e side of scnior mccl1:111ic;
- to move \oads ovcr peoplc as wcll as Ull(icr raised parts and rnec!Jlisms .
6. Marinc lock and tacklc d telpl1crs slu ld testcd t rarely one time
year. Tcsts slu ld condtrctcd \vith sic and dynamic load. Tcsting load should
cxcced opcrating load :11 10%.

Con tllsttt11CIH5 and lstrumcts of parametcr registration


cotrol and registrate the main operaling parametcrs as \vcfl as to control
marine pO\\'Cr pfant dilfercnt types ofseff-rccorders, digital rccorders, proccssors
d computers.
1. Sclf-recordcrs arc i11struments registrating parameters of marine po\ver plant
in grapllie f1 d digital fonn. \Vhen par:uncters exceed admissi!e limits, sornc
sclf-recorders fix parameter vafue in rc<l, simultaeously ligl1t and sotd signals
,,jJJ \vor"k. Selfrecorders corrolling \Vater lcvef i the boiler, at the same timc can
control tf1c process of,vater supply of boilcr, working as processor.
2. Gra,incr is an instrumcnt designed to control oil fox i11 tl1c mo!or crankc:~sc
d at an icrcase of oil fog concentratio11 it scds cmcrgcncy signal.
3. Modcm control r:ans arc cqippcd \vith differct coJ11rol systcms of
plant; '"itl1 tl~ use of clcctron calclatig 1achincs ;d Ct.J111putcr:>. Systctns
aflo,v to cotrof cot iuo;fy tl1e mai btrdlcs and dicscl as \vholc d 10
corro l tt only all operating parameters, t engine pO\\'er, specilic fuel
consumption and others.
-1. All systems and Ll1eir components, devices a nd arrangements havo
manufacturer's instructions on expfoitation and technical maintcnace \vhich
onc sl1oufd fo!lo\v in practical \\'Ork.

6. Oesigned ch~tra rtcrjstics and materia! choice d


at eq tr ipcn t p ro d11 ction

\Vhc11 carrying out rcpair prophylactic \Vorks aoard sl1ip it is nccessary to


fu lfil tf1c fo!lo\Ying opcratio11s:
68

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WARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 69
1. Defectation of mecln i $, in the process of whicb parts lia!e to
;ubstitution or repair are detennined.
2. Determination ofmarking the demanded part Catalogoe ofspare parts))
nd find ing it in the s\1ip supply. lftltere is spare part, it \Vould replaced i
.:orrcspondence \Vith accepted teclology.
.3. Determinatioo of part rcpair teclology liale to repair \vi tlt regard to
possibilities of marie repairing cqipmet. Wlten determining part rcpair
technology it is ecessary to use thc manufacturer's ittstruction, dra\vings and
t<?chnicalliterature ofthe senior mecl1anic library Reference book ofa marine
r:1~chanic, Technology ofmarine rcpair and many others.
4. Selection of the necessary materials for repair according to indications,
dra\vings, recommendations of tcchnical 1iterature.
5. Decision of making separatc parts (coatig bushes, centrif'ugal pump sltafts,
the shafts themselves, pisto rings for pistor1 rigs, fastenings, sea\ing rings of
ccntrifuga\ pumps and many others) shou\d conected to the a\ailaility of
c~mnded materials d possiilities of tl1c sltipshop.
6. Teclology ot' making these pa1ts,, their assem!ing \vith ::gard to tl1e
n~cessary putting, gaps, tightness is determined requircents, dra\vi gs.
stnrctions or tl1e base of informatio f"ro techicalliterature.

7. Reading of Dra\virs and Rcfe rerJcc Books cort cerni J mecl1anisms

The order of srudyig echan isms. devices, systcms aoard is the follo\ving:
1. study manufacturer's instruction of mechanism, arragcmcnt. systc.
~ . study the arangement of mcchanism dra\vigs and dcscriptions.
3. study mechanism on the spot comblning this \\'itl1 studyig marinc
i n>tructios ho\v to exploit mccl1anism.
-1. study description and principa/layout oftl1c dcmar1ded system. After
r~ ft r~ :~.:t:ssary coi/IIC suyrng tlle systcm tn tne engme norng
th~ arangement of valve boxes, scparate arrnature, devices and thci1 purposes.
sltrld fo\low the \vorkig schcmes, prepared the personnel and located
t:l thc gi room. scheme produccd independently is memorized well.
5. \Vhile reading dra\vings onc sltould usc knowledge acceptcd in the process
ol study.
6. ln the list of marie techical literature there mst all thc rcfcrcnce
books d techrucal literature (on tcchnology of arine repair, on intcmal
.:ombustio engie repair, auxiliary systems repair and others). Tl1ese books
may help to sol\e pro\ems appcared i cruise.
70

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ARJNE MECHANICAL PLANTS 71

8. Operating Charactcristics of Equipmcot and Systcms

lntetl Combstjon Engines

1. Sef\icing diesel plant is operation should providc:


) the
dcmanded running and slllp maouevving;
) reliability of diesel opcration excepting damages and emcrgcncics;
) receiving the dcmadcd diesel po\ver at minimal fucl consumption and
keeping the proper technical state ot' diesel.

2. In the process of diescl plant operation \Vatch mechanic should conduct


systcmatic observation of the diescl operation in servicing, as \\'ell as engine
room pipelines rcadings of monitoring deYices and inspection and
monitoring following the manufacntrcr's instruction and rules or technical
exploitation intemal combustion engines.
't .. ~

3. Tl1c main objects of obserYatio:


The number of diesel rcvolutions, exltaust gas turblne superchargcr and
propeller scre\v.
- Circul11ting oil pressttre cfore and afler oilcooler, levels of circulating oil in
the crankcase of ilgc daily supply tlk..
\Vater pressurc cooling an engine and the exhaust gas turbine supercharger
of \Vater, oil pressure cooling piston, tcmperature of entering water, temperature
of disclrging \vater, temperaturc of water, oil and air on the inlet and on tl1c
cutlet, temperature of the cooling \Vater (fuel) on t!Je ilct ijector and on the
ootlet of thcm.
- Fuel pressure afier delivery pump, tempcrature or viscosity of oi\ bcforc fucl
pump ofhigh pressure (for dicsc\s opcrating on the heavy fuel), the level offue\
:! daily supply and setlling tanks, pres5ure offuel (\vater) in the injector cooling
systems.
- Air pressurc in tl1e starting bottle.
- Pressurc d tcmperature of scavenging air, pressure ot' supercharging air
s, tempcraturc of supercharging air before and afler aircoolers steps.
- Tepcr11ture of exhaust gases cylinders, mean after discharge manifold,
efore and aftcf\vards exhaust gas-turbine supercharge.
- Temperature of diesel earings, of gear, thrust bearing, shaft line bearing.
4. Depending on tl1e composition ofmarine powcr p\ant obscrvation objects
might more or less of above- mentioned.
72

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- 55-65.

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) t +/-2,5
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lolRINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 73

5. Numcrica1 values of the controllcd parameters for each type of dicscl is


detennined tlte maufactcr's inslruction and thc marine islntction on
diese1 cxploitatio workcd ottl on its base.
6. Accurding to r11Jes oftechica1 exploitatio thc mai parameters of diese1
;hould havc the following vales:
- Heating of main, crank, tltrust and radial bearings of thc sha!'tline (at their
bbitig) slu1dn 't exceed 5.
- Tcmpcrature ot' \vater leaving cach cylinder should not exceed:
) 45-50 !"or diesel \vith sea \Vater cooling;

) 75-85 Jor cooling closcd cuoling systcm conncctcd to tl1c atmosphere;


) 95-1 05 J'or diesel \vitlt closcd coolig systcm having stcam air gate.
- Temperaturc ditcrcncc ol'water entering diese1 and kaving it should 5-
: d i itensive diesels are allowed drops from 10 to 20 .
Temperature at t!Jc pisto out1et should 55-65 . At coo1ing the pistons
oil at tiie'outlet should not excced 55. Coolig temperaturcs ditcrence
should 8-12.
. Prcssurc drup ot' starting air should rt exceed 5 kglm3
Charging air tempctature in the supcrcharging receiver should at 2-4
higl1cr thcn temperatre !' the bcginnig of \vater vapour condensatio .
ln the case of using - hcavy fuels, it is necessary to maintai maximum
~rmissiic temperatt1re ot' J'ue1 heating in tanks, connected to the atmospl1cre
~~ lcast at 15 lo\ver than tempcrature of fucl flash.
- prcvcnt steam gaseotts bags at ltcavy fuels heating to temperature of 80-
110' and morc it is nccessary to maintain fuel pressure in the systent before
iuel pump of l1igl1 prcssurc t IO\'ICr than 3-4 kg/cm1 . .

- At rating regime of operation diesel parameters values for each cylinder in


' should not exceed:
) mean indicator pres~ure Pi 2,5;
) maximurn pressure of cnbustion Pz 5;
) temperature of cxlust gascs t 5;
d} d compressing pressurc 2,5.

Steam boilcr
1. 11 mai" exp1oitation parameters of steam boilers are: boiler steam
~iiiciecy, stcam operating pressurc, stcam pressu:, at \Vhich saH: valves trigger,
steam pressurc at \vhich boiler starts autoatically (at boiler operation at
~utuatic regime), steam prcssurc at w!Jich boi1er stops automatically.
74

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ARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 75
2. Steam boiler exploitation, should carried out man ufactttrer's
instruction. If there are no demandcd indications on cxploitation and tcchnical
maintenance of boiler in manufacturer's instructions, it is necessary to
ruled thc rules ofTechnical Exploitalion of stcam boilers.
3. Steam boilcr maintcnace in the proccss of opcration should provide:
) the dcmanded steam efficiency, necessary parameters and steam quality;
) rcliaie and safe boiler opcration and scrvicing equipment;
} economic boilcr operation.
~- carry out these requiremcnts continuous control shou\d organized
d include:
- ,,ater le\el state in the boiler;
- proper fumacc proccss;
- mai ntaining the dcmanded steam parameters;
- keep the \Vater regimc and \Vater control;
- keep i good con<i_on. boiler, cquipment se\icing it, automatization mcans
a.:1d testing instruments.
5. control the boiler state it is ncccssary to inspect periodically:
- boiler and its fittings;
- boiler fumace;
- oiler brick\vork;
- heating surfaces observed;
- pipelines;
- ,,atcr gauge glass;
- monitoring equipment.
6. Steam pressure sbould controlled not Jess than t\vo pressure gauges.
7. boiler should equipped ,,ith \\'ater indicating instruments ''-hich sl1ould
t:1\e marks \\'ith signs: operating Je,cl, IO\\' permissiie \evel, Upper
~ssi\e level.
S. \Vhile operating boiler \Vater levcl one should maintain at the mark of
~rating Je~el.

9. Boiler opcration \vith incocct \Vatcr indicating instrument is not allo,vcd.


1. Fuell1eating should provide standard operation of fuel boiler system.
Heating fuel teperaturc should selected taking into consideration fuel
n:

)in daily supply tanks - to the temperature pro\'icling fuel pump operation.
But not more than 10 lo\>er of fucl steam flash;
76

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1- 2- n,
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ARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 77
) after fuel l1cater (before bmer) depending upon the nozzle type to the
temperaturc providing fuel pulvcrization to viscosity 3-4 \vood,voith.
11. Burner spray should not strikc the furnace coaling and heating surfacc.
\2. While sv.itching on waste-hit boiler '''ith by-pass gas flue \vith sma\1
Joad regimes of diesel it is recommended to discharge spent gases excepting
oiler.
13. At the exp\oitation of automatic control system it is necessary:
) to collate periodically rcadings oftesting instruments and boiler control1ing
instruments;
) to check periodically automatic control system adjustmcnt.
14. put into operation boiler is prohibited:
) ifthere is damage ofsafety valve, \Vater indicating instrument or pressure
gauge;
) \Vhen two correct feeding ids are absent;
) if superc hatging.systems and valves, fuel delivering systcms, air systems
incoect;
d) if there are damages of emergecy remotc control drives of safety check
and quick closing vlves;
) if there are cracks in important prts of boiler non-sealed;
f) \vhen control, protection nd signalling aids of automatized oilers r
incorrect;
g) if the number of choked tubcs and their bending exceed Register Rules
standards or tubes and conncctions are broken;
h) iftbere are leak.s in connectiong ofpipe grids;
i) \vben coating of protected parts in steam water and water drums (even onc
of tbe \\'a!\s of boiler furnacc) is broken; .
j) >vhen swellings on the flat \valls of fired ports exceed the certain standards;
k) iflocal and gencral '' 'ears, defects, corrosions of drums, sheets, oi ler metal,
tues and othcr exceed sizes providcd in Register Rules;
l) \vben condensers, feed 'vater filters, deaerators, ctering devices for
introducing chemical agents into the boiler and oil scparators are incoect.

Air compressors

1. Thc principal exploitation parameters of air compressors : cfficiency,


rotation speed, air pressure of the 1" and 2""' stages, electric motor load, oil
pressure in the lubrication system, pressure ofthe cooling \vater, temperature of
the coo\ed water, temperature of air after cooler ofthe 1" and 21 stages, prcssurc
at \\'hich safety valves of the 1., and 2"d stages are worked out.
78

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MRINE MECHANICL PLNTS 79

2. Comprcssor exploitation shou\d produced according to the


manufaclurer's instructions and Rules ofTechnical exploitation.
. Control ofthe compressor operation should caied out readings of
standard testing instruments as \>Jell as means of monitoring and touching
the main compressor bundles.
4. Systcmatical contro l of tl1e main operating parameters antl states of
cornpressor bundlcs, tllcir understanding, comparing with previous readings and
their analysis allo\v timely Y.'ithout compressor dismantli;: to fd defects in
compressor operation and their elimination preventing sudden compressor failure.
5. Somc cxamples ofexisting corn1ection ofoperating parameters \viili teclical
state ofbundle parts and compressor as \>Jhole are given bclo\v:
) comprcssor efficiency dcpcnds upon tl1e rotation speed of compressor
(state and tighteni ng of tcxrope), state ot i!et and delivery valves, cylinder
state of the piston group, the crankshaft bearings, aircoolcr cleanliness of the
1" and 2nc1 stages and others;
) air pressure aftcr tl1e 1'' and 2"d stapes depends upon.thc state ofinlet and
del ivery valves, tl1e state of ilic cylinder piston group;
) oil pressure in the lubrication systcm depends on several factors including
technica\ state of compressor oil pump, the state of frame and crank bearings
of the crankshaft;
d) cooling v.ater prcssure depends upon \vater pressure in the system of salt
v.ater cooling, filtcrcleanliness before the compressor. Tempcrature ofthe cooling
water at the compressor inlet depends in its pressure in the system and upon thc
cavity cleanliness of ilie compressor cooling;
) the nr of comprcssor revolutions depends upon the electric motor
power, the state of strop transmission, technical state of compressor.

Pumps
1. The main exploitation characteristics of pups are: cftlciency, thrust,
pressurc, suction, height of suction, rotation speed.
2. Exploitation of pumps should carried out according to ilie manufacturer
and the rules oftechnical exploitation of auxiliary mechanisms.
3. Co1ttrol of pump operation shou!d carried out readings of standard
testing i nstruents and systematic inspections, monitoring and touching tl1e
pump bund!es.
4. Systematic and careful control of paramcters and pump bundle state allow
to find abnormalitics in the operation of pumps.
5. There is certain connection betwcen operating charactcristics of pumps
and ilieir technical statc:
80

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IIIARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 81

) centrifugal pump efficiency, prc:ssure of suction, thrust dcpcnd on the


irnpeller wear, sea\ ring, gasket \vear, fi lter cleanliness suction;
) the main characteristics of the piston pump depertd on the statc of inlet and
delivery va\yes, their springs, cylindcr bush statc, piston, piston rings, redctor
statc, stock gasket, filter cleanliness sction.

Systems

1. The main exploitation characteristics of any system are: pressure and


tcmpcrature ofthe working medium, transmissive capacity.
2. Contro\ ofpipeline system state is carried out testing instrumcnts, installed
thc controllcd parts or the equipment serving tl1e systems as \\'\1 as
means of systematic inspections and density checking.
3. Pressurc value regulation in the systems is carried different \vays
including reduetion bypass valves.
4. Tempcrature r~tilation is produced eithcr automatic thermoregulator or
"\\ith the help of bypass valvcs.
5. Pressure drop in tl1e system may caused diftcrent reason includig
fla\v appearance, fracturcs, leakinesses i tl1c tube cuectios.

9. Safe eogine ' vatch

Procedure of accepting \vatcl\

1. Taking 'vatch engineer should arrive in the engine room 10-15 inutcs
lxfore his \Vatch beginning in order to inspect carefully all operating and rcserve
mechanisms, systems, devices of the engie room.
2. engineer acceptig \Vatch is o!iged:
) to inspect a.plat, to control carefully good condition of equipme11t and
sure that all dicsels, auxiliary mechanisms and other equipment oCthe ship power
plant operatc i constant conditions;
) to chcck the correctness emergency preventivc alarm and protection of
ma.rine po,ver plant i correspondence \Vith the instruction;
) at operation of an auxiliary steam boiler, \Vaste-oiler one sluld check
steam pressure, water level in thc boilcr and hot \vel ~ check feed pump operation,
fumace arrangement, examinc oi\cr torcl1 through peep-hole;
d) to examine an outside ispection of non-operating cquipent;
) to check 'vater absence under the engine room platcs;
f) to check ruel prcsence in dai\y supply and setting tanks;
82

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 83
g) to check oil\evel in circu\atig and settling tanks; 1
h) to check water \evel in an expansion tirn_e_; '?{... ., !((,.
i) to make an acquaintance \Vith records in the engine register, made the
prcvious watch, and to get infom1ation from shilling mechanic t the \vatclt
occurred, trouies and incorreclnesses as \vell ag orders madc the \vatclt;
j) to mark the \Vatch begining tlte automatic recorder paper;
k) to check if all mcn go on \vatch and to gct rcports of motormen about thc
state of eqipment accepted;
1) to rcport thc senior echanic t all the obse\'cd troies; taking \vatch
in thc casc of troulcs; taking \vatclt in tl1e case of trouics is allowcd only
the permission of thc scnior mecltanic.

Duties of \vatcii en~ieer <luring \vatch nderway

\. \vatch eginccr should stay continuously at thc dicscl control port. In


casc \VIIcn \Vatclt cngineer should stay r mecltaisms locatcd tar tlom tl1e
control post he siuld substituted tllc person from the watch \V \VhO is
prepared in the best \vay. Ifthere is remotc corttrol of diesels continous slaging
of egineer is 1101 eccssary.
2. \vatcl1 cnginccr should maintain dicsel load and rcvolutios in
correspondence witlt thc senior meclnic's orders.
3. lf during keeping \Vatclt it is nccessary to t tlte mair1 diesel into/ot of
!he exploitatio regime as \Vell as tl1e regimc changes, one should follow senior
mechanic's ordcrs and cxploitation istn1ction Joad sluld increased (decrcascd)
gradually <fclaying at cach stage. Diesel operation witlt critical rcvolutions is
prohiited. t cltanging llte nmber ot'rcvolutions, it is nece55ary to pass critical
re\olutions areas or zones of rcvoltions causig vibrations of vessel as fast
!5- possile.
4. lt i~ ncccssary to control periodically uniformity ot' load distt;bution
.:ylindcrs the spent gases te111peratt1rc.
5. ln plants with two diesels operati11g on the screw tltrouglt reductor it is
r:o:essary to follo\v tiform distribtion bctwccn diesels.
6. If tlte main diesels is conectcd to the propcller diectly, to avoid diescl
o\erload at the resistance increase of sltip propulsion it is necessary to follo'v
t::le spent gases tcmpcrature cylinders \vhich sluld not cxcced pcrissiie
,-lues. agreement Viith the bridge and senior meclics it is necessary to
1.:>'\er rcvolutions and the main diesclload if tl1e spent gases temperature
cylinders reaches the maximum permi:;sible values.
7. lt is necessary periodically but not rarely than cach Jialf an ltJr to check
~ratio and lbricate rubing parts of inlet and outlct valvcs.
84

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IIARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 85
8. Periodically but not rarely thn each half an hour it is necessary to pass
:uound diesel nd the engine room and check diescl state instruments,
ar or to thc touch as wcll as thc statc of all mcchanisms and systems.
9.11 is necessary to listen attentively to al\ noises, knocks and diese\ vibrations
cf the diese\, exhaust gas turbinc supercharge, reductor, the s\1aft line, all
operating mechanism and diffcr all abnorma\ noises, knocks and vibrations
O:!dicating abnormalitics in the opcration.
1. Ifnoiscs, knocks orvibration of dangcrous characterand it is impossic
~ define the reasons of' their appearance, it is necessary to lo\ver load
{reYolutions) and to stop diesel.
11. Jt is necessary to follow the operation ot' an auxiliary steam boiler and
.-a;;te boiler paying attention to watcr level in the boilcr, steam pressure,
.::ombustion proccss, form and size ofthe torch in the boiler furnace. One sluld
s.:avenge periodically (not rarely tl1an once per watch) watcr-indicating
En.strumcnts of boilcr.
12. Periodical upper and lo\ver boiler scavenging should carried out
10atch mechahic on the permission of senior mccl1anic, previottsly
es-..lished graph and in correspondencc \Vith the instruction acting.
13.At foaming, boiling out and rush oftl1e boiler water, indications of\vhich
re sharp vibrations of\\ater leve\ in the \Vatcr indicating instruments, hydraulic
s:rikes in the steam lines, it is necessary to rcport the senior mechanic, to
-s..a\enge the boiler with ttpper scavenging, to lowcr \vatcr \cve\ to the JO\\'est
, to decrease boiler load.
14. The required pressre and temperature ot' oil (if tl1erc are no
~ermoregulators) in the circu\ating diesel lubrication, exhaust gas turbinc
supercharge, reductor, controllaie pitch propeller in diesel cylinder lubrication
S)stem.
15. At sudden pressre drop or at extremely increascd oil temperature in tl1e
cireulating system, it is necessary to dccrease the numbcr of revolutions (to
mnove load from diesel ruting for generator) and to usc rcscrvc oil
;unp. All shou\d reportcd to thc chief engineer and to the bridge.
16. lt is neccssary periodically but not rarcr than once per hour, to check oil
rel in circulating tanks, diesel crnkcase, in the tanks of redtlctor and
=trollaie-pitch propeller.
17. lt is necessary to follow oil prcssures changes before and after oil filters.
They should limited the values delined in instructions.
18. lt is necessary to maintain pressure and tcmperaturc of the cooling water.
19. One sluld check water level in tl1c expansion tank pcriodically but not
::t!e r than once per watcr.
20. One should follo\v fucl in daily spply and settling tanks.
21. lt is necessary periodically to examine all thc fuel system of an engine, to
ccntrol fel pressre after the priming pttmp.
86

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IIARINE MECHNICAL PLANTS 87
22. One should check periodically on touch tcperature of fuel u ofliigh
pressure and high pressurc tubcs.
23. One should foiiO\Vnoz.zle operation. Sticking nozzle necdle or \vedding
plunger offuel pump ofi1igh pressure may : found after stopping fuel pulsation
in the no7.zle tube sharp knocks with high tone in the cylinder, diescl
revolutions changes and otl1cr indications.
24. Just altcr start and then periodically it is necessary to check temperaturc
of pipcs leading to the cylinder starting valves. pipe is heated in the point
vhere the starting val ve leaks.
25. One should foiiO\V rcvolutions of exhaust gas turbinc supercharge and
supercharging pressure.
26. Thru$t and intcrmediate bearings, as \Vell as deadwood gaskets should
examined a l1er cacll hour ot' opcration. Their temperature, oil levcl in the
supporting tank ofthe deadwood arrangement Siplex should controlled.

Duties of \\atch nr berthing watch

1. maintain thc requircd rcadiness ofmarine power plant.


2. control operating auxiliary diesel generator stcam boiler and othcr
mechanisms and systems providing ship's li fe, read in~ss ofmarine po\ver plnt.
3. t:ontrol keeping \\'atch motormen.
4. control carrying out of safety precautions and fire safety ofthe Pt~sor.nel
. .
an engtne room.

5. carry out periodically pass-around an engine room inspccting all thc


premises, mechanisms, cquipment.
. control watcr absence under plates of an engi11c room, taking measurcs
10 dry it. Contamination of the sea is prohiitcd .
7. control in an engine room closing and sealing the valvcs which should
closcd according to the plan ofmcasures preventing sea contamination.
8. provide conducting the bunkcring opcrations, in particular, maintaining
the readiness of fire extingishi ng aids.
9. providc readines$ of actio of all aids of tight for survivaility.
10. At lire board st1ip Captain's order or \~atcl1 assistant to put into
operation crbon dioxide plant (if senior mcchanic or second echanic is
asent board ship ).
11. l fthere is system of maintaining diesel in reserYe, control pcriodically
operation of'this system and its density.

Proccdure of co11trolling aids of figh t f survivabty of s hip


\Vatch engineer at coming on watch or at the lirst minutes of \vatch
;bould carry on the foiJo,ving checks:
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ARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 89
1. Rcadiness of fue pump their slllrting and short-term operation.
2. Opcnings-closings offire system valves \vitb remote control.
3. Emergency signalling.
4. Signalling actions on flooding the enginc room.
5. Operation of distant and local drives of tl1c sliding door and ligbt hatcl1es.
6. The presence of all fire hoses, connecting them to the fire homs.
7. Availability on the stations of portaie accuulator lantems.
8. Availabllity on the stations of an engine room of fire extinguisbcrs and
mobilc auxiliary fire plant.
9. Completeness of sets of emergency equipment on the emergency stations
of an engine room.
1. Readiness of an engine room to sealing.
11. Readi ness of drying aids of an engine room.

Procedure of contol\ing emergency pre\enti\'e ala rm,


......... con.
. n ection system \\'ilh the bridge
1. Arter accepting \Vatch \Vatch cchanic reports '''atch captain 's assistant
aout \vatch, at the samc time c!Jccking all the connections \vitl1 tl1e bridge.
2. During pass-around of all quartcrs of an engine room \Vater mechanic
checks all types of connections of the ti ller compartment 'vith the bridge.
3. Emergency preventive alarrn of marine po\ver plant is checked the
follo,ving may:
- lt is checkcd if the cells of emergcncy \vaming signalling console h.a ,e
green colour.
- It is checked bulb integrity in all cells means ofpressing button <<Chcck.
\Vear of sound and ligl1t sigal is cl1ccked the force action upon one of
thc! controlled aangemen t (for cxample, pressing upon gap control
arrangcmet catch).

~ Procedre of checking rcadiess of reserve aids


(p11mps. compressors and so )
Information about reserve mechanisms \vhich are rcady to substitute operating
ones is broadcst as rule \vatch.
\\1 tch rncchanic does not check readincss ofreser\'e mechanism starting
them. 1f thcre are doubts, '''atch mcchanic may check any rcserve mechan.ism
starting it

Procedure of pass-around of an engine room on coming on \Vatch


and during keeping \vatch
1. Eacl1 mechanic should prepare for himself an optimal route of pass-around
of an enginc room \\'hiie keeping \\atch.
90

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IIARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 91

2. Routes of pass-around should include all the platt'ors and preises, all
operating and reserve mechanisms, systcs, arrangements, refrigcrators and
~lectric equipent. If there is central control post, examination is over on it.
3. At periodical passes around of an engine copartment during keeping
\\atch pass-round route chage but control objects and exaination should
included into route.

Actions of watch mechanic at draiig ilges of an engine room. fuel


transfcr d ballast at bukcring
l. Draiing ilges of an engine compartent, fuel transfer and ballast transfer
should carried out \Vatch mechanic on the perrnission of scnior mechanic
and captain 's \Vatch assistant.
2. Draining ilges of an engine compartment sluld carried out according
to the requirements of International Convention of Pre~enting arinc
containation 73/78.
3. Fuel d ballast transfers may cause listing and diffcrent, abormal tenses
ofthe sllip huH;Iead to thc sea containation, to create fire hazardous situatio11
at fuel surges from the measuring tubes near operating echaniss. This is
\\hy these operations are responsiie arine operations \vl1ich should carricd
out in certain sequence and at carying out the certain rulcs. So, ar fuel and
ballast transfers it is necessary to fulfil the follo\\'ing rules and operations:
) Fuel and ballast level measuring in tanks and cistcrns.
) Preparation offuel ballast systen1 (opeing!closing the vaJ,es the schce,
plug c\osing check on tl1e easuring pipes and checking of tube and system
density).
) Preparation pups to the operation.
d) Transter shou\d comenced 'vitl1 sall efficiency and only after
controlling system adjustment correctness and controlling the right \vay offuel
.nd ballast one may increase pump delivery.
) It is ne~essary systematically to controllevels in cistem uscd in transfer
operations.
f) One should control sealing ofpipelines and armature ofthe system, pump
operation.
g) foJlo,v vessellisting and not to allow its increasc r than 2"'.
h) Not to forgct about fulfilling the ain duties ofa \vatcll engineer on keeping
\\atch.
4. Bilges draining operations should fixcd i the Engine Ioom Logbook in
"'hich the follo\ving data sluld detennied: quatity ot' the draining
petroleum-,vater mixture, time of the start and the e11d of draiing ilges tluough
separator, coordinates of vessel at tl1e oment of start and d of operatio.
92 ,

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llRINE MECHANICAL PLANS 95

4. During works of marine po\vcr plant it is necessary to control the follo\ving


main parameters (depcli11g upon tl1e lay out ofarine power plant):
- spent gases temperatrc cylindcrs betorc and aftcr thc main fuel pump;
- cooling \Vater temperature at the ilet and outlet of an engine, f and
1fter water coolcr;
engine lubrication system oil temperature, reductor or controll ale pitch
~ropeller;
- masoute temperature after masoute superheater;
- oil temperaturc ofpiston cooling at each cylinder, !ubrication oil temperature
of the main fuel pump;
- fue\ temperattlre betore and at'ter tltc nozzle coo\ig systcm cooler;
- temperature of an engine thrust bearing, reductor bearings, deadwood
.rrangements;
- the sea \'/ater temperature and in the cnginc room;
- supercharging air temperature in the scavenge receiver cfore and after
ruperchargig air cooler;
- oil pressure in the engine lubrication system, tl1e exha;t gas turbinc
supercharge, reductor, controllaie pitch propeller;
- fuel pressure after fuel teeding pt1mp;
- salt and fresh \vater cooling pressure;
- supercharging air pressure;
- starting air pressurc;
- steam prcssure in the oilcr or in the \\'aste boile,
- lubricating oiJ pressure beforc and after filter;
- engine revolutions and the main fuel n revo lutios, turn ang1e of
controllae pitch propel\er;
- ship speed i knots;
- oillevel in tl1e circulating tank or in the crankcasc.
5. Iftherc are autoatic recorders oftl1e main paraeters valucs it is necessary
:11 coming on \Yatch to make record on the automatic recorder tapc aout the
datc and time of the mark.

Procedure of rclicving 'Yatch in tl1c Jlort and undevav


1. engineer relie ving >vatch should pass to the watcltman t11e tollo\ving:
) orders of senior mecl1anic concC1ing to thc opcration rcgitne ofthe main
d.iesel, auxiliary diesel gencrator, boilers, odter mechanisms and systcms and otl1ers;
) ordcrs from t\1e bridge, concerning to the operation regime, fuel and ballast
~umping and other operating proiems;
) information aout troules and icorrectncss in the opcration ofthemain dicscl,
xiliary diesel generator, othcr mechanisrs and measures to e !imiate them;
d) information about repair opcrations in the engine. room and especially fire
'<;O. orks;
96

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ARINE MECHANICL PLANTS 97
)information aout unfiished opemtions of pumping fuel, ballast, ballast
rcccption and others.
2. Aftcr caying out above-mcntioned operations, \Vatch engineer signs in
the engine joumal about relieving watch and he may leave thc cngine
compartment on the pennission of chiefengineer, i f chiefengineer is present
at the moment in the engine room.

Control of observing safety precautions and fire safetv on watch


1. \Vatch mecbanic during going on \Vatch is responsiic for fulfillment of
safety precautions rules and fire safety watchmen and control fulfillment of
safcty precautions rules and fire safcty repair teams working in thc enginc
compartrnent
2. Bcfore fulfillent ofoperations watchmen watching mechanic should
instruct them in safe methods of operation, to check safety of the operation
place, completeness and correctness of instruments, facilities, wcight lifting aids.
3. wa.tch mechanic should systcmatically control workmen.
~ ~ \

4. At the moment \Vhen V.1atchman is busy \Vith work, \Vatch mecl1anic


should redistribute duties of watchmen in sucl1 \vay that ain dutics in kceping
watch carried out in full voiLame and in time.

10. Procedurc8 of safety and. opcrational order in emergencies

Safcty nrecautions at servicing diesels.


steam boilers and atJxiliaa mechanism!>

1. Jn thc engine compartment pipelines scl1ees should located with


indications of valves and their functions.
2. Light hatches of an engine room, when they are opened, should guarded
\Vith reliaie rails.
3. Planking plates of the eogine compartment should al,vays on the spot
and tightened \vith screws, all cuttings of them s.ould closed.
4. All bars of grids, rungs ofladder, rails and posts should reliaiy tightened
on thcir spots.
5. Plates, grids and laddcrs should always pure and dry.
6. Places, where rails, grids, ladders and throats are removed temporarily should
guarded and lighted.
7. clcan and \Vipe moving parts ofmechanisms under way, to tighten timber,
to measure gaps and produce other \VOrks.
8. lsolation ot' steam boilers, pipelines, exhaust manifold and othcrs should
relialy isolate surfaces 'vitl1 high temperature.
7 . 9426
98

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IIIARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 99
9. produce operations on the vessels d pipelies uder pressure is
prohiblted.
10. open tlte gate valves ofthe compressed air balloons, of air and steam
main lines sharply and fast is prohiited. Steam main lines before putting the
into operation should heated and scavenged.
11. produce works accompanied with knocks on boilers, compressed air
ba\loons, pipelines under pressurc is prohibited.
12. follow safety at starting an engine it is prohiited to stay on the upper
grids, at thc level of cylinder covers.
13. Manual starting of small po\ver engines is allowed only if there are safe,
automatically switching off starting hand1es.
14. open crankcasc hatches are prohiblted not earlier than in 10-20 minutes
after stopping an cnginc.
15. In case tbreaking nozzle tubes it is prohiblted to closc the breakingplace
hand.

16. At stopping an engine to carry out operations in thc crankcase one should
take tl1e follo\ving easures:
) starting air valve on the engine is closed;
) air in thc starting pipeline is pickled;
) indicator taps are open;
d) shaftcnking device are gearcd or stoppcd;
) placard Start is prohiited>> is fixed on the control panel.
17. Before beginning ofengine cranking with shaftcranking arrangcmcnt one
should re112ove people working in the crankcase and on the cylindcr covcrs.
18. At cranking an engine in the open air one should stay aside fro the spray
Jeaving an indicator valve.
19. prevent break of gauge glasses of boiler onc should systematically
scavenge the water indicatig instrumets from the moment ofthe nozzle igition
to the moent of operating pressure of the boi1er steam.
20. Opening of the main check valve sltould produced carefully \\'ithout
allo\vig knocks in the steam line.

121. light inside boiler it is necessary to use portaie bulbs with voltage of
12V.
100

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IIARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 101
\Vatch engincer actions in emergencies

1. Actions of \vatch enginecr should al\vays directed at preventing an


~gine emergency. prevent an emcrgency it is necessary to kno\v aJI the
]:dications of abnormal \vork of diesel and to take urgent and right measures
JI:d not to aJ!ow transfer and developmcnt of abnormalities and troules in an
.:ngine \vork in the emergency situation.
2. There are many types of emergencies and damages of diescls. Tl1c most
~on troules ofa diesel are due to:
- diesel exploitation rules violations;
- Yiolations of tcchnical exploitation rules of cooling systems of diescl and
~ricatio systems;
- engine bearings damages;
- iatigue damage of engine parts;
- \iolation of rulcs and tcclical conditions of diesel repair;
- oil stcam cxplosion in engine crankcases.
3. !f due to this orthat reason there isan emergency situation, watch mechanic
0::.:-uld take the foJio,ving measures:
~ 1 to stop urgcntly dicscl;
:,) to report to chief engineer;
1 to take meases for localizing an emcrgency situation;
d 1 to report about situation to the bridge.
~- If mcchanism serving diesel, is put out of operation because of an
= <>rgency, it is necessary to use reserve mechanism, to stop diesel for the
;;x:iod of transfer to the reservc mechanism or \Yitlut stopping.
~ . 1f diescl rcote control is put out [ action, it is necessary to use local
.:J.: :l in correspondence \vith instruction requirements concerning to this.

~ .. Precaution measures obsen'ed during kecping \Vatch and urgent actions


;.. .:ase of fire or an emergency

Precaution measures during keeping \\'atch and urgent measures in case of


.: ~mergency or fire are the follo,ving :

! . maitain reserve mecl1aism5 in readiness.


: . control systematically and attentiYely operating mcchanisms, paying
~;;ial anention to indications of ab1nnal \vork and taking measures to eliminate
~.

3. control emergency preventive alarm.


102

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 103
4. In case of temperature rise of cooling \vatcr or lubricating oil to limited
va\ues should take measures to find and climinatc reasons (puttig out of
action thermorcgulator, \vrong regulation ot' by-pass valve, dirty water- and
oil coolers, lack of water due to bad operation of pump, tiltcr or system
cngine overloading and otlters).
5. [n case ofpressure drops of oil Anti water nne shnuld look for and eliminate
reason, even ifthere \Vou\d ncccssary to stop diescl (reasons of oi\leakage
from lubrication system, filter fouling. high oil Jcmperatu re and diese\
ovcrloading, Jarge gaps appearance in frame and crank bcarings).
6. At overloading auxiliary diesel gcnerator operating in the marine net one
should introduce reserve diesel generator in para\lel \VOrk.
7. control operation of steam and \Vaste boilers systematica11y and
attentively and to attcntion to the pressure stea \Vater level in the boiler
and \vork of fumace arrangcmenL
8. providc replenishment of the starting balloon and to start scrve
compressor duririg manoeuvers, if the main air compressor is disa\e.
9. At appeara11ce of flaws on the nozzle tube, in the first tum, it is necessary
to present fue\ sp1ay hit under pressure on hot parts of dicscl. Jt is necessary
to c!ose fla\v with piece of resin, paronite, \viping. Do not close fla\v
hand. The most common actions: to put into opcratio reserve auxiliary
diese\ generator(or to s\vitch offa cylinder in the main dicscl), substitution of
tubeofthe main dicsel or stop ofan auxiliary diesel gencrator to eliminate
trou le.
1. Actions of watch engineer in the thro\v-out of oil and \Vater dcpcnd on
the serious trou\c and may limited putting clamp on tl1c flaw formed or
to over diesel stop in the significat break.
11. It abnormal quantity of \Vater is found under plates or in the we1\s of
thc engine room, it is necessary to report chief enginccr and to begin
intensivc and careful search of the place of salt water tube break or flo\v in
the vessel hu\1. Iffound place of,vater brcak it is necessary to take measures
to e!iminate break (to cut damaged part of pipe, to put clamp, to use
rese rve system). \Vater in the engine compartment it is necessary to pump
out into of the tanks, or ottt board to foiiO\v rules of preventig sea
contamination.
12. If smoke appears in the engine room it is necessary to book for source
ofthis smokc. Jt is connectcd with electric equipment or ! runs under vo\tage
(through measing heating ofpaint to lackening it on rheostats, starters, electric
motors, cates - additional small ofbuming resins. Actions at finding source
of ignition should fast and decisive:
104

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IIIARI NE MECHAN ICAL PLANTS 105
- to de-cncrgi7.t: e!ectric equ ipmct or ;
- to evaluate tltc situation and to takc measures according to the situation;
- to rcport to the bridge and to the chief engineer;
- to eliinate tire ~vatchen.
11 is ncccssary to act pre\iously preparcd schcmc of actions at fire of an
engjne.
\3. \vnen troules in tl1e mechanism operation are found it is necessary to act
depending upon tl1e seriousness or dcfect preYious ly prepared scheme or
ctios , at trouies and incorrcctnesses in the opera tion of the main diesc\,
auxiliary dicsel and other mechanisms.
14. Complex conditions of cruising (ctering the port and leaving thc port,
mooring, passing the narro\vness, cruising in tl1e storm conditions) require to
tke measurcs of prccautions. prcpare maric pov.'er plant for cruise it is
necessary to do t11e follo\ving:
) to put into ope.r.tion 1\:s, auJti1ixy diese.\ gene.rator in addition (to
~liminatc possibil ity of deenergizi g ship);
) to send current to wi ndlass and capsta;
) to cl1eck orer.t.tion ofthe second steering machine \vhich is put into operation
from the bridgc;
d) to open air to tl1c rl ine guns, to chcck air on the signal \Yhistle;
) to prol1ibit stan ing refrigerator compressors;
f) to cl1angc the ma in diescl opcration on diescl fuel;
g) to gi\'e orders to stop refiigerator plant ifload of auxi liary diesel generator
too laroe
<>
h) to S\Vitch o fi tl1e main diese\ and the auxiliary diesel, to check operation of
emergcncy prcvent ive alam1;
i) to instruct watch aout actions of each \Vatclunan in lrd conditions of cruise;
j) to open thc main check valve ol'the starting system ofthe main diescl and to
prcpare staning system ofthe main diesel for operation;
k) to chcck readiness of rescYc mechan isms;
1) to coordinatc timc and engjne tclegraph \~;th the bridge;
) to check all types of communication \Vith thc bridgc.

11. Exploitation of main popu ls ion plants and auxiliary


mccha nisms and contol systcms conncctcd \vlth them
Thc main doct~ments rcgulating exploitatjon questions ot' intemal comb11stion
engines. stcam boilers and auxiliary mcanisms
1. The main documcnts regulat.ing exploitation questions of marine intemal
combustion engines, steam boilers and auxiliary mcchanisms: manufacturcr's
instructios, ru les oftechnical cxploitation o rJCE, steam boilers d auxiliary
mechanisms as ~vcll as marine exploitation instructions. Marine instructions are
placed near eacl1 mecl1anis m in thc engie room.
106

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IIARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 107
2. At exploitation ot' all mcchanisms onc shotlld follo\v, in first turn.,
manufacturer's instructior1 applicd to eacl1 mccltanism separately. Directions of
manufacturer's instruction are to fultilled in the case:; \VI1en tl1ey arc differcnt
t~>ith. somc positions of rulcs of technical cxploitation.
3. Rulcs of Tcchic:~l Exploitation of ICE, boilcrs, auxiliary rnechanisms
regulate thc nin requirements to technical use and service of diesels of all
purposcs, stcam boilers and auxiliary mechanisms and arc to flfillcd
marfc crcws.
4. At exploitatio of' dicscls, stcam boi!crs and axiliary mechanisms together
~itl1 instructions on exploitation d R!cs ofechnical Exploitation onc shou!d
t"o!lo\v t11c ncxt documents:
) Charter of marie scrvicc.
) Rules ofSafcty Prccatios.
) Rules ofTechnical Exploitation ot'marine automatization aids.
d) I~ulcs of Technical Exploitatio of marine elcctric cquipment.

The main machinery and auxiliary mechaniss


Prcparatio ot' <1 dic~elto opcration and its starl
1. Preparatio ot' dicsels to action should carried out in thc correspondence
the requiremcnts of cxploitatio and ru!cs oftechnical exploitation.
2. Preparation ot diesels to action should carricd out watch engineer
the order of chief engineer.
3. Before p:paration of diesel to operatio11 \Vatch cnginccr should
coordiate \Vith thc britlgc time and readings of cngie telegraph as \vell as
action of all comrication facilities \vitiJ thc bridge.
4. At preparation of dicscl to action after short break (not morc tl1an 48
hours without making repair \Vorks) it is necessary:
) to make an internal inspection of diesel;
) to prepare toaction and tocheck tl1e correctness ofmcchanisrs and systcs
serving dicscl;
) to pump d to l1eat diescl \Vitl1 water d oil;
d) to check correctness of emcrgcncy preventive alarm;
) to turn an engine.
5. ftcr tiisl1i ng preparatio of the main diesel to actio \Vatch egieer should
rcport chicf cgieer and afler his pcrmission - to captain 's \vatch assistant.
6. Start and testing of tl1e n1ain dicsel in the plat \vithout isolating clutch
sluld carricd oul watch egicer captain 's pcn11ission or his watch
assistant. lf' thcrc is rcmotc distance control of tl1c plat, control of thc plant
should tested from tl1e enginc and passcd to tl1e bridge to c!Jeck the system
operation frorn the conning to\vcr. Startig tl1c main diesel in plants having
isolating clutcl1 is allo\\'Cd \Vitlut permission of \Vatch assistant.
108

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 109

7. 1t is prohiited start and operation of diesels in cases:


- the presence of cracks in the main bundles and parts;
- shafi deflection of the cran.kshaft exceeding the estalished standards;
- failed state of starting reverse device, gas distribution members and fuel
delivering members, al-speed govemor and over speed governor, plant, shaft
lines, deadwood gaskets, barring gear;
- pressure of oil, water and fue.J below the established standard;
- burning out main, crank and head bearings;
- failures of emergency preventivc alarm and protection;
- wears ofmain parts exceeding permissi\e limits ofvalues;
- thc presence of outside knocks and noise in diescl;
- failures or absence of control and measuring instruments;
- the presence of failures of discharge manifold;
- the presencc of failure in diesel pipcline systems.
8. check oillevels in lge tanks or diese1 crankcases, speed reductor gear,
in radial and thrust bearings, in lubricators, i tl1e regulator, exhaust gas turblne
supercharge.
9. prepare for operatio an oil diesel system: u, filters, fitting.
1. Bcforc cranking diesel to crank hand 1ubricators of cylinder 1ubrication.
11. start oil diese\ pumps, gear, controllaie pitch propeller, exhaust gas
turblne supercharge.
12. heat oil in diese1.
13. Achieving controlled parameters ofworking values sure in disappcaring
emergcncy waming light signa1s.
14. prepare for operation water cooling system: pumps, filters, watercoolers,
fittings.
15. check water level in the flashing tank ofthe cooling diese1 system and
injectors-.
16. start pumps of fresh water system. They should operatc during all
preparation time.
17. start the pump ot'salt \Vater system for Vl'ater-, oil- and aircoolers. The
pump is started only for checking.
18. check fuel presence in daily supply tank, to dischargc s1udge.
19. put into operation fuel system fitting and to check reserve fuel charge
n.

20. put into operation injectors cooling system pump.


21. heat heavy fuel in settling and daily supply tanks.
22. Start and heating of diese1 should carried out on diesel fucl.
110

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 111

23. Scavengc bottles of starting air and replenish bottles.


24. Check correctncss of starting facility action.
25. Open starting air to the opcration station.
26. Rcmove \vater and airfrom scavenging air receive, from underpiston space,
aircoolers.
27. Check oil presence in bearing baths of the cxhaust gas turine supercharge,
operaon of oil pumps.
28. Check the shaft line, reductor clutches, dcad\vood arrangcment.
29. Chcck oil presence in all radial bearings and correctness of oil distribution
arrangements ofbcariogs.
30. Open valves of fresh water delivery pump deadwood and radial bearings
cooling.
Cranking and test starts

1. Crank diesel barring actuating gear for 23 revolutions with opcn inductor
cranes. ~.
2. Crank dicsel in the air with inductor cranks.
3. Make test starts fof\vard and back on fuel.
4. Cranking and test starts of an auxiliary diese\ gencrator are carried out
the mechanic authority.
5. Diesels having remote control carry out test starts from all steering posts
(local. maneu\ering room, \vheel\use).

Diescl Start
l. Diescl start is carried out after its preparation according to items 130 of
cranki ng and test starts.
2. Irrunediately after start \vatch engineer should check readings of all control
and measuring instruments. In the first tum, oil pressure in lubrication system
and fuel pressure after fuel charge pump is checked. sure abnormal noises
and knocks arc abscnt. sure that emergency preventjve alarm is in operation.

Heating and putting dicscl jnto exploitation load regjme

\. Time necessary to heat diescl to S\Vitching it on aftcr starting, is regulated


instruction in exploitation. reduce heating time, time of putting diese\
into operation is prohibited excepting cascs caused requirements of safety
precautions of ship and danger to huma life connected to iL
2. diesel is considered to hcated and rcady to switchcd on for loading
when constant temperatures of water and oi 1 are the same at the inlet and the
outlet of diesel.
112

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MARINE MECHANICL PLANTS 113
3. Forvessels with controllale pitch propeller at diesel heating control should
carried out trom the engine. After diesel heating control is passed to the
wbeelhouse and the correspondiog record should done in the engine room
journa1.
4. Introducing the main diesel in the exploitation regime as well as passing
from one regime to another is necessary to fulfill gradually, increasing fuel
deli very value for small size. At each load stage diesel should work for some
time. Do not allow sharp load change.
5. In multiengine plants working on the screw through clutches and reductor
it is necessary to follow the even distribution of load bet\veen diesels.
6. Iftbere is presence ofdistance automatic control system in whicb heati.ng-
cooling program of diesel is provided putting it into exploitation regime of
Ioad should carried out means ofS\vitching on distance automatic control
system for this program.

Diesel Control durin~.t its operation

l. At the watch diesel service it is necessary to controlload distribution


tbe cylinders spent gases temperature not less than once per hour.
2. Each hour readings of control and measuring instruments should
controlled and recorded them into engine roomjouma\.
3. It is necessary to listen to noises, knocks and vibrations of mcchanisms.
4. At the diesel cooling system service it is necessary to control temperature
and pressure of cooling water ( oil), maintaining their values at the level of the
estalished exploitation instructions.
5. Fresb water level in the flash tank should checked not less than once per
watch.
6. lt is necessary to control maintaining the oil pressure and temperature values
in the systems of diesel lubrication, exhaust gas turine supercharge, gear,
controlla\e pitch propeller.
7. One sbould check oil level in ilge oiJ tanks or diesel crankcase, in oil
baths of the exhaust gas turine supercharge bearings not less than once per
ho\'lr.
8. One should control oil pressure in the oil cooler. 1t sltould higher than
cooling water pressure.
9. One should control cylinder lubrication system Jubricator operation.
1. One shou\d control oil pressure before and after filter.
11. One should control oil separator operation. Circulating oiJ should
continuously cleaned separator.
12. One should control fuel pressure after fuel feed pump.
13. One should control heavy fuel heating temperature.
8-9426
114

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6. ( nn
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IIARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 115
14. One should control injectors operation pulsatioo i the injectors pipe.
15. One should control dcnsity ofstarting valves starting air heating pipe,
connected to the va\ve.
16. One sluld control air pressure in tl1e startig bottles.
17. sluld control temperature and pressure of supercharging air as well
as the revolutions ofthe exhaust gas turine supercharge and temperature ofthe
spent gases and water before and after the exhaust gas turine supercharge.
18. One should control operation of the sbaft line, gear, clutches, thrust and
spring earings as \vell as operation ofthe lubrication system and reductor cooling
and controllaie pitcl1 propeller.
19. One should control deadwood state and the state of bulkhead gaskets.

Steam boi!er preparation to the operation


l . inspect oilcr outside, fittings arrangement, anDature, emergency drives
ofthe boiler fitters from the deck, gauges, mecbanisms and systems, servicing
oilers. sure tbat air boiler valve is open.
2. f boiler 'vith \Vater mecting the quality requirements recommended
an exploitation instructi<;.
3. Water temperature \Vhile fillig sl1ould not differ from metal temperature
more than 30 aod in all cases should not Jower than 5.
4. boiler should filled to the \eve l indicated in an exploitation instruction.
5. After boiler foJio,ving it is necessary to sure that thcre is no leakage
through loosenesses.

Starting Boiler and its servicing during operation

1. lgnion of boiler burner may produced on hcavy fuel or diesel fuel.


2. Since igitio moment one should establish control over water Jevel in the
oiler.
3. Duration ofsteam pressure rise should correspond to the boiler exploitation
instruction.
4. Before burner ignition it is neccssary to examine furnace to check the
absence of fuel unbumed there. remove explosion llazardous vapour fuel
mixture fumace should ventilated during time indicated in the instruction
but not Jess than 3 minutes.
5. Boiler ignition should produccd special ignjtion arrangement or manual
ignition torch. If after two attempts fuel is not firing, to k.now and eLiminate
the reason, after this ventilate fumace and repeat ftring.
6. At the steam appearance in boiler ( continuous spray of steam from an
air valve appears) it is oecessary:
8*
116

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ARJNE MECHANICAL PLANTS 117

) to close an air valve;


) to scavenge gauge tue and S\vitch on boiler gauge;
) to beat water boiler water gauge of boiler;
d) to check safety valves action means of manual last. lf valves are
incorrect fire in the fumace should distinguished, pressurc in boiler should
lowered to the atmosphere one. After this valve defects are correct troule.
7. If steam pressure in boiler is not more than 5 kg/cm2 it is necess:uy to
check squeezing of scuttle covers and necks without using levers and knocks.
8. After steam pressure rise to the operating pressure it is necessary to examine
carefully boiler and to check its action:
- "1er 1water gauge;
- safety valvcs;
- valves of surface lo\v-down and bottom low-down;
- feeding aids of boiler.
lf the re~'!Jits of an examination and cbecks are satisfactory steam pressure
rise in boiler is considered to over.
9. At the boiler operation constant control should carried out over:
- \Vater level in boiler;
- heating flame buming;
- steam pressure;
- o.serving water regime and ~vater control;
- t boiler state, equipment serving boiler, automatization aids and testing
instruments.
1. It is necess:uy to examine systematically:
- oiler and its fittings;
- fumace arrangement;
- boiler brickwork;
: v isiie heating surfaces;
- pipelines confmed oiler;
- \Vaste-heat flue.
11 . control readings of control and measuring instruments. Steam pressure
in the boiler should controlled not less than t\vo gauges.
12. prevent boiler short-water it is necess:uy to keep in constant correctness
feed oiler system and boiler water gauge. .
13. carry out scavenging of boiler water gauge not rarer than once per
watch.
14. Boiler operation witb incorrect oiler water gauge is prohiited.
15. At ng up water in the boiler it is necess:uy immediateJy to lower
boiler load to close check valve to stop water boiling up and low boiler
with upper and lower low.
118

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IIARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 119

16. If petroleum products fall into boiler it is necessary to put it out of


opcration for cleaning.
17. Control over buming process should carried out systematically means
ofwatching bumer torch and smoke going out ofthe funnel.
The main characteristics under the visua\ inspection arc the following:
) lack smoke and dark-red flame as the resu1t of air \ack, poor fuel flO\V
because of injector sprayers locking, low temperature or Jow pressure of fuel;
) light-grey smoke and orange-red flame is the ordinary ratio fuel and air;
) \vhite smoke or yeJlo,vish, saturated w\1ite flame is the result of air over
excess.
\8. bumer torch should not hit the fumace coating and heating surfaces.
19. Operation of boiler witb c:oatlng damages of more t ban 40% of its
tblc:kness is not prohiited! Jt is da ngerous for boiler and the personnel
serving it.
'.
Safety Precautions at boiler short water

1. Sign of boiler short water in the oiler are:


) \Vater \evel absence in boiler \vater gauge;
) dry stearn \Vhistle at opening of Iower testing va\ves;
) reddening and whitening caused superheating separate beating surface
tubes;
d) visile bendings of groups or separate tubcs.
2. At boiler short \Vater from boiler is immediately necessary:
) to stop burning;
) to stop feeding;
) to close stopping valve;
d) to sto.p air delivery;
) to report chief engineer;
f) to low-down steam;
g) to take measures avoiding \! a.nd general cooling of boiler.
3. Boiler feeding is categorically prohiited ifwater level in boiler has fallen
belo\v the Co\ver testing valve in tle firepipe boilers and Jower than tl1e edge of
boiler \Vater gauge of fire-tube.
4. After boiler stop due to \vater leakage it is necessary carefully to examine
boiler and ifthere are no visile damages to produce bydraulic test of oiler to
check the operating pressure. If leakages and deformations are not found,
chief engineer may pennit to operation activity oiler further.
120

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MRINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 121

\Vaste-beat and bot-water boilers operations.

\Vaste-heat and \Vater boilers must operated in accordance \Vith


manufacturer's instructions and rules oftechnical operations that contain general
compulsory rules to out.

\Vaste-beat boilers.

to discharge spent gases through by-pass expecting tbe boiler with small
load ain engine regimes.
\Vhile starting the vaste-heat boiler it is needed to control the readings of
testing instruments and safety valve operation.
to start thc circulation pump ofthc waste-heat boiler after the main engine
starting.
to control the operation ofthe waste-heat 'vater check.
the waste-heat boiler clcaning from soot, tar and deposit may carried
out whi\e engihe operation boiler draining and burning with spent gases
during 1-2 hours wben the air valve is opened. One should perform it only in
accordance \vith manufacturer's instructions.
tbe steam separator shall filled up \vith watevhile main egine prolonged
stopping and in the event ofthe temperature is above zero.
it is prohiited to start the \Vaste-heat boiler if there is damage in the
device for preventing water in the main engine.

Hot-water boilcrs.

to put the hovater boiler into operation after its repairing or repairing of
the tube, hot-water heating system must \vashed up to total \Vater clearing.
to put the hot-\vater boiler of the close-type hot-water heating system into
operation automatic and protection system must cbecked including safety
valve.
the \vater quality for feeding must meet the requirements \Vith manufacturer's
instructions.
water temperarure changing while outlet from the boiler must carried
out gradually and evenly (with the speed not more 30 during an hour)
"\vhile \Vorking the hot-\vater boilcr one should control \Vater level in the
expasion tank and controlrunning order ofthe device for air discharging from
the hot-\Yater heating system.

Thermo- oil harbor and waste-heat boilers


Thermo- oil harbor and \\'aste-heat boi\ers are used great number of
modern vessels where oil is used as heat transfer.
122

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Shell Thermia .
250', '.
W, DWE
930- V-58, r 45,6 2 , 670 ,
. 1 , 250'.
r W,
AWE 850-V-58, n /l) 177 1 , 2450
, 10 , .n 250'.
n .
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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 123
The construction of such boilers is easier tl1an steam boiler. They are safe
and secure in operation so they are more used on the motor ship. Many of
engineers \Vho are used to steam boilers have not mucb infonnation about
thermo-oil boilers. This section will he!p them to gain some insight about
thcrmo-oil boilers.
As an exmple let's consider thc principal scheme of the oiler plant where
thermo- oil harbor and \Vastc-heat boilers as heat transfer have oil Shell
Thermia mark. Opcrational temperature of this oil is 250, maximum
temperature is about 300 .
Thc boiler "P\VT" mark, DWE 930-V-58 type, hcating surface 45,6m2, 6701
oil, l bars oil pressure in coils, oil temperature 250 is instaUed as the thermo-
oil barbor boi!cr.
The boiler "W' mark, AWE 850-V-58 type, heating surface 177m 2, 24501
oil, 1 bars oil pressure in coils, oil temperature 250 is installcd as the \vaste-
heat boiler.
The principal scheme of the boiler plant is below. There are thc following
features: ~

n n
-

Pic. 3. The princjpal schemc of the boiler plant:

1. thermo-oil harbor boiler


2. \Vaste-hcat boi ler
3. thermo- oil harbor and waste-beat boilers coils
4. exhaust pipe
124

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WARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 125

5. waste gas pipe of the thermo-oil harbor boiler


6. service fuellank of the thenno-oil harbor boiler
7. circulatcd pumps -2pcs, output 58 m3Jhour, head-96m.
8. emergency oil chop tank, V=4m 1
9. basic oil supply tank V=5m3
1. fuel pump of the thenno- oil harbor output 38,31/min, pressure -5 bars
11. oil flow transmitter in the thenno- oil harbor
12. oil flo\v transmitter in the \vaste-heat boilers
13. oil emergency valve under fire
23,24 tlo\v sensing-signal reccivers
25. fumace plant ofthe thenno-oil harbor
26. air discharging valve from oil system
27. temperature-sensing device
28. lcvel indicator
29 from fire alarm system to control unit

Boiler plant with thermo- oil l1arbor and waste-heat boilcrs is operating in
the following way.
Coils in both boilcrs, i all l1eat consumers, all pipes of oil system are
stcadily fillcd with oil through ex:pansion tank. Expansion tank is into the
funnel above waste-heat boiler. Oil !evel is controlled visual\y and \vith
maximum and minimum oillevel settsors. In case of oilleakage from the
system expansion tank is filling pumps that start and stop level sensors in
thc cxpansio tank.
During the operation ofthermo- oil harbor and \vastc-hcat boilers oil in tl1e
system is circulated \vith one ofthe circulated pumps. Another puntp is started
automatically and it gets the signal to start from flow sensors. Pump is keepig
up oil pressure in.thc system about 9, 6-10 bars.
126

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IIARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 127
Thcrmo- oil h arbor is started and stopped au tomatically. Oil
temperature-scnsing devices transmit thc signal to start or stop boiler
operation. Boiler is startcd \vith oil temperature 170 and stopped with
oil tempcrature 250. One can control the temperaturc ofboiler starting
and stopping.
Boiler injector is operating about 50 % in 'vinter and about 30% in surnmer
during anchorage. Time of operation deper1ds on fuel storage in tanks of main
supply. Fuel before the fuel pump of igh pressure is heating up to 142.
\\'hile anc lrage the main cngine is operating 'vith heating, the cooling water
rempcrature is ni ntaining within 70-80.
\Vhile sailing thc \vaste-heat boiler is opcrating constantly, the harbor boiler
is out of operation. Under the lo\v engine loads, in the event ofheating lack, the
harbor boilcr is started sometimes. Under the \\'aste-heat boilcr operation the
oil tcmperature is adjusted \\o'ith automatic oil va)\'C for the heat-exchange
apparatus that is operating from the main enginc cooling system. The cooling
y;ater amount for the heat-exchangc apparatus is also adjustcd depending on
the oiltemperature.
The ojl consumption at thc S\vitching on and cutting of heat consumers
(heaters) is adjusted automatically \Vith by-pass valve \Vith electric drive. The
signal for the val\1e is proceeded from the flow sensor.

Tbermo- oil harbor and wastc-heat boilers protection

1. h oil leakages at the coils damagcd. Thc signal is given \\'ith !


lcvel sensor.
2. Reducing the \v oil speed in the system. The signal is given \\ith tlo\v
sensor.
3. Reducing or increasing oillcvel in the expansion tank, .
4. The waste-heat boiler stop at the oil temperature or fixed le\'el. The signal
is given \Vith oiltemperature-sensing device.
S. Oil discharging from the \Vaste-heat boiler at the oil temperature of fLxcd
JeveJ. h signa) is given \Yith oiJ temperatu re-scnsing device.
6. Oil discharging form the expansion taryk under fire (emergcncy discharging).
The signal is given fire alarm system.
7. Regular fumace arrangement protcction-thc signal is given in the event
of m failure, low fuel pressure, fumace arrangement opened door

Boilers and oil system maintenance

Thermo-oil boilers maintenance as \Vell as steam boiler- is the complex of


opcrations carried out d.uri ng the \Yatch and planned-periodica\ operations v:hcre
manufacturer's instructions fix their volumc and frequency.
128

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ARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 129
During thc vvatch it is ncccssary to control ut tl1e lrbor boiler:
- circlating m operation;
- oil\eve\ in the expansion tank
- oil pressure and temperatre in thc system
- absence 1 oil leakages
- fumacc arrangcmcnt opcration;
- fel level in the daily fuel tank;
- absence ot'luel \cakagcs, hcating tempcraturc;
- overload alarm, protection and autornatic system opcration
\Vhile vvaste-heat boiler operation constant control should carried out as
\Vell as >vhile harbor operation, apart from points connccting vvith fltrnace
arrangement opeJ.tion.
The manut'acturer's instructions set term for washing vvaste-heat boilcr coil
v\'ith \Vater tltrough the nozzle that is inside the vvastc-hcat boiler. As \vell one
should repair fumace setting of the waste-heat boiler, clean the last nozzle
and othcr.
lte system oil is given for the tcst one time ycar before annal boilers
examination thc classification society.
Typical Trouies of Internal Combustion Engines

Defect, Damage Typical/ndicatiun. Rl!a.~on.~

1. Cracks in thc block in thc lndication: appearance of watcr or salt dcposits thc
area ofJo,vcr scaling cltofa spot of crack formatio.
cylider liner Rcaso:
\. loo dese comprcssion of cylidcr 1iner.
2. Incrcascd sizc ofrubber scaling rigs.
3. Lincr deformation becausc of its ovcrhcatig whilc
\\'edging piston.
2. Crack in the fire bottom ot Indicatiuns: throwing \Vater or steam through open
the cylider cover indicator cocks 1vhile cranking an cngic:. \Vatcr
appearance the 1vorking surface of cylindcr lincr.
\Vhite paint of cxhaust gases, their tempcraturc
lo\vering. <<Shooting ofthc safety ~a\vc. Tcmperature
rise ot' \Vater Ieaving the covcr.
R<!0$01/.S:
1. Ovcr heating thc cover bt'cause of large scalc the
\va\ls or accurnulatio ofsludgc in tl1c cooling \vater
chamer <!!; 1vell as gi overloading.
2. Sharp coo\ing ofthc hcatcd cover.
3. Fast load ofnon-heated cngine.
4. Hydraulic impact in cyli11dcr.
5. Presecc ofa for.:ig object in acylinder.
9- 9-1~6
130

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7. Henocr.rroa !<!J l.ilj) - .l
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4. r<.' .
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l.
MARINE MECHANICAL PLANS 131

3. Damage of uppcr thrust Jndications: water appearance ir1 cylinder, \vhite


belt of cylinder lincr colour of cxhaust gases, lowering their temperature.
liner fall bclo\v accompanying with an engine damage.
Reasons:
1. Strong tightcning of cover pins.
2. Piston wedging in the cyli11der.

4. Piston scuffing and Jdications:


jamming. 1. Surpressed, gradually strcngthening sound appearing
at cach piston stroke changc.
2. Revolution number drop.
3. Blasts of safety valves.
4. Smokc charging rom the cranlccase.
5. Score tracks on the piston. Darkening directing
part of pislon.
Reasons:
~.
1. Long overloading of cylinder or tlrc 'vhole diesel.
2. Fast load ofnon-hcated enginc.
3. Spent gases temperature rise at injcctor r1eedle
sticking.
4. Cylinder Jiner defonnalion because of overheating.
5. Stopping in cooling liquid de!ivery to the piston head.
6. Piston overheating with gases going into the crankcase
at tbe extreme \vear or coking up of the piston rings or
their fai!ure.
7. Insufficient cylinder lubrication ecause of
unsatisfactory operation of lubricator.
8. Gumming of cylinder port and exhaust port.
9. dcnsc setting liner into lock or small gap
etween liner and piston.
10. Sm~H hcat gap in piston ring locks and insufficient
- gap in caps ( eight}.

5. Cracks in the piston head Indications: Gas attack into the crankcase. Liquid
temperature rise, coo!ing piston. lntennittent character
of liquid sprny flowing from thc piston.
Reasons:
1. Piston head O\erl1eating.
2. Long O\crloading ofa cylinderor all the cy!inder.
3. Sharp change ofhead coo!ing regime.
4. Fast load of n hcated enginc.
5. Mechanica! damage ofthe head valve tom or with
foreign objcct going into the cylider.

g
132

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2. 8 .
3. 8 I,J .
4. n8 .
ARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 133

6. Damage of compression lndications: Blow gases into thc crankcase. Dark or


and oil scraper piston rings ur colour of exhaust gases. Lubricating oil
consumption increase.
Reasons:
1. Extreme ~ear of rings and cylinder Jiner.
2. Large \vear of grooves for rings.
3. Chamfers absence on the rings and their insuffic!ent
saw-cutting in the lock area.
4. Small gap in the ring lock.

7. Heating and mcltig lndicatiom: Luricating oiJ tcmpcrature rise and


the crank bearing, wich is crankcase cover batch panel. Engine revolutions number
sometimes is accompanied drop.
with score of the crankshaft Rea$ons:
neck 1. Small pressure in the lubrication system.
2. Large oil Jeakagc tltrough gap of shabby main
caring.
3. C\ogging of oil channels in the crank web or in the
sl1aft neck.
4. Filter grid rupture due to whicb dirt goes into
earing.
5. Oil supplying with water or oil dilution with fuel.
6. Small oil gap d poor adjustment of bcaring.
7. Engine starting without preliminary cranking of oil.

8. Heating and mclting of lndications: lbricating oil temperature rise. Appcarancc


the main earing, cn1miig ofknocks in the earing. Engine revolutionsnumbcr
anti-friction mctal, drop.
accompaying sometimes Reason.v:
wilh score ofthe main 1. Insufficient bearing lbrication.
earingjournal 2. Extremely smaU or \arge oil gap.
3. Poor abblt quality or bad insert ahhiting.
4. Poor matching inserts the neck, wrong installation
of the cranksl1af't.
S. Large wcar ofthe neck.
. Engine opemtioo with overloading.

9. Break of the connccting lndicatio: Knock in the crank bcaring. Dmaging


rod bolt enginc frame-work.
Rea:ns:
1. Hcating d melting ofthe crank bearing.
2. Large gap in the caring.
. Extremc ovality ofthe crnk neck.
4. \Vedging th.e piston in the cylindcr.
134

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11~1 3.
n. 2. ~1aw1a ni1 n, npo-
1.

3. '-1> 11 n

...
- n.~ -

1, (
), n 11 -
11r n .

11 11
:\-

n.1

1. n- .1 .l -
11111 UJ canUJ . .

2. .11 .J, np11- w J>i n.


:1, r W!-
il..
ARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 135

1. Enginc opcration lndications: sharp rcvo1utions numbcr incrcasc.


overrun n<X:ks in moveent parts. Brcak of the safety valves.
Reasons:
1. Damagcs of speed govemor.
2. \Vedging rods and fuel pump ofhigh pressure in the
position of maximal dc\ivcry.
3. Regu1ation brcak ofthrust from regulator to the
fuel pump or high pressure break of zero supply.

11. Oil steam explo$iOn in lndications: largc smoke charge lrom the crankcase.
the crankcase Flame ejection. Hatch covcr damagc in the cratlkcase
and other pasts of the fmme.
Reasons: 1. Overheating movement parts and cylinder-
piston group.
2. Gas leakagc into thc cmnkcase.
~... 3. Long overload ofan engine.

12. Oil steam infiammation Reasons:


in thc scavcnge rccciver and 1. Oi1 skid into the receiver through scavenge ports
in the under piston space ccause ofextreme1y large deliveries and long
operation on the small load regimes.
2. Oil storing in underpiston cavity, rod gasket
passing.
3. Break or gases and sparks into the receiver and
. underpiston space because of sticking and breakdown
of the piston rings, alignment of their 1ocks (ol\cn at
bush ova1ity), supercharging pressure decrease and
resistance increase on the exhaust.

The main typical trouies


in air compressor operation

Trou/es Reoson oftroub/es

1. Efficiency decrease and compression Leakinesses of the fitting or pipe1ines


prcssurc drop stages

2. Pressure pulsation at the in1et filter, Leakinesses of suction valvcs


cylinder wall heating
136

3. , - n IOJanaoa.
.

4. -r , - r .
rnr , -
~ .

5. li - r
( ). -
orooli n.

6. . n n
-
;I>'! rn. -
..1 011.1Jt
u .

7. n. l I .

8. (r - 11 .
).

""
, .

nil u.r

. t -
. ~.

1. I Iacoc \. n : t., nnt , n-


1 I-I .
. 2. .
3. !.n HC!LlOTHOC'fll .
4. , r.~ n, -
n.
5, n , n .1-
.

2. r 1. r 1 r'/ .
. 2. r
r.~t .
3. fi]( . opWite .
4. n- :.~ -
, ,
~<:.
5. niI\'05, :r;t, , ii.
MARINE MECHANICA.L PLANTS 137

3. Temperaturc risc of air, cooling Lcakinesses of delivery valves


\Vatcr and cylindcr walls

4. Air temperature rise, soot Contamination of an inlet fiJter


formation on the delivery valves,
consumed power rise

5. Pressure rise i one of the Leakinesses ofthe suction valve ofthe


compression stages ( gauge following stage or delivery valve ofthe same
readings) stage
6. Heating ofvalvcs and theircover Passing of suction valves due to leakinesses
ofthe piston rings ofthe following stage.
Insufficient air cooling in the cooler ofa given
stage
7. [ncreased heating of compressor lnsufficient cooling
8. Incrc"a'sed oil consumption (much High oil level in the crankcase
oil in air)

Ways of air compressor troue elimination depend on the reason causing


trouJes.
Main roues of piston pumps

lndications of abnorma/ Reasons


operatlon

1. pump does not dcvelop 1. Valves are covered with dirt, plates are sticked,
nonnal efficiency have lost elasticity.
2. An inlct filter is clogged.
3. Air inleakage through leakinesses.
- 4. Leakincsscs of vaJves, breakdown of springs, blast
of safety valves.
5. reakdown of piston rings, passing through the
connccting rod gaskets.

2. nocks at the pump 1. Liquid separation from the piston and hydraulic
operation impact.
2. Air cxcess into admission and air shortage in
the delivery .
3. large piston stroke.
4. Valvc knocks - smaii elasticity or springs break-
down, large hight of vaJve rise, wcakening of fixture.
5. Bearing, piston.
138

n nt

R11 n.

1. r r- 1. 11 .
. 2. .
3. t .
4. oana, -
tt.

2. 1.
tt - ~: .
1\UC"rn. 2. , -
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3. n .
4. nfl . , -
.

3. < - 1. .
. 2. n n
n, J(() .

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2. w ru -
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12. 11
11 III IIMII CltCeM n.

1.
,

(, , , .)
(,
), ( , )
n.

2. :
) - , : (
, , , , -

-).
) - , ,
.
IIARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 139
The main trouies of centrifugal pumps

Trou/e Possie reaJon

1. Engine pump 1. Pump starting at open damper in the forcing process.


ovcrloading 2. Pumping ofviscous liquid.
3. Rotor brushing of the case.
4. Mechanicl damages ofthe crankshafl neck. too strong
tightening of gaskct.

2. Pumped liquid deli\'ery 1. Large height of suction or high temperature ofthe liquid
has n stoppcd pumped.
2. Admission pipeline is ooded insufficiently, inlet
val\es are covere.d.
3. Leakinesses tl1e suction side.
4. fncorrect direction ofthe pump rotation, insufficient
number of revolutions.

3. lnsufficient cm'ciency 1. lilter on admission is clogged.


2. Blades oftbe running y;heel and dirccting arrangement
. arc wom as \Vell as seal rings.

4. Heating pump case Long operation with closed vaJ,e on pumping.

5. Heating ofthe shaft 1. Gaskets are tightened too strongly or incorrectly,


and earings packing is solidified.
2. lncorre.ct asseming ofearings or poor lubrication of
them.

12. Exploitation of pump system and control systems


connected to them

1. purpose marine pumps are divided into general marine pumps and pumps
of marine power and auxiliary plants, pumps of special systems (of listing,
trim, loading, str.ipping and other systems). General marine pumps, in their tum
are subdivided into bilge (allast, drying), sanitary (fresh \vatcr, salt water,
fecal) and fire oncs.
2. principle of action marine pumps are divided into:
) displacement pumps or positi\'e-displacement ones - piston pump, rotary
(screv. type, gear-type, ladc-type, cccentric-driven, radially-reciprocating and
axial-reciprocating);
) vane pumps- centrifugal, vortex vacuum, propeller or axial;
140

) r: - 3i.t, m (fi.
).
3. n:
) n ( 20 3f), (20-60 3/)
( 60 3/).
) - r ( 5 /2), (5-
2 2
50 / ), ( 50 / ).
) - ,
, (, , ) .
) - n n
lii ( , ),
n u, u n
rr .

) n (
)- ( 80 /u), ( 150 /),
( 350 /)
( 750 /).
) q - , ,
, .

) l\ - ,
, .
) no WtJI - ,
.

4. }'k" : Blttloe (-
'!), , n ( ) .
5. n nepeJciiqt , m
, , 11 .

6. r r
ll , t. : 11

. n
,
n .
n 11.
Jt r : ll'
n :

) m - rr: ;
) n (RJI)- ( 5
r/2), ( 5 50 r/2), RJI (
50 r/ 2);
) n- , , nn
n ;
MARINE MECHANICAI. PLANTS 141

) injector - jet pump, injectors (steam-jet, water-jet, air-jet).


3. Reciprocating piston pumps are divided the following characteristics:
) delivery to the pumps - up to sma\1 20 m3/g, mean (20-60 m3/g) and
large (more than 60 m3/g);
) head- into pumps oflow pressure (to 5 kg/cm2), mean pressure (5-50
kglcm2), high (more than 50 kg/cm2);
) engine type- into pumps with steam engine, with electric motor, \Vith
turine (steam, hydraulic, air) and intemal combustion engines;
d) charactcr of connection to the engine- into piston driven pumps (with
crank, eccentric or balance mechanisms), direct-action pumps having pistons
of steam and hydraulic cylinder on one stock;
) .rotation frequency of the driven shaft (or the number of dual strokes
of pistons)- into s!0\\1-speed (to 80 r/min), standard (to 150 r/min), high-
speed (to 350 r/min) and especially high-specd with short piston stroke (to 750
r/min); ~
f) type of pumped liquid - into water, oil, petrol, air;
g) th6 number of hydraulic cylinders in one lock- into single, douie,
triple;
h) arrangement of cylinder axis- into vertical, horizontal and dcclined.
4. construction rotor pumps are subdivided into: scre\v (worm), gear-
type, lainated (gate) and water-ring.
5. Rotor pumps are used aboard ships for pumping oil, fuel, water and in
steering hydraulic machines.
6. variety of rotor pumps are water ring self-priming pumps, role of
eccentrically located rotor being carried out liquid ring. This pump is an air
one, producing vacuum in aspirating pipeline of liquid centrifugal pump while
putting it i!'to operation.

Classification of Vanc Pumps

Marine centrifugal pumps may subdivided different characteristics:


) an aangement ofthe shaft- into horizontal and vertical;
) the vane of thrust (pressures) - into pumps oflow pressure (to 5 kg/
cm2), mean prcssure (from 5 to 50 kg/cm2), high pressure (more than 50 kg/
cm 2);
) the drive way- into electric pumps, turbo pumps, motor pumps, driven
intemal combustion engines;
142

r) n - ( 20 3/r), (20-60 fr)


. n ( 60 3/);
) n J - Ra 1
n ;

) :: !I' r- n,
, l:lrn;

) - ,
n ., r, rr
n ;
) - n ;
) no - , ,.
.

.
liJ:.
w, RJ, 'lI , ifrO
<rn .:.
r mJIU :

n.

r. .
1. in
.
2. r
.
- , n
.

3. JII
n:,
- ( n:r) (r
n).

11 nm .
1. - (3/, 3f, /)
(/, /).
2. ( ).
. (ii: ).
4. ( ).
5. .
MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 143
d) delivery - into pumps with sroall (to 20 m3/g), mean (20-60 m3/g) and
large delivery (more than 60 m3 lg);
) the way of liquid delivery to the wheel- to the pumps with one-sided
and douie-sided delivery ofliquid;
f) connection of flowing parts - into one stage, many-stage and many
flowing pumps;
g) suction aility - into self-prillng pu.rops having device for self-suction
and non-self-priming, \Vhich should primed before starting;
h) case construction - into single-case and section-case pumps;
i) speed- into low-speed, standard speed and high-speed pumps.

Axial Purops aod Their Exploitatioo

Axial pumps are also called propeller-type ones. These purops eing vane
ones differ frbm centrifugal ones in that fact their impellers pump liquid in axial
direction. Axial pumps have one-sided suction and are made mainly of one-
stage type.
Axial pumps do not posses dry suction.

J et Pumps

1. Pumps operating on this principle of action have no moving parts.


2. Ejectors are pumps of low pressure and can operate wit.h water and steam.
lnjectors are purnps of high pressure which are ttsed aboard ship only of
steam type.
3. the type of working liquid jet pumps are subdivided into water jet and
steamjet ones. connection tbero to the object served - into ejectors (suction
nozzle) and injectors (force nozzle).

The maio operating parameters of pumps

1. Del.ivery or efticiency - volume (m3/h, m3/sec, Vmin) and weight (tlh, kg/
sec).
2. Pump thrust (forcing pressure).
3. The number of revolutions (doule strokes).
4. Height of suction (suction pressure).
5. Consumed power.
144

. u .

. .
1. nJf n
- n .
2. n . , .
3. rr , n, wr
n n n.
4. n .
5. n , n n
: i .

6. . 111J.
7. .

. Ur .
1. n
- .
2. .
3. n ,
Jt, n .
I .
4. ..
5. n r . .
6. n: s1:
n
. 'h'j11.
7.
, n n
r Ji .
8. n .
9. r r, ,
.
n rt1 n n neperpey

1. : ,
n, , n
r n .
11. r:
) l:lll an8l'fOM ( n
n);
) n I() arerarem.oro 'I ;
) m n.
MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 145
Pump systems. Exploitation of pumps of diffcrent types.

. Piston pumps
1. At the exploitation of piston pumps one should follow the manufacturer's
instructions and roles of technical exploitation of auxiliary mechanisms.
2. Before starting one should inspect pump, check it hand.
3. open force valve, fitting on the pipeline, acceleration control valve and
valve on the suction pipeline.
4. start driven engine.
5. control readings of testing tests, periodically checking the number of
dou\e strokes of pump per time unit.
6. maintain the demanded quantity of air in air chamber.
7. control knocks and noises.
.
. CentrJrugal pumps
l. Exploitation ofcentrifugal pumps is carried out on the base of manufacturer's
instroctions and rnles of technical exploitation.
2. 'inspect pump outside.
3. Before starting centrifugal pump which has no device for self-priming, it
is necessary to flood with liquid pumped. As the pump is filled with liquid, air
is removed through sma\1 air cocks.
4. tum pump hand.
5. open valve ofan inlet pipe.
6. Start ofmajority of centrifugal pumps'is carried out all means at closed
regulating \1 to avoid electric motor overloading. After start regulating Jock
is opened.
7. Centrifugal pumps may started \Vith an open force valve if the.re is
backwa~er. of diaphragm or valve \Vith spring.
8. control readings of manometer and vacuummeter.
9. regulating valve is opened when pump reaches revolutions corresponding
to the rating regime of pump. Long operaHon of pump with c\osed force
valve may result in overbeating pump.
1. At tbe stop of pump one should stop an engine, close force valve, close
taps to the manometer and the vacuummeter, fally to close priming valve.
11 . pump delivery is regulated:
) throttLing force pump (the most common way);
) by-passing liquid from the force pipeline into priming one;
) throttling the priming valve.

10-'9426
146

. .
1.

.
2. n
D).

3. n r
.

4. n -
n .
5. i 11.' n
n -
, , .

. .
1. ii n
.
2. (
~-..-) '!
.

3. n n
u.
.

. n rn. . .
1. : '
) ;
) n ru ;
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2. ,
.
. <<, 2.4, 2.4.1, 2.4.2, 5.6, 5.8.
3. I\i nr
r q .
, n pelia ,
n n .
M.ARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 147
. .Jet pumps
1. At preparation ofwater-jet ejector to operate it is necessary to open isolating
valves on the pipeline of working liquid and of priming nozzle.
2. During operation of an ejector one sbould follow the necessary 1iquid
pressure.
3. At the service ofportale ejectors one should follow the p.resence ofends
in inlet and discharge hoses.
4. Failure in ejector operation may take place due to pressure drop in the
'vorking water and appearance of inleakages in the priming header.
5. While switching of an ejector you should close isolation valves on the
working liquid pipeline and on the priming header as well as valve on the
leeding pipe.

D. Cargo and stripping pumps of tankers


1. ,.r~ modem large-capacity tankers centrifugal pumps are mainly used.
2. Last time aoard tankers (especially in the case of shipping products. of
high viscosity) screw-type pumps are used as cargo pumps.
3. R~ciprocating pumps are mainly used as stripping ones. Last time screw-
type pumps are mor.e cc;:.mmonly used as stripping ones.

. Exploitation of cargo, stripping and ballast systems of tanker~


1. Cargo and striping systems of oil tankers consist of:
) cargo and stripping pumps;
) pipelines in cargo tardcers with armature;
) manifolds.
2. Aboard new tankers and container carriers there are systems of automatic
regulation listing value and differe.nt. In this system information received at
remote control of listing and different, in used for automatic control of ballast
pumps~

10*
:

( )

\,; .

ARINE MECANICAL PLANTS


(CONTROL LEVEL)
\50

1. t . 11 oc-rattoa .1atoii
ttt rt Jttt,
;1 HII~I .

tt .
\. 60-70 n

t- .

.


. - ,

. ,
, -
, -

, .
n n ,
, - .
.
n ,
n ;
,
n , ,
tt
. -n
.
- ,
,
-
J> ()

.
- 1 1
- ,
: , ,

, , , 1<.
- , .1 ,
r .
2. - :
- , .
- , .
MARINE MECHNICAL PLANTS 151
1. Planning and \Vork Schedule. Start and shut-do\vn
of" the main propttlsion plant and auxili11ry mcchanisms,
together \Vith connccted systems

Planning and \Vork ScheduJe


1. In 60-70'h years of the last century most of ships of Ministry of arine
Fleet and Ministry of Fishing lndustry were transfcrrcd to the system of
continuous maintenance. All years after this the system has been developing
and \Vas widening its intluence.
At the present time ships of the most marine world companies are working
using this systcm. System of Continuous Maintenance reduces time for repair
and increases the duration of exploitation period of vessels. SCM is more
perfect fon of technical exploitation of flect and is based on ptanned and
preventive inspection and repairs restoring technical exploitation characteristics
of marine mcchan~sms, systems and equipment. CondtJcting of inspection and
repair is carried out in the process of vessel exploitation in the pcriod of its
cn1ise and on sllip 's staying in the port. All the necessary works are included in
the technical maintenance schedul.es. These schedules include planned and
p1eventive inspections and repairs, made tl1e crew during \Vatches; ope-ration.s
of more profound technical maintenance, made thc cre\v after watch, as
well a.s operations made the crew and repair teams during oorage in the
port or during the planned repair. Planned and preventive inspcctions and repairs
are the base of standard technical maintenance.
If aboard the sl1ip thcre are plans - schedules oftechnical maintenance,
senior mechanic should create them on his \, coordinate them with technical
service of ship O\vner and use plans - scltedules of technical maintenance i
practice of technica\ maintenance organization of all services connected with
marine mechanical department.
plan- sc.hedule of mechanical part usually consists of some booklets, each
ooklet corresponding to technical aids \Vhich are under command and ofmarine
special ists: second, third, fourth mechanic, electric mechanic, refmechanic,
systems and other mec.hanic.s.
plan - schedule of technical maintenance of vessels having automatization
may include aids ofmarine automatization in such booklet.

2. Plan - scheduJe should include_the foUowing sections:


- List ot mechanisms, systems and aangem ents of each service.
- Volume of work per each mechanism, system, arrangement.
152

- .
<r ~1, ~1, ,
, ' (, ,
{Ip.), , , i<Jr
.

1_, .
, ,
,
n .

.9
~1
,
.
,
.
. -
r .
, u , , ,
. .
, t1<1 JJ
, ,
, n
! 1 .
<!
, 1
n ~1 r.
-
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, .


11i! J! . 11
- ,,
, , ,

!, . ,
.
3. n
. 1{
n
- ; n,
, ;

; r .\1
.1 .
MRINE MECHANICAL PLANTS !53
- Periodicity of technical maintenance per each mechanism.
List should comprise all mechanisms, systems, arrangements, equipment,
hull structures {tanks, sistems, expansion tanks and others), all electric equipment,
refrigerators, technological equipment and marine automation aids.
detennine volume of \vorks each t.echnical aid it is necessary to use,
first, manufactu.rer's exploitation instructions, ru.les oftechnical exploitation of
technical aids, Register rules and rules of other classification societies, joumals
of technical state of service and experience of tcchnical aids' exploitation.
Exploitation experience analysis oftechnical aids leads often to correction of
volumes and tenns of\vorks oftechnical maintenance either red~cing them or
increasing in comparison with ones indicated in the manufacturer's instructions.
But conclusions may done only on the base of infonnation flXed in the
journal of tcchnical infonnation.
Joumal of tcch.nical state is technical story of life and work of technical
aid. 1t should reflect all the works of techical maintenance, failures in \vork,
repairs, parts replacemen4 tales of measuring and test results.' Infonnation
analysis a~d ana\ysis ofreadings oftesting instruments, fixed in the engine log
permits for senior mechanic to forecast residual motor potentia\ of parts,
bundles, mechanism as whole, and to plan labour expenditures to spend
technical maintenance and necessary spare parts and materials.
determie periodicity of technical maintenance operations it is oecessary to
fo\lo\v the manufacturer's instructions, rules oftechnical exploitation and exploitatio
experience. All chages of tenns in conducting technical maintenance should
\vell argncnted and confmned the technical service of ship owner.
The decisive role in solving oftechnical maintenance tenns changes belongs
to exploita_tion experience. g terms is not an airn but \vay to optimize
exploitation time, to reduce vessel idle time, to increase exploitation tirne, to
reduce labour and material expenditures. lt is very important now when ships
are \0/0rking undcr market conditions.
3. Technical diagnostics ofmarine diesels is carried out during tbeir opcration
directly. The aim of technical diagnostics of marine diesels is an increase of
their reliability and rcsource means of defects detcction in time; working
capacity evaluation, technical state and \vear level evaluation; forecast of residual
resource of the main parts and bundles; determining the n.ecessary volume of
\vorks of tech.nical maintenancc and repair.
\54

; , mt
11 , "m
, i\. .
n 11."
t , ~1
Jlrt 11 t , n
, :> 11. .,
n 1 ~ ( .~
2-2,5 ).
4. ... TCXIIlteCKOii II3IIOCTIIIOI IIeeii.
) }l
. , 1 Qrrrt,
.1n. n.1. 11, n
L i:i n n
, .1
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) zts, na u1u u.., Oll
pecemm .~IOtIIOCIIlU .
~r n n !I
_ t ~r n, 1tr
n .
r 1. ~ i i ,
.
, ii ur1x."Joo noaJe n
11 yrna n-. n , 113
.1 1,S-1,7
. r n
n .111 10 rl
, .l\! ('
.1, r !\..1 .)
11.- r n .:rr
n 1r .
n t.\f r
n 11n r:
.

) L'tt, 11 ui. .'leiiUJa.x.


n I J<"
t , . .1 :> u nr1-
n t ( , .) .
~ 11 1110 r ,
, i
oruttro , , rn. t t.\I, n
t- ~i ..
ARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 155
In using systems of planned preventive inspection and repair wear
mechanisms, wear of which is reached values indicated in manufacturer's
instructions are to technically maintained. Reliaility, effectiveness of
mechanisms work are raised, exploitation terms of mechanisms (period between
repairs ofengines of internal combustion increases 2-2,5 times) introducing
into practice technical maintenance technical state of mechanisms, certain
methods of technical diagnostics and accounting individuat peculiarities of
mechanism.

4. Metbod of Technical Diagnostics of Diesels.


) simple and reliae method of non-disrnantling diagnostics of separate
parts is one, based upon the use of fibre optics, permitting to examine parts in
closed cavities. For example, one may evaluate technical stateofpiston ottom,
valve plates, operating surface of cylinder linerby means of an arrangement
\vith flexible fibre light guide through injector orifice.
) Diagnostics, bared the indicaiio oj egine, deterrnining ils power
and juel consumptio. .
his method permits to find out in time and to eliminate damage of fuel
delivery system regulation which results in substantial breaks ofworking process
proceeding in an engine cylinder. As result, not only power characteristics are
lowered but parts base wear rises significantfy.
It is estaished lhat at increased cycle fue\ delivery and damage of certain
value of fuel injection advance angle at the beginning, part wear ( of cylinder
piston group) may rise 1,5-1,7 times against its normal value. Indexes influencing
diesellongevity (Pz, pressure rise speed, cycle temperature characteristics and
others) are determined and evaluated on the base of indexing and fuel
consumption changes simultaneously with power indexes.
Character of an indicator diagram perrnits to conclude about character of
proceeding and switching off working process in engine cylinders.
Technical state of an engine is evaluated certain indexes and measures are
taken to eliminate damages and regulation.
) Diagosing based vibraiion acoustic methodS.
In practice of intemal combustion engines exploitation method of evaluation
of technical state noise from hearing is used. For this purpose simple
appliances and devices (stethoscopes, vibrometers and others) are used.
tints and noise level of different frequency caused vibration of parts and
bundles experienced engineer may deterrnine correctness of fuel pump
regulation, as well as of injectof$, gas distributing mechanism, damage in crank
- connecting rod mechanism and so on.
156

m
.
n
nn n.

.

.
,
n (n
, , n
, n ).
nn n .r
.
) , .
n
, .


,
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n , n :
:
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(, , -, ..) n

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)
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n , r
n .
,, ,
n, ,
, ,

, , .
, . ,
, n ,
, , . n.
ARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 157

Mechanism technical state evaluation from hearing is subjective and often


results in mistakes.
Last time vibroacoustic diagnostics \Yith the use ofspecial devices and facilities
are used.
Level and character ofvibration ofa.n operating engine is an important indicator
of state of its bundles and parts.
At diesel operation with increased gaps in conjugation of parts intensity of
shocks and vibration cnergy correspondingly rise. discrimination vibration
spcctrum of corresponding part and measuring vibration energy it is possiie
to determine gap value the latter one (for example, between piston and
iiner of cylinder bearings of crankshaft and connecting rod, in gas distributing
mech.anism).
Apparati and devices of technical diagnosing vibroacoustic method are
operating this principle.

d) Diagnosing, based oil spectra/ analysis.


General technica1 state of an engine is possie to evaJuate method of
spectral analysis of oil, taken from the crankcase.
At engine operation \Year products of its parts are stored in oil, their
concentration are increased as wear speed of steels is increased and oil liltration
process is deterioratcd. Thus, at long oil operation, its constant consumption
and constant purification intensity wear tempo of engine parts is characterized
quantity of wear products in engine oil. Concentration of an element (such
as iron, copper, Iead, chromium and so on) in oil higher than permissible value
indicates at incrcased wear and thc necessity of examination or rcpair.
Comparative analysis of oii is carried out in coastal Jaoratory.
) At present aboard marine diesels ofBurmeister and Wein, Sulzer, Fiat and
other types systems which permit to carry out continuous control over main
_ bundlcs and diesel as whole are mounted means of timely detecting of
incorrectnesses and delivcry of recommendations their elirnination on the
base of use of exploitation experience data of marine diesels of certain types
introduced in computer memory.
The system controls air consumption, \vork of injection system, specific fuel
consumption, diesel power, distribution of load among cylinders, heat load,
state of cylinder liners and piston rings, and \VOrk of auxiliary systems, servicing
anengine.
system consists of scnsors, computer and paoel. Sensors mounted in
different places of diesel should measure pressure and pressures changes,
temperature, \Vear of parts, fuel consumption and other parameters.
158 .


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ARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 159

Temperature of walls in cylinder liners and covers are detenined \vith the
help of t11ermoelements, mounted in conical metal plugs \Vhich are pressed
inside cylinder.
Wear of cylinder liners is measured with special t11ennoelements \vhich are
esta\ished on the \VOrking surface of cy\inder liner and are \VOrk togetlter
with liner material. Pressure in supercharging system and air coolers is accepted
sensors of absolute pressure and pressures drops. Pressure in cylindcrs is
measured with the help ofa porta!e electric sensor which manua\ly is connected
to an indicator tap of each cylinder. At connecting of iliis sensor to computer
an exact pressure registration in cylinder is provided ..
In comination with an arrangement determining diesel cranksl1aft position
computer delivers rather exact values of Pz, , as well as data of diesel
power, fuel combustion completeness degree, spccific fuel consumption and
other parameters for as operators.
Diagnostics ofmistakes or incorrectness is carried out storing in memory
of computer data of exploitation of built diesels and comparison iliem v.1 ith
data characterizing diesel current state.

Duties of senior and second mechanics at preparation of marine


control system to \Vork

. Preparation o.f diese\ to action after short moorage.


1. Preparation of diesel to \Vork should produced watch cngineer
order of chief engineer.
An order should given in advance accounting time, estaished
manufacture.r 's instructio ns and rules of technical exploitation of internal
combustion engines.
2. At tlte same time \vith preparation of diesc\ to action gear, clutch,
system of controllale pitcl1 propeller, shaft line, all syste.ms servicing the
main diesel, stceri ng gear should prepared.
3. ! preparation ofthe main diesel watch engineer all operations, provided
an instruction of intemal combustion engine exploitation and requircments
oftechnical exploitation rules should fulfilled.
. Preparation of diesel to action after long moorage or repair.
1. Preparation to action after long moorage or rcpair shou1d produccd
chief and second engineers.
2. It is necessary to out tbe fo!Jo,ving main operations:
) to produce careful outsidc inspection of diesel and servicing mechanisms,
paying special attention to the state ofbundles, being subjected to repair.
) to inspect inner cavities of linders through valve and injector orifices, to
sure in absence of strange objects, fuel and water on piston heads, to inspect
exhaust and scavenging ports and piston rings, cranking the engine crankshaft.
160 .

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7. .
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ARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 161
) to check tightening and splitting of nuts and bolt connections, especially of
important parts and bundles of diese\ (connecting rod bolts, main bearings,
fl}"vheel, fundamcntal tramc and so on).
d) to cl1eck presence d coiectness of all standard control d measuring
instruments.
) to check cleanliness of all filters.
f) to check regulation of gas distributio and fuel water delivery.
g) to sure in deliverig fuel to the fuel pump of high pressure, to press
pumps, to check coiectness naught feeding of fuel, putting handle of control
post in position <(Stop.
h) to fil\lubrication system, lubricators and pressure lubricators and pump oil
to the lubricating points.
i) to flood cooling system with \Vater, to sure in absence ofwater passing
into the crankcase.
j) to flood and pump with oil (\vater) cooling system of piston and to check
its tightness.
k) to check bearigs ofthe shaft line d thrust bearings, to fill thcm \Vith oil,
to check cooling system.
1) to press injectors.
n1) to sure in c\canliness of gas discharging duct, suction manifold and
. .
scavengg atr rece1ver.
n) to check oil \evels in oil buths of the exhaust gas turine supercharge,
lubrication system of the exhaust gas turie spercharge, cleanliness of filters
sctio.
3. prodce chcck and preparation of oil system, gear, control\a\e pitch
propeller, oillevel in govemor. check oil feeding of cylinder \ubrication
system, cranking manually lubricators. Set in motion oil pumps of engine, the
exhaust gas turne superc\1arge, gear, controlla\e pitch propeller. check
presence of oil, pressurc in the system standard control and measuring
instruments and oil delivery to alllubricating points. l1eat oil.
4. Tq produce check and preparation of '"'ater cooling system. put into
operation cooling pumps of fresh and sea water.
5. produce preparation and check offuel system. S\vitch autonomous
pumps of fuel delivery injector and cooling injector with fuel. heavy fuel
in settling and daily supply tanks. pump fuel putnp of high pressure and
injectors, to discharge air. sure in absence of stickings of govemor thrusts
and fuel control racks.
6. produce preparation and cl1eck of starting systems, supercharging.
scavenging and discharging.
7. produce preparation and check of a.shaft line.
8. produce cranking and test starts of diesel. Diesels with remote distance
control should have test starts from all control posts.
11 -9426
162

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 163

9. do diesel starting in correspondence with exploitation instructions and


ru1es oftechnical exploitation.
l . sure in work of control and measuring instruments and system of
automatics.
11. out heating and put diesel into regime of exploitation load; not
to allow sharp load change. If there is system of remote distance control in
which heating cooling, programme is provided, putting diesel into exploitation
load regime should carried out means of switching off the system of
remote distance control for programme mentioned.

put diesel into operation is prohihited in cases of:


1. Discrepancies of characteristics of fuel and oi\ indicated in an exploitation
instruction.
2. Presence of cracks in engine foundation, crankshafts, connecting rods,
crossheads, piston rods, stay bolt, as well as cracks passing water and oil on
the operating surfaces of lock, on the cylinders, piston heads and cylinder
covers, cases of the exhaust gas turine supercharge.
3. Shaft deflection ofthe crankshaft exceeding the established standards.
4. Incorrect state of starting and reverse arrangement; bodies of gas
distribution and fuel delivery; all-speed govemor and overspeed govemor; barring
gear, shaft line, its bearings and deadwood gaskets.
5. Pressure of lubricating oil, fuel and cooling water lower than established
standard.
6. Melted or having crum!es ofwhite meta\ main, crank and head bearings.
7. Incorrectness of safety and protection arrangements, signalling gear and
clutches, system of pre-starting pumping with circulating oil.
8. Wear ofthe main important parts exceeding perrnissible standards.
9. Presence or absence of standard testing instruments.
10. Presence of strange knocks and noise in diesel.
ll. Presence of troues in diesel pipeline systems.
12. Troue of gas discharging manifolds.
164

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 165

2. Exploitation, observation and evaluation of work


and Ioad of diesel. Majntenance of motor equipment,
systems and arrangements in safe state.
I. Dlesel operation regimes and cbaracterlstics of diesel.

1. The main engine works in hydrodynamic complex: an engine- hull -


propeller- rudder, elements of which are interconnected.
Engine Joad is characterized mean indicated pressure or mean effective
pressure, cycle feed and fuel consumption per hour.
The most unfavourae operating regimes - reverses, minimal revolutions at
towing and sail in rough weather.
In operating conditions an engine may work in wide range of powers, the
most characterizing ones are continuous maximum rating, service power,
exploitation, economical and minimal.
Continuous maximum rating- the greatest power which may give an
engine during not more than 2 hours.
Service po\ver is power at which an engine may \VOrk for long time
confined its service ours (85-90% of the nominal po\ver). Presence ofsome
store ofpower prevents an engine &oro possiie overloading {in rough \Veather,
tuming froro hard over to hard over, shells fouling and so on).
Econonical po\ver is at which an engine \vorks \vith minimal specific
fuel consumption {80-85% ofthe nonlinal one); service power often coincides
\vith economical one.
Minimal po\ver is one at which an engine works steadily without switching
off separate cylinders (2-3% of the nominal one).
Speed peifonnance are dependencies of engine parameters change &om the
number of revolutions. Speed performance are extemal, propeller, regulator
ones of idle running.
Load performance are dependencies of cngine parameters from cffectivc
power, torque or mean effective pressure. Load charact.eristics are taken from
engines with constant and variale number of revolutions.
Governors performance determine optimal values of engine regulation (the
most profitaie phascs of gas distribution of fuel delivery, injection pressure
and so on).
'
166

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SEMT- (<> 4 1\IOIIOCTIO N=lSOO ..
n .-21,3 /z 11 n = 400 /~
MRINE MECHNICAL PLNTS 167

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(!Q --------------,.."._ __
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Fig. 4. Speed e11gine performaiJCC

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Fig. S. Load pcrformance of four-stroke .diesel ofSEMT-Piletik


odcl of 4 type with pO\\'er 1500 h.p. at = 21,3 kg/cm2
and n =400 rev/min
168

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 169

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Flg. 6. External and Rcgulator Performance

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II,S JS 1()1} rqp 4,11f-


Fig. 7. Propeller performance of small speed englne
of Burmeister and \Valn typc
170

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 171
External pfonnance are dcpendencies of one or several enginc parameters
from t\1e number of revolutions at constant useful running of plunger, fuel
pump ofhigh pressure limited, maximal, rated, service and fractional power.
Propeller performance dependcncies of power and engie parameters
from the number of revo\utions at operation on tl1e propellcr. For propeller
performance Ne=cn 3, \vhcre - coefficient of proportionality. Propeller
performancc are taken at different cycle fucl deliveries.
Actually dependence of power on thc number of revolutions is deviated from
the cublc one (exponent for displacement vesse\s - 2,9-3,2 and for planning
boats 1,6-3,2).
Engine po,ver is used thoroughly at the nominal number ofrevolutions. For
the rest of regime significant underloading of an engi ne takes place. Engine
underloading is accompanied an increase of specific fuel consumption and
at lowered revolutions results in unstaJe operation.
Engine performance 'vorking on the screw propeller are built depending upon
the number of revolutions.
Performance ofidle running are taken at varia!e speed regimes from maximal
to minimally staie with measuring of fuel delivery per cycle and hour.
Governors performance retlect regulator operation influence upon extemal
performance and depend upon regulator type.
Passport performance determine dependence of vessel speed upon po\ver,
fuel consumptio!f, temperature of discharged gases, the number of engine
revolutions and vessel loading conditions (in load or in bailast).

.
Influcnce of the statc of sea,
atmospheric conditions and others upon diescl operat.ion.
. Accounting of thcse influences at diese) exploitation.

Vessel draught c.hange, shells fouling, sea conditions, force and direction of
wind, sailing conditions (ice, shallow \vaters, to\ving \Vith drag) influence an
engine operation. n engine \Vorking on propeller possesses property of
self-regulation. ln dcfinite position of handJe of fuel pump control self-
regulation maintains equality of the torque of an engine and resistance of
propeller. An engine transfcrs from one propeller characteristics to another
with the help of measuring resistance to ship propulsion (wind, rough sea,
current and so on). An excess resistance of propeller lo\vers whi\e an excess
torquc increases the number ot' engine revolutions.
172

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10-15 % .

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10 1i0
2,5%,
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r 40 80% (
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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 173
Limiting govemor affect fuel pump of high pressure with engin.e revolution
number increase of 10-15% over the nominal.
All rating govemors maintain the proper revolution number of an engine
constant, influencing operation of fuel pump of high pressure. At resistance
increase to ship propulsion work of all-rating govemor may result in engine
overload Pi. avoid this it is necessary to decrease fuel delivery.

Influcnce of atmospheric conditions

Weight charge of an engine cylinder with dry air decrease with temperature
rise, relative humidity and barometric pressure decrease. At contant coefficient
of air excess for fuel combustion cylinder chargc ~veigbl c!Jange witb air at
supercharging results in almost proportional change of indicator power and
thermal intensity of an engine.
At ou1Side air temperature increase at 10engine power without superchargig
on the average is lowered for 2,5%, while discharged gases temperature
increases at 3,5%.
Jn engines with supercharging outside air temperature influence upon power
and temperature of discharged gases is lowered 1,6-2 times.
Relative humidity change of outside ai.r from 40 to 80% (in the range of
temperatures 25-35) results in cylinder weight charge decrease with dry air 2-
3%. At barometric air pressure decrease for 10 mm of atmospheric pressure
engine power decreases for 0,8-1,2%.
Influence of atmospheric conditions upon operating process of an engine
substantially depends upon air excess coefficient at the rated regime. h more
:, the less temperature change influence relatively humidity and barometric
pressure of outside air upon the \VOrking process of an engine.

most unfavourale engine operation regimes.


Starting regimes and reversing an engine.

In starting and reversing regimes mechanical and thermal intensity of central


piston group parts ofthe cyJinder piston group and their wear are raised. Scre\V
characteristic is substantially changed \vith vesseJ propulsion direction change.
During starts fuel injection pressure is lowered and mixture formation is
deteriorated, angular advance is increased time, dynamic and tbermal intensity
rises, parts wer of central piston group increases. Liner \Vear (in the rotation
shaft plane) per one ~tart is produced as large as for 7-8 hours of operation
while in shaft axis plane- as for 3-5 hours of operation of an engine at the rated
regime.
174

.
30%
; 15%.

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; . 80-90%
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MRINE MECHNICL PLANTS 175
Regintcs of minirnal number of rc,olutions.

An engine should steadily operate at the numer ofrevolt1tions not more than
30% ofthe rated one; in somc engincs this number is lowered up to 15%. In the
proccss of exploitation minimally stable number ofrevolutions rises because of
\vears, compressor bosses and fuel delivery system misalignment. Non-
uniformity of fuel delivery is caused uneve density of plunger pair of fuel
pump of high pressurc ditrerent tightening of nozzle springs and so on.
With engine revolution number decrease temperature at the end ofcompression
is lowered, fuel ignition process deteriorates and cngine operation rigidity
increases. Whi1e appearing minimal revolutions non-uniform ity ofmean indicator
pressure distribution cylinders, especially at flash passes rises and torque
non-uni fonity degree as \Vell as cross vibration of an engine are increased.

Operation regimes of diesel in violent \veather and at to\ving

In storm Ship propulsion resistance is sharply changes and an engine operates


at variaie regimes continuously passing from one screw characteristic to
another. Significant changes ofdynamic a.nd the.nnal intensity ofengine operation
take place.
At tO\ving an engine goes to operation sharper screw characteristic.
prcvent overloading an engine it is necessary to lo\ver the number of revolutions
due to fuel delivery decrease, without exceeding the temperature of discharged
gases.
Engine operation regime on mooring lies proceeds analogically; the greatest
number of revolutions usuaJ!y does not exceed 80-90% of minimal one.

Operation regime cboicc

l . Operating revolutions d the main dicsel po\ver at which it should operate


are estalisl1ed an operating instruction depending upon sailing conditions of
ship (sea-crust, draught, to\ving, storm, atmospheric conditions).
2. Evaluation of diesel thermal intensity is produced the following indirect
readings:
) mean idicator pressure;
) positio ofmaneuvering rod;
) temperature of exhaust gases cyl.inders;
d) temperature of cooling water and oil, leaving cylinder and pistons;
) temperature drop of cooling \Vater and oil in diesel.
3. Mechanical stress of diesel is evaluated tl1e base of measuring of the
following parameters:
176

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) t Pi;
4. ,
- n nJi
n ,
.

5.

.

6. n
nrn :-.1 )'l
n .
n ,
n.

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n n n ,

t .
9. .1 ,
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t.":

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.
3. , ,
t w, .
MRIN MECHANICAL PLANTS 177
) effective po\vcr;
) maximal combustio pressure Pz;
) mean indicator pressure Pi.
4. Limitig characteristic should detennined in such \vay that at diesel
operation at regimes not typical to this characteristic keepig of diesel thennal
and mecbanical intensity \vould pro\1 ided at the level not excccdig the level
of rated rcgimc.
5. In diese\s \Vith superc!Jarging to keep theral intesity at the lcve\ of the
rated regime at reduced rotational frequcncy it is necessary to decrease fue\
delivery.
. At \vork of diesel at maximal f11el dclivery and with constant rotation
frequency unfayouraie ch.anges of evironmental conditions cause discharged
gases temperature increase. Temperature increase is permitted only to tlse
permissible va\ues \VI1ich are indicated in exp\oitation instruction.
7. In diesels working at constant revolutions '>''hcre power may lowered at
keeping of shaft rotation freqency, tiJal is, Joad characteristic (diesel
generators and \vorking at contro!la\e pitch propel/er) cycle fuel delivery should
decreased to values providing keeping of gas temperattlrc before turbine
at the level of pennissile values for rated load.
8. In diesels Norking at fixed pitch propel\er fuel dclivery decrease causes
lo\vering of shaft rotat.ion freqency, 'vhilc diesel po,ver changes propeller
characteristic. Temperate ot' discharged gases decreases also with lo\vering
of rotation frequency. Jn this case to dctennine penissiie regime of operation
it is necessary to have orientation at admiss.ie temperature of dischargcd gases
corresponding to the Jo,vered rotation frequency of the crankshaft.
9. It is prohiitcd diesel opcration in areas critical numbcr of revolutions,
marked at the tahometcr sca\e with red sectors. At passing from one regime to
another prohiblted critical number of revolution it is necessary to proceed fast
but _without jerks.

Control of opcratlng parameters of tl1e nun dicsel


at thc esta\ished regime readings of testing instruments

During diescl opcration it is necessary to control the follo\ving parameters:


1. h number of diesel rotations and the exhaust gas turblne supercharge.
2. Temperature of circulating oil at the inlet and outlet of diesel as 'vell as
cooling oil at tl1e outlet of pistons.
. Pressure in the circulation systcm of diese\lubrication, gear, controllae
pitcb propeller, piston cooling, oil pressure before and after filters.
12 . 9426
178

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15. ( , , -
.).
16. .
17. , ~1 .
-
.
(n -
4 , - n
) , n
.

v
..
,
.
J .
n n
. n,
, , ,
.
MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 179

4. Oilleve1 in the circulation oil tank or in diesel crank, in oil baths of the
exhaust gas turblne supercharge or in oil collectors, cylinder lubricating pump.
5. Water pressure of cooling of cylinders, pistons, exhaust gas turine
supercharge, coolers of oil, water and air.
6. Temperature of water at the inlet and the outlet of cylinders, pistons, the
exhaust gas turine supercharge, coolers of oil, water and air.
7. Pressure and temperature of the cooling environment at the inlet into
injectors and at the outlet from them.
8. Water level in the expansion tank.
9. Fuel pressure after fuel delivery pump temperature or fuel viscosity
before fue1 pump of blgh pressure of diese1 (at work on viscous fuel).
10. Fuel level in daily supply and settling tanks.
11 . Pressure of starting air before the main starting valve and in air alloons.
12. Pressure of supercharging air before and after air coolers and its
temperature after air coolers.
13. Pressure of oil and air, voltage of electric current in the diesel control
system.
14. Temperature of discharged gases cylinders, in the discharged manifold,
before and after exhaust gas turbie supercharge.
15. Temperature of set friction (earings of diesel, reductor, thrust earing
and others).
16. Concentration of oil fog in the diesel crankcase.
17. Parameters, characterizing bearing lubrication conditions of exhaust gas
turblne supercharge.
Periodicity ofdiesel parameters control is estaiished exploitation instruction.
It is necessary periodically (at watch service not rarer than in 4 bours, and at
non-watch according to exploitation instruction) check readings of control and
measuring instruments in the wheelhouse, central control station with readings
of standard control devices.

Control of diesel state and mechanisms servicing


it indications of standard diesel operation

Below there are some abnormalities which may appear at diesel operation. ln
this case the main thing for engineers is their ability to determine reason of
abnormalities appearance. Meases and ways to eliminate abnormalities
thorougbly depend on reason determined. Usually they are common, known
to cngineers wnys connected with repair, resulation as well as exploitation of
diese1s and servicing mechanisms and systems.
12*
180

, BIIaBWHC
ll 3!l

. 1. .
2. 811 118
3. R r.
4. .
5. n 1
.
6. II
n.

ra- 1.
. n 2. n11
~m . .
3. -
.

n 1. .
2. n . -
n n
i:! .

.r 1. n .
2. 110-
/!, -
n i

: 1. (
) UI:! ir n nw ).
2 - 2.
, i(r - ( -
).
3. l<.
4. !I'r r
( n).

) rR - 1. u -
n .

2.
, -
( -
).
3. II 8
i:II li (
).
MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 181

lndicatios of abnormal Reason causlng abnormalities in diesel


operation operatlon

Increased temperature of \. cylinder is overloaded.


discharged gases ofone cylinder 2. Poor fue\ injection.
3. lnsufficient pressure at the end of compression.
4. Delayed fuel delivery into cylinder.
5. Discharging and supercharging ports are strongly
carbonized.
6. Leakinesscs or sticking ofdischarging valvcs.

Temperature is raiscd discharged 1. diesel is overloaded.


gases ofal\ cylindcrs. Discharged 2. Pressure of supercharging air is Jower than standard.
gases are of dark colour 3. Tempcrature ofsupercharging air is raised.

Discharged gases ofiue colour 1. Much oil is delivered in the cylinders.


2. Oil is delivered into the cyliders through cracks in
piston heads at oil cooling.

Discharged gases of white colour 1. fuel COIJtains watcr.


2. \Vater through leakinesses of aircoolers, cracks in
liners and covers proceeds together with supercharging
air in the cylinder.

Abnormal knocks lind noise. 1. cylindcr is overloaded (knock is at positions ofa


) knock in the cylinder offour- piston in upper dead centrc and 1o1v dead centre).
stroke engine is repcated in two 2. Fucl injection advance angle is more than standard (
revol11tions and i two-stroke knock is at position in ttpper dead centre ).
diesel in one revolution 3. injector is trouie.
4. Fuel of non-corresponding quality ( flash
temperature).

) knock is repeated at each l. In of cylindcrs piston scorc has begun.


change of piston stroke 2. Large gaps between piston rings and liner, between
liner and piston (metallic knock ofconstant force is
heard).
3. Gaps in the top end earing, crank and main bearing
earings are blghertl1an standard ( sharp metallicknock
is heard).
182

) 1. )'JI. n.
2. w-
n.
3. n nru .
r) 1. :. n n -
nopw- r .

eli 2. n
n 1r w.

- 1. nr-.
, MO'llomex .\! 2. J!
, oap)'JI\'IIl- .
i! r 3. n , -
- , .
f. 4. 1 11 WJ.
-
.

n - 1. n !.
- 2. .
. 3. r -
1 .

. - 1. n n.
n-l! 2. n .
. 3. !! , -
r . , ni.

1. 1m JL'l '.
2. 1t n ypltLJ.
11 MO)!OCnt 3. n
. n .
4. J .
n 1. n -
n 8 .
2. n
J mt n n.
'
n 1. )!l, )! 8 n.
- - 2. n .
r

~t . 1. n .
- 2. r,
.
3. .
4. n nw!m.
MRINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 183

) Knock ot'valves \. valve spring is broken.


2. large gap betweenadrivc rockcr ann anda valverod.
3. valvc rod sticks in directing liner.

d) Hydraulic impacts in the 1. In air caps oftclescopic system ofcooling air is ab.o;ent
cooling system of pistons or is insufficient.
2. Drninagc or air orifkes of tclescopic tucs of piston
cooling are clogged.

lcrcased hcating ofthe top end 1. diesel is overloaded.


bearing, crank d main 2. Oil prcssure in the system o(circulating lubrication
earings, dctccted h~ating of lovcr than standard.
crankcase covers or wcar of 3. 'H:mpcrature oflubricating oil, entering diesel is higher
signaling. In this casc you than standard onc.
should immediately decrcase 4. Gaps in bcarings arc dccrcscd or incre~d:
load on dicscl

Temperntrc of oil at the inlct 1. Oil coolers are contamiated.


of diesel is highcr than normal 2. Lack of cooling water.
3. thermorcgulator is incorrcct or opening of by-pass
valve is i11creased.

\Vater has becn delivercd into 1. Gaskets of cylinder liners pnss.


oil. Oil has tbld grey colour 2. Oil cooler pas~es.
3. Shaft gasket of cooling pump conncctcd witb diesel
passcs.

Pressure ofsuperchging air is 1. f iltc.rs of suction exl1aust gas turine supercharger


lower than standard at constant contaminated.
power and revol\Jtions 2. Flowing parts of compre~sor and turine are c\ogged.
3. Blades of supcrcharger ipeller and Jzzle gate
apparatus \' turbine arc damagcd.
4. Aircoolers are contaminatcd.

Oil in the exhaust gas turblnc 1. Channcls and tubes for dclivering air to turbine packing
supercargc has n darkcned and rcmoving air from them arc contaminated.
due to getting tberc of 2. Labyrinth packing from the turine side is damaged or
discharged gascs gaps in it cxceed thc perrnissi\e ones.

Oil in the exhatJSt gas turinc 1. Cracks, flaws in the casc.


supercharge has dark grey 2. \Vater passing an oil cooler.
colour due to getting \vater
into it

Noise and vibration ofthc \. Surgc of compressor.


exhaust gas turine 2. Non-unifonn fouling, damageofsupercharger in1peller
supercharge. Lower or compressor vanes.
irnmediately dicscl load 3. Berings are damaged.
4. Bcarings arc asscmled incorrectly.
184

l!!.
1. n 11 n
n, n .'f
. :
J rR ,, 'J .,
,, " n u
. t, g,., J,.
2. n
, ,
400 r .
3. , tr n1
:

) n
;

) n nm1n , , n
:lf,!l ;
) n n.
4. n nJ 11:
ut n :
) ~m 11 n
n JUrr

t ( , n n
n n n n
n n nr
);
) Pz 1 t,;
) ; t,.
5. n
, 85% r.
6. nt . t
no uit. 1
tuJe y-A(fiO nw n mr
, 75% .
, r n n n
, n papywetu1
n . r
J .
7. , n11
t, n , II n
,
r n r.
ARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 185

Diesel lndexing

1. Control ovcr diesel operation is carried out means of observation of


parameters constancy characterizing the operating process at various regimes
of \Vork. The indicated parneters are maximal pressure of combustion ,,
pressure at the cnd of comprcssion r . mean pressure timc ,, mcan indicator
pressure Pi, temperature of discharged gases cylinders t, specific oil
consumption ~. specific fuel consumption J.
2. Diesel indexing and deterrnining of its main parameters is carried out in
correspondence with manufacturcr's instruction requiremcnts but not rarery
than every 400 hours of operation.
3. Besides indexing should carried out in the fol lo\ving cases:
) at dctecting of abnormal operation of one or several cylinders.
) after regulation of fuel delivery, substitution of injector or fuel pump of
higl1 pressure, after repair or substitution of cylinder cover or liner.
) after transfcr to ne\V sort of fuel.
4. cl1cck load distribution cylinders and quality of regulation the
following parameter of diesel operation are controlled:
) temperature of discharged gases or differcnce of rotation frequency at
conscquent switching off the cylinders in case of abscnce of indicator cock
(take into account that at unsatisfactory \vork of fuel devices or at delayed fucl
delivery in cylinder temperature of discharged gases may increased and at
underload of cylinder checked).
) , or , and t'
) ; at thc prescnce of indicator drives and t,.
5. [ndcxing shold produced at the cstaiished rated regimc or close to it
but not less 85% of the rated one.
6. Pressure at the end of compres~ion . should measrc according to tbe
exploitation instruction. lfthere arc no-indications in an instruction measuring
should produce at fuel pump switched oft' and engine power not exceeding
75% of the rated one.
On diescl \vhere torque delivery is produced through clastic clutches to prevent
clutch resin element damage due to uneven diesel opcration it is necessary to
determine developed indicator diagram.
7. 1t is necessary to take into account that even at uniform load distribution
cylinders t will increased in cylinders for which in discharged manifold
thrott\c was11~rs are instal\ed. They are of organizing gases discharge
at gas lurbo charging.
186

'I II "..;;


lt

.nJ,

A~L

AL -

:nr u
. - !r

~
n n -

n- n.I\'!'
nw (
L


. - n

~~
n n -

's n- -

./ (n r
n)

11 - ,

'~ ,.,
t1r - n.tr -
I. ~t. n


.
.
.
n -
n -

1t-
~
-
.

L n
11

~~
J. -


1.
ARINE MECANICAL PLANTS 187
Reasons of distomon of diagram compression
a.nd methods of their removal

Cbaracter aod
Diagram reasons of d.istortion Ways of removal

A~L Standard compression wagnun


AL- atmospheric li.ne

expansion line is lowcr than 111m an eccentric of

.~
compression line. lndicator indicator drive gear in
drive gear docs not corrcspond Wrcetion of the camshaft
to piston movemeni (drive rotation
L gearlag)

expaosion line is higber than tum an eccentric of

.~
compression line. Jndicator indicator d.rive gcar
drive gear does not corrcspond against direction ofthe
to piston movement (drive camshaft rotation
1. lead)

,.,
'
Line and are lower than standa.rd pbenomenon,
their .rated values. diagram is corrcctness is not required
taken at small engine
1. revolutions with turo-
charging

Diag.ram fo.rms loop and decJUSe gaps in

~
lags ehind atmospheric connections. increase
line. Large gaps in eccentric fit tigbtness
1. connections of lever drive
or loose eccentric !it

~
diagnun does not touch lock nut
an atmospheric line.
locking nut of an indicato.r
1. cover is weakened
188

8. n
r n
r.
9. rr
, (npali, n .), ,
. , , ,
, , t "
1

1. n -
:

G = yV ,
V- n, .
- n n .\f .
n ~ .:

G 1<2
S; = N. . t --_.;;..__
'l
1

G3600
g = N . t -~-._.::...__ ,

G- t, r;
N;- r
, ...;
N.- ~
, ...;

t- , J< n
it, .

11. 11.-n n-
:
lO)Vp
g =N .t r//,
.
r V - ( ) , ;
- n n , r/cJ;
t - n , ;
N,-11.1 n
, .
12. 1 r
.R r
:

gm =1000 Q zn / . ,
N mt

MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 189

8. Before taking indicator diagrams it is necessary to check correctness of


indicator drives gear installation and the very indicator mechanism operation.
9. At tl1e indicator diagram taken the vessel n, diesel (rigl1t, left or
other), cylinder numer, date and time of diagram taking, spring scale, number
of revolutions minute, length and area of diagram, values of ,, t8 and ,
should indicated.
1. Weight fue\ consumption for certain time is calculated fonnula G=yV
kg, where
V- volume fuel consnption
- specific gravity at the temperature of consumption measure.

Specific fuel consumption is determined forrnul.as:


G 3600 kg
Indicator consumption g;
N1 t i h h
G 3600 kg
Effective consumption g. = N . t .11 . . h
where G - weight consumption for time t, kg;
N 1 - diesel indicator power at measuring fuel consumption, indicator horse
powers;
N. - effective diesel po\ver at measuring fuel consumption;
t- time during wllich fuel consumption measuring was produced, sec;
\ 1. Specific oil consnption in circulating diesel system is counted forrnula:
\0 3 Vp
g= N t glkwlh

where V - volume oil consumption ( measuring) per engine, /;


- oil density at measuring temperature, glsm2;
t - duration of measuring, hottr;
N. - effective engine power at the motnent of determiing oil consumption,
kw.
12. Specific oil consumption of cylinder liner lubrication with lubricators is
determined at the rated power and rated revolution number forrnula:
-1000 Qzn
g., - N . m . 1 glel.f.h

190

Q- , n
, ;

n- ~ , / ;
z- ;
m- , t ;
N. - , .;
t - n , .
g"' , ,
~ n N. n, .
\3. .
) ; :
F
=-- /2
' l m '
F - r-.1, 2 ;
1- , ;
m - , /r/3
) ;, n :

N.1 = .1 ni .. .; N
= t n i ... ,

2 1
= 1,74 D S- mfpnpa
m' ""' '
- , ;
S- n, ;
m- u ;
- , /;
1- ;

. = P;'l1,... - ;
.. - , 0,75-
0,85.
14. -
:

1u
N. :m cosq> IO-) ,
'11

w
N. : - 10-'
. (N =1' 36 W 10'. 3 ) >
'll \
m - ;
1 - , ;
d- , ;
r.IARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 191
' lt: Q - uil Y..-~:illt ~un.su~:u during 1est of of l ubricar, kg;
n- rated revolution ur of diesel, rev/min;
z- diescl cylider smbcr;
- ntsmber of cylinders maitaincd sigle lbricator~
N. - rated po\ver, 11.f;
t - actual dation of tests, 110Lir.
1f g m is deteried on tl1e regime diffcrent from thc rated one, it is necessary
10 insert N. d n, developed in this rcgime into fonnla.

13. Determini ng of diesel po~ver.


) Mcan indicator pressurc ; is delermined formula:

F
; ""-- kglcm2
lm
\\ herc F- area of idicator diagam, m~;
1- lengtl1 of diagram, mm;
m - indicator spring scalc, mmlkg!cm 2
) Kr\ving pi, one may determine diescl indicator po\ver fonn ula:
N. = n i i.l1.p. Ne "" n i e.l1.p.

1
\VhCC = 1,74 OS- cvlinder CQStan t
111 J

S - piston stroke, m;
m - coefficient of dicsel stroke;
n - frequency of rotation, rev/min;
i - number of cylinders;
<: = 1'lm~c
n h - mean effective prcssure;

1)mech - echanical effective coefficient equa1 to 0,75-0,85 .

14. Effective power ot' . . diesel geerator is deteried formulas:

ru
N, = m cos<p 10-J kw/t
\,

or N~ = \V 10 3 (N t =136 W 10. 3 )
'
), ) , '
w!1ere 111 - the number of phases;
I- phase value of geerator current intensity, ;
U - pl1ase voltage 011 generator termina!s, ;
192

cosq>- 11;
hr- ;
\V- , .
15. - n :
N = lU 10-
1'},.
1 .
1. -
(%):
ppi 2,5
, 3,5
t, 5
, 2,5
, 3
2. r
,
.
3. :
) ,
-
;
) n n , n
.
4. r :
) n -:-
, ;

) 1 . -
n n .

5. r
. r n:
) n Pz tr- ~ n
;
) Pz t , - r n
;
) :-.1 , t,.- w n
n u.n n;
) 7;,, tr - 011

n .n .
6. r n ,
25% . n,
.
MARINE MECHAHICA.L PLANTS 193 .

Costp - power coefficient;


11,- efficiency of generator;
\V - readings of wattmeter, Bt.
15. D.c. diesel generator po\ver:

N = IUI0-3 (N. = 1,36IOI0- 3 )


< J, 11r
Adjustlng of Diesel
1. At the rated operating regime parameter values ofeach cylinder should not
exceed (in %):
mean indicator pressure Pi 2,5
maximal pressure of combustion Pz 3,5
temperature of discbarged gases t, 5
pressure at the end of compression 2,5
mean pressure time Pt 3
2. Diesel adjusting should produced periodically dependlng on the plant
state, diesel type and in correspondence \Vith instruction indications and ship
owncr indications.
3. Before diesel adjusting it is neccssary:
) to sure in correctness of control and measuring instruments and registering
devices, to check and adjust gaps in drives of fuel pump of high pressure and
in mecbanism of gas distribution;
) to check position ofzero fucl delivery pumps, to press injectors.
4. Diesel regulation is produced if found:
) non-unifonnitiesooad distribution cylinders- changes offuel amount
delivered pumps;
) deviations ofvalues Pz from recommended ones- change of moment
beginning fuel delivery.
5. Sequence of regulation is estaiished exploitation instruction. If thcre
are no indications regulation is produced:
) at low Pz and bigh t, - injection advance angle increasc; .
) at high Pz and \o\v t,- injection advance angle decrease and fuel delivery
cyclc;
) at high Pzand high t,-by injection advanceangle decrease and fuel delivery
cycle;
d) at low Pz and Jo,v t,- injection advance angle incrcase and fuel delivery
cycle.
6. Previous diesel regulation is produced at load cqual to 25% of the rating
load. At this regime only presence of flash in all cytinders is checked.
13.9426
194

n , 50%
, n ,.
. : ,
: , 75%
. """"
.
,...,.~.
i ,
, t t , , , .t
~

n n
,
.

n ,
n .
n n.
n
.
n:

1. (.) n
n w .J
.
2. n
Ji n ( ).
3. n ,
, , .
4. no .
5. ll n
( . , ,
n , ).
6.
IJI ((J].

7. - ,
.
8. n-
.
n (rr ((J]anaa.N'2 ..., 1 ((J] .N'2...}.
9. n n. ,
. 1;
1. n n q!
.
ll. - , n
Ji .
n
.
n : . '
MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 195

Then at the estabHshed regime and load equal to 50% ofthe rating Joad values
ofPz is detennined.
If Pz in separate cylinders will in limits indicated in the manufacturer's
instruction for this regime, one should pass to the regime 75% of the rating
load. In this regime Pz, , tr Pi, Pt are determined.
If all parameters are in the limits of the indicated manufacturer's instruction
for this regime, fal regulation of diesel in the rating load regime and rotational
ftequency is produced.

1\feasures to maintain mechanisms.


systems and arrangement safe
Exploitation of marine power plant shows that to maintain technical aids in
good technical and safe state chief engineer should \VOrk out and inculcate
into practice the follo\ving documents and measures:
1. Chart (plan) of watch actions before emergency party arrival at fire
appearance in the engine room and appearance ofdifferent emergency situations.
2. Chart of Control of marine power plant at all the platforms of the engine
room \Vith indication of control points and values of controlled parameters
(operating and permissile).
3. Exploitation instructions of all mecbanisms and their location at
mechanism, systems, facilities.
4. Instruction of maintenance of reserve mechanisms in readiness.
5. Chart of actions of watch engineer at preparation for sail in complicated
conditions (port entrance and port exit, mooring at sea. passing the narrownesses,
heavy sea).
6. Jnstruction of transfer for emergency control of the rudder and scheme
of switching valves.
7. Jnstructions of reception - delivery of bunker as well as fuel transfer and
ballast transfer.
8. There should nume.rated all the operations and armature positions on the
scheme (valve No... is opened, valves No... are closed).
9. Instructions oforder and terms ofcontrolling of emergency waming alarm
in marine power plant and alarm as well as flooding the engine room.
1. Instruction oftechnical safety at the maintenance ofeach technical facility.
11. Plan-schedule of technical maintenance, allowing to maintain technical
aids in good technical and safe state.
chief engineer should work out and implement into practice of watch
engineers optimal routes of passes-round of the engine room at coming on
watch and at systematical passes - round during keeping watch.
13
196

3. u 11 r.rr
, r.J ,
1 .
m n

n1 11
, ~1 ,
n
J.
,

.

m1 .
.
n .
n~tr :
.1, , , :
) n ;
) r.m nn ( 50-60);
) ;
) n 1.
:
) n -
;
) n ;
) n ;
) n .
11.1:
) , n n 1 -
;

) .
w :
) n
) n no -
~l;

) n;
r) , , .
n:
) ( n
20-30;
MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 197
3. Exploitation and technical maintenance of auxiliary mecbanisms
lncluding pump systems and plpelines, auxiliary boiler plant and rudder
drive
General requirements of Rules of maintenance of marine auxiliary
mecbanisms
Rules determine the common order of maintenance of marine auxiliary
mechanisms, volume and nomenclature of operations on maintenance;
requirements to the technical state of auxiliary mechanisms and conducting the
technical documentation.
Auxiliary mechanisms should exploit on regimes, corresponding to the regimes
of operations of servicing mechanisms and ship systems.
Aboard the ship chief engineer should work out.the instructions on
exploitation ofmechanisms and their safe maintenance. Instructions should
hanged on the working place.

Control over auxiliary mechanisms work


At operations of auxiliary mechanisms it is necessary to control:
Pumps ofcentrifugal, axial, vortex, gear-type, scre}v;
) readings of control and measuring instruments;
) temperature ofbearings (not higher than 50-60);
) gland packing condition;
d) condition of driving engine.
Water-ring vacuum pumps:
) water delivery from the pressure tank to provide the necessary vacuum;
) water presence in the pressure tank;
) readings of control and measuring instruments;
d) tighting of connections and gaskets.
Water ejectors:
) operating pressure of liquid without permitting pressure rise of higher
indicated in the instruction;
) the absence of breaks on the suction and forcing hoses.
Piston pumps:
) operations ofpumps and driven engine;
) air presence in the air caps gauge pointer vibrations;
) oil presence and its temperature;
d) absence of vibrations, knocks, noises.
Piston air compressors:
) COmprCSSOr COO!ing(temperature difference of \Vater entering the
comprcssor and leaving it shou\d in limits of20-30C);
198

) , . ;
) r , 140;
) ;
) , n ,
R
, ;
) ;
) n .
1 ( ii, ,
, , , ):
) t: lf nmu: ,
;

) ;
) ;
) r tlmr ;
) n
.
- :
) - .
( );
) n -
( ).
n:
) ;
) ;
) ;
) <i ;
:
) 11, , (
,
: - 0,2 / 2; - 0,5-1,0 /2 ,
n - 0,5 r/2).
:
) ();
) ',
30-40% !;.
- 25% ; - 50%, - -
;
) , , ;
r) (n) ;
) ;
) , , ,
MRINE MECHNICL PLNTS 199
) oillevel in the crankcase, oil pressure in the lubricating system;
) temperature of compressed air which sluld not exceed l40C;
d} scavenging of coolers and \Vater oil separator;
) compressed air pressure \vhich should not exceed values marked with red
line the gauge scale of each compressor stage as well as common pressure
in the balloon;
t) cleanliness of air filters;
g) \VOrk of drop oil feeder and lubricators.
Suiface heat exchanging apparatuses (fuel heaters, }Va/er heaters. oil coolers,
water coolers, aircoolers, condensers):
) cffcctivcness ofheat exchanger operations readiness ofthermometers,
gauges;
) tighting of connection;
) isolation state;
d) work of cylinder drainage receivers;
) cleanliness of condensate of fuel, oil heaters through sight glasses of
control cistem.
Oil-~;ater coolers:
) no control class - it there are traces of oil in the cooling water (not rarer
than once day);
) test of fresh water from watercoolers to detem1ine salt content in it (not
rarer than once day).
Disti/ling installations }vith vacuum evaporator:
) vacuum value;
) \Vater level in condenser;
) salinity of demineralized water;
d) work ot pumps and ejectors.
Filters:
. : ) dcnsity, filter state, pressure before and afier filter ( filter should cleaned,
':lf pressure drop exceeds the follo\ving values: for magnetic filters- 0,2 kglcm2,
for grid ones - 0,5-l,O kglcm2, for slit ones on fuel pipelines- 0,5 kglcm2).
Fue/ and oil separators:
~ ) temperature ofheating ofthe oil (f!Jel) cleaned;
ii ) separator capaci,ty ~hich at oil cleaning should in limits of 30-40% of
.f!lted capacity, at cleaning of highly viscous fuel - 25% of rated capacity;
midd\e viscous -50%, diesel oil- rated one;
) readings of gauge, vacuumeter, voltrneter and ampermeter;
d) ifthere is oil (fucl) in \Vater separatcd;
) wear of ftiction gaskets of clutch;
t) absence of vibration, noise, knocks.
200 I

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MARINE MECHANJCAL PLANTS 201
Loadlifling aids of an engine room:
1. At preparation for work of weight carryi.ng capacity aangements it is
necessary to control:
) fastening l on the drum, i state, state of chains, mechanisms of
lifting and movement;
) coectness of suspended way~
) aangement in idling running;
d) action of brakes means of thrice-repeated start aiid stop;
) action of end switches.
2. Work should stopped in case of:
) breaking the correct work ofbrakes;
) appearance of abnormal noises in mechanism;
) strong heating of reductor;
d) failures of the end switches.

Hydraulic Drive
During work of hydraulic drive it is necessary to control:
) oillevel in the lubricating oil tank;
) pressure in the system;
) absen.ce of leakages and air inleakage in the system;
d) cieanliness of filters;
) absence ofknocks, noise, vibration in the bydropump and the cylinder of
hydraulic drive.

AuxiJiary steam boiler


1. During work of boiler continuous control is necessary for:
) \vater level position in oiler;
) correct conducting of the furnace process;
) steam pressure maintenance;
d) correct state of boiler and maint.aining of its equipment, aids of
.automatization and control and measuring instniments.
2. control the boiler state and detection of failures in proper time in its
work it is necessary systematically to produce an inspection of:
- boiler and its fittings;
- the furnace aagement;
- the coating of furnace;
- visile surfaces of heating;
- pipelines within boiler;
- gas air duct.
3. It is prohiblted to put into operation boiler:
) having an incorrect safety valve, boiler water gauge or gauge;
) if there are no t feeding aids;
202

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLAJS 203
~.:) \Villl
fai led systcs and scavenge valvcs, fceding valvcs, soot owcr valvc,
fuel/air delivcring valves;
d) with non-closed cracks in the important parts of boiler;
) 'vith failu.res of emergency waming signalling and protection;
f) with number of damped tubes and their bending exceeding Register rules
standards \vith breakig of tue and connections;
g) with leakage in tube grid;
h) with damage of the fumace coating and protected pasts of water steam
and \vater co\lectors;
i) with s\vellings on the flat wal\s of tl1e fire parts with !! swellings of ftre
tube with more than two sheets thick, with deformation of f1re tubes;
j) \Vith JocaJ generaJ corrosion CfOSiOS of drums, sheets, tue tblnning.
k) with incorrect condensers, feed water filters, deairators, measuring
arrangements to introduce chemical reagents into boiler a.nd oi\ separators.

most dangerous trouies of steam boilers


and measures taken at tbeir detection

1. Overheating of flre tubes and fire chambers with quick formation of


s\vcllings and break of rnetal in the area of these swellings m.ay lead to the
explosion of fire-tube boiler. So one sbould much attention to signs
characterizing overheating of boiler elements, such as; reddening of separate
boiler parts, S\Vellings, air holes, wal\ deformation, Ieakage in tube junctions,
flaws in welds, appearance of scale, metals stratification and breaks ofseparate
parts.
At detection of these signs oiler should immediately stopped and to get
time for normally cooling.
2. Signs of boiler short-water:
) water level asence in boiler water gauge;
) whistling of dry steam at opening of lower testing taps;
) reddening and whitening ofvisiie parts ofheating surfaces;
d) remarka!e bending of tube sets or separate tubes.
At boilcr short-water it is necessary immediately:
) to stop bumig;
) to stop feeding;
) to c\ose check vaJve;
d) to stop air delivery;
) to discharge steam;
204

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ARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 205
f) to close air throttles and to take other measures not to allow sharp oiler
cooling.

Automatic control system of steam boller,


emergeocy-preveot alarm and protection
1. Automatic control system of boiler consists of the following components:
) automatic regulation system of burning process;
) automatic regulation system of feeding process;
) automatic signalling system;
d) automatic defense system.
2. At watching the boiler automatic control system operation it is necessary
to control periodica\ly the correctness of their work.
3. If there are self-recording registrating instruments of pressure level,
recording diagrams should substituted regu\arly. They should stored as
well as other watch documents and bave all necessary data (date, trip and so
on).
4. At maintenance of automatic regulation system it is necessary to follow an
exploitation instruction.
5. At exploitation ofboiler automatic regulation system failures ofits elements
are possile and lead to abnormalities in lhe boiler operation.
Below you can see some abnormalities of automatics:

Boiler automatic feediog system


Trou/es:
1. Feeding automatics does not react on the level change.
2. Water level is maintained not in required limits.
3. feeding pump is not switched on.
4. Protection is worked low level at correct pumps and monitors.

Automatic regulation system of burnJng process


Trou/es:
1. Fuel is not delivered to bumer.
2. bumer is not ignited.
3. Wite smoke from exhaust tue (air excess).
4. Black smoke froin exbaust tube (bumers are choked, air lack).
5. heating flame is go out ( protection is switcbed on, photo-cell is
sooted or there is defec~ in its electrical part).

i\ trouI" of auxiliary mechanlsms


1. pump does not produce full thrust or does not provide fu\1 capacity
ecause of trouie of suction or force valves.
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MRINE MECHNICAL PLNTS 207
2. pump. has uneven nning, -valves knock strongly: ) air inleakage; )
there is much air in the suction .
3. Abnormal knock and noise appears in pump:
) metallic knock at piston stroke change because of slack in the pistonjunction
on the rod;
) knock in driving mechanism;
) sharp knock at putting valves because of spring failure;
d) hydraulic kits in pump because liquid separation from the piston and
insufficient amount of air in caps;
) knock as result ofbearings wear, liners, piston pins.
Centrifugal pumps
l. pump does not produce full thrusts, because of:
) insufficient revolutions;
) air presence in pump;
) force valve is closed.
2. Lowering thrust in the process of work:
) air inleakage;
) wear of impeller and sealing rings.
3. Overload of an engine driven:
) friction against the c;ing.
4. Vibration and noise:
) cavitation.
Cog-wheel Pumps
l. pump does not pump liquid:
) pump is not flooded with liquid.
2. pump does not provide designed capacity:
) gap bet\veen gears and pump casing is icreased.
3. Pump casing heating:
) insut11cient gap bet\Veen gear side and pump casing;
) extreme tiglltening of gasket.
4. gauge pointer and vacuummeter pointer sharp!y vibrate:
) air inleakage;
) suction height is great.
Helical-groove Pumps
1. pump does not produce full capacity and thrust:
) air inleakage;
) bearings \Vear and screw ;vear;
) too Jarge viscosity ofthc liquid being pumped.
2. pump works noisely:
) suction height is more than specified;
) much air in the system;
) too high viscosity ofthe liquid being pumped.
208


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MRINE MECHANICAL PLANT$ 209
Water-jet lowers
1. An ejector sucks poorly:
) an accepting lattice is clogged;
) clogging or partial opening of valve on the suction pipeline;
) significant air inleakage;
d) clogging of passing channel of nozzle.
2. An ejector does not provide full efficiency:
) working Iiquid pressure decrease;
) wearing and clogging of nozzle;
) incorrect assemJy of an ejector.

Ventilators
1. Vibration takes place in the following cases:
) non-qua\ity shaft alignment of an engine driven and ventilator;
) wear of coupling ;
) weakening offoundation bolt tightening;
d) weakening ofbolting or impeller misalignment;
) earings wear;
f) non-quality balancing of ventilator impeller.

Piston air compressors


1. Compressor capacity decrease:
) failure of plates or valve springs;
) filter clogging on the suction pipeline;
) damage of the suction valve;
d) installing of tense springs on the suction va\ve;
) wear of parts of the cylinder piston group;
f) harrnfu\ space increase.
2. nocking in the compressor cylinde.
) piston wear;
) sticking of the piston and piston rings;
) insufficient height of compression chamber.
3. nocking in valves:
) failure of valve;
) failure of spring;
) deep setting of valve case against which . piston strikes.
4. nock in the compressor bearings:
) shaft necks wear;
) bearings wear;
) weakening of the bearing fastenings.
5. Pressure increase at any compression stage takes place ecause ofair transfer
into suction valve ofthe following stage or force valve ofthe same stage.
14. 9426
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ARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 211
Pack-aged fresh-water generator with vacuum evaporator
1. An evaporator \Vorks out distillate of increased saHnity:
) an water-jet lower does not remove the necessary amount ofwater ftom
separator;
) too intensive evaporation as result of an excess amount of heat or high
vacuum.
2. Capacity drops if:
) small amount of heat is into an evaporator;
) scale has n fonned in an evaporator tues;
) there is lack of feecting water;
d) too high temperature of evaporation;
) vacuum is not enough deep.
3. Not enough vacuum:
) leakinesses;
) not enough deHvery into cooling water condenser or temperature is too
high;
) clogging tubes of condenser;
d) filling condenser with ftesh water;
) low pressure of water before an water-jet lower;
t) high temperature of working water;
g) water-jet lower nozzle wear;
) pump gland packing wear;
i) air has n stored in condenser.
Fuel and oil separators
1. Decrease of revolutions number, friction clutch heating:
) setting oil, foul on the rubing surfaces of clutch;
) lock wear;
2. Vibration and increased wear:
) weakening ofupper wear vibration absorber of vertical shaft;
) incorrectness in the transmission mechanism and in earings;
) incorrect drum assemly;
d) strong fouling of drum;
) non-balancing of drum.
3. OiVfuel Ieakage through branch of overflow chamer:
) separator capacity is exceeded;
) short fouling of separator.
4. At separator operation in purification regime through branch to Ieave
separated water oiVfuelleaks out also:
) not enough amount of water for water trop;
) incorrect choice of regulating ring;
) separation temperature changes due to regulating ring stops to
corresponding to egime.
14*
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ARINE MECANICAL PLANTS 213
Planning of technical maintenance of auxllinry mecbanisms
l. Periodical planned preventive inspection and repair ofauxiliary mechanisms
should produced in full volume in correspondence with manufacturer's
instructions and in terms, established technical maintenance schedule.
2. Volume and periodicity of conducting planned preventive inspection and
repair are estalished the manufacturer's instructions and on the s of
exploitation and their technical state.
. Annual time-tale of conducting planned preventive inspection and repair
for each mechanism should composed cblefengineer and coordinated
with technical service of ship O\vner.
4. Results of planned preventive inspection and repair should fixed in the
Register of technical state of service.
5. lnspections and repairs whicb may done during ship moorage are
produced on the pe11Ilission of chief engineer. If duration of moorage is not
enougb for making works as well as ship is in trip the works connected
with safe trip of ship may prqduced only order of Captain on the report
of chief engineer.

Preparation and Annual Presentation to the Register.


steam boiler
l. Annual internal and external inspections of boiler under steam should
produced chief engineer and engineer \vho heads tbe service connected
with oiler. lnspections should produced before presentation of boiler to
survey the Register.
2. In the process of an outside inspection of boiler under steam it is necessary
to control:
) of burner work;
) action of safety valves lasting them manually and raising steam in
oiler;
) action of remote distance drives of control of check valve and quick-
closing valves of oiler fuel system;
d) boiler fitting state;
, ) correctness of control and measuring instruments readings of boiler and .
systems serving boiler - means of control devices;
f) boiler clothing state;
g) boiler fastening on the foundation;
h) waterpreparation equipment work.
. At inspection after putting boiler out of action (before cleaning) it is
necessary:
) to exempt boiler from water, to hatches and holes of drums and
manifolds, to open fumace;
214

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 215

) al inspection of l1cating surfaces frotn the side ot' water steam spaces to
dctcm1ine the thickess and composition deposits, preseoce of oil, corrosio,
cracks;
) at ispectio n of heatig surfaces from the side of fi re d gas spaces:
- presence of stcaming (JLII traces;
- presece { scorching f'iring clmbers;
- prese ce ofair holes on pipes d mai tolds, bedig offire tubes, S\Velling
ot' firig chamber \Valls;
- presence ()r sc()rc!Jing !11 ends smoke and 1 tbes ;
d) at i ;pect i on of boile1 furnace and gas cl1annels to check:
- p1esence of damagcd of boile brick work parts;
- presece ot' scorched parts ot' fixte, chokes, screens;
- presece of soot deposits on tl1e heatig surface;
- screen state { boiler sl1eatlling.
4. At boiler i!>pectio aftc1 c leaing it is ccessary to sre in lhe s of:
- ciacks of t bes of l1eating s s, combs t ion cans, co!lectors,
conectios ot' tubes '"'ith collecto!'s, t platcs;
- metal stralification;
- corrosion erosions, cracks of fire d \Vater !1eating pipes, cobustio
tas, fil'c chambers (from t!1e side fil'e space);
- scorching of fi re and combustion pipe e ds.
5. 111 fi1e t d i d boilers it is nece~sary to measure defo atio of
fi re pipes i correspondecc \vith Rcgister ruk:s d sc!Jeme gi ve i boiler
record book.
6. C!eanig of h eatig sfaces from tl1e side of fi1e d gas space may
produced meas of ai-coo l ig, blast.i ng, steam ast, mecl1anical \vay and
otllCJ'S.
7. Cleanig o f heatig s rface fJo111 the :;ide of:;team \\'a!er space is pduced
mec!Janical way and c l1eically. c!Jeical way sl1ou\d prefera e.
8. Repair of f coatig and boiler l1eat isolation s!JOld prodL!ced in
correspondece ~~ it!J istuction exploitation req i remets d correspondi ng
figres .
9. Cleanliness of clnne ls d tbes state ti g boile \va!er gage
witl1 boi!er should cl1ecked at boi ler cleaning.
1. Sa[ely ''alves ot' boile1 after each dismantling shold sbj ected to the
reglatio. or the sat"ety vai\'CS shold sealecl the Registcc
11 . After cJ-ry ing t all preparat io woks, i spect ios d elimiatio of all
remarks boiler is presetcd to !he Rcg i ste f inlemal inspectio11 .
216

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 217
12. fter conducting of the intemal in!;pection of boiler the Register,
boiler should assemled and filled 'vith water. After removal of remarks
steam rise in the boiler in produced. All the systems servicing tbe boiler
emergency-prevent alarm and protection and \Vorking the safety valves. At
satisfactory results of checks the Register is invited and the boiler under steam
is presented.
Auxiliary diesel geoerator
presentan auxiliary diesel generator it is necessary to carry out the follo\ving
preparation works:
l. check the presence and correctness of standard control and measuring
instruments.
2. press injectors if necessary.
3. check the absence ofplays in rods from govemor to the fuel pump of
high pressure and absence ofsticking of racks ofthe fuel pump ofhigh pressure.
4. substitute oil in regulator ofthe engine revolutions number.
5. start and to heat we\1 an engine under load.
6. put into operation an electric equipment, the sum power of which
allows to produce an auxiliary diesel generator test under fullload.
7. check \VOrk of governor of over speed govemor.
8. check action of the engine locking, emergency waming alarm and
protection.
9. check an auxiliary diesel generator at paralleling wprk.
l . check work of govemor of number of revolutions of an auxiliary
diesel generator at load drops and load increases. Load value, numerical value
of engine revo\utions and generator voltage at drops rises should correspond to
the estaished Register Rules.
11 . At satisfactory results of checks Register inspector is invited to present
him an auxiliary diesel generator.
System of 0 1
For annual presenttion nf 0 2 system for Register it is necessary to make
; following preparation operations:
1. make weighing of 02 installation balloons with putting down vessel
act.
2. work out and to Jubricate manual valves of 02 starting.
3. scavenge 02 system with air, to check air delivery into space protected
0 system.
2
4. check sound and light signalling of 2 system.
5. check ease ofrunning in the engine room closures used for pressurization
engtne room.
6. check work o.f remote distance switches of ve11tilators of an engine
room, separators, fuel feed pump.
7. At satisfactory results of checks 02 system may presented to the
register.
218

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLNTS 219

Drain and water firing system


For annual presentation ofthe drain and water firing system to the Register it
is necessary to carry out the follo\ving preparation operations:
1. check pump operations readings of control and measuring
instruments. make repairs of them if necessary.
2. clc.m filtcrs.
3. check works of remote distance valves.
4. produce actual unwater of well the farthest from the engine room.
5. check for tightness of tubes and fitting of the firing system on the
deck.
6. check in operation different douiing schemes of unwater and water
d.elivery in the flring system.

Exploitation and Technical Mainteoance of the steering ger


Hydraulic steering gear consist of the following main packs:
1. Hydraulic rudder actuator- power arrangement tuming the rudder stock.
2. Pump unit.
3. Distribution members ofworking liquid.
4. Systems of member control of work.ing liquid distribution or control
system of pumps \vith variaie delivery.
5. Fee~ing pipelines system, safety valves, load-1imiter.
Hydraulic rudder machines are divided:
- type and construction of pump, feeding rudder actuator- into machines
with pumps ofvariaie or constant delivery;

_.10!!!...,__ _ ----+-- ____ ,..IL.

Fig. 8. scheme of hydraulic plunger drive and hydraullc steering gear


\vltb lever system of changeale capacity pumps control
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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 221
- construction of the rudder actuator - into the cngines with standard
plunger two- or four stroke drive, ladc, plunger piston and others;
- control manner of distribution mcmers or pumps, actuator and
rudder - ito engines \vith simple or feedback servosystem, of control of
distribution members, drive and ruddcr.

Plunger Drives
two-cylinder ram drive consists oftwo cylinders which oomprise plungers,
sealed with gaskets made of oil-resistnt resin. Plunger movement is achieved
oil forcing into oil ofthe cyliders means of pump of capacity variale.
Plunger displacemcnt and their sliders crosshead guide is accompanied
with tum of clutch d helm.
hydraulic plunger actuator may produced as four-cylinder one. In
this case cylinders form t\VO chamber. Such system of actuator allows to
carry out in the process of exploitation different variants of switching and to
produce substitution of gaskets of any cylinders without S\Vitching off
rudder machine.

...

Fig. 9. scheme of hyd raulic tbree-vane drive
222

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 223
Vane-type gears (with two or thrce vanes)
Short description of construction and action is the fol lowing.
On the rudder stock vane rotor i"s mounted on the spline. rotor is placed
in Fig. 7.
h cylinder, divided three bulkhead. Three cylinder bulkhead and three
vanes of rotor divide an operating volume into three ch.a mbers 1 u three
chambers . From above cylinder is closed \vith cover on pins. In the
bottom and cover of the cylinder gaskets of oil-resistant resin are instaUed.
While pumping oil in chamber I and suction from chamber ll rotor and
rudder stock are rotated counter clockwise, \vhile pumping into chamber -
move clock\vise. There are gaskets of oil resistant resin pressed into rotor slots
on vertical and face planes of rotor.
Arrangement confining an angle of rotation consists of two valves and
tension spring. At the thrust of valve rod into bulkheed va\ve is opened and
communicates \vith chambers 1 and , that makes further rotor rotation
impossile.
failing of construction is tbe necessity of ful\ dismant1ing of actuator in
case of gaskets substitution. At their substitution it is necessary to follow the
ends of gasket would fuU all the corers at junction and have such length
that in case of pressing into ring slots tltey adjust in the place of tight butt to
each other so densely under pressure.

Pumps of variaie capacity


Pumps ofvariaie capacity for feeding hydraulic rudder actuators are divided
into t\vo types: axial piston and radial piston pumps.

Fig. 1. scbeme of radial piston pump with variaie capacity


224

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5, 7
4, ~
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9
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. 10
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3. .
MARINE MECHANICAL PLANS 225

Let's consider an arrangement and work of radial piston pump.


star-sbaped seve-cylinder rotor is mounted on the sbaft spline
connected with an electric motor. This rotor is rotated on tbe stationary axis
counter clockwise. Drillings in chambers and are connected with chambers
ofthe same name is casing ofpump 6; in radially located cylinders ofthe k
plungers 5, pin 7 ofwhich are coected with rolls or slides 4, rolling or sliding
correspondingly in directing rends l of the sliding lock 8. Block 8 and ring
1 may moved along horizontal axis means of ram 9 to the right or to
the Jeft ftom the middle position on values of eccentricity 1 or - 1. Ram 9 is
connected with \ever system of pump control. If centre of ring 1 coincides
with rotation axis pump capacity is equa\ to zero. Ifiock 8 and rings 10 are
moved to the left for value -/, cbamer is sucking, while cbamber is
forcing. At shift of lock 8 and ring 1 to the right for value /, function
of chamber cbanges.
Pump efficiency is regulated value of eccentricity. On ram 9 there are
manufacturer's marks to estaiish rigs 10 in the middle position which are
used at pump regulation and its connection with the cotrol system.

Hydraulic steering gear


Steering gears are made with lever sysJ.em ofpump cotrol of variate capacity
and spindle cotrol syste~.
Steering.gears with Jevel system have simpler construction, they are more
commonly used aboard ship.
Hydraulic steering gears of this type are working principle of follow up
system.
Correctness of regulation system of thrusts d \evers for simultaneous
switching offand on oftwo pumps, an exact coordination ofmean positions of
their sLiding locks marks on rods are very important to increase reLiability
of system. Adjusting may made in marine conditions, even in cases of
non-equal wear of right and left sides of levers - meaxis of rybering hinges
orifices, putting pins of large diameter and changing thrusts lengths.

Exploitat1on of steerJng gean.

Check before leaving the port and in complicaled trip conditions


1. It is necessary eforehand to switch on pumps of steering gear and to
heat oiL in the system.
2. check rudder turning hard over to hard over, speed of tuming and
coordination of axiometer readings ofrudder lade position the bridge and in
the steering room.
3. check in operation all ways of rudder control.
15-9426
226

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 227

ll lt

!IJ 11/

Fig. 11. scbeme of hydraulic steerig gear \Vitb rollcr control systems
of changca\c capacity pumps
4. lubricate all the lubricating points, to fi\1 oil in the system.
5. make records about checks in the marine and Engine-Room Logbook.

Maintenance during action


l. Each steering gear should exploited in correspondence with its
maintenance instruction.
2. Accepting \Vatch on the in motion ot' vesscl watch engineer should
inspect steering gcar and them inspect it during rounds of an engine room.
3. During operation of steering gear it is necessary to follow smoothness of
stcering gear (\vithout jerks and abnormal knocks and sa..ueak), to lubricate
rob'o\n.~ "Q.rts of . j>,\e~\n.~ 11,ear, to con.trol oi.\ \eve\s .nd lubricat\on "Qret>ente in.
oil feeders.
15*
228 'I

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MARJNE MECANICAL PLANTS 229
4. check tighting ofpump elements ofvariale capacity (piston-liner) it is
necessary to put pump in position corresponding to maximum capacity and
to crank it hand at closed delivery valves. If pump does not rolling, tighting
of its elements is enough.
5. control heating of pumps and engine set.
6. contain an emergency rudder gear in continuous readiness for action.
7. follow temperature at steering room which should not lo\ver than
+5.

Steerlng gear-<:hecking and testing


' .
Every seafarer knows about steering gear importance to provide safe
navigation. That's why the Intemational Convention SOLAS-74 gives too much
attention to steering gear. Every engineer must know all SOLAS requirements
clearly and perform his duties properly for steering gear to meet the requirements
ofthe Intemational Convention SOLAS-74.

We allow reminding ofth~se requirements and practical advices in the section


"The requirements ofthe Intemational Convention SOLAS-74".

Steering gear checking before sailing

\. Witbin 12 hours before sailing the second engineer with the electrical
engineer and watch officer must check and test the ship's steering gear. h
test procedure shall include where applicale the operation ofthe following:
- the main steering gear;
- the auxiliary steering gear;
- the remote steering gear control systems;
- the steering positions located on the navigating bridge;
- the emergency power supply;
- the rudder angle indicators in relation to the actual position of the rudder;
- the remote steering gear control system po\ver failure alarrns;
- the steering gear power unit failure alarrns;
- automatic isolated arrangements and other automatic equipment.
2. h checks and test shall include:
- the full movement ofthe rudder according to the required capabllities ofthe
steering gear and the Register's requirements;
- visual ispection of the steering gear and its connecting linkage;
230

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MAR,NE MECHANICL PLANTS 23 1

- the operation of the means of communication between the navigating brige


and steering gear compartment.
3. In addition to the routine checks and tests prescribed in paragraphs 1 and 2
emergency steering driUs must take place at least once every three month in
order to practice emergency steering proccdures. These drills must includc direct
control from within the steering gear compartment, the communications
procedure with the navigating bridgc and, where applicable the operation of
emergency power supplies.
4. The checks and test ofthe steering gear, prescribed in paragraphs 1 and 2
emergency steering drills prescribed in paragraph 3 sha\1 recorded in the log
book and in the engine room Jog book.
5. Simple operating steering gear instructions with diagram showing the
changc-over procedures for remote steering gear controJ system and valves
whi Ie changing to emergency steering drills must displayed on the navigating
bridgc and in the steering gear compartment. One shou\d number \1 valves on
this diagram. Every applica!e procedure shall enumcrated and the valves
position shaH pointed out (opened valves .N2 .......... .. , closed vnlves
.1'<2 ............ ). One should number appropriate valve on the steering gear.

Steerjng engine majntenance

Safc operation of the steering engine is possile only if one sluJd maintain
it properly. One should maintain it in accordance with manufacturer's
instructions itd safety standards.
The maintenance incJudes the total complex of everyday watch control
operations and planned-periodical operations in accordance with manufacturer's
instructions.
Taking up the watch, the officer in charge of the engineering \Vatch must
examine the steering engine and then during his watch he must inspect it
periodically.
During steering gear operation one should control engine operation
smoothness (without hitches, abnormal k.nocks and squeak), control oillevel
in the oil tank and if it is needed lubricate rubing engine parts. Also it is
necessary to perform tbe following:
- control pump hcating and connecting linkages, pumps electric motors
loading;
- control density of packing glands and junctions;
232

- L cooneculle noaamn'i nm
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1
MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 233
- control readings compliance of the rudder indicators with true rudder
position. Discrepancy must not more than 1;
- control water absence through the packing gland of rudder stock.

The steering gear compartment is on the stem where while navigating we


can .feel the most powerful vibration. That's why it is necessary to control
absence of slacks, backlashes in parts joints, fastenings.
When navigating in low temperature regions and especially in ports it is needed
to control the temperature in the steering gear compartment that must not
lower +5 . One should provide the heating of the steering gear compartment
with additional heating facilities in the event of poor heating regular warmers.
heat oil in the steering engine system it is needed minimum 4-6 hours before
the ship's departure to start the steering engine pumps and to put the rudder
over ftom one side on the other side controlling it from the navigating bridge.
Planned-periodical operations are provided in accordance with manufacturer 's
instructions. The most specific are:
- oil filter washing
- filling ofthe system \Vith oil or its changing
- changing of the packing glands in the plunger-type steering engines or
changing ofthe gaskets in the hydraulic vane-type steering engines
- controlling of the density of variale capacity pumps (piston-plug). One
shall set the pump into the position while maximum capacity and rotate it
manually with closed pressure valves. lf the pump isn't rotated its elements
density is not enough.

The reasons of the abnormal steering engine operation

The features of the abnormal steering engine operation and their reasons are
given below and they will help the engineer to put the steering gear in order.
1. The feature Q,(qhnormal operqtimr-putting the rudder over is executed
for an angle more or less than given. The abnonnal2. The feqture of
abtmrmal operation- the rudder is rotated irregularly, with jerks, noise in the
hydraulic part. There is only one reason-water is in the system.
1. h teature Q,fabnormal Operqtion- the rudder is rotated irregularly1
'vith jerks, noise in the hydraulic part~ There is only one reasoit-water is in
the system.
3. The featre ofabnormal operqtion-the steering gear is operated with
noise and it is mismatched.
234

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;
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w 111 Jr.


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: 22, 3,
- 23, 27, 27 .
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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 235

There are the fol\owing reasons of tltis abnormal operation:


- insufficient oil amount in tl1e hydraulics and presence of air in it;
- not closcd valve or valve leaking in the pipe line, connecting t\vo cavities;
- valves leakiness
- high viscosity in the system at lo\v tcmperature outside.

Flooding of h)'draulic systems with ~orking liquid.


Oil used

Mineral oils with viscosity about 3 (about 20 ) at t -50 are used as


rule as working liquid in the systems of hydraulic steering gear. Turbine oil
22, bobblng oi i , and foreign oils of corresponding viscosity - TeUus 23, Tellus
27, Turo 27 meet such requirements.
urbine oils when used should changed not often than in 2 years or in
10000 hours of system operation.
llidustrial oils as substitutes may used for sbort period.

System Flooding

1. open all flow dividers and taps pipelinesand air taps or plugs, located
on the very top level of every hydraulic set.
2. daily supply tank or steering control pillar (depending on the engine
construction) is flooded through filter; as some oil leavcs tbe system, oil is
added.
3. Air plugs and taps are closed as air discharge ftom air plugs.
4. Test starting of an steering gear is conducted \Vith rudder change for 5-6
from one side to another, all pumps beginning witb manual one are used
altemately.
5. Corresponding flow dividers ofthc system excepting only one ofthe pumps
are closed. '
pump is S\vitched on, to put the belm over several times from port side to
starboard side, with previously switchcd off telemotor, control is caied out
ftom steering room. The second pump machine operation is checked. lf
rudder is move smoothly, \vithout jerks and strange noise, oillevel is stailized
one may consider the systym flooding finished. If rudder move takes places
\vith jerks it means that system is fi lled with air.
236

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2.
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3.
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,
n n
: 1 - n; 1,5 - r n
5; 2,5 - n 5 35.

-74 nptroy


n r1 n
35 35 n
, , 35
30 r' , 28 .
MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 237
ypical Reasons of abnormal ope:ration of steering gear

1. Rudder change for an angle more or less of the given one:


) undirected feedback system regu\ation;
) incorrect regulation of feedack system.
2. tiller is rotating unevenly and there is noise in hydraulic part of steering
gear- the system is filled with air.
3. hydraulic steeriog gear works with increased noise and is dismatched:
) not enough arnount of oil or presence of air in hydrosystem;
) valve on the pipeline connecting two chamers is not closed or passes;
) loose fit ofvalve;
d) high oil viscosity in the system at low temperature of air outside.

Steering Gear Presentation to the Register

At atual presentation of. steering gear to the Register it is necessary to


present:
1. scheme of steering gear in steering room at normal aod emergency
rudder control and an exploitation instruction of rudder machine.
2. Standard and emergency rudder controL
3. Speed of rudder turning from hard over to hard over at operation of one and
twopumps.
4. Divergence of readings of an helm indicator aod true position of rudder.
5. All types ofcommunication of steering room with bridge and the centra.l
control station.
lo correspondence with the Rules of the Register accuracy of helm indicator
readings at the control post relative\y the true position ofthe rudder should
not less: 1 - at roiddle position; 1,5 - for angles of moving from to 5;
2,5- for ang\es of moving from 5 to 35.

The requirements ofthe lntcrnational Convention SOLAS-74


to the steering gear.

The main steering gear.


The main steering gear shall l ofputting the rudder over from35 on
one side to 35'on the other side with the ship at its deepest seagoing draught
and running ahead at maximum ahead service speed and, und.er the sarne
conditions, from 35on either side tO 3Q0 oo tbe Otber side in not ! than 28
seconds.
238

Bc~ro,,toame tlii 1r
n () n
15 15 , 60 . n
n ,
n n ,
7 , , .

1 1 -74
1 ~r 11

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n :
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ARINE MECHANICAL PLANS 239
The auxiliary steering gear.

The auxiliary steering gear shall \ of putting the rudder over ftoml5
on one side to 15on the other side in not more 60 seconds with the ship at its
deepest seagoing draught and running ahead at one half of the maximum ahead
service speed or 7 knots, whichever is the greater.

The requirements of tbe .l ntern;itional Convention SOLAS-74 to tbe


main and auxiliary steering gear power units

The main and auxi!iary steerirlg gear power units shall :


1. arranged to restart automatically when power is restored after power
failure;
2. \ ofbeing plit into operation from position on the navigating bridge.
In the event of po,ver failure to any one of the steering gear power units, an
audile a:nd visual alarm shall given on the navigating bridge;
3. Steering gear control shall provided:
- for the main steering gear, both on the navigating bridge and in the steering
gear compartment;
_ - for_the auxiliary steering gear, in the steering gear compartmentand if power-
operated, it shall operale from the navigating bridge and shall .inaependent
pfthe control system for the main steering gear.. :
4,.1\ weans ofcommunication must provided between the navigating bridge
and the steering gear compartment
5. angular positi<m Df the rudder shall recogniza!e .in the steering
gear compartment and ! !he navigating bridge.
6. Hydraulic power-operated steering gear shall provided with low level
alarm for each hydraulic oil tank. Audile and visual alarms shall given on
the navigating bridge and in the machinery space.
7. In every tanker, chemical tanker or gas carries of 10,000 tons gross tonnage
and more but less than 70,000 tons deadweight, in the event ofloss of steering
capabllity due to single faile in one of the steering gear units, steering
capabllity shaH regaincd within 45 seconds.

4. Exploitation, checking
and technical maintenance of control systems

set of devices providing start, stop, reverse, power change and current
control ofthe work constitute the engine control system.
240

. 12. tt 11 peepcupoatllf
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ARINE MECANICAL PLANTS 241

Flg. 12. system of control and reversing


of four stroke diesel of \V type

energy type used for carrying out control operations, systems may
subdivided into rnechanical, pneumatic, hydraulic and comblned. At remote
distance control systern together with pneumatics and hydraulics electric
schemes are used, and at engine control at short distance mechanical
schemes are used.

Pneumatic System

pneumohydraulic servomotor is used in this system to move camshaft.


system consists of servornotor, rods, spindJes with controlling and ocking
washers, reversing cam and reversing valves, oil reservoir, starting valves on
the control panel.

Hydraulic System

Asystem is used to control po\verful diesel with small rotations offmn Sulzer
and use hydraulic energy to move camshaft at !eversing.
16.9426
242

11. 13. Jt .1Itt


RD90


. ( -
20% ).
.
1

.
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, n :.
,
.


.

n ,
1-2 .
30-50% .
MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 243

Fig. 13. scheme of control of small-speed diescl of RD90 type


of Sylzer: starting air; fuel; oil
Engine control is produced means of reverse and fuel starting handle.
Engine starting is displaced fuel delivery at thc start up to 20% of rated
powcr. Starting cylinder valves are opened d closed with compressed air.
double slide valve air distributor is reversed tum of camsbaft at the angle
of reversing. distributing shaft offuel pumps is turned at the anglc of reversing
1s of an oil scrvomotor.

Blockings are envisaged to providc egine start in the required direction. t.he
end of reversing process efore t.he beginnig of diesel start at the shaft turning
arrangement switched on.
Control system envisages an automatic engine stop at oil pressure drop in the
circulating system of Jubrication or water in the system of piston cooling.
accelerate the process of an engine stop at reversing in the cylinders in the
compression process counter air is delivered to provide full braking during 1-2
sec. h engine uequency should 30-50% ofthe rating one.
16
244

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150 ... t 1 120.
. (30 ...)
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160.
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.

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, n, .
MARINE MECANICAL PLANS 245

The main elements ofthis system of control: starting lever, fueldelivery handle,
levers and thrusts, starting buttons of control panel, controlling sliding valve,
tbe main starting valve, cylinder starting valves, air distributor, locking
arrangement, servomotors, regulating sliding valves.

Pneumatic System
An example of such system is tbe system of control and reversing of an
engine of [IJl)] Burmeister and'Wein.
Control is produced two handles. The start of an engjne is combined (fuel
delivery at starting - up to 80% ofthe rated one). Sliding valve airdistributors
are reversed an ax.ial displacement of camshaft. Engine reversing is
automatic cranking crankshaft in relation to distributing sbaft, discbarge
valves for 150 of the crankshaft turn and distributing sbaft of fuel pumps for
120. Difference in angles if reversing (30 of the cranksbaft tum) is provided
with special device on the distributing shaft of discharge valves.
At reversig distributing sbafts are locked with brake device. Braking takes
place due 10 compressed air delivery from distnuting valve- sliding valve
into braking cylinder. At extreme positions distributing sha.fts are kept
locking devices, consisting of washers and levers, Ioaded with springs.
An angle of reversing of distributing sbaft of fuel pump of high pressre is
provided with cam washer. An increase of reversing angle of distributing
shaft of discharge valves is carried out connection it with chain \Vheel
means oftwo crank spindles and gear drive with gears.
chain wheel is displaced in relation to distributiog shaft additionally at
30 with the help of crank spindles. During reversing c.rank spindles are roiated
at 160. ln extreme position crank spindles are kept w.ith spring dampers.
blocking device does not allow displacement of fuel starting handle up to
the end of an engine reverse.
Exploitation and technical maintenance of al1 control systems sbould
produced in correspondence with manufacturer's inslr\.lction requiements where
these systems are included as separate sections.
h main operations oftechnical maintenance: control ofconnections ofthrusts
and levers, fixtures of all bundles and parts of system, lubrication of all
Jubricating points and lubrication delivery controL, tight controL ofhydraulic or
pneumatic systems, periodical control of valves of the control panel, sliding
valves, air distribution, siarting valves of cylinders, the main starting valve,
cbecking of emergency prevent alarm and diesel protection.
246

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1.
(), .
, n , n
.
2. ,
, n
50-70% .
3.
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60-80% .
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4. 15 .'I ,

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;
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itII-t citramtait 11 .
-)r r!.

.
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-.
MRINE MECHANICAL PLANS 247

Maintenance of dieseJ at reverslng


1. At frequent reversing it is necessary to follow the temperature of coo\ing
\Vater (oil) without allo\ving fast cooling of diesel.
ln plant \Vhere an oil purnp has drive ftom diese\ before reversing it is
necessary to S\vitch on reserve oil pump.
2. Reversing diesel connected with propeL\er through reversing clutch or
through reversing gear is carried out at lowering rotation fi'equency of the
crankshaft up to 50-70% of rated frequency.
3. propeller rotation direction change in plants with two diese\s.working on
the propeller through gear and clutch should produced reversing of:
) one diesel at clutch switched on and another diesel S\vitched off;
) diesels at clutches switched f with the following switching on them at
rotation frequency not higher than 60-80% of rated frequency.
D ieseJ braking with starting air at clutches switched on is allowed at \owering
the crankshaft rotation fi'equency up to 10-15% of the rated fi'equency.
4. Time of reversing should not exceed 15 sec for diesels directly connected
with propel\er or working on the propeller through gear and 40 sec for
diescl \VOrking on the propeller through disconnecting c\utches.
Time of changing lades of contro lled pitch propeller from the fu\1 forward
running to the tull backward running should not exceed 20 sec for propel\ers
\Vith diameter to 2 meters and 30 sec for propellers with diameter higher
than 2 meters.
5. An allowab\e load on diese\s in the regime of the backward running is
installed manufacturer's instruction. In case of absence of such data
tecbnica\ maintenance of tbe main diesel, should provide the following power
of the backward running:
) for reversing diesel with direct rotation gear on fixed-iade propeller not
\ess than 85% ofthe tted po\ver;
) for plants \Vith diesel reductor gear - not less than 65% of the rated
power;
) for plants \Yith direct rotation gear on controlled pitch propeller- not Jess
than 100% of the rated power.
E mergency-prevcnt alarm aod protection
Emergency prcvent alarm
Depending on tbe composition of special powet plant prevent alarm
may control different number of points and parameters. The system of prevent
ala.rm commonly of all the fol\owing elements of an special power plant and
parameters:
1. Operation of pumps: the main diesel oil, the exhaust gas turbine supercharge,
the main diesel cooling, cooling of the main fuel pump and injectors, oils of
gear and controlled pitch propeller, steering gear, feeding steam boiler,
circulating waste boiler.
248
------------------------~
2. .L onmJa t! paclilllpHTCJi -
.
3. J< .
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MRINE MECHANICAL PLNTS 249
2. Fuellevel in the daily supply tank and \Vater level in the expansion tank.
3. Gaps in the crosshead bearings.
4. Work ofan auxiliary steam boiler.
5. Pressure: of oil in the cjrculating system oflubrication, in the cooling system
ofpistons of oil in the lubricating system ofthe exhaust gas turine supercharge,
'vater in the cooling system, stcam in tbe boiler and waste boiler, Iubricating oil
of gear and controlled pitch propeller.
6. Temperature of water and oil at the engine outlet, oil of gear, thrust
bearing.
7. High level of\vater in drying wells of an engine room.

Protection of power marine plant


Protection of special marine plant is carried out as rule the follo\ving
parameters:
l. Pressure drop i lubricating system of diesel (diesel stop).
2. igh temperature ofthe cooling water at t11e outlet (diesel stop when limited
temperatures are achieved).
3. Low oil drop in the \ubricating system ofa gear (diesel stop oruncoupling
\vith gear).
4. Low pressure of oil in the system of controlled pitch propeller (diesel stop
or uncoupling \Vith gear).
5. Low water level in the expansion tank (uncoupling with gear).
6. Lo\v \vater level in steam boiler (boiler stop).
7. Breakig of torch in the boiler fumace (boiler stop).
8. High revolutions of diesel (stop over speed govemor).

Chccking of emcrgency-prevent alarm


Emergency-prevent alarm shou\d checked:
- at keeping watch;
- at preparation of diesel for \Vork;
- at preparation of marine plant for trip in hard conditions:
- at periodical passes round of an engine room during keeping watch and
during passes round of an engine room chief engineer;
- at conducting planned technical maintenance of emergency-prevent a\arm.
Checks are conducted in the following way:
1. Correctness of a\llamps of the panel emergency-prevent alarm is cbecked
pressing button Check.
2. Correctness of pressure sensor action at starting of oil and cooling pumps-
emergency >varning signals should disappear.
3. Sound signal is checked stop of any pump of special marine plant or
any other way.
250

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-MARJNE MECHANICAL PLANTS 251
Protection of marine p1ant shou1d also checked means of an action on
pressure sensors and temperature sensors.
Protection of marine p1ant is switched off on1y in case of work in
comp\icated con.ditions of trip an order of cblcf cngineer. ln this case an
accurate contro1 over n1arine p1ant is madc watch and all watchmen in
a.n engine room at tbis period readings of standard t~ting dcvices and
inspections.

5. Exploitation and Technlcal Maintenance


of freight-handling equipment and deck mec:hanisms.
Cargo devlces. Classification

All hoisting gear construction are subdivided into four groups:


1) winches;
2) cranes;
3) hoists;
4) conveyor.
Winches purpose are divided into specia1 and cargo winch. Special winches
comprise topping lift winches, towing, trawl, 1adder, t ones.
Depending on drive steam, electric and hydraulic winches are distingwshed.
l group of crancs gantry, slewing and derric ones are distinguished.
Gantry cranes are used io container carriers. Gantry cranes are e1ectrica1
and hydraulic.
Hoists are divided into lifts and elevators.
Steam winches are used mainly on oil tankers. Their use on tankers is
explained their fire safety, simplicity of an aangement, re1iability, Jow
cost.

Exploitatloo of cargo winches

1. fn is prohiited to work on winch (crane) having the following


defects:
) incorrect brake arrangement;
) cracks offrames, bedplates, gears;
) troules which cause load drop;
d) detuned steam distribution or troules in an electric drive.
2. Al exploitalion of winch with steam drive it is necessary:
) to produce regu1ation of rotatio frequency fresh steam valve opening va1ue
change or moving diffcrential slide valve;
252 t

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MARINE MECHANICAL P.LANTS 253

) to product transfer of links or starting slide valve for reversing;


) to stop steam delivery i cylinder at load drop and to regulate drop speed brakes;
to use counter steam it is necessary only in those cases when load is dropped too fast.
3. At exploitation of wich with an electric drive it is necessary:
) for changing rotation frequency to transfer conJroller handle in anothe.r position;
) at switcblng controller for the backward running to establish it for the first tiine in
zero position and only after full stop of mechanism to produce switcblng off;
) to drop load only w1 the help ofan electric motor;

3. if at the moment of load lifting current delivery is stopped, it is necessary to


curry out the following:
- with the help of special handle to drop load gradually lierating lock brake;
- in case of troule with lock brake to drop load with the help of . h!)nd brake;
- if construction does not provide special handle it is necessary to remove
cover of an electric brake, to compress band brake and having released an electric
brake to produce load drop with the help of band brake.
4. Atexploitation of cranes load lifting and radius of operationjib change should
produced i such may not to allow wear of safety stop.

5. At exploitation of winches with hydrodrive it is necessary:


)to check mobility and easiness of switching off and on of control levers
winch hydrodrjve;
) oillevel in an expansion (oil bilge) tank;
) to switch on pump of hydraalic and to produce an operating pressure in the gystem;
d) to release air from wich hydrodrive;
) to check winch operation for lifting and dropping;
f) if winch is rotated very slowly the reason may the next:
- insufficient quantity of oil and getting air in the system;
- safety and - pa.ss valves pass.

Boat winches

At exploitation of t winches it is necessary:


1. provide constat readiness of wi:nch for dropping oats.
2. Handles for manual drive to keep directly wear winches.
3. out t drop at switching on an electric motorwith the help of band brake.
254 S

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 255
4. At rising boat means CJf an electric drive to sure that manual

drive handle is removed and then to switch on an electric motor; if e!ectric
energy is absent to put manual control handle, to raise boat and to remove
handle.

Cranes with hydrodrive


At exploitation of cranes with hydrodrive it is necessary:
1. exploit crane an exp\oitation instruction.
2. check tighting of hydrau\ics system connections, intact of du.rite hoses.
3. check presence of oil in oil tank.
4. check crane work separately for raising, dropping, changing of radius of
operation jib ~;:hange and turning crane to both sides without load (in given data
of crane tuming), to sure in wear of safety stop.
5. check protection of radius ofjib operation more than maximal.

Exploitation of deck mechanisms (windlasses, capstans)

1. At exploitation of deck mechanisms it is nccessary to follow:


) state ofband brakes, drives ofwhich should worked out and bands (lockings)
should tightly cover drums;
) state of pins, parts of fastening and \)rake drive.as well as drive springs;
) state of manual drives;
d) correctness of rails of moving parts;
) \ubrication of screws of band rakes, ratchets, carns of cam adapters.
2. lt is prohiited to exploit deck mechanisrns with an electric drive in case of:
) trou\es of safety stops;
) wear of e\ectric protection system;

) overheating an electric motor or station;


d) damage of earthing of an electric motor or controller.
. If mechanism prepared for starting is not started or stopped at the rated load,
the reasons of damages may the following:
) sticking in gear or worm gear drives;
) in completely switching offbrakes or incomplete switching on friction clutches;
) overloading of engine mechanism;
d) incoect regulation ofclutches or getting lurication on operating sfaces ofclutches.
4. At exploitation of windlass (capstan) with mechanical drive it is necessary:
) to sure in switching t manual drive;
256

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS .257
) to check position of band brake, to tighten it if necessary;
) to check action of cam clutch (friction) and disconnect it ftom chain
drum
' .
d) to prepare for action drive of 'vindlass ( capstan).
5. Before preparation to action of capstan { windlass) with steam distributing
mecbanism hinges, to heat machine and to crank several times on no load in
oth sides.
6. Not to allow work of windlass with such wear of chain drums at which
slipping of anchor chain is observed.
7. follow lockings and bands ofbrakes which should not pressed and
not rubbed against brake sheaves at drive switcbed on.
8. Electric drive work is controJJed readings of an ammeter.
9. If at switching and brake or lacking one is heating, reasons of
damage may the following:
) . radial gap betwe~n band and sheave is small;
) brake touches sheave ids.
l . If band brake or locking one does not brake, the reasons of damage
may the following:
) wear ofcoating ofbands or lockings;
) loose adjoining ofbands or lockings to sheaves;
) g~tting oil on band or on locking.
11. If steam macblne prepared for starting at opening ftesh steam valve is
not switcbed on at the rated load or does not .develop tbe rating power and
rotation equency the reasons of damages may the following:
) insufficient heating of cylinders in 'vhich there is much condensate;
) incorr(fct installation of steam distribution;
) misalignments, strong tightening ofbearings or rod gaskets;
d) lowered pressure and ftesh steam temperature or increased counter pressure
in pipeline of spent steam;
) significant passes of steam through sealing rings ofpistons and slide valves.
12. The reason ofknock appearance in the cylinder or slide valve of steam
machine may the following:
) presence ofwater in cylinder;
b)weakening of piston nut, slide valve and.weakening ofpiston putting,
slide valve on the rod;
) wear ofpiston rings;
d) misaligninent and sticking of steam distributing mechanism.
17.9426
258

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- 5%, 50 -10%.
ARINE MECAN ICAL PLANTS 259
13. Tu nti~~: d acl1or while working with windlass with steam or electric
drive it is necessary:
) to switch on clutch connecting chain sprocket with the shaft;
) to weaken band brake and at the same time to start an engine;
) to tighten band brake up after raising an anchor;
d) to switch off chain spocket.

Tecbnfcal maintenance of winches, cranes and deck mecbanisms


1. Technical maintenance should produced every time efore planned work
of load and deck mechani!;rns (in port, on business and others) and switch on
all the operations of technical maintenance of steam, electric and hydraulic
drives as well as the main bundles and parts of mechanisms.
2. Technical maintenance efore annual inspection of mechanisms the
Register should more expanded and solid. This technjca) maintenance shou\d
fmished with previous testing of mechanisms for themselve~ ut the rules
ofthe Register.

Annua\ Tests and Checks of the anchor gear tbe Register


1. 11ie anchor gear are checked to drop and mise anchors from the depth of
not less than 45 m; simuJtaneous raising of two anchors from such depth
should produced with the speed of not less than 6 m/min.
At standard operating steam pressure in boiler or at standard operating
voltage of current speed of one ancbor shouJd 12 m/min.
2. Band brakes should stop veering of an anchor chain in any position.
3. Connection of sprockets with the sbaft of windlass and disconnection for
loose casting of anchors should carried out easily without sticking the
effort of one man.
4. Wear of gear teeth of windlasses is allowed not more than 10% of tooth
size; gap between teeth should not exceed 8 mm.
5. Wear of gears of capstan drive is allowed up to J 0% of their original
value, worm hump not more than 5% of tbe designed size, the sum gap between
teeth should not exceed 2 mm.

Annual Checks aod tests of freight-handling gear


\. freight-handling gear is subjected to annual inspection the Register.
2. lf freight-handling gear was repaired with replacement of responsiie
parts tests with load exceeding an operating one: at hoisting capacity up to 20
tons- for 25%, from 20 to 50 tons- for 5%, more than 50 tons- 10% should
produced.
260

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5. n
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6. Jt TOifBRI\fR
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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 261
3. Test load should Iifted means of derrick and reput fro board to
board at its maximal and minimal outreach radius.
4. Winch gear teeth wear should not exceed 1% of its original value, gap
between teeth of gears should not exceed 2 mm.
5. Hydraulic winches and cranes are tested \Vith load maximally possile
which does not exceed 25% of the. operating
..
load.

6. Control of Fuel and Ballast Operations

1. Fuel and ballast operations should started with organ izational measures
connected with working out and selection of number of documents, some of
which are the follo,ving:
) schedule of alarms;
) technological chart of operations carried out at bunkering vessel;
) scheme of reception and pumping of . fuel;
d) scheme of air pipe and measuring pipe;
) tales ofvolume ofmarine tanks and cistems;
f) marine instruction for bunkering operations;
g) scheme of fuel-ballast system;
h)a scheme oflocation ofbuhkering- pumping fuel stations.
2. According to the charter chief engineer is responsiie for technical state
ofall mecbanisms, systems and fittings, \vhich are under management ofmarine
mechanical department, including systems, providing fuel and ballast operations.
maintain technical state at the proper level chief engineer should organize
technical service offuel and ballast system in correspondence \Vith requirements
of manufacfurer's instructions in terms, providing all marine operations
fulfillment at the planned time (bunkerillg ofload; trip with load, load discharging,
washing ;~nd discharging ofballast, tank inertisation and others).
3. If \oad operations conducting is under guidance of chief mate of Captain,
bunkering operations are headed chief engineer.
4. Before beginning ofbunkering operations chief engineer should conduct
instructing of persons, taking part in operation of preventing overfl.o\v and fire
safety. Instruction is co_nducted bunkering operations manual.
5. Instruction ofbunkering operations should contain:
- description of pipelines sys~ms, eqipment and deyices designed to conduct
bunkering operations;
262

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ARINE MECANICAL LS 263
- duties of responsile persons;
- personnel and duties of watchmen of the crew during fulfment mf
operations;
- duties of each member of the crew taking part in fulfillment of operatioJis
beside watchmen;
- ordet of s!Up prep-aliun, h<:r ~ystcms, equipment and devices for comin~g
bunkering operations taking into account measures to present contamination;;
- order of starting, conducting and ending of operations;
- description and order ofusing aids to localize overflow which might tak:e
place;
- other information materials, indications, recommendations and so on.
7. , chiefengineer should:
- determine where persons taking part in bunkering operation should sta)V;
- organize reliale communication among all participants of bunkerin,g
operation;
.- envisage and coordinate with the personnel ofbunkering enterprise (coast
base):
) checking of marine and coastal clocks;
) order offilling fuel tanks;
) maximally permissiie delivery an.d intensity ofbunkering at the beginnig
and in trans.f er from one tank to another;
d) time required for changing bunkering intensity;
) numer oftanks filled with fuel at the s~e time;
f) time of closing coastal gate and amount of fuel delivered to the vessel foor
the period ofits closing; '--
g) order of fulfillment of extreme actions at fuel overflow.
8. At preparation to bunkering operation it is necessary:
) in the 'place of connection of hose to the pipeline to put pan;
) to close drain holes on the deck;
) to close unused branch ofthe deck pipeline;
d) to sure tbat volurnes tanks wouLd penit to receive the required amoumt
offuel;
) to organize continuous observation of hose state since time of its receptiom
to the moment of its retum;
f) to prepare post of overflow liquidation., to complete sets with the foiLowing
equipment and materials:
- pneumodriven portate pump with dispe~gent pulverizer- 1 piece;
264

- - 50 ; .
- - 4
- - 2 ;'
- t -5;
- -3 ;
- - 2;
- n . -2;
- - 20 ;
- - 30 ;
- - 10 ;
- - 10 ;
- - 5.

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 265
- dispergents - 50 litres;
- shovels - 4 pieces;
- pans - 2 pieces;
- polyethelene bags - 5 pieces;
- buckets - 3 pieces;
- funnels - 2 pieces;
- shovel spade - 2 pieces;
- wiping waste - 20 kg;
- sand - 30 kg;
- S\Vdust - 10 kg;
- cel\ular mats - 10 kg;
- cellular rolls - 5 pieces.

Conducting bunkering operations \...

1. Reception of fuel should started at minimal intensity of delivery. After


checking fuel delivery into tanks prepared and absence of breaks in hose
conections bunkering intensity may led to the rated one.
2. In the process of fuel reception it is necessary to control continuously the
Jcvel of fuel in filled tanks or to keep under constant control overflow fuel
system.
3. Fuel spilled on the deck should collected immediately and the deck
should wiped with \vaste and po\vder with sa\vdust, collecting them into
separate container together with dirty waste. All this should utilized aoard
ship or delivered to the shore. wash out fuel spilled on the deck over board is
prohibited.
4. Before ending of filling each tank it is necessary to lower filling intensity
means of opening the valves into other tanks. Closing valves of the filled
tanks is possile only after opening valves ofthe other tanks.
5. In 15 minutes approximately after filling tank and closing valves it is
necessary to check fuel level in it in order to sure in keeping closed valves.

Ending of buokering operations


l . Beforc ending of fuel rcception it is necessary to lower delive ry intensity.
2. Cistems \vith doule bottom should filled up ftom deep tanks ifpossiie.
3. Hoses are disconnected over pan after control measures fulfillment in the
tanks.
4. Received amount of fuel is recorded in the Engine-Loom Logbook and in
the Oil Record Book, code .
266

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MARJNE MECHNICAL PLANTS 267
Pumping fuel aboard ship
l. At pumping fuel aboard ship it is necessary to take measures of precaution
to prevent overo'v and to control ship heel.
2. Before beginning ofpumping it is necessary to make sttre, that overflow
pipe, !11 ovcrflow and fuel content indicator in o verflow tank- effective and
overflow tank is empty.
3. At tl1e end of pumping fuel de!ivery int.e nsity it is necessary to lower.
4. Any pumpig of the fuel aboard sl1ip should produced only after
report to t!Je Captain 's \vatch assistant and getting his permissio .
5. Tiroe ofbeginning and ending offel pumping is fixed in t11e Engine-Roo
Logbook and Oil Record Book, code i. \

Reception and pumping out of ballast


l. Reception, pumping and pumping out of the bal!ast should produced
only from perission of the Captain's \vatch assistant.
2. All operations with ballast should fixed in the Engine- Room Logbook
and in Oil Record Book.
. Bcfore starting ofballast reception it is necessary to cttt oiY\vith slide valve
al l parts of Joad or fuel pipeline \vhich would not takc part in the reception of
ballast.
4. Harbour pollution takes ! often at t11e momet \vhcn bottom kingsto
valve in the pump room of tanker ( vessel) is opened for ballast reception. At
the moment of opening of the kingston valve due to low draught of vessel
petro!eum products lefi in the pipelinc are flow out over tl1e board throng tbc
kingston valve. avoid this it is neccssary first to put into Qperation load
(ballast) pump designed for ballast reception and only after this to open kingston
valve. Small vacuum in the load pipeline \vhich is produced at this moment
wold not give possibility load remaindcr to flow out over thc board.
5. If bal!ast reccption is supposed to gra,,ity it is necessary first to t
into operation load pump and only after t11is as load pump l1as \vorked for 1
minutcs to \vash out Ioad maifold one may begin ballast reception gravity.
6. Bal!ast reccptio should stancd immediately and only aftcr the assurance
in the fact that ba!last has begun to dclivered in the tanks dcsigned for this
one may increase ballast rcception intensity up to tbe rated one.
7. Ba\last reception into tanks should produced as carefully as aJiast
reception is produccd because ba\last water poured out oftl1e tank together \Vith
load remainder produces fire hazard and may lend to the sea pollution.
268

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MARINE MECANICAL PLANTS 269
8. Ballast operation aboard tankcr is under guidance ofthe chiefmate ofthe
Captain. Aboard ship (ut not tanker) the third engincer or watch engineer
permission of chief engineer is engaged in the ballast operation.
9. Ballast overtlo\v should produced in coespondence with requirements
ofMARPOL-73178 and registered in the Oil Record Book.

Rcccption and retention of fuel oil board


1. Control for fuel rcccption and documentation is carried out chief
egineer.
2. TJ1e main document for accouting received fuel is consignment of
petroleum base ( vessel bunkerer). The ain reporting docu~nt about use of
gas lubricating materia\s is reporting for esta\ished ship O\vner.
3. Before reception it is neccssary to get fuel certificatc and to check the
coespondence ofits charactcristics indicated in diesel exploitation instruction.
4. In the process of fuc l rcccption constant visual control over fuel quality
should organized.
At detection that ftlel quality does not meet requirements reception should
stopped, the corresponding act shot1ld made and tests shou\d selected
botl1 vides (delivering and receiving) for the rating offel.

Cakulating of consumption and fuel capacity


1. Calculating of fuel consumption is controlled third engineer who
should report chief engineer of mcasures of tanks and fuel availability every
day.
2. Fue\ availaility aboard ship is regulated in the Engine-Room Logbook
every day. chief engineer given date shou\d compared actual fuel
consumption \\'ith fue\ alo\vance.
3. Every month chief engincer sl1ould compose and report to ship o'vners
heat engineering account and account of combustiie lubricating materials \vhich
are the ain documents reg istering consuption standards of gas lubricating
materials.
4. Fuel capacity aboard sl!ip consist ofthe main store which s\1ould enough
for fulfillment ofthe planned trip and the emergency store constituting 20% of
the main store. Emergency store consuption under standard explo itation
conditions is not allowed.
5. At the use ofvarious fucls the store is accounted each fuel type.

Checks of fuel-ballast systems


1. Before bunkerig operation there is check of:
) heretically of tubes of fue l and overflow system;
) self-closing plugs state on the easuring tubes of c istems;
) ligllting and signalling on the overtlo\v system;
270

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ARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 271

d) correctness of control and measuring instruments;


) gasket state under plugs oftank measuring tubes and their tightening;
f) state of air tubes of fuel tanks;
g) ease ofvalve motion ofthe fuel system.
2. At preparation to annual presentation of Register of fuel system it is
necessary to check:
) fuel-oit transfer pump operation;
) remote distance stop system of fuel-oil transfer pumps;
) ease of motion of self-closing plugs of measuring tubes of cisterns;
d) distance drives state and operation of quick-closing valves;
) air pipe of fuel tanks.
/
7. Organization of safe
tcchnical malntenance a.nd repair

Organization of safe technical maintenance and repair includes complex of


organizational techical measures. They are the following:
\. Chart control elaboraiion of marine power plant: watch actions chart at
emergency situations in the main engine, auxiliary diesel generator, oiler, elcctric
equipment, refiigcrating equipment in the engine compart.ment; routes of rounds
in the engine room; chart of watch engineer actions at preparation of marine
powcr plant for trip under complex conditions.
2. Elaboration of marine instructions of exploitation and technica\ maintenance
ofmechanisms, systems and facilities ofmarine power plant and their location.
3. Elaboration of marine instruct.i ons of technical safety for motormcn,
electricians, refinachinists, tumers, welders and their location near technical
aids in the engine room.
4. Elaboration of instructions of bunkering operations.
5. Teaching engine cre\v members rules and haits of safe technical
maintenance.
6. Works in technical maintenance of technical ' aids, fulfilled watch
servicing them, should not include planned operations, complex and volumetric.
ln the Rules of service of the Ministry of fishing ind\l$try of the USSR there
was prohiition for \vatch to engaged in operations, not connccted \Vith
keeping on watcb. This is right because to keep watch and to fulfil serious
work with high quality is impossi\e. This is why operations of pla-grapb of
technica\ maintenance are necessary to organize either after watch or special
repair team.
produce technical maintenance of the main engine, sl1aft line, gear is
necessary to use port staying maxima\ly.
272 .


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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 273
ln technical maintenance and repair it is nccessary to follow next main rulcs
of technical safety.

Gcncral Teets
1. Jn an engine compartment scl1emes of marine systems with indication of
valvcs and their functions should locatcd.
2. All bars ofladder steps grid, rai ls and posts should tightencd strongly on
their places.
3. Plates, grids and ladders should al\vays dry and clean.
4. Places where rails, ladders and grids are temporarily removed should
protected and llghted.
5. Moving parts of mechanisms should encased. /
6. Isolation ofsteam boilers, pipelines, exhaust manifold and others should
contained in correct state.
7. Surface temperature of flywbeels, handles and others should not exceed
50.
8. lsolating valves of compressed air balloons, air and steam manifolds arc
prohibited to open slrply and fast. Steam manifolds before putting them into
action should heated and scavenged.
9. produce inspection and to ful fill repair \Vorks in non-degasscd volumes
and premises is prohiited. Entering such premises before degassing is al\owed
in emcrgency cases only with use ofthc protcctive masks with hose and air-
brcathing apparatus.
1. dog down tank throats, steam boilers and other volumes \Vithout their
previous inspections is prohiitcd. sure that people are a\vay. [nspection is
registered in an Engine-Room Logbook in \Vhich information about people \Vho
inspected and about throats whicb \vere clogged down is given.

Marinc internal combustion engines


1. stay at the level of cylinder covers at the engine starting is proh iited.
2. fol\o\v correctness of safety valves on the crankcase covers.
3. At the stop of an enginc to inspect and to work in the crankcase the
following measures should taken:
) starting air valve to the engine sluld closcd;
) to open indicator cocks;
) to bind ( shaft tuming gear) barring gear or to stop the shafi line.
d) to hand placard <<Start is prohibited. Operations are conducting at the
control pancl.
4. lf opcrations in the crankcase of onc of the engine \vith 1\vo-shaft plant
aboard the ship under way are required works in the crankcase may started
only aftcr the propeller shafi lock clamp of the engine stopped and fulfil\ment
of rcquirements.
18. 9426
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35.
MARINE MECHNICL PLANTS 275
S. Before cranking an engine of an auxiliary ( shaft turning gear) barring
gear it is necessary to remove personnel from the crankcase and cylinder covers.

Marinc steam boiler


1. Bcfore firing and steam raisig it is necessary;
) to check correctncss o f all control and mcasuring instruments, boiler \vater
gauge, control posts, emergency-preven t alarm;
) to ventilate boiler;
) to check correctness of emergcncy drives providing boilci" to put out of
action;
d) to sure in the presence of \vater in the boiler water gauge glasses.
2. inspcct furnace, to ventilatc boiler not less than 1 min.
3. h bumer ignition should produced an ~lectric fuse or torch,
fixed on the rod 1 m long. At ignition of bumcr one should havc protective
spectac\es and mittens and stand aside windo\v into \vhich torct1 is introduced
in o rder not to bured at possiie flamc surges.
4. If after t\vO repeated attempts bumer has not been ignited, it is ccessary
to stop an ignition until trouie reason is eliminated.
5. present break of wa tc r gauge glasses one should scavenge
systematically g lasses to achieve an operating pressure of steam of boiler.
6. lt is prohited boiler operat.ion at the trou!e of at least one safety valve
or its manual drive.
7. Boiler scavenging at the process of its \vork it is necessary to carry out
carcfully without allo,ving hydraulic knocks in pipeline and lo,vering water
level less than it is permitted.
8. At putting out of action ofboiler water gauge operation of water-tube
boilcr \ith one boiler \vat.e r gauge more than 30 min and of fire-tube boiler
more tl1an one hour is prohibited.
9. Before opeing scuttles and lhroats at boiler which is put out of action it
is necessary to sure in absence there steam and \Vater. h fi rst an t1pper
scuttlc sluld opened.
1. Be fore admittance of people ito boiler chief engi eer should check
pcrsonaiiy and sure in thc foliO\ving:
) boiler is well ventilated, thcre arc no harmful gases and steam in it;
) al\ pipelines of boiler vhich is put out of action are switched off reliaiy
from acting boilers and mechanisms;
) special watchmen are at open throats;
d) porta\e lighting 12 V is used for lighting inside boiler.
11. Production of \\orks in boilers \vitlut specia l heat isolating costume is
allowed at temperature inside them not lligl1er than 35.
18'
276

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 277
12. Persons operating with caustic and trisodium phosphate and other
substances should use protective spectac\es and respirators.
13. Removing the scalc after cl1emical treatment is produced mechanical
way and people \vorking in boiler should use protective spectacles and
respirators.
14. Before c\osing boiler after cleaning cblef engineer should inspect it to
sure in absence of people in it.
Auxiliary Mechanisms
1. Air compressors should stopped imediately in cases:
) if air pressure gauge of the 1" or the 2"d stage as wcll as on the
supercha.rging line is 11igher ofthc allowance;
) sudden stop or decrease of the cooling water deJjvery;
) putting out of action tbe con trol and measuring instrurnents.
2. Before starting an oil (fuel) separator it is necessary to check carefu11y
fastening of drum c\amping ring and to liberate set screw and brakes.
3. Before opening separator cover it is necessary to put it on the plug.
4. Before starting steam engine it is necessary to hcat correctly and evenly
an engine, to scavenge \Vater from steamlincs, cylinders and valve boxes.
5. f beginning of steering gear repair in the sea one should stop tl1e
steering til\er to avoid its tum in case of 'vave hit against rudder lade.
Propulsor propeller
1. At period ofpreparation to inspcction or propellcrs repair one sluld do the
following:
) to s\vitch off steering gear and to stop rudders;
} to stop pump of the controlla\e pitch propeller. At t\1e control panel of
tl1c main engine it is neccssary to hand placard: <~Not to s tart cngines! Diving
works are carrying out!;
) to put watc\1 at the control \ of the main engine for the period of
diving works; .
d) to \\'arn all the engine \vatch about \VOrks in the area of the screw;
) to put barring gear into action.
2. crank of the prope\ler screw shottld produced slowly means of
barring gear and only after the watch engineer checks the absence ofpeop\e at
the SCC\V.
Electric Equipment
1. At main distributing switch board the Rules of first aid to victims of
electric current and the Rules of fire extinguishing of electric cquipment should
hanged.
2. Protective meas sluld used in correspondence witl1 the Rules of using
and testing of protectivc means.
278

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 279
. Prot.ective means efore t.heir usage shou1d inspected and checked for
the absence of extema1 damages, rorrespondence to the voltage and fitness for
the usage as result of tests.
4. Responsiility for availabllity, suitability, correct storing and correct usage
of electro-protective means belongs to an electric engineer, and in case ofhis
absence - to the chief engineer.
5. All metallic parts of electric equipment (excepting current- carrying parts),
m~taUic casing of cales and ot.her constmctions which under normal conditions
are not under voltage but might ccause of isolation damage or short-circuiting
to case shou1d provided with earthing. J
6. portale, moile and manual electric equipment., operating at voltages
higher than 24 V of direct current should have earth through one offree veins of
feeding i, if case of these articles is not made of an isoiation material.

7. Correctness ofprotective earths ofportaie electric equipment should


cbecked every time before operation.
8. Switching of an electric equipment having isolation resistance lower of
Register standards is prohiited.
9. All electric measuring instmments sbould correct.
1. At work with electric equipment in damp premises on metallic decks, in
premises with small volume and in other places, dangerous in relation to current
injury protective means should used.
11 . leave non-insulated ends ofwires after their switching offis prohiited.
12. use an instrument with current-carrying handles or with damaged
isolation is problited.
13. Atrepairofan electric engine it should dead and the starting device
there should waroing placard <<Not switcb on! People are worklng!.
14. commanding person ordering to produce repair works of electric
equipment is responsiie for providing safety of works and correspondence of
qualifications of the personnel to the work engaged.
15. Technica\ maintenance of electric equipment with vottage up to 380 V
may fulfilled only one person while maintenance of equipment witb voltage
r than 380 V only under observation of the other providing person.
16. ln case of self-switching otf an electric consumer having switcher of
closed type or reote distance switcher it is allowaie repeated one-time
switching on without checking.
280

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 281
17. Substitution of the lown up safety-lock is produced at voltage relieving.
The exception is fuses and tubes for current of 15 . lt is necessary to use
dielectric gloves, isolating plicrs and protective spectacles.
18. C\eaning and repair of e\ectric equipment should produced at voltage
rel ievcd not less than two pcrsons and under observation and guidance of an
electric engineer.
19. Placal:; Not S\Vitclt ! \ are working arc hanged on the knife
S\vitch handles, starters, rheostats of equipment subjected to the repair
person switcblng off this equipment. Placards are removed \vhen works are
over person having produced \Vorks.
20. exclude inverse voltage transformig through transformers (power,
lighting), connected \Vith switched off e~ipment, it is necessary to switch off
transforme1s from the sidc of the primary volt.age and from the side of the
secondary one.
21. If voltage is impossiie to relievc emergency works under voltage not
higher than 380 V are allowed as an exception. The required safety ofprecautions
are observed and only on the permission of chief cngineer.
22. At emergency works on non-switched off current-carrying parts it is
nccessary:
) to work in dielectric galoshes or standing on the dielectric carpet and in
protective spectacles;
) to use dielectric gloves;
) to raid the adjacent current-carrying parts under voltage with dielectric
materials;
d) to work in overaHs \Vith dra,vn do,vn and buttoned sleeves near hands and
\Vith caps.
23. Electric works on the masts should produced at the switched offvoltage
and removed safety-lock on the panels. An observing man should put on the
bride or at tbe mast who follows the people \vorking on the mast besides rules
ofprecautions should observed for those working on height.
24. Grinding of comntator should produced idling or with minimal
load of an clectric machine in dielectric gloves.
25. Commutator.c\eaning of maclline under way with \vaste moistened with
gasoline or spirit is proh.ibited.
26. lt is prohiited to store any articles and inventory behind main distributing
switch-board.
27. Platforms and passageways before main distributing s\v.i tch-board and
beltind them s.luld covered \Vitlt dielectric carpets or strips.
28. Jt is prohiblted to wedge automatic air S\vitchcs, to fasten thcm and make
other actions directed at that automatic machines not switched off in case of
trouies \vcrc in sclteme or at loads.
282 II

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 283
R efrigeratlng Plants
l. In retrigcrating plant room main rules of safety precautions and exploitation
of refrigerating plant and medica\ assistance as \Vell as schemes of coolant
pipes, water lines and solution pipes should hanged at visi!e p\aces.
cock should have sign \vith its function indication.
2. Sign Emergency Exit. Not close should wel\ seen on the doors and
hatches.
3. Pipelines ofrefiigerating plants connecting apparatus and machines, should
have disctinct colour.
4. Dircction of liquid movecnt in pipelines shou\d indicated with arro\vs
at visiie places near each valve.
5. Work of the plan{ with switched off or incorrect devices of automatic
protection is prohiited.
. Maximally pcrmissiie temperatures of compressor charging should not
exceed:
) in ammonia plants and freon plant - 22: for piston compressors - 140,
for rotary compressors- ll 0, for screw compressors \vith am monia- 105,
\Vith freon - 90;
) in plants \vith freon 12 - l25C.
7. Leakinesses in the coolant system should eliminated immediately at
their detection.
8. At ammonia leakage in the room of rcfiigerating plant it is necessary:
) put on protective mask immediately;
) to switcb on e lectric motors of al operating mcchanisms in the refrigerating
room;
) to switclt on emergency ventilation;
d) to evacuate personnel; in casc of danger to people lifc to switch on sprinkling;
) to seal refiigcrating room;
f) to put on compressed air apparatus, gas proof costumc and to take
measures to liquidate an outurst.
9. Ca!)'ing t emergency operations in premises where there is an outburst
of coolant is aJJo,ved with participation of not less than two people.
10. In premises with ammonia refrigerating plants protective masks ~v i th
spare tiltcrig cartridges i.n number cqual to the number of people servicing
cooler plant should availa!c.
11. Outside near the entrace of refrigeratig room it is necessary to havc
not Iess than t\vo spare protective masks togcther with pair of resin gloves and
boots.
12. At exploitation of cooler plants it is necessary to kno\v for sure the
following:
284

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. 22% ;
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ARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 285

)at the concentration of ammonia in air from 16 to 26,8% is explosion


hazard. The strongest explosion is produced the mixture of air with 22% of
ammoa;

) speed and pressure of an explosion is sharply increased at the presence in


the system ofrefiigerating plant dangerous concentrations ofhydrogen, methane
an.d so on. Appearance of these gases is result of getting air in the cooler
system and decomposition oflubricating oils high temperature ot'compressor
charging.
) freon is not poisonous, but the concentration of it in air more than 30%
volume there are signs of poisoning of human being due to lack of oxygen;
d) at the content of ammonia vapour in the premises equal to 1,5-2,7 mgll
there is sharp poisoning with lethal end even at short-tenn staying.

Repair of Cistern
\. enter cistcm with contents in them of hydrocarbon vapour more than
0,3 mg/1 without protective mask with hose is prohiblted.
2. At preparation ofwater cistems to repair it is necessary carefully to ventilate
and to dry after removing water.
3. provide safety while rcpairing inside cistern it is necessary to follow
tl1e following precautions:
) cistem throats should opencd continuously during all the period of
operations in them, exbau~t ventilation sbould provided;
) in fuel cisterns for lighting lantems of explosion-proof model should
used
'
) every person working inside cistem should supplied with bclt \Vith
straps and signal rope which should held an observer near the throat;
d) staying in the cistem should not exceed 45 min, then rest during 15 min;
) if there signs of indisposition person working in cistem should stop
works immediately, to give an alann signal and \eave cistem.
4. dog down cistern throats without assuring in absence ofpeople tbere is
prohibited.

Electrowelding works
1. [n all cases of electrowelding works fulfilled in sitting position, on the
knees or in 1ying position on the welded articles \velder shou\d stay on dielectric
mats. At welding inside boilers, cistcms and others welder should have
helmet of dielectric materials.
286

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 287

2. At works of welder inside tanks ofsmall volume there shouJd person


outside tank ready to assist \Yelder in necessary cases.
3. Lighting inside cistems, compartments should carried out with portaie
lamps at voltage not more than 12 V.
4. Voltage of idling running of welding generators of direct current should not
exceed 80 V. For generators with rated current more tl1an 350 intensity
increasc of idling running up to 90 V is allowed.
5. At works in extremely dagerous premises and in tunnels, compartments,
c istcms, an electrowelding plant should have electric lock systcm, providing
automatic switching on of \Velding circuit at contact of an elcctrode with
welding article and an automatic S\Vitching off of wclding circuit at idling
running or means of Iowering voltage in welding circuit up to 12 V.
6. Cases of electrowelding plants, welding taes, plates as well as iverse
wires should carthed.

7. lt is prohibltcd:
) to use elcctric holders which have damaged iso\ation of handle;
) to produce welding works ncar fire ltazardous materials;
) to produce weldig works on equipmet, vcssels, pipelines which are
under pressure and electric_yoltage;
d) to work without protective screens in the open decks d passage,vays of
people.

Gas wclding \Vorks

1. Premiscs where gas welding works are produced should well ventilated.
Jn case ofincorrectness ofventilation to produce these works is prohiited.
2. Oxygen d from balloon should produccd up to the residual pressure
not lower than 0,5 kglcm 2
Minimal residua1 pressure in an acetylene balloon depends on the temperature
of surrounding air. At temperature lower 0 - acetylene pressure is 0,5 kgl
cm2; at t = O-l5C- acetylene pressure is 1, kglcm2; at t= 15-25 "- acetylene
pressure is 2 kg/cm1 ; at t = 25-35 - acetylene pressure 3,0 kglcm2
3. use reducer with damaged thread in uion nut and other troues as
we\1 as with failed gauges is prohibited.
4 . Dismantling and repair of balloon cocks \Vith own aids and means is
prohiited.
5. joint running ofhoses and electrowelding s without reliae isolation
th.e m from each otl1er is not allowed.
288

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 289

6. Length of hoses for gas \velding, as ru\e, should not exceed 20 m.


7. Gas welders should know well the following safety mcasures:
) at ignition of burner or torch one should at first open an oxygen cock,
then open an acetylene cock and after short-tenn scavenging of hose burn
combustile mixture;
) during \Vorks to keep hoses under the arm, on shoulders or compress
them \Vith legs is prohiited;
) removing welder with bt1rning burner or torch out of limits of
\vorking place as wel\ as ladders, scaffolds is not allowcd;
d) at breaks in 'vorks cocks on the burner (torch) should tightly closed,
and at long breaks cocks on oxygen and acetylene balloons should closed;
) at overheating of burner it should extinguished and cooled in clean
cold \vater;
t) to produce w~rk on contaminated tips is prohiited;
g) at inversed hit of flame cocks on the burner and balloons should
immediately closed;
h) after each inversed hit it is necessary to check carefully hoses.
8. ln--ca~e of freezing of reductor or cut-off valve of an oxygen bal\oon to
heat them up is allowed only with clean.hot water witlut oil traces.
9. cut offvalve ofa balloon should opened slo\vly turning it at once not
more than one turn. An oxygen cock is allowed to open and to closc only
hands, while an acetylene one - with special key.

8. Detection and finding Reasons of trouies


in mechanisms operation and elimination of trouies

For many years of exploitation of marine mechanisms trememendous


experience of detection and finding troules in mechanism operation and metho<k
oftheir elimination.
Typica1 troues of \JUXiliary mechanisms were considered in Subjec~ Z2,
Section Typical troules of auxiliary mechanisms.
Due to many types and stmctures of diese]s it is impossile to take into
account all the troubles appearing in the process of exploitation.
Possile trouJes in diesel operation you may find partially in Subject 2, Section
Control of diesel state and mechanisms serving it signs of normal operatio>.
Here \ve sha!l consider only some of troules not included in Subject 2.
19. 9;126
290

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 291

Signs of abnormal operation Reasons causing abnormalities


ln diesel operation

At starting dicscl crankshaft is 1. A11tomatic distancc control is incorrect.


immovae 2. valve on rhc starting balloon is closed.
3. Air, oil is not delivered in thc control system or
their pressure is insufficict.
4. dcadwood gasket ofa shaft brake is strongly
compressed.
5. Barrig gear is locked.

At startig crakshaft egins 1. Low pressure of startig air.


motion, S\vings forward-bank or 2. One of the elcmcnts of starting diesel system is
is stopped at \1 incorrect.
3. Diesel starting system is not regulated.
4. Thc crankshaft is not put into starting position
(in diesels with small number of cylinders and not
the powcr stroke it four-cycle diesels).
5. Gas distribution is disturbed.
6. Dischargig manifold is closed.

dicscl develops sufficient 1. Fuet is not delivered to the fuel pump orhigh
rotation frequency for starting pressure.
but at transfer fuel flashes in 2. Air has n delivered into fuel system.
the cylinder do not take place or 3. Fuel contains great amount of water.
happen with misfires or diesels 4. Viscosity of fucl is higher than normal.
are stopp~d 5. Fuel is not deliver~d because zcrodclivery offuel
pumps is estaiished incorrectly.
6. Fuel is delivered in the cylinders witl1 great delay.
7. Fuel pump ofl!igh prcssure are s\vitched offwith
overspeed control or all-regime regulator.
"-... 8. Seizing in regulator mcchanism.
9. Fuel u ofhigh pr~ssure or injectors arc
incorrect.
1. Pressure in the cnd of compression is insuflicient.
11. silencer is contaminated.
12. Taps Jor injectors cleaning are opened or pass
through.

During starting safety valves are \. lncrcased fuel delivery in the cylinder at period of
worn startiog because of incorrcct establisl1ig of zero
dclivery in fuel pump of high pressure.
2. Fuel iuj~ction advanccd angle is great.
3. Comprcssion degree is higher than noral.
4. safety valve is incorrect.

19*
292

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ARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 293

Diesel does not develop 1. fuellilter is contaminated.


rotation trequen<.:y of full lnjectors, fuel ~ump of high pressure are incorrect.
stroke at norrnal position 3. Fuel is over eated.
of fitel handle 4. Resistance of ship propulsion eeause of head wind,
shoals, ice conditions is increased.
S. Lo\v pressure of supercharging.
6. Low pressure offuel ofbefore fuel pump ofhigh
pressure.
7. Speed regulator is incorrect.
8. Air is in the fuel system.
9. Delayed or early fuel delivery.
1. Low compression.
11. Some cylinders do not operate.

Rotation frequency pf 1. In one of cylinders piston score has begun (knocks are
diesel drops, diesel is heard at changing piston stroke).
stoppcd 2. frame or crank bearing has n cranked (the
crankcase cover is heated, knocks in the cylinder are
heard).
3. l has been \vound up thc scrc\v.
4. regulator is inconect.
5. Emergency protection has worked.
6. Quick closing valve has been closed at daily supply
tank.
7. diesel is overloaded.
8. priming n is incorrect.
9. An inlet or outlet vatve is not closed.

dies.e l is overrun 1. scre\V is lost or is bare at rolling.


2. load is sharply dropped from <liesel-generator.
3. regulator is incorrect.
4. Rotation frequency of diese\ goes to increase at
closed fuel on diesel because of the presence of fuel, oil in
scavenging receiver and hardover into combustion
chamber.

Rotation frequency of 1. Seize~, clearances in regulator mechanism,


diesel is unstaie suspensns.

2. Flashes passes in the cylinder.


3. diesel is not heated.
4. Water is in the fuel.
S. Water is in the fuel system.
6. Poor operation of.fuel facilities.

Tcmperature of starting starting valve is seized or is put in the nest loosely


vaJve and of ~
delivering air t the valve
in increased

Temperature of spcnt 1. The exhaust gas turine supercharge is contaminated.


gases is blgher than norrnal 2. Supercharging air pressure is dropped.
at the constant power and
revolutions
294

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MRINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 295

Pressure of scavcnging air 1. Admission plate valves are broken or esta\ished


after scavenging pumps incorrectly.
Jovl'er than nonnal 2. Significant passcs of air through piston rings.
3. Height of harmt'ul space in the pisto n is
increased.

In the next section typical damages of marine diesels, signs of their appearance
and reasons, causing damages \Vill c{)nsidered.

Damages Reason. Typical sign

1. Cracks in the fire bottom Sign: Appearance in the place of crack formation water or
of cylinder covers salt deposits
Reasons:
l . Dense compression of liner without observing the
required heat gap in the packing belt.
2. Increased diameter of resin seal rings.
3. Deformation of liner at wedging of piston.
4. Oil ignition in the cylinder scavenge belt.

2. Cracks in thc firc bollom Signs:


of cylindcr covcrs 1. Blo\v-out of watcr or steam through indicator cocks at
the motor cranking.
2. Appearance of \Vatcr thc \vorking surface of
cylinder liner after motor stop.
3. \Vhile colouring of spent gases, Jowering their
temperature.
4. Pressure increase of flash, shooting of safety
valve.
5. Temperature increase of water leaving cover.
Reasons:
\. Cover overheating bccuse of scale or silt storing in
the cooling cavity.
2. Sharp cooling ofa heated cover.
3. Fast load ofunheated engine.
4. Hydraulic hit in the cylinder.
5. Presence ofa foreign article in the cylinder.

3. Breaks ofupper Signs:


supporting belt of 1. Appearance of \Vater in the cylinder.
working cylindcr liner 2. Drop of liner accompanying \l'ith an engine damage.
Reasons:
1. Strong tightening o{cover fastcning pis.
2. Wedgi11g pisto in the cylinder.
296

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 297

4. Cracks on the Signs : Typical sigr1s arc cotmtcd in para 2.


working cylindcr liners Reasons: 1. Scorir1g an<l \vcdging of piston.
2. Local overhcating ot'a liner because oflarge scale deposit
in jacket cavity d the liner walls as well as oil ignitio
i the scavcngc rcccivcr.
3. Sharp cooling of ovcrhcatcd cginc.

5. Scores on thc working Signs: 1. Passes of gases into the crankcase.


surface of cylinder liners 2. Knocks in the cylinder at the moment of fuel ignition, at
tltc crank transfer through the upper dead point.
Reason: Scoring and wedging ofthe piston.

6. Score and \Vedging of Signs: J. Appearance an the trunk and the piston hcad of
the piston deep longitudinal notches,\ocal packing and metal Jeading-
cdge cxtension, cracks in the boos area and heating traces
\vitlt annealing colours. Darkening of al\ guide part of
piston.
2. D ul\, gradually increasing sound, appears at each change
of piston stroke.
3. Revolutions number <lrop.
4. Releasing 5moke frorn the crankcase.
Reasos: 1. Overloading of an engine or ofthe cylinder.
2. Quick loading ofunlteated eginc.
3. Spent gases temperatre jncrease due to sticking ofthe
injector needle.
4. Deformation ot cylinder Iier because of ovcrheating.
5. Piston overhealing damage.
6. Ovcrheating ofthe piston breaking gases through
wom or broke piston rings.
7. Piston rings brcaking.
8. Insufficient cylinder lt1brication bccatise of usatisfactory
lbricator opation.
9. Gurnrning of discharging and scavenging ports.
10. dense putting Jiner into lock or srnall gap
bct\veen liner and piston.
11. Small hcat gap in the locks of piston rings and
insufficient gap in caps ( height).

7. Cracks in the piston Signs: 1. Gases break into the crankcasc.


l1ead 2 . Temperalure increase of liqt~id, cooling piston.
1
3. Intermittent character of liquid spray dclivered frorn tl1e
piston.
Reasons: 1. Ovcrheating of the head.
2. Long overheating of cylinder or an engine.
3. Sharp change ofthe head coolig rcgirne.
4. Quick loadofnon-heated engine.
5. Mechanical damage oftl1e head.
298

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 299

8. Damagc of Signs:
comprcssion and oil 1. Brcak ol' g:~so.:~ i11 tltc cttkcasc.
nngs 2. Dark or hluc colouri11g ol' tl1c $! gases.
3. lttcrcasc ol'lttbricati,\ oil consumption.
Reasons: 1. Extrcmc \Vcar ol'ri~s. liner, accrucd operatig
time oflinei'S.
2. Large wcar of rig goovcs.
3. s of cltamfcrs on thc rings and insufficict cutting
tl1em in the lock area.
4. Small gap in thc piston ring lock.

9. Heating d melting Signs: 1. Temperature increase oflubricatig oil and Lhe


ofthe crank bcarig, crankcasc hatclt free play.
somctimes with scores 2. Er~gitie rcvolutions n11mbcr drop.
of the crank pin wrist Reasos: 1. Small oil pressure in the lubricating system.
2. Largc oilleakage tltrouglt gap of tltc \vorn main bearing.
3. Clogging of oil dclivering channels in the check or in the
neck.
4. Oil viscosity drop because of tltinittg it witl1 fuel.
5. Mixing with \vater.
6. Small oil gap and bad fitting of bearing.
7. Start of 11 cngie \Vitlut previotts oil primittg.

1. Heatig an(l Sign.~:


mclting of frame 1. Tempeature rise of lubricating oil.
earing, oflen \\'ith 2. Knocks in bearing.
score of the ctak 3. Revoltttions n11mber drop of an engine, sometimes ils
jot~rnal stoppig.
Reasons:
1. Insufficient oil delivery into bearing.
2. Extremely small or large gap in beari11g.
3. Large \Vear of crank journal.
4. Engine operation \Vith overload.

11. Connecting rod Signs: 1. nocks in crank bearig.


bolt breakig 2. Breaking ofan engine cylinder k.
Reasons:
1. Ovcrheating and melting of crank bcaring.
2. Large gap in bearing.
(3. \Vedgig ofa piston in the cylinder.
1 4. \Vcakeing of crank bolt nut.
5. Extrcmc tightening.
6. Uneven litting of nut olt head to the supporting
s11rfaces ofthe connecting rod head.
7. Uneven sum gasket thickness i11 the joint l causing
nut misalignent.
8. Presence ofintemal and extental defects in bolts.
300

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MARINE MECHANICAL PLANTS 301

12. Tlte craukshaft datnage SiRs: 1. llei11!,\ ltcatittg.


2. Str-<111~ krck~.
3. l~ cvo l tttillrt$ ntllttbcr vibration.
Reaso:
1. Elastic <kfoation ol' the shafl, caused the
rains bcaring scttling bccause oftlteir uneven weak
or melti11g, irtcorcct sltaft layi11g.
2. Strong sticki11g ol' scpatatc pistons.
3. Engine \vork irtthe area of critical revolutions
nnter.
4. lncorrect disturhed alignmertt with power
selection sltaft.

13. Engine operation overrun Signs: 1. Sharp revolutions number increase.


2. Knocks in tl1e moving parts.
3. Safety valves lasting.
Reasons:
1. Locorrect speed regulator operation.
2. Wedging of reglator servomotor piston valve.
rack of fuel ptrmp ofhigh pressure in the position
of maximal delivery.
3. Thrust regu lation breaking from reguJator to
th.e fuel ptrmp it' high pressure.
4. Delivery into the cylinders an oil fog stored in
the scavengeeceiver.

14. Oil steam explosion in the Sig:


crankcase 1. Large smoke discharging from tl1e crankcase.
2. Flarne tl1row away.
3. Crankcase covers breaking and lock breaking.
Reasons:
\. Overheating ofthe moving parts and cylinder
piston group.
2. Gases pass into the crankcase.
3. Long engine forcing.

] 5. Oil vapour ignition in tbe Reasons:


scavegc receiver and in the \. Oil derapage into the receiver througb scavenge
uttder-piston space ports s ot'extremely large delivery and long
operatiotJ tl1e sallload regimes.
2. Oil stori11g in thc 1derpiston cavity, rod gaskets
passing.
3. Breaking of gases and sparks into the receivcr
and underpiston space because ofhovering and
breakjr1g ofthc piston rings, alignent oftheir
locks, lowering ofthe pressure, supercharging and
resistance increase on the outlet.
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