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10.2-1 Gas Solubility in Aqueous Solution. At 303 K the concentration of CO2 in water is 0.

90 x Variables that can be set


10-4 kg CO2/kg water. Using the Henrys law constant from Appendix A.3, what partial
pressure of CO2 must be kept in the ags to keep the CO2 from vaporizing from the SOLUTION:
aqueous solution?
F=CP+2
F=32+2
Given: F=3
T = 303 K Variables that can be set:
xA = 0.9 x 10-4 kg CO2 /kg H2O 1. total pressure
2. temperature
Required: PA of CO2 3. mole fraction composition xA of SO2

Solution: 10.3-2 Equilibrium Swtage Contact for Gas-Liquid System. A gas mixture at 2.026 x 105 Pa
total pressure containing air and SO2 is contacted in a single-stage equilibrium mixer with
From A.3-18 for Henrys law constant (Geankoplis p. 884) pure water at 293 K. The partial pressure of SO2 in the original gas is 1.52 x 104 Pa.
H = 0.186 x 104 atm/mol frac. The inlet gas contains 5.70 total kg mol and the inlet water 2.20 total kg mol. The exit
PA= HxA gas and liquid leaving are in equilibrium. Calculate the amounts and compositions of the
outlet phases. Use equilibrium data from Fig.10.2-1.
kgCO2 18 kgmolH2O
PA = 0.186 x 104 atm x 0.9 x 10-4 x 0.06848 atm
kgH2O 44 kgmol CO2 GIVEN:
Use equilibrium data in Fig. 10.2-1
PT = 2.026 x 105 Pa = T = 293 K
1.01325 x 105
PA = 0.06848 atm x = 6.939 x 103 Pa 4
PA of SO2 = 1.52 x 10 Pa = .15 atm
1 atm
Inlet gas = 5.70 kg mol
Inlet H2O = 2.20 total kgmol
10.3-1 Phase Rule for a Gas-Liquid System. For the systen SO2-air-water, then total pressure
is set at 1 atm abs and the partial pressure of SO2 in the vapor is set at 0.20 atm.
REQUIRED
Calculate the number of degrees of freedom, F. What variables are unspecified that can
XA1, yA1, L1 V1
be arbitrarily set?

GIVEN:
SOLUTION:
SO2 air H2O system
xAo = 0
PAT = 1 atm
amount of entering acetone = yAN+1vAN+1
PA of SO2 = 0.2 atm
= 0.01(30) = 0.30
= 29.7 kgmol/air h
REQUIRED:
acetone leaving in Vi = 0.10(0.30) = 0.30 kgmol/h
Degrees of freedom, F
acetone leaving in Ln = 0.9 (0.30) = 0.27 kgmol/h
V1 = 29.7 + 0.03 = 29.73 kgmolH2O + acetone/hr GIVEN:

0.030 LO = 108 kg mol H2O/hr


yA1 = =0.00101 YAN + 1 = 0.01
29.73
VN + 1 = 30.0 kg mol/h
Ln = 108 + 0.27 = 108.27 kgmol H2O + acetone/hr
T = 300 K
0.27
XAN = 0.002493 PT = 101.3 kPa
108.27 yA = 2.53 xA

REQUIRED:
Using equation: Theoretical stages graphically using analytical Kremser equation.

SOLUTION:
L Lo 108
A1 = = =1.4358 xAo = 0
mv mv1 2.53 (29.73)
amount of enetering acetone = yAN + 1 VN + 1
= 0.01(30) = 0.30
LN 108.27 entering air = (1-yAN + 1) VN + 1 = (1 0.01)(30) = 29.7 kg mol/air h
AN = = =1.4265 acetone leaving in V1 = 0.10(0.30) = 0.30 kg mol/h
mvN+1 2.53 (30)
acetone leaving in Ln = 0.9(0.30) = 0.27 kg mol/h
V1 = 29.7 + 0.03 = 29.73 kg mol air + acetone /hr
A= A1AN 1.4358(1.4265) 1.4311 Ln = 108 + 0.27 = 108.27 kg mol H2O + acetone/hr

10.4-1 Interface Concentrations and Overall Mass-Transfer Coefficients. Use the same
1 1
log yN+1 - mxo 1 equilibrium data and film coefficients ky and kx as in Example 10.4-1. However, use

N= A A bulk concentrations of yAG = 0.25 and xAL = 0.05. Calculate the following:
log A a. Interface concentrations yAi and xAi and flux NA.
b. Overall mass transfer coefficients Ky and Ky and flux NA.
c. Overall mass transfer coefficient Kx and flux NA.
0.01 - 2.53(0) 1 1
log 1
N= 0.00101 - 2.53(0) 1.4311 1.4311 3.7662 stages
GIVEN:
log 1.4311
Equilibrium data
yAo = 0.380 mol fraction
xAL = 0.10
10.3-3 Absorption in a Countercurrent Stage Tower. Repeat example 10.3-2 using the same
T = 298 K
conditions but with the following change. Use a pure water flow to the tower of 108 kg
P = 1.013 x 105 Pa
mol H2O/h, that is, 20% above the 90 used in Example 10.3-2. Determine the number of
ky = 1.465 x 10-3 kg mol/s.m3 mol fraction
stages required graphically. Repeat using the analytical Kremser equation.
kx = 1.967 x 10-3 kg mol A/s.m2 mol fraction
REQUIRED:
KX, KX (1-0.194) - (1-0.380)
(1-yA)iM = = 0.7089
1-0.194
SOLUTION: ln
Trial 1: 1-0.380

-3
k'x/(1-xA)iM 1.967 x 10 /1.0 (1-0.1) - (1-0.254) (1-0.1) - (1-0.247)
- 1.342 (1-xA)iM = = = 0.8206
1-0.1 1-0.1
-3
k'y/(1-yA)iM 1.465 x 10 /1.0
ln ln
1-.254 1-0.247
y = mx + b
0.38 = -0.10 (1.342) + b
b = 0.5142
k'x/(1-xA)iM -1.967 x 10 -3 / 0.8206
xA1 = 0.247
- 1.160
k'y/(1-yA)iM 1.465 x 10 -3 / 0.7089
yAi = 0.183

(1-yAi) - (1-yAG) (1-0.183) - (1-0.380)


(1-yA)iM = = = 0.715 -1.163 -1.60
1-yAi 1-0.183
ln ln xAi = 0.254
1-yAG 1-0.380
yAi = 0.194
(1-xAL) - (1-xAi) (1-0.1) - (1-0.247)
(1-xA)iM = = = 0.825 yAG - yAi 0.38 - 0.194
1-xAL 1-0.1 m'' = *
= 2.0217
ln ln xA - xAi 0.346 - 0.254
1-xAi 1-0.247
1 1 1
Trial 2: = +
K'x m''k'y k'x

k'x/(1-xA)iM -1.967 x 10 -3 / 0.825


- 1.163 1 1 1
k'y/(1-yA)iM 1.465 x 10 -3 / 0.715 = -3
+
K'x 2.0217 (1.465 x 10 ) 1.967 x 10 -3

xAi = 0.254
K'x = 0.00118 kgmol/s m2 frac
yAi = 0.194

0.38 = - 1.163 (0.10) + b


b = 0.4963
K'x 1 1 1
K'x =
(1- xA) * M K'x/(1-xA)*M 2.0217(1.465 x 10 / 0.7089 1.967 x 10-3 /0.8206
-3

= 656.5320
(1- xAL) - (1- xA * )
(1- xA) * M =
(1- xAL)
ln * % resistance in the gas film
(1- xA )
239.3425
= (100) 36.46%
(1- 0.10) - (1- 0.346) 656.5392
(1- xA) * M = 0.7705
(1- 0.10)
ln
(1- 0.346) % resistance in the liquid film
417.1835
= (100) 63.54%
0.00118 656.54
Kx = 0.00153
0.7705
10.4-2 Use the same equilibrium data and film coefficients ky and kx as in Example 10.4-1.

K'x However, use bulk concentrations of yAG = 0.25 and xAL = 0.05. Calculate the following.
NA *
(xA -xAL) (a) Interface concentrations yAi and xAi and flux NA.
(1-xA)*M
(b) Overall mass-transfer coefficients Ky and Ky and flux NA.
0.00118 (c) Overall mass-transfer coefficient Kx and flux NA.
NA = (0.346-0.10)
0.7705
NA = 0.000377 kgmol/sm2 GIVEN:
yAG = 0.25
xAL = 0.05
1 1 1
ky = 1.465 x103 kgmol A / sm3 mol fraction
K'x/(1-xA)*M m'' / (1-yA)*M K'x/(1-xA)*M kx = 1.967 x103 kgmol A / sm2 mol fraction
(1-yAi) - (1-yAG)
(1-yA)iM =
(1-yAi) REQUIRED:
ln
(1-yAG) a.) Interface concentrations yAi & xAi & NA
SOLUTION:
(1-0.194) - (1-0.38)
(1-yA)iM = 0.7089
(1-0.194)
ln Trial 1:
(1-038)
-3
k'x/(1-xA)iM 1.967 x 10 /1.0
-3
- 1.342
(1-xAL) - (1-xAi) (1-0.1) - (1-0.254) k'y/(1-yA)iM 1.465 x 10 /1.0
(1-xA)iM 0.8206
(1-xAL) (1-0.1)
ln ln y = mx + b
(1-xAi) (1-0.254)
0.25 = -1.342 (0.05) + b
b = 0.3171 xAi = 0.1634 yAi = 0.1010
Trial 2:
k'y
(1-yAi) - (1-yAG) (1-0.1010) - (1-0.25) NA (yAG -yAi)
(1-yA)iM =
1-yAi
=
1-0.1010
= 0.8223 (1- yA)iM
ln ln
1-yAG 1-0.25 1.967 x 10 -3
NA = (0.25 - 0.1054)
0.8202
(1-xAL) - (1-xAi) (1- 0.05) - (1- 0.1634) NA = 2.583 x 10-4 kgmol/sm2
(1-xA)iM = = = 0.8921
1-xAL 1- 0.05
ln ln
1-xAi 1- 0.1634 or,
-3
k'x/(1-xA)iM 1.967 x 10 / 0.8921
0.8223 - 1.2376
k'y/(1-yA)iM 1.465 x 10 -3 /1.0 k'x
NA (xAi -xAL)
y = mx + b
(1- xA)iM
0.25 = -1.2376 (0.05) + b 1.967 x 10 -3
NA = (0.1686 - 0.05)
b = 0.3119 xAi = 0.1686 yAi = 0.1054 0.8894
NA = 2.62 x 10-4 kgmol/sm2
Trial 3:

b)
(1-yAi) - (1-yAG) (1-0.1054) - (1-0.25)
(1-yA)iM = = = 0.8202 yAi - yA * 0.1054 - 0.0243
1-yAi 1-0.1054 m' = = 0.6838
ln ln xAi - xAL 0.1686 - 0.05
1-yAG 1-0.25
(1-yA * ) - (1-yAG)
(1-yA)*M =
(1-xAL) - (1-xAi) (1- 0.05) - (1- 0.1686) (1-yA * )
(1-xA)iM = = = 0.889 ln
1-xAL 1- 0.05 (1-yAG)
ln ln
1-xAi 1- 0.1686 yA * = 0.0243

k'x/(1-xA)iM -1.967 x 10 -3 / 0.8894


- 0.8223 - 1.2382
k'y/(1-yA)iM 1.465 x 10 -3 / 0.8202
-1.2382 1.2376
xAi = 0.1686 yAi = 0.1054
10.6-6. - 10.6-7. A gas stream contains 4.0 mol % NH3 and its ammonia content is reduced to 0.5
(1-0.0243) - (1-0.25
(1-yA)*M = 0.8579 mol % in a packed absorption tower at 293 K and 1.013 x 105. The inlet pure water flow is 68.0 kg
(1- 0.0243) mol/h and the total inlet gas flow is 57.8 kgmol/h. The tower diameter is 0.747 m. The film mass-
ln
(1- 0.25) transfer coefficients are kya = 0.0739 kgmol.sm 3 mol frac and kxa = 0.169 kgmol/sm3 mol frac.
Using the design methods for dilute gas mixtures, do as follows.
1 1 m' Repeat Example 10.6-2, using the overall liquid mass-transfer coefficient Kxa to

K'y/(1-yA)*M k'y / (1-yA)iM k'x / (1-xA)iM calculate the tower height.
1 0.6838 (a) Calculate the tower height using kya
=
1.465 x 10 / (0.8202) 1.967 X 10 -3 / 0.8894
-3
(b) Calculate the tower height using Kya.

K'y = 9.872 x 10-4


Solution:

K'y 9.872 x 10-4 (a)


Ky = = 0.00115
(1 yA )* M 0.8579 La = 68 kgmol/h
ya = 0.005 xa = 0

K'y 9.872 x 10-4


NA = (yAG-yA * ) (0.25 - 0.0243)
(1 yA )* M 0.8579
NA = 2.5972 x 10 - 4 kgmol/sm2 (b)
Vb = 57.8 kgmol/h
c) yb = 0.04
yAG - yAi 0.25 - 0.1054
m" = * = 1.1814
xA - xAi 0.291 - 0.1686 V' = V (1 - yb ) 57.8(1 0.04) 55.488 kgmol/h
*
(1- xA L ) - (1-xA ) (1- 0.05) - (1-0.291) L' = L (1 - xb ) 68 (1 - 0) = 68 kgmol/h
(1-xA)*M = 0.8236
(1-xA L ) (1-0.05) V' (yb -ya ) = L'(xb - xa )
ln ln
(1-xA ) (1-0.291)
*

55.488 (0.04-0.005) = 68xb


1 1 1 xb 0.029

K'x/(1-xA)*M m"k'y/(1-yA)*M k'x / (1-xA)*M
1 1 1

K'x/0.8236 1.1814(1-yA)*M 1.967 x 10 -3 / 0.8894
K'x = 7.8775 x 10-4
L' 68 0.005 55.488 57.8
YN+1 Xn + Yn Xn + V1 = 55.7668 V5 =
V' 55.488' 0.995 1-0.005 1- 0.040
YN+1 1.2255 Xn + 0.0050
55.7668 + 57.8
V= 56.7834
2
if Xn 0, YN+1 = 0.0050
x Y
X= y= V 56.7864 / 3600
1-x 1+Y Hoy = = =0.6438
KyaS 0.0559 / 0.4383
k'xa/(1-x) = 0.6438
slope = m = - y = mx + b
k'ya/(1-y) z = 0.6438 (3.54009) = 2.2796 m
L dx
Hx = Nx =
kxaS xi - x 68 68
V' L1 = 68 L5 = 70.0309
V= 1- 0 1- 0.029
1- y
68 + 70.0309
d2 (0.747)2 L= 69.0155
S = Area = = = 0.4383 m3 2
4 4

height = z = Nx Hx = 0.2250 (8.6692) = 2.2106 m L 69.0155 / 3600


Hox = = =0.9571
KxaS 0.0457 / 0.4383
y A1 -y A * y AG -y Ai = 0.6438
m' = m" =
x A1 -x AL x A *-x Ai
z = 0.9571 (2.3209) = 2.2213 m

k'y k'x m" k'y k'x


K'y = K'x =
k'x + m' k'y k'x + m''k'y
(0.0739)(0.169) X y X Y m b yi
K'y = 0.0450 0 0.0050 0 0.005 -2.2754 0.005 0.0014
0.169 + 0.8287(0.0739)
0.01 0.0170 0.0101 0.0173 -2.2707 0.0397 0.0096
K'y K'x 0.015 0.0229 0.0152 0.0234 -2.2685 0.0569 0.0141
Ky = Kx =
KyaS (1- X) 0.02 0.0287 0.0204 0.0295 -2.2667 0.0740 0.0188
0.029 0.0400 0.0299 0.0417 -2.2610 0.0108 0.0272
xi 1/(y yi) 1/(x xi) 1/(y yi) ave y x 10.6-10. Repeat Example 10.6-2 but use transfer units and calculate HL, NL, and tower height.
0.0018 277.7780 555.5556
0.0132 135.1351 312.50 Given:
206.4565 0.012 0.01
0.0190 113.6364 250 Acetone-H2O system
124.3858 0.0059 0.005
0.0246 101.0101 217.3913 A = 0.186 m2
107.3233 0.0058 0.005
0.0348 78.125 172.4138 T = 293 K
89.5678 0.0113 0.009
P = 101.32 kPa
y1 = 0.026
y = 0.005

dy/(y-yi)Ave dx/(x-xi)Ave Ky=kya/(1-y) Kx =kxa/(1-x) V = 13.65 kgmol inert air / h


L = 45.36 kgmol H2O / h
0.0743 0.169
kya = 3.78 x 10-2 kgmol / sm3 mol frac
0.0752 0.1707
2.4775 4.3403 kxa = 6.16 x 10-2 kgmol / s m3 mol frac
0.0756 0.1716
0.7339 1.4063
0.0761 0.1724
0.6225 1.1685 REQUIRED: HL, NL, z
0.0756 0.1740
1.0121 1.7541

SOLUTION:

Ny = 4.8549 Nx = 8.6692 kyAve = 0.0756 kxAve = 0.1715 xo y1 x y


L' + V' L' V'
1 - xo 1 - y1 1 - x 1 - y
X y m m Ky Kx 0 0.026 x1 0.005
45.36 + 13.65 1 - 0.026 45.36 1 - x1 +13.65 1 - 0.005
0.0072 0 0.7778 0.6667 0.0590 0.0450 1 - 0
0.0224 0.0072 0.7500 0.8043 0.0555 0.0455
0.0292 0.011 0.8158 0.8627 0.0559 0.0457 x1 = 0.00648
0.0360 0.0148 0.8696 0.8684 0.0562 0.0459
0.0484 0.0224 0.8276 0.9412 0.0569 0.0463
1h
45.36 kgmolH2O / h
AVE: 0.8082 Ave: 0.8287 HL =
L
= 3600 s = 1.0264
K'xa S 6.6 x 10 kgmol / sm mol frac. (0.186 m2 )
-2 3

1/(y y) 1/(x x) 1/(y y)ave 1/(x x)ave dy/(y y)ave dx/(x x)ave
200 138.8889 1.8122 1.0977 from the graph:
102.0408 80.6452 0.5481 0.3777 xi1 = 0.0136 xi2 = 0.0019
151.0204 109.7671
84.0336 70.4225 0.4523 0.3323
93.0372 75.5339
71.9424 62.5 0.7275 0.5132
77.9880 66.4613
56.8182 51.5464
64.3803 57.0203

Noy= 3.5409 Nox= 2.3209


(xi1 - x1) - (xi2 - x2) (0.0132 - 0.00648) - (0.0019 - 0) x2 y1 x1 y2
(xi - x)M = = =0.0038 L' + V' 1 - y1 L' 1 - x1 V' 1 - y
1 - x 2
(xi1 - x1) (0.0132 - 0.00648)
2

ln ln 2 0 -4 0.2 -2 x1 -4 0.02
(xi2 - x2) (0.0019) 4.20 x10 + 6.53x10 1 - 0.2 4.20x10 1 - x1 +6.23x10 1 - 0.02
1 - 0
x1 = 0.00355

dx 0.00648
NL = 1.7053
xi - x 0.0038 y
6.53 x 10-4 (29)kg air / s + 6.53 x 10 -4 64.1
1 y
Gy =
z = NL HL = 1.7053 (1.0264) 0.0929
z = 1.75 m
if y = 0.20
0.2
6.53 x 10-4 (29)kg air / s + 6.53 x 10 -4
1 0.2
64.1
10.7-1
Gy =
Liquid Film Coefficients and Design of SO2 Tower. Using the data of example 10.7-1,
0.0929
calculate the height of the tower using Eq. (10.6-15), which is based on the liquid film 2
= 0.3164kg / sm
mass-transfer cofficient kxa. [Note: the interface values xi have alre4ady been obtained.
Usi a graphical integration of Eq. (10.6-15).
V' 6.53 x 10-4
V= 8.16 x10 4
Given: 1-y 1 0.2
A = 0.0929 m2
L' 4.20 x 10 -2
T= 293 K L= = 0.0421
P = 1.013 x 105
1- x 1 - 0.00355
x
y1= 0.20
4.20 x 10-2 18 + 4.20 x 10 -2
1 x
64.1
y1 = 0.02
Gx =
x1 = 0 0.0929
V = 6.53 x 10-4 kgmol air/ s 0.00355
4.20 x 10-2 + 4.20 x 10 -2
1 0.00355
L = 4.20 x 10-2 kgmol / s
64.1
8.2410
kya = 0.0594 Gy0.7Gx0.25
0.0929
kxa = 0.152 Gx 0.82
k'xa = 0.152 Gx 0.82 = 0.152 (8.2410)0.82 0.8569
k'ya = 0.0594Gy 0.7Gx 0.25 = 0.0594 (0.2130)0.7 (8.2410)0.25 = 0.0341
L 0.04207
REQUIRED: Z using kxa
HL = 0.5319
kxa (1-x)iM 0.85356(0.9975)(0.0929)
z = NLHL 3.051 (0.5319) = 1.6228
SOLUTION:
y x V L Gy Gx kya
Leaching
-4
0.02 0 6.66 x 10 0.042 0.2130 8.138 0.03398
0.04 0.000332 6.68 x 10-4 0.0421 0.2226 8.147 0.03504 SOLVED PROBLEMS:
-4
0.07 0.000855 7.02 x 10 0.04203 0.2378 8.162 0.03673 12.8-1. Effective Diffusivity in Leaching Particles. In Example 12.8-1 a time of leaching of the
0.13 0.00201 7.51 x 10-4 0.04208 0.2718 8.196 0.04032 solid particle of 3.11 h is needed to remove 80% of the solute. Do the following
0.20 0.00355 8.16 x 10-4 0.04215 0.3164 8.241 0.04496 calculations.

(a) Using the experimental data, calculate the effective diffusivity, DAeff.
(b) Predict the time to leach 90% of the solute from the 2.0 mm particle.

GIVEN:
kxa m b xi yi m b
0.848 24.4567 0.02 0.00046 0.0088 24.7476 0.02 80 % efficiency
0.849 23.2680 0.04772 0.00109 0.026 23.6252 0.04784 t = 3.11 h
0.850 21.5403 0.08842 0.00188 0.04824 22.2705 0.08904
0.853 18.4426 0.1671 0.00356 0.1016 19.0742 0.1683 REQUIRED:
0.857 15.3034 0.2543 0.00572 0.1663 15.9829 0.2567
(a) DAeff
(b) T if 90% efficient with same diameter

SOLUTION:
xi yi m b x dy/(xi x)
0.000459 0.0087 24.7501 ------
0.000332 0.5897 (a)
0.00104 0.02416 23.6687 0.04762
0.000523 0.6247 D Aeff t
0.00186 0.0476 22.0814 0.08888
0.001155 0.9687 0.112
0.00354 0.1004 19.0993 0.1684 a2
0.00154 0.8679
0.00570 0.1642 16.0037 0.2568 0.112 a 2
D Aeff
NL = 3.051
t
2
2
0.112 mm2
2 1hr

3.11 hr 3600 s

D Aeff 1.0004 x 10-5 mm2 /s


V2 = 80 kg solvent
(b) xA2 = 0.03
xC2 = 0.97
xA1 = 0.22
D Aeff t
0.18 N = 1.5 kg insoluble solid/kg solution
a2
REQUIRED:
2
0.18 a (a) amount and composition of overflow, V1
t (b) amount and composition of the underflow, L1
D Aeff
SOLUTION:
2
2 B 100 (1 - 0.22) 78 kg insoluble solid
0.18 mm2
t 2
1.0004 x 10-5 mm2 /s L o 100 - 78 22 kg of A

1 hr
t 18000 s B 78 kg solid
3600 s N o 3.5455
L o 22 kg solution

t 5 hr
y Ao 1.0
12.9-1. Leaching of Oil from Soybeans in a Single Stage. Repeat Example 12.9-1 for single
stage leaching of oil from soybeans. The 100 kg of soybeans contains 22 wt % oil and
For Overall Material Balance:
the solvent feed is 80 kg of solvent containing 3 wt % soybean oil.

V1, x1 V2, x2 L o V2 L1 V1 M

Lo, No, yo, B L1, N1, y1, B


L o V2 M 22 80

GIVEN: M 102

For Solute Balance:


L o y Ao V2 xA 2 Mx AM 20.1. Roasted copper ore containing the copper as CuSO4 is to be extracted in a countercurrent
stage extractor. Each hour a charge consisting of 10 tons of gangue, 1.2 tons of copper
sulfate, and 0.5 ton of water is to be treated. The strong solution produced is to consist
22(1.0) 80(0.03) 102x AM of 90 percent H2O and 10 percent CuSO4 by weight. The recovery of CuSO4 is to be 98
percent of that in the ore. Pure water is to be used as the fresh solvent. After each
stage, 1 ton of inert gangue retains 2 tons of water plus the copper sulfate dissolved in
x AM 0.2392 that water. Equilibrium is attained in each stage. How many stages are required?

To find NM GIVEN:

B N o Lo N M M 10 tons of inert solids/hr


1.2 tons CuSO4 and 0.5 ton H20 is to be treated per hour
Strong solution 90% H2O, 10% CuSO4
78 N M (102) CuSO4 recovery of 98% of that in ore
yb = 0

N M 0.7647
after each stage, 1 ton inert solids retains 2 tons of H2O + CuSO4 dissolved

REQUIRED:
To solve for the value of exit underflow

N1L1 N M M Stages required

SOLUTION:
(1.5)L1 (0.7647)(102)
yb = 0

L1 51.9996 52 kg ya = 0.1
La = 1.2 tons CuSO4 + 0.5 ton H20
= 1.7 tons solution/hr
For exit Overflow:

1.2
L1 V1 M xa 0.7059
1.7

52 V1 102 CuSO4 recovery = 0.98(1.2)


= 1.176 tons
CuSO4 retained = 1.2 1.176
V1 50 kg = 0.024 tons
2 tons H 2 0 0.024 tons CuSO4 20.4. Oil is to be extracted from halibut livers by means of ether in a countercurrent extraction
solution retained battery. The entrainment of solution by the granulated liver mass was found by
1 ton inert solid
experiment to be as shown in Table 20.5. In the extraction battery, the charge per cell
is to be 100 lb, based on completely exhausted livers. The unextracted livers contain
2.024 tons solution 0.043 gal of oil per pound of exhausted material. A 95 percent` recovery of oil is

1 ton inert solid desired. The final extract is to contain 0.65 gal of oil per gallon of extract.

Solution retained by 1 Solution Solution retained by Solution


Lb
2.024 tons solution
10tons solid lb exhausted livers, gal concentration, gal 1 lb exhausted livers, concentration, gal
1 ton inert solid oil/gal solution gal oil/gal solution
0.035 0 0.068 0.4

L b 20.24 tons solution/hr 0.042 0.1 0.081 0.5

0.050 0.2 0.099 0.6


Solute Balance: 0.058 0.3 0.120 0.68

L a x a Vb y b L b x b Va y a
The ether fed to the system is oil free. (a) How many gallons of ether are needed per
charge of livers? (b) How many extractors are needed?
1.7 (0.7059) Vb (0) 20.24(0.0012) 0.1(Va )
GIVEN:

Va 1.1757 tons /hr Charge per cell = 100 lbs


95% oil recovery
yA = 0.65
By Material Balance:
yB = 0
assuming xA = 1, LA = 0.043 gal oil/lb exhaust liver(100)
La Vb Lb Va LA = 4.3 gal

1.7 Vb 20.24 1.1757 REQUIRED:

(a) gal of ether needed per charge of liver


Vb 19.7157 tons H2O (b) number of extractors needed

SOLUTION:
from the graph :

No. of stages 3.70 For XB:


Oil retained = (0.043 gal oil/ lb exhausted liver) (0.05) (100) = 0.215 gal oil LB = 0.0394 x 100 = 3.94

For the solution in the spent solids: (by trial & error) 0.251
xB 0.0637
3.94
Trial 1:
Let XB = 0.1
0.0637 (close to 0.0634)
Solution retained = 0.042
LB = 0.042 x 100 = 4.2 gal

assuming XA = 1, LA = 0.043 gal oil/lb exhaust liver x 100


0.251
xB 0.051 LA = 4.3
4.2
By solute balance:
Trial 2:
LaxA +VBYB = LBXB +VAYA
XB = 0.051, by linear regression:
Solution retained = 0.0386 4.3(1) + VB(0) = 3.94(0.0637) +Va(0.65)
LB = 0.0386 x 100 = 3.86 gal
VA = 6.2293 gal

0.251
xB 0.065 By OMB:
3.86
LA + VB = LB +VA

Trial 3
4.3 + VB = 3.94 + 6.2293

XB = 0.065, by linear regression


VB = 5.8693 gal
Solution retained = 0.0396
LB = 0.0396 x 100 = 3.96 If X1 = ya = 0.65, solution retained = 0.1121

0.251 L1 = 0.1121 x 100


xB 0.0634
3.96
L1 = 11.21 gal

By OMB:
Trial 4

xB = 0.0634, by linear regression La + V2 = L1 + Va

solution retained = 0.0394


V2 = 11.21 +6.2293-4.3
Number of stages = 6.7813
V2 = 13.1393 gal
Geankoplis
11.2-1 Single-Stage Contact of Vapor-Liquid System. A mixture of 100 mol containing 60 mol%
By Solute Balance: n-pentane and 40 mol% n-heptane is vaporized at 101.32 kPa abs pressure until 40 mol of vapor
and 60 mol of liquid in equilibrium with each other is produced. This occurs in a single-stage
Lax + V2y2 = L1x1 + Vaya system and the vapor and liquid are kept in contace with other until the vaporization is complete.
The equilibrium data are given in Example 11.3-2. Calculate the composition of the vapor and the
4.3(1)+ 13.1393y2 = 11.21(0.65) + 6.2293(0.65) liquid.

y2 = 0.5355 Given:
x y x y
If xN = 0.4, solution retained = 0.068 1.000 1.000 0.254 0.701
0.867 0.984 0.145 0.521
LN = 0.068 x 100
0.594 0.925 0.159 0.271
0.398 0.836 0 0
LN = 6.8 gal

Solution:

By OMB:
C5H12 Balance:

La + VN+1 = LN +Va 0.60(100) YA (40) X A (60)


YA 1.5 1.5X A
4.3 + VN+1 = 6.8 + 6.2293
when XA = 0.6 , YA = 0.6.pt 1
when XA = 0.4, YA = 0.9...pt 2
VN+1 = 8.7293

1) Create a graph of the equilibrium curve for n-pentane.


By Solute Balance:
2) Plot points at pt.2.
3) Get the value of XA and YA, on the point of intersection between the equilibrium curve and the
Laxa +VN+1 yN+1 = LNxN + Vaya
segment joining the two points.
4) Get YB and XB.
4.3(1) + 8.8293yN+1 = (6.8) (0.4) + (6.2293) (0.65)
Answers:
From the graph:
yN+1 = 0.2828
XA = 0.43 and YA= 0.855
XB = 1 - 0.43 = 0.57 and YB = 1 0.855 = 0.14
From the Graph:
11.3-2 Comparison of Differential and Flash Distillation. A mixture of 100 kg mol which
2.58 2.42
contains 60 mol % n-pentane (A) and 40 mol % n-heptane (B) is vaporized at 101.32 kPa pressure A3 0.05 0.1250
2
under differential conditions until 40 kg mol are distilled. Used equilibrium data from Example 11.3-

2.42 2.3
0.0425 0.1003
2.
A4
(a) What is average composition of the total vapor distilled and the composition of the liquid
2
left.
____________
(b) If this same vaporization is done in an equilibrium or flash distillation and 40 kg mol are
AT = 0.5048
distilled, what is the composition of the vapor distilled and of the liquid left?
therefore X2 = 0.4075

Given:
Answers:
x y 1/ ( y-x )
XA = 0.4075
1.000 1.000
yA = 0.845
0.867 0.984 8.547
0.594 0.925 3.021 11.3-3 Difeerential Distillation of Benzene-Toluene. A mixture containing 70 mol % benzene and
0.398 0.836 2.283 30 mol % toluene is distilled under differential conditions at 101.32 kPa (1 atm). A total of one third
0.254 0.701 2.237 of the moles in the feed is vaporized. Calculate the average composition of the distillate and the
0.145 0.521 2.660 composition of the remaining liquid. Use equilibrium data Table 11.1-1.
0.059 0.271 4.717
0 0 Given:
F = 0.7 benzene and 0.3 toluene
Solution:
X2 Solution:
L1 dx
ln
L2
X y x OMB:
B = F D = F 1/3F = 2/3F
1
X2
L1 100kmol L1 dx
ln
L2
ln
60kmol
0.5108 ln
L2
yx
X1

L1 F
from the graph:
ln ln 0.4055
L2 2
3.04 2.78 F
A1 0.05 0.1455 3
2
2.78 2.58
A2 0.05 0.1340
2

from the graph:


6.68 5.92 R= 4.52
A1
2 0.05 0.3150 Ln
R
D
5.92 5.66
A2
2 0.0175 0.10
R 1
Yn1 Xn XD
R 1
______________
AT = 0.4163 1 R
4.52 1
Therefore x2 = 0.6325
Yn 1 Xn 0.9
Answer:
5.52 5.52
xA = 0.6325 and yA = 0.7975
if x = 0 ,Yn+1 = 0.16
xB = 1 0.6325 = 0.3675 and yB = 1 0.7975 = 0.2025
( 0,0.16)..........plotted on the graph
Answer:
4.9 trays + a reboiler ( see preceeding graph )
11.4-1 Distillation Using McCabe-Thiele Method. A rectification column is fed 100 kg mol/h of a
mixture of 50 mol % benzene and 50 mol % toluene at 101.32 kPa abs.pressure. The feed is liquid
11.4-2. Rectification of a Heptane-Ethyl Benzene Mixture. A saturated liquid feed of 200 mol/h
at the boling point. The distillate is to contain 90 mol % benzene and the bottoms 10 mol %
at the boiling point containing 42 mol% heptane and 58 mol% ethyl benzene is to be fractionated at
benzene. The reflux ratio is 4.52:1. calculate the kg mol/h distillate, kg mol/ h bottoms and the
101.32 kPa abs to give a distillate containing 97 mol% heptane and a bottoms containing 1.1 mol%
theoretical number of trays needed using the McCabe Thiele method.
heptane. The reflux ratio used is 2.5:1. Calculate the mol/h distillate. Mol/h bottoms, theoretical
number of trays, and the feed tray number. Equilibrium data are given below at 101.32 kPa abs
Given:
pressure for the mole fraction n-heptane xH and yH.
F = 100 kg mol/h
0.5 benzene
Temperature Temperature
0.5 toluene
K C xH yH K C xH yH
R = Ln/D = 4.52
409.3 136.2 0 0 383.8 110.6 0.485 0.730
XD = 0.9
402.6 129.4 0.08 0.230 376.0 102.8 0.790 0.904
XB = 0.10
392.6 119.4 0.250 0.154 371.5 98.3 1.000 1.000

Solution:
F=D+B
100 = D + B
XF F = DXD + BXB
Given:
100 ( 0.5 ) = 0.9D + 0.1 ( 100 D )
F = 200 mol/h
50 = 0.9D 0.1D + 10
0.42 heptane
40 = 0.8D
0.58 ethyl benzene
D = 50 kg mol/h
XD = 0.97 heptane
B = 50 kg mol/h
XB = 0.011 heptane
R = Ln/D = 2.5 Rm = 0.88
(b) 4 trays + a reboiler ( see preceeding graph )
Solution:
F=D+B 11.4-4. Minimum number of Theoretical Plates and Minimum Reflux Ratio. Determine the
200 = D + B minimum reflux ratio Rm and the minimum number of theoretical plates at total reflux for the
XF F = DXD + BXB rectification of a mixture of heptane and ethyl benzene as given in Problem 11.4-2. Do this
200( 0.42 ) = 0.97D + 0.011 ( 200 D ) graphical methods of Mc Cabe-Thiele.
84 = 0.97D - 0.011 + 2.2
81.8 = 0.959D Given:
D = 85.2972 mol/h y = 0.68
B = 114.7028 mol/h x = 0.42

R = 2.5 Solution:

2.5 Rm 0.97 0.68


Yn1 X n 1 X D
3.3 3.5 Rm 1 0.97 0.42
= 0.277 Rm = 0.5273 ( Rm + 1 )

Answer: 0.4227Rm = 0.5273

10.77 theoretical stages or 9.77 trays + a reboiler Rm = 1.12

feed enters at 6yh tray from the top


Minimum number of trays: 7.64 theoretical stages or 6.64 trays + a reboiler

11.4-3. Graphical Solution for Minimum Reflux Ratio and Total Reflux. For the rectification in
problem 11.4-1, where an equimolar liquid feed of benzene and toluene is being distilled to give a
distillate of composition XD = 0.90 and a bottoms of composition XW = 0.10, calculate the following
using graphical methods.
(a) Minimum reflux ratio Rm.
(b) Minimum number of theoretical plates at total reflux.

Solution:
From the graph x = 0.5 and y = 0.7125

Foust
Rm x y' 0.96 0.5
D 7.27. A mixture containing 30 mol% benzene and 70 mole% toluene is to be fractionated at normal
Rm 1 x D x' 0.96 0.7125 atmospheric pressure in a column with a total condenser and a still from which the bottoms are
withdrawn. The distillate is to contain 95 mole percent benzene and the bottoms 4 mole percent
(a) Rm 0.4687512Rm = 0.46875 benzene. The feed is at its dew point.
(a) What is the minimum reflux ratio ( LO / D ) (c) What is the minimum refux ratio?
(b) What is the minimum number of equilibrium stages in the column required at total reflux? (d) What percentage of the feed ethanol is recovered in the distillate?
(c) How many equilibrium stages are required at a reflux ratio of 8?
(d) How many equilibrium stages would be required at a reflux ratio of 8 if the feed were a liquid at
SOLVED PROBLEMS:
its bubble point?
kg H O
1. An air stream at 90 C having a humidity of 0.03 kg dry2 air is contacted in adiabatic
Given:
humidifier. It is cooled & humidified at 90 % RH. Determine the temperature of the humidified air &
F = 0.3 benzene and 0.7 toluene 3
xD = 0.95 benzene the make up H2O for every m of inlet air.
xW = 0.04 benzene
GIVEN:
q=0

Solution:
COOLER
Rm x y' 0.95 0.3 T1 = 90 OC
(a) D
Rm 1 x D x' 0.95 0.155 kg H2O
H= 0.03 RH2 = 90 %
Rm = 0.8176Rm + 0.8176 kg dry air
Rm = 4.4827
(b) Minimum number of equilibrium stages @ Total Reflux = 6.89 stages REQUIRED:

(c) R = 8 T2
R 1
Yn1 X n R 1 X D
L in every m3 of air
1 R SOLUTION:

8 1
Yn1 (X n ) 0.95 Step 1: From Psychrometric Chart:
9 9
@ Xn = 0 , Yn+1 = 0.1056
@ Xn = 0. 95 , Yn+1 = 0.95 Step 2: Compute for humid volume.
Number of equilibrium stages @ reflux = 8 : 8.79 stages
(d) R = 8, feed is liquid at boiling point
H2O balance:
Number of equilibrium stages = 8.75 stages


7.35. An equimolar mixture of ethanol and water is to be fractionally distilled to produce a distillate L=W

H2 H1

of composition 0.80 mole fraction ethanol and bottoms of 0.05 mole fraction of ethanol. The feed is
3 3
saturated liquid and there is a total condenser and a total reboiler. VH =
2.83 x 10 4.56 x 10 H
TK
(a) At areflux ratio of 2.0, how many equilibrium stages are required?
=
(b) How many stages are required at total reflux?
3 3
4.56 x 10 90 273


2.83 x 10

0.03





T1 = 300C T2 = 50 0C
3 HEATER
m
VH = 1.0769
kg da

3
Basis: 1 m RH = 80%
Vf =200 m3/h

3
kg da REQUIRED: qH
W=1 m 3 OLUTION:
1.0679 m
Step 1: From Psychrometric Chart
W = 0.9285 kg da Step 2: Compute for the Humid Volume

VH = ( 2.83 x 103 + 4.56 x 103 H)(T+273)


L=W

H2 H1
= [2.83 x 103 + (4.56 x 103 x 0.022)] (30+273)
kg H2O VH = 0.8879 m3/ kg dry air
= 0.9285 kg da ( 0.51-.0.03)
kg da
Step 3: Calculate Mass flowrate of air
L = 0.0195 kg H2O
3

m 1kg dry air
W = 200
hr 0.8879m3

2.
W = 225.25 kg dry air/hr

3. 200 m3/h of air at 300C and 80% relative humidity is to be heated to 500C using a heater.
Calculate the heat load of the heater in KW. Step 4: Calculate the specific heat

GIVEN: cs = (1.005 + 1.88 H)


qH cs = [1.005 + 1.88 ( 0.022) ]
kJ
cs = 1.046 25 0C 15 0C
kg k

Step 5: Calculate the heat load of the heater


L

kg kJ
q H= 225.25 1.0464
hr kg K
REQUIRED: qc

kJ SOLUTION:
qH 4714.032
hr
Step 1: Compute for h1 & h2 , then vH

3 6
4. An air conditioning unit must keep the air inside the room at 25 0C and 90% relative h1 1.005 + 1.88H1 x10 t1 0 + 2.501 x10 H1
humidity. The air coming from the air conditioning unit has a T of 15 0C. Calculate the hp rating of
3
the air conditioning unit if the room space is 75m 3, the air in the room is changed every 15 min.
h1 1.005 + 1.880.0184 x10 25 0 +

GIVEN: 6

2.501 x10 0.0189


J
AC h1 72,008.2
kg

3 6
h2 1.005 + 1.88H2 x10 t1 0 + 2.501 x10 H2
3
ROOM h2 1.005 + 1.880.0097 x10 15 0 +

qH

25 0C

6

90%RH 2.501 x10 0.0097




J
h2 39,608.79
qc
kg


vH 2.83x10 3 4.56x10 3H1t1 273

COOLER

vH 2.83x10 3 4.56x10 30.0184 (25 + 273) kJ
4.187x10 3 (15-25) K
kg K
3
m
vH 0.8683
kg dry air 7 J 1 hr
q C 1.132x10 x
hr 3600 s

Step 2: Compute for W.


q c 4.2168 hp
3
75 m kg dry air60 min
W hr
15 min 0.8683 m3 1 5. A chemical plant in Baguio is going to build a system that will contain ambient air to 200
0F and 115 0F wet bulb. The air in Baguio is foggy and at an average T of 70 0F, the analysis
shows that 0.0008 lb H2O per cubic feet of air is entrained. The system shall consist of a heater,
kg dry air then an adiabatic humidifier and a reheater system. The exhaust of adiabatic humidifier has a
W=345.5027
hr humidity of 90% RH. What is the T of air leaving the preheater and humidifier.
GIVEN:

Step 3: Solve for L, and finally qc.

H1=H2 TW2=TW3 H3=H4


L WH1 H2
kg dry air kg H2O PRE-
90% RH
ADIABATIC
0.184 0.0097

L 86.3757


HEATER
hr kg dry air HUMIDIFIER REHEATER

kg H2O
L=3.0059
hr 70 0F TD = 200 0F

qC Wh1 h2 - Lc pLt2 t1 0.0008 lbH2O TW = 115 0F


3 REQUIRED: T of air leaving the
ft air
kg dry air72,008.2 39,608.79 H2O preheater and humidifier
qC 345.5027 3.0059kg SOLUTION:
hr J hr
kg Step 1: From Psychrometric Chart
L = W (0.048 H2) eqn. 1

1
W
vH eqn. 2
Tw = 115 oF

H3=H4 0.048 H2 70 460








0.0008=
0.0252 0.0405H2
0.048 lb H2O/lb da
0.0367 lb H2O
H2 =
Td = 200 oF lb dry air

Step 3: Use H2 to read T2 from Psychrometric Chart.

90 % RH

Tw2 =103.8 0F

Tw2=Tw3=
103.8 oF H3=0.048
lbH2O/lb da H2 = 0.0367
LbH2O/lb da

T2 =152 oF
6. In a plant lab having a floor area of 100 m 2 and a ceiling height of 3 m, the T and RH are
kept at 23.9 0F and 80 % respectively. The closed loop air conditioning unit installed for the
Step 2: Solve for H2.
T3= 100 oF purpose has an air capacity to change the air in the room, which 80 % is void space, every 10
minutes. The air leaving the condenser f the aircon unit has a T of 18.3 0C. Calculate the quantity
H2O Balance at Humidifier:
of condensate which has to be dashed from the aircon unit in kg/hr

WH2 = WH1 + L
L = W( H3 H2)
GIVEN:
H=0.0151
AC

H=0.0106

18.3 oC 23.9 oC
ROOM
Step 2: Compute for vh.
23.9 oC
A=100 m2 80%RH 80% void vH 2.83x10 3 4.56x10 30.0151 (23.9 + 273)
H=3m 10 min
3
0.8607 m
vH =
kg dry air
qH

23.9 oC Step 3: Solve for W and then L, the condensate.


80 % RH 18.3 oC
COOLER
kg dry air 2 1
W 100m x3m
0.8607 0.8

L
REQUIRED: L
435.71 kg dry air60 min
W
SOLUTION: 10 min 1hr

Step 1: From Psychrometric Chart.


W=2614026 kg dry air/ hr

L = W (H1-H2)

80% RH
2614.26 kg da 0.0151 0.0106 kg H2O

PA MA


L = H= x
hr kg da PT PA MB

11.7642 kg H2O KPa 18


L= H = 3.59 X
hr


101.3 3.59 KPa 29

kg H2O
GEANKOPLIS: H = 0.0228
kg dry air
9.3-1. Humidity from Vapor Pressure
The air in a room is at 37.8 oC and a total pressure of 101.3 kPa abs containing water Step 2: Compute Hs & Hp.
vapor with a partial pressure pA = 3.59 kPa. Calculate:
a. Humidity From steam table, by interpolation:
b. Saturation humidity and percentage humidity
c. Percentage relative humidity PAs of H2O = 6.59 KPa

GIVEN: p As MA
Hs = x
ROOM P T P As M B

T= 37.8 C 6.59 KPa 18


PT = 101.3 KPa Hs = X
PA = 3.59 Pa
101.3 6.59 KPa 29

kg H2O
REQUIRED: HS = 0.0432
kg dry air
Humidity, Saturation humidity & Percentage Humidity,
Percentage Relative Humidity

H
SOLUTION: Hp = x 100
Hs
Step 1: Calculate H.
Percentage Humidity & Percentage Relative Humidity
kg H2O
0.0228
kg dry air SOLUTION:
Hp = x 100
kg H2O
0.0432
kg dry air Step 1: Compute for PA.

Hp = 57.78 % PA MA
H= x
Step 3: Solve for HR.
PT PA MB

PA PA 18
HR = x 100 0.021 = x
P As 101.3 P A 29
61.69 - 0.609 PA = 18 PA
3.59 KPa
HR = x 100 61.69 PA = 18.609
6.59 KPa

HR = 54.48 % PA = 3.32 KPa

9.3-2. Percentage and Relative Humidity Step 2: Compute for Hs to solve HP & HR.
o
The air in a room has a humidity H of 0.021 kg H2O/ kg dry air at 32.2 C and 101.3 kPa
abs. Pressure. Calculate: From steam table, by interpolation:

a. Percentage humidity Hp
b. Percentage relative humidity HR PAs of H2O = 4.82 KPa

GIVEN: p As MA
Hs = x
P T P As M B
ROOM

T= 32.2 C 4.82 KPa 18


Hs = X
PT = 101.3 KPa
101.3 4.82 KPa 29


H = 0.021 kg H2O/ kg da
kg H2O
REQUIRED: HS = 0.031
kg dry air
Td = 65.6 C
H Dp = 15.6 C
Hp = x 100
Hs REQUIRED:
Actual humidity and % humidity

kg H2O Humid volume & humid heat in SI & English units.


0.021
kg dry air
Hp = x 100 SOLUTION:
kg H2O Step 1: From Psychrometric Chart.
0.031
kg dry air

Hp = 67.74 %
Dp = 60 F

H = 0.011
PA 5.3 % RH kg H2O/ kg da
HR = x 100
P As

3.32 KPa Td = 150 F


HR= x 100
4.82 KPa

HR = 68.88 %

Step 2: Compute for humid heat.

CS 1.88H
= 1.005 +
9.3-3. Use of the Humidity Chart
The air entering a dryer has a temperature of 65.6oC (150 oF) and a dew point of 15.6oC
= 1.005 + 1.88 (0.011)
o
(60 F). Using the humidity chart, determine the actual humidity and percentage humidity. Calculate
the humid volume of this mixture and also calculate CS using SI and English units.
KJ
CS
GIVEN: = 1.026 kg dry air K ( SI )

DRYER
CS 0.45H
= 0.24 + GIVEN:

= 0.24 + 0.45 (0.011)

DRYER
Btu
C S = 0.245 lb m dry air F ( English )
T= 52.7 C
H = 0.030 kg H2O/kg da
Step 3: Solve for VH.

3 3
vH = 2.83 x 10 4.56 x 10 H
TK REQUIRED:
Percentage humidity, saturation humidity at 57.2 oC, dew point,
3 3
humid heat & humid volume
vH = 2.83 x 10 4.56 x 10 0.011





( 65.6 + 273 )

SOLUTION:
3
m
vH = 0.975 ( SI ) Step 1: From Psychrometric Chart.
kg dry air
Step 2: Look for PAs at 57.2 oC and solve for HS & HP.
From steam table, by interpolation:

vH = 0.0204 0.0405 H



T F PAs of H2O at 57.2 oC = 17.60 Kpa

vH = ( 0.0204 + 0.0405(0.011) ) ( 150 + 460 )


p As MA
Hs = x
P T P As M B
3
ft
vH = 15.64 ( English )
17.60 KPa 18
lb m dry air = x



101.3 17.60 KPa 29


kg H2O
9.3-4. Properties of Air to a Dryer. HS = 0.1305
An air-water vapor mixture going to a drying process has a dry bulb temperature of 57.2
kg dry air
o
C and a humidity of 0.030 kg H2O/kg dry air. Using the humidity chart and appropriate equations,
determine the percentage humidity, saturation humidity at 57.2 oC, dew point, humid heat and
humid volume.
H 3
HP = m
HS vH = 0.9796 ( SI )
kg dry air

0.030
= x 100
0.1305 vH = 0.0204 0.0405 H
T F
HP 23 %
vH = ( 0.0204 + 0.0405(0.030) ) ( 134.96 + 460 )

Step 3: Compute for humid heat in SI and English.


3
ft
vH = 15.72 ( English )
lb m dry air
CS = 1.005 + 1.88H
= 1.005 + 1.88 (0.030) 9.3-5. Adiabatic Saturation Temperature
Air at 82.2 oC and having a humidity H=0.0655 kg H2O/kg dry air is contacted in an
adiabatic saturator with water. It leaves at 80% saturation.
KJ
C S = 1.0614 ( SI ) a. What are the final values of H and T oC?
kg dry air K b. For 100% saturation, what would be the values of H and T?

CS = 0.24 + 0.45H GIVEN:

= 0.24 + 0.45 (0.030)

o
T= 82.2 C
Btu
C S = 0.2535 ( English )
lb m dry air F H = 0.0655 ADIABATIC
kg H2O/kg da SATURATOR 80%
Step 4: Solve for VH.
REQUIRED:
Final values of H and T oC
3 3
vH = 2.83 x 10 4.56 x 10 H
TK
Values of H and T at 100 % saturation

SOLUTION:
3 3


vH = 2.83 x 10 4.56 x 10

0.030


( 57.2 + 273 )
Step 1: From Psychrometric Chart.
80 % RH H2 = 0.079
kg H2O/kg da
o
Tw = 120 F o
= 0.0655 Dp = 40.6 C
H1REQUIRED:
kg H2O/kg da Final values for H and T oC

T2 = 52.78 oC T1 = 82.2 oC
or 127 oF or 180 oF
4
SOLUTION:

Step 2: For 100 % saturation, take readings in the Psychrometric Chart. Step 1: From Psychrometric Chart.

Tw = 113 oF 90 % RH
H2 = 0.0802
kg H2O/kg da
H1 = 0.0655 Dp = 105 oF H2 = 0
o
kg H2O/kg da or 40.6 C kg H2O

T2 = 49 oC T1 = 82.2 oC T2 = 116 oF T1 = 140 oF


o o
or 120 oF or 180 oF or 46.7 C or 76.7 C

9.3-6 Adiabatic Saturation of Air 9.3-7 Humidity from Wet and Dry Bulb Temperature
Air enters an adiabatic saturator having a temperature of 76.7 oC and a dew-point An air-water vapor mixture has a dry bulb temperature of 65.6 oC and a wet bulb
temperature of 40.6 oC. It leaves the saturator 90 % saturated. What are the final values of H and T temperature of 32.2 oC. What is the humidity of the mixture?
o
C?
GIVEN:
GIVEN: Td = 65.6 oC & Tw = 32.2 oC
REQUIRED:

o 90% RH Humidity
Td = 76.7 C

ADIABATIC
SATURATOR
SOLUTION:

Step 1: From Psychrometric Chart.

Td = 140 F
or 60 C
Tw = 32.2 C
or 90 F
H = 0.0175
kg H2O/kg da 9.3-10 Cooling and Dehumidifying Air
Air is entering an adiabatic cooling chamber has a temperature of 32.2 oC and a
percentage humidity of 65%. It is cooled by a cold water spray and saturated with water vapor in
the chamber. After leaving, it is heated to 23.9 oC. The final air has a percentage humidity of 40%.
(a) What is the initial humidity of the air?
o
Td = 65.6 C (b) What is the final humidity after heating?
or 149.9 F
GIVEN:

9.3-8 Humidity and Wet Bulb Temperature


ADIABATIC
The humidity of an air-water vapor mixture is H = 0.030 kg H2O/kg dry air. The wet bulb COOLING HEATER
temperature of the mixture of 60 oC. What is the wet bulb temperature? CHAMBER
GIVEN:
T1 = 32.2 C
H = 0.030 kg H2O/kg da & Td = 60 C
RH1 = 65 % T3 = 23.9 C
REQUIRED: RH1 = 40 %
Wet bulb temperature, Tw REQUIRED:
SOLUTION: Initial and final humidity

SOLUTION:
Step 1: From Psychrometric Chart.

Step 1: Obtain H1 from Psychrometric Chart.

Tw = 98 F
or 36.67 C 65 % RH
H = 0.030
kg H2O/kg da
The initial free moisture was X1 = 0.55 and the critical moisture content Xc = 0.22 kg free moisture/
H1 = 0.02
kg dry solid.
kg H2O/ kg da Calculate the time to dry a batch of this material from X1 = 0.45 to X2 = 0.3 using the
same drying conditions but a thickness of 50.8 mm, with drying from the top and bottom surface.

Given:

T1 = 32.2 C R = 2.05 kg H2O/h-m2


Ls/A = 24.4 kg d.s/m2
X1= 0.45 kg free moisture/kg d.s
X1 = 0.55 kg free moisture/kg d.s
Step 2: Obtain H3 from Psychrometric Chart.
Xc = 0.22 kg free moisture/kg d.s
X2 = 0.3 kg free moisture/kg d.s

Required:

Time (t)
40 % RH
Solution:

H3 = 0.0075 Ls XC
kg H2O/kg da t X1 X 2 XC ln
A X2

For Ls/A of 2nd condition:

T3 = 23.9 C Since

PROBLEMS
Ls VA V(m) V(m)
(GEANKOPLIS)
A A vol bA
9.6-1) Time for Drying in Constant-Rate Period. A batch of wet solid was dried on a tray dryer using
constant drying conditions and a thickness of material on the tray of 25.4 mm. Only the top surface
was exposed. The drying rate during the constant rate period was R = 2.05 kg H 2O/ h m2 ( 0.42 lb
H2O/ h ft2 ). The ratio Ls/A used was 24.4 kg dry solid/ m 2 exposed surface ( 5 lbm dry solid/ft2 ).
So, From example 9.6-3
A = 0.457 x 0.457 m
b = 25.4 mm
Ls Ls
v = 6.1 m/s
A 1 A 2 T db = 65.6C
V(m) V(m) H = 0.010 kg H2O/kg d.a

25.4 A 1 (50.8)A
2 Required:
V(m) V(m)
a. Rc if v = 3.05 m/s
25.4 A 25.4 A b. Rc with T = 76.6C
Therefore,

Solution:

Ls Ls kg d.s a)
24.4 From ex. 9.6-3
A 1 A 2 m2
kg
1.037
m3
t
Ls
X1 X2
AR C
kg d.s G v
24.4
t m2 0.45 0.3 kg H2O
m s kg
2.05
kg H2O kg d.s 3.05 3600 1.037 3
hm 2 s hr m

G = 11386.26 kg m2/h
t = 1.7854 hrs

9.6-2) Prediction of Effect of Process Variables on Drying Rate. Using the conditions in
example 9.6-3 for the constant rate drying period, do as follows:
a. Predict the effect on Rc if the air velocity is only 3.05 m/s
b. Predict the effect if the gas temperature is raised tom 76.7C and it remains the
same.

Given:
h 0.0204G0.8
0.020411386.26
0.8
h 0.0204G0.8
W 0.020422056.1447
0.8
h 35.8703
m K
2
W
h 60.8771
m K
2

h
Rc T TW
W
35.8703
65.6 28.93600
24331000 Rc
h
T TW
W

60.8771
76.7 28.93600
Rc = 1.9479 kg/ m2-h 24331000

Rc = 4.21 kg/h-m2

b)
@ T = 76.7C
H = 0.010 kg H2O/kg d.a 9.6-3) Prediction in Constant-Rate Drying Region. A granular insoluble solid material wet with
water is being dried in the constant rate period in a pan 0.61 m x 0.61 m and the depth of material


is 25.4 mm. The sides and bottom are insulated. Air flows parallel to the top drying surface at a
VH 2.83x103 4.56x103 H T velocity of 3.05 m/s and has fry bulb temperature of 60 C and wet bulb temperature of 29.4 C .

2.83x10 4.56x10 0.010273 76.7


-3 3 The pan contains 11.34 kg of dry solid having a free moisture content of 0.35 kg H2O per kg dry
solid and the material is to be dried in the constant-rate period to 0.22 kg H2O / kg dry solid.
3 a. Predict the drying rate and time in hours needed.
VH = 1.0056 m /kg da
b. Predict the time needed if the depth of matl is increased to 44.5 mm

1.0 0.010 kg Given:


1.0044 3
1.0056 m A = 0.61m x 0.61m
b = 25.4 mm
v = 3.05 m/s
G v Tdb = 60C
m s kg Twb = 29.4C
6.1 3600 1.0044 3
s hr m X1 = 0.35 kg H2O/ kg d.s
2 X2 = 0.22 kg H2O/ kg d.s
G = 22056.1447 kg/ h-m
Ls = 11.34 kg d.s
Required: Rc = 1.6437 kg/ h- m2
t, Rc

Ls
Solution: t X 1 X 2
a.) @ Tdb = 60C, H = 0.0141 kg H2O/ Kg d.a
AR c

t
11.34
0.35 0.22
0.61x0.611.6437

VH 2.83 x103 4.56 x103 H T t = 2.4103 hrs

VH 2.83 x10 4.56 x10 0.014160 273


3 3 b.) by ratio & Proportion:

VH 0.9638 m3 / kg d.a
t1 b1

m 1.0 kg d.a 0.0141 kg H 2 O t 2 b2
m
m 1.0141 V
H

1.0141 t1b2 2.4103hr 44.5mm


t2
0.9638 b1 25.4mm
1.0522 kg/m 3
t2 = 4.2228 hrs

9.6-4) Drying a Filter Cake in the constant-rate region. A wet filter cake in a pan 1 ft x 1 ft square
G v(3600)
G 3.05 1.0522 (3600)
and 1 in. thick is dried on the top surface with air at wet bulb temperature of 80F and a dry bulb of
120F flowing parallel to the surface at a velocity of 2.5 ft/s. The dry density of the cake is 120 lb m/
G 11,553.031 kg/h - m 2 ft3 and the critical free moisture content is 0.09 lb H2O / lb dry solid. How long will it take to dry the
material from a free moisture content of 0.20 lb H2O / lb dry material to the critical moisture
content?

h 0.0204G 0.08

Given
h 0.0204(11,553.031)0.08
A = 1 ft2
h 36.29 W/m K 2
t = 1in
From steam table: @ Twb = 29.4C , hw = 2432.14 x 103
Twb = 80F
Tdb = 120F
V = 2.5 ft/s
RC
h
T Tw 3600 = 120 lbm/ft3
hw
Xc = 0.90 lbm H2O/ lbm d.s

RC
36.29
60 24.9 3600
2432.14 x103
h
Rc T Tw 3600
X1 = 0.20 lbm H2O/ lbm d.s w

Required:
t sX Xc
tc
Rc
Solution:
@ Twb = 80F Tdb = 120F : H = 0.013 kg H2O/ kg da
1
1200.20 0.09
t c 12
VH 0.0252 0.0405 TR tc = 13.30 hrs
0.0827

VH 0.0252 0.0405 0.013 580 9.7-1) Graphical Integration for Drying in Falling-Rate Region. A wet solid is to be dried in a tray
under steady state conditions from a free moisture content of X1 = 0.4 kg H2O/ kg d.s to X2 = 0.02
ft 3
VH 14.92 kg H2O/ kg d.s. The dry solid weight is 99.8 kg dry solid and the top surface area for drying is 4.645
lbmda
m2. The drying rate curve can be represented by Fig. 9-.5-1b.
1
Calculate the time for drying, but use a straight line through the origin for the drying rate
VH
in the falling rate period.
1 0.013 lbm
0.0679 3
14.92 ft Given:
X1 = 0.4
G
X2 = 0.02
G 2.5 36000.0679 1,080,000
lbm Ms = 99.8 kg d.s
h ft 2 A = 4.645 m2
Required:
T using straight line through the origin
h 0.0128G 0.8 Solution:

h 0.0128656.1 2.1681
Btu Using Fig 9-5-1b;

h ft F
2 Rc = 1.51 kg H2O/h-m2
Xc = 0.1950

@ Twb = 80F ; w = 1048.4 (from steam table) tC


mS
X1 XC
ARc
tC
99.8
0.4 0.1950
4.6451.51
Rc
2.2950
120 803600
1048.4
tC = 2.9169 hrs
lbm
Rc 0.0827
h ft 3
tF = 6.3185 hrs
SOLUTION:
mS X
tF XC ln C
AR C X2
Getting the free moisture content: (at the given time and weight)

tF
99.8
0.1950 ln 0.1950
4.6451.51 0.02 Free moisture content wet sample weight- equilibrium moisture content-bone dry sample weight

Free moisture content:

t T t C tF .267
t T 2.9169 6.3185 0.2470
0.2266
0.1976
tT = 9.2354 hrs

0.1591
9.7-2) Drying Tests with a Foodstuff. In order to test the feasibility of drying a certain foodstuff, 0.1193
drying data were obtained in a tray dryer with air flow over the top exposed surface having an area 0.07596
of 0.186m2. The bone-dry sample weight was 3.765 kg dry solid. At equilibrium after a long period, 0.0518
the wet sample weight was 3.955kg H2O + solid. Hence, 3.955-3.765, or 0.190, kg of equilibrium
moisture was present. The following sample weights versus time were obtained in the drying test.
0.01699
______________________________________________________________________ 601088x10-3
Time(h) Weight(kg) Time(hr) Weight(kg) Time(hr) Weight(kg)__ 0
0 4.944 2.2 4.554 7.0
4.019
0.4 4.885 3.0 4.404 9.0
3.978 9.8-2) Drying when radiation, Conduction, and Convection are present. A material is granular and
0.8 4.808 4.2 4.241 12.0 wet with water and is being dried in a layer 25.4 mm deep in a batch-tray dryer pan. The pan has a
3.955 metal bottom having a thermal conductivity of km=43.3 W/m. K and a thickness of 1.59mm. The
1.4 4.699 5.0 4.150 thermal conductivity of the solid is Ks= 1.125 W/m.K. The air flows parallel to the top exposed
surface and the bottom metal at a velocity of 3.05m/s and a temperature of 60oC and humidity
______________________________________________________________________ H=0.010kgH2O/kg dry solid. Direct radiation heat from steam pipes having a surface temperature
of 104.4oC falls on to exposed top surface, whose emissivity is 0.94. Estimate the surface
Calculate the free moisture content X kg H2O/kg d.s. for each data point and plot X temperature and the drying rate for the constant-rate period.
versus time. (Hint: For 0h, 4.944-0.190-3.765=0.989) kg free moisture in 3.765kg dry solid, Hence,
X=0.989/3.765)
GIVEN:

hc 0.0204G0.8
Z s 0.0254m G v
K m 43.3 W / mK 1 H
Z m 0.00159m
VH
K s 1.125 W / mK VH (2.83 x103 4.56 x103 )( T 273)
V 3.05m / s
[(2.83x10 -3 4.56 x103 (0.010)]( 60 273)
T 60 C
o
VH 0.9576 m3 / kgda
H 0.010kgH 2 O / kgd.s.
TR 104.4 0 C ~
377.4K
W
0.94 hR 8.6076
m2K
Required: at Ts 33o Cfrom steam table :
Ts and Rc
s 2423.37KJ / kg
Solution:
Cs
hc / k yMB ~
Cs [1.005 1.88H]103
1 0.010
1.0547kg / m3 [1.005 1.88(0.010 )]10 3
0.9576
1023.8 J/kgK
3600s
G 3.05 (1.0547)
h 1
kg UK
11,580.606 1 Zm Zs

h.m 2 hc K m K s
hc 0.0204(11580.606)0.8 1
W
hc 36.3593 2 Tsshould be Tw Ts 33o C ~
306K 1 0.00159 0.0254

mK 4 4 36.3593 43.3 1.125
TR T
s
hR (5.676)
from psychrometric chart 100 100
TR Ts
@ Td 60o C;H 0.01kgH2O / kgd.a.
4 4
Tw 28.8889o C 377.4 306

hR 0.94(5.676)
100 100
377.4 306
W
19.9530
m2K

by psychrometric chart : @ Ts 33o C,


kgH2O
Hs 0.0328
kgd.a.

for trial 1

Hs - H s U
1 k T Ts R TR Ts
h
hc / kyH B hc he
0.0328 0.012423.37 1000 1 19.9530 60 T 8.6076 (104.4 T )
s s
1023.8 36.3593 36.3593

Ts 31.8355o C
33o C 31.8355o C

TRIAL 2 :
Ts 32.3 305.3K 4 4
377.4 305.3

hR 0.94(5.676)
100 100
377.4 305.3
hR 8.5832W / m2K
Trial 3 :
@ Ts 32.3o C Ts 32.6o C 305.6K
s 2425.036KJ / Kg 4 4
377.4 305.6
@ Ts 32.3 C;Hs 0.0312kgH2O / Kgd.a.
o
hR 0.94(5.676)
100 100
377.4 305.6
(0.0312 0.01)2425.036
1.5488(60 Ts )
8.5832
104.4 Ts Rc = 3.1937 kg/h-m2
1023.8 36.3593
50.2156 1.5488(60 Ts ) 0.2361(104.4 Ts )
9.9-1) Diffusion Drying of Wood. Repeat example 9.9-1 using the physical properties given but the
following changes.
TS 33.68O C
32.3o C 33.68o C
hR 8.3936 W / m2K
X* = 0.04 kg H2O/kg dry wood
@ Ts 32.6o C, s 2424.322KJ / Kg x1 = 0.0127 m

a. Xt1 = 0.22 b. Xt1 = 0.29


(0.0318 0.01)2424.322(1000) 8.5936
1.5488(60 Ts ) (104.4 Ts ) Xt = 0.13 Xt = 0.09
1023.8 36.3593
x1 = 12.7 mm

Ts 32.9908
Required:
a. time using fig. 5.3-13
TRIAL 4 :
b. time

@Ts 32.7o C 305.7O K Solution:


Hs 0.032; s 2424.084 a.)
X = Xt - X*
4 4
377.4 305.7 = 0.13 0.04
= 0.09
hR 0.94(5.676) 100 100
377.4 305.7
hR 8.5971 X1 = Xt1 - X*
= 0.22 0.04

(0.032 0.01)2424.084(1000) 8.5971 = 0.18


1.5488(60 Ts ) (104.4 Ts )
1023.28 36.3593
Ea = X/ X1 = 0.09/0.18 = 0.50

Ts 32.75o C

From Fig.5.3-13
(h Uk )( T Ts ) hR (TR Ts )
Rc c (3600)
s
DLt/x12 = 0.20
(36.3593 19.9538)(6 0 - 32.75) [8.5991(1. 4.4 - 32.75)]
(3600)
2424.084 x103 2
3.1937 x (0.20)
a. Calculate the time needed to dry the wood from a total moisture of 0.22 to 0.13. Use Fig. 5.3-
t 1
DL
0.0127 2 0.20
13.
b. Calculate the time needed to dry planks of wood 12.7 mm thick from Xt1 = 0.29 to Xt = 0.09.
Compare with the time needed for 25.4 mm thickness. 2.97x10 6

t= 10.86 hrs
Given:
From Ex.9.9-1 b.)
DL = 2.97 x 10-6 X1 = Xt1 X* = 0.29-0.04 = 0.25
X = Xt X* = 0.09-0.04 = 0.05 Given:
x1 = 12.7/ 2 (1000) = 6.35 x 10-3 m

Equation 9.9-6 Required:


total time

2
4 x1 8X
t ln 2 1 Solution:
DL X
2


4 6.35x10 -3
2

80.25
2


2.97 x10 6
ln 2

0.05
t = 7.70 hrs by psychrometric chart :
@T1 121.1o C; H 0.04
9.10-1) Drying a Bed of Solids by Through Circulation. Repeat example 9.10-1 for drying of a Tw 47.2; H w 0.074
packed bed of wet cylinders by through circulation of the drying air. Use the same conditions
except that the air velocity is 0.381m/s

V 0.381m / s
X 1 1.0kgH 2 O / kgdrysolid
X 0.01
ds 1602kg / m 3
bed thickness 50.8mm 0.0508m
s 641kg / m 3
H1 0.04kgH 2 O / kgd.s.
for solid cylinder : X1 X t1 X *
D c 0.00635m 1 0.01
h 0.0254m 0.99kgH2O / kgd.s.
Xc X tc X *
0.50 - 0.01
0.49kgH 2O / kgd.a.
X Xt X*
0.10 - 0.01
0.09kgH 2O / kgd.a.
if radiation and conduction are neglected,
solid temp is at Tw.

VH (2.83 x10 3 4.56 x10 3 H)( T oK )


VH [2.83 x10 3 4.56 x10 3 (0.04)](121.1 273)
VH 1.1872m3 / kgd.a.

1 0.04
0.8760kgd.a. H2O / m3
1.1872

1
G 0.381m / s(0.8760kg / m3 ) (3600s / h)(1/ 1.04)
1.0 0.04
G 1155.3092kgd.a. / hm2

since H1 0.040 and Hw 0.074


assumeH2 0.05

GT 1155.3092 1155.3092(0.05)
kgair H2O
GT 1161.0747
h.m2

for dry solid with 641kg present and


ds 1602kg / m3

641kg
volume 0.04001m3 .
1602kg / m3

1 0 .4 0 . 6

4(1 )(h 0.5Dc )


a
Dc h
4(1 0.6)[0.0254 0.5(0.00635)] 1155.3092kgd.a. / h.m2
a G
0.0254(0.00635) 3600s / h
a 283.4646m2 G 0.3209kgd.a. / s.m2
1
D (Dch 0.5Dc
2 2
)
for time of drying at constant rate period
[0.00635(0 .0254) 0.5(0.0063 5)2 ]
s w x1( X1 Xc )
D 0.0135m t
GC s (T1 Tw )(1 e h ax / GC s )
for heat - transfer coefficien t :
641(2.389 x10 6 )(0.0508)(0.99 0.49)
t
61 .0555 x 283 .4646 x 0.0508

0.3209(1.099 x10 )(121.1 47.2)1 e 0.3209 x1.099 x10
3
assumingTair 93.3o C 3


3600s
air 2.15 x10 5 kg / m.s x
hr
7.74x10 - 2 kg / m.h 1626s h
t 0.4519h
0.9230 3600s
DGT 0.0135(1161.0747)
Nre
7.74 x10 2
@ falling - rate period :
202.5130
X
s w x1Xc ln c
t X
using eq' n 9.10 - 14;
h a X1

GC s (T1 Tw )1 e GC s


GT
0.49
0.214(1161.0747)0.49
h 0.214 0.51
T=1.2024 hrs
D (0.0135)0.51
9.10-3) Through Circulation Drying in the Constant-Rate Period. Spherical wet catalyst pellets
fro m steam table : having a diameter of 12.7mm are being dried in a through circulation dryer. The pellets are in a bed

KJ 63.5mm thick on a screen. The solids are being dried by air entering with a superficial velocity of
Tw 47.2o C, w 2389 2.389 x10 6 J / kg 0.914m/s at 82.2oC and having a humidity H=0.01 kgH2O/kg dry air. The dry solid density is
kg
determined as 1522kg/m3, and the void fraction in the bed is 0.35. The initial free moisture content
Cs 1.005 1.88H
is 0.90 kgH2O/kg solid and the solids are to be dried to a free moisture content of 0.45, which is
Cs 1.005 1.88(0.05) above the critical-moisture content. Calculate the time for drying in this constant-rate period.

Cs 1.099KJ / kgd.a.K or 1.099x10 3 J / kgd.a.K


Given:
DP=12.7 Basis:1 kg d.a.
Z=63.5
V=0.914
T=821.2C 10.01
V
H=0.01kgH2O/kgd.a. H
P=1522kg/m3
VH=[2.83x10-3+4.56x10-3H]TK
E=0.35
=[2.86x10-3+4.56x10-3(0.1)](82.2+273)
X1=0.90
=1.02m3/kg d.a.
X2-0.45
So,

Required:
tCRP 1.01
1.02
Solution: =0.99 kg/m3

tCRP =Ps (X1-X2) NRE=DPVP/u


ah (T-Tw)

12.7 / 1000 0.914 0.99



0.49 NRe
641(2.389 x10 )(0.0508)0.49 ln
6

0.09 0.019x103
t
61 .055 x 283 .4646 x 0.0508
0.3209(1.099 x10 )(121.1 47.2)1 e
3 0.3209 x1.099 x10 3 =604.83 > 350


h
t 2701.83735 x 0.7505h Gt0.59
3600s h 0.151
DP0.49
total time t (0.4519 0.7505)h
1.2024hrs
Gt=(0.914m/s)0.99
=0.905kg/m2s
setting X2=Xc ; z=X1m
@T =82.2 C & H= 0.01
from P.C. Tw=32.2 C
h 0.151
0.905 0.59
12.7 / 1000 0.49
@82.2C u=0.019x10-3 =0.853W/m2K
9.10-4) Material and Heat Balances on a Continuous Dryer. Repeat Example 9.10-2 making heat
and material balances, but with the following changes. The solid enters at 15.6 oC and leaves at

60oC. The gas enters at 87.8oC and leaves at 32.2oC. Heat losses from the dryer are estimated as
1 S 293

Given:

1
S
1522 (1 - 0.35 ) Q=2931W
989.3 kg/m 3
TG1,H1 Gas
a=6(1-E)/DP
solid G,TG2,H2

6(1 ) 61 0.35
a Ls,Ts1,X1 Ts2,X2
Dp 12.7 / 1000
=307.09
Ls=453.6 Ts1=15.6C
X1=0.04 Ts2=60C
@Tw=32.2 C ; w =2425.27kJ/kg(by interpolation)
X2=0.002 TG2=87.8C
H2=0.01 TG1=32.2C
G LS 1 H HC CpA=4.187 kJ/kgK CpB=1.465 kJ/kgK
t CRP ln W
L S A K Y MB HW H1
Required:
a.)G
989 .32425 .27 0.9 0.45 1000
t CRP b.)H1
307 .090.853 82 .2 32 .23600
Solution:

tCRP =7.75 h Material Balance:


GH2 + LsX1 = GH1 + LsX2
G(0.01) +453.6(0.04) =GH1 + 453.6(0.002)
G(0.01-H1)=-17.24 (1)

Heat Balance :
@TG2=87.8C & To=0C
HG2= CS(TG2-To) + H2
=[1.005 + 1.88(0.01)](87.8-0) + 0.01(2501) 9.10-5) Drying in a Continuous Tunnel Dryer. A rate of feed of 700lbm dry solid/h containing a free
=114.9 kJ/kgd.a. moisture content of X1=0.4133lb H2O/lb dry solid is to be dried to X=0.0374 lbH2O/lb d.s. in a
continuous counterflow tunnel dryer. A flow of 13280lbm/dry air/h enters at 203 oF with an
For the exit gas H2=0.0562lbH2O/lb dry air. The stock enters at the wet bulb temperature of 119oF and remains
HG1=CS(HG1-To) + H1 essentially constant in temperature in the dryer. The saturation humidity at 119 oF from the humidity
=[1.005 + 1.88H1](32.2-0) +H1(2501) chart is Hw=0.0786 lb H2O/lbd.a. The surface area available for drying is (A/Ls)=0.30ft2/lbmd.s..
=32.36 +2561.54H1 A small batch experiment was performed using constant drying conditions, air velocity,
and temperature of the solid approximately the same as in the continuous dryer. The equilibrium
For the entering solid, critical moisture content was found to be Xc=0.0959lbH2O/lb d.s., and the experimental value of
HS1=Cps(Ts1-To) + X1Cpa(Ts1-To) kyMB was found as 30.15lbm air/hr.ft2. In the falling-rate was directly proportional to X.
=1.456(15.6-) + 0.04(4.187)(15.6-0) For the continuous dryer, calculate the time in the dryer in the constant-rate zone and in
=25.33kJ/kgd.a. the falling-rate zone.
HS2=Cps(Ts2-To) + X2Cpa(TS2-To)
=1.456(60-0) + 0.002(4.187)(60-0) Given:
=87.86 kJ/kgd.s.
Ls=700lbmds/h Tw=119F
Heat Balance on dryer, X1=0.4133 Hw=0.0786lbH2O/lbda

GHG2+LsHS1=GHG1+LsHS2+Q X2=0.0374 A/Ls=0.30ft2/lbds


G(114.9)+453.6(25.33)=G(32.36+2561.54H1)+39853.3+10551.6 G=13280lbda/h Xc=0.0959
G(82.54-2561.54H1)=38915.21 (2) TG2=203F KyMB=30.15lbmair/hft2
H2=0.0562lbH2O/lbda
From Eq 1,
G=-17.24/(0.01-H1) Required
a.)tCRP
From Eq 2, b.)tFRP
-17.24/(0.01-H1) (82.54-2561.54H1)=38915.21
-1422.99+444160.95H1=389.15-38915.21H1 Solution:
83076.16H1=1812.14
So, Material Balance:
H1=0.0218kgH2O/kgd.a. Ls(Xc-X2)=G(Hc-H2)
700(0.0959-0.0374)=13280(Hc-0.0562)
Hc=0.0593lbH2O/lbda
Subs. To Eq1,
G=-17.24/(0.01-0.0218kgH2O/kgd.a.)
G LS 1 H HC
t CRP ln W
G=1461.02kgd.a./h LS A K YMB HW H1
Required:
GH2 + LsX1 = GH1 + LsX2 a. fresh air
b. % air leaving
13280(0.0562)+700(0.4133)=13280H1+700(0.0374) c. heat added (heater)
H1=0.076 lbH2O/lbda d. heat loss (dryer)

So, Solution:

13280 1 1 0.0786 0.0593 H2O Bal. On the heater


tCRP ln
700 0.3 30.15 0.0786 0.076
G1H1 + G6H2 = ( G1 +G6 ) H4
tCRP=4.204h G1 (0.007) + G6 (0.020) = G1 (0.010) +0.01G6
0.01 G6 = 0.003 G1 .(1)
For Falling rate zone,

G L S XC 1 X H H2
t FRP ln C W
L S A K YMB HW H2G / L S X2 X2 HW HC
H2O Bal. On the dryer

(G1 +G6)H4 + LsX1 = (G1 + G6)H2 +LsX2

13280 1 0.0959 1 0.0590.0786 0.0562


t FRP ln
700 0.3 30.15 0.086 0.056213281 / 700 0.0374 0.03740.0786 0.0593
for Ls
tFRP=0.47h Ls = L ( 1 X )
= 907.2 (1 0.27)
= 662.256 kg d.s
9.10-6) Air Recirculation in a Continuous Dryer. The wet feed material to a continuous dryer dry basis:
contains 50 wt% water on a wet basis and is dried to 27wt% by countercurrent air flow. The dried since G3 = G4 = G1+G6 = 41728.75 d.a/h
product leaves at the rate of 907.2 kg/h. Fresh air to the system is at 25.6C and has a humidity of
0.5
H = 0.007 kg H2O/kg d.a. The moist leaves the dryer at 37.8C and H = 0.020 and part of it is X1 1.0
recirculated and mixed air enters the dryer at 65.6C and H = 0.01. Calculate the fresh air flow, the 1 0 .5
0.27
percent air leaving the dryer that is recycled, the heat added in the heater, and the heat loss from
X2 0.37
the dryer. 1 027

Given: at junction A
G1H1 + G6H6 = G4H4
From eqn 1:
G1 0.007 41728.75 G1 0.02 41728.750.01
G1 0.007 834.57 0.02G1 417.29
G1 G6 G3
G1 0.013 417.289
G6 41728.75 32099.15
9629.6 kg/h
G1 = 32,099.15 kg fresh d.a /h

Heat Balance on Heater


G6 9629.6
% recycled 0.2306
G4 41728.75
G6H'G6 G1H'G1 G4H'G 4 Q

H'G Cs(TG TD ) H o % recycled = 23.06% recycled air

H'G 4 Cs4 (TG 4 TD ) H4 o


Q = 440.605 KW

Cs 1.005 1.88(0.01) 1.0238 Amount of Heat loss from the dryer

H'G 4 1.0238(65.6 0) 0.012501 Heat bal.

92.17 kJ/kg d.a

Q = 32.06 KW
H'G1 Cs1(TG1 T0 ) H1 o
1.0182(25. 6 - 0) 0.007(2501 )
43.57 KJ/kg d.a

H'G 6 Cs6 (TG6 T0 ) H6 o


1.0426(37. 8 - 0) 0.02(2501)
89.43 KJ/kg d.a

subs to equation
MC CABE

- Q G6H'G6 G1H'G1 G4H'G 4

9629.60(89 .43) 32099.15(4 3.57) - 41722.38(9 2.17)


KJ hr
- 1586178.59
hr 3600s
24.1) Fluorspar (CaF2) is to be dried from 6 to 0.4 percent moisture (dry basis) in a countercurrent a.) Assuming Eq.(24.8) applies, what would be the diameter and length of the dryer if

G4H'G4 L sHS1 G2H'G2 L sHS2 Q

G2 G4 41722.38 kg d.a/h

H'G2 Cs2 (TG2 T0 ) H2o

Whe re
CS2 1.0426 KJ/kg d.a

H'G2 1.0426(37.8 0) 0.022501


89.43 KJ/kg d.a

H'S2 1.63781 H'S1

subs to the eqn :

41722.38(92.17) 662.26(H'S2 1.63781) 41722.38(89.43) 662.26H'S 2 Q

KJ hr
Q 115403.98
hr 3600s
adiabatic rotary dryer at a rate of 18,000 lb/hr Nt= 2.2? Is this reasonable design?
of bone-dry solids. The heating air enters at 1000oF with a humidity of 0.03 and wet bulb b.) Repeat part (a) with Nt=1.8.
o o o
temperature of 150 F. The solids have a specific heat of 0.48 Btu/lb F; they enter the dryer at 70 F
and leave at 200oF. The maximum allowable mass velocity of the air is 2,000 lb/ft2.h. Given:

Thb Twb
Nt ln
Tha Twb
Twb inlet Tw
Twa outlet Tw
Thb outlet Tb
Tha outlet Tb
for Tha
1000 150 850
2.2 ln ln
Tha 150 Thc 150
Solution:

also, 2.2 850


e
x a 0.06 Thc 150
CsB 0.24 0.45 0.24 0.45(0.03)
x b 4 xe10 (3Tha 150) 850
2.2
0.2535
M 18000Tha 244.18o F
s

so, the other


rate ofquantities needed
mass transfer : are :
Mv Ms@150
( x a xobF) 1008.1Btu ( App 7)
lb
18000(0.06 4 x10 3 ) o
specific heats in Btu/lb F are,
Mv 1008lb / h
Cps 0.48
Cpv 0.45 (App14) CpL 1
The heat duty is found from subs the eq(24.1)
qT
Cps(Tsb Tsa ) x acpL (Tv Tsa ) ( x a x b ) x bcpL (Tsb Tv ) ( x a x b )cp v (Tva Tv )
M' s

where :
Tsa feedT
Tv vapor ' nT
Tsb final solids T
Tva final vapor T
heat of vapor

L = 35.842 ft
Cps , CpL , Cp v sp. heat of solid.liquid and vapor
0.48(200 - 70) 0.06(1)(15 0 - 70) (0.06 - 4x10)1008. 1 4x10 - 3 1
(200 150) (0.06 4 x10 3 )(0.45)( 244.18 150)
qt Btu
123.7111
Ms lb
so,
Btu
qT 123.7111(18000) 2.2268x106
h

The flow rate of entering air is found a heat balance and the humid heat CsB,
qt
mg(1 Hb )
Csb (Thb Tha )
2.2268x106

(1000 244.18)0.2535 24.2)A porous solid is dried in a batch dryer under constant drying conditions. Seven hours are
11622.10699 required to reduce the moisture content from 35 to 10 percent. The critical moisture content was
found to be 20 percent and the equilibrium moisture content is 4 percent. All moisture contents are
since, Hb 0.03;mg 11622.10699 / 1 0.03 on the dry basis. Assuming that the rate of drying during the falling rate period is proportional to
lb the free moisture content, how long should it take to dry a sample of the same solid from 35 to 5
mg 11283.59902
h percent under the same conditions?

the outlet humidity Given


Ha Hb mv / mg tT = 7 hrs
1st condition 2nd condition
1008 lb
0.03 0.1193 x1= 35 x1 = 35
11283.59902 lb
x2 = 10 x2 = 5
1/ 2 xc = 20
4A
for D x* = 4

mg (1 Hb ) 11622.10699
A 5.8105ft 2 Required:
G 2000 tT @ second condition
so,D 2.72ft
Solution:
The dryer length is given by eq' n (24.23) : Basis: 100 total moisture
qT
L
0.125 DG0.67 T Total moisture equilibrium moisture = Free moisture

Thb Twb (Tha Twa ) 1st condition


T TL
ln[( Thb Twb ) /( Tha Twa )] X1: 35 4 = 31
since, Twb Twa X2: 10 4 =6
1000 150 (244.18 180) Xc: 20 4 = 16

ln[(1000 150) /( 244.18 150)]
785.82

ln 9.0253 2nd condition

357.1863 o F x2 = 5 4 =1

so,
2.226 x106
L
0.125(2.72)( 2000)0.67 (357.1863)
at:

FOUST
31 dx 31 16 15
t 18.10 A rotary countercurrent dryer is fed with wet sand containing 50 percent moisture and is
c Rc Rc Rc
16 discharging sand containing 3 percent moisture. The entering air is at 120Cand has an absolute
humidity of 0.007g H2O/g air. The wet sand enters at 25C and leaves at 40C.The air leaves at
45C.The wet sand input is 10 kg/s. Radiation amounts to 5 cal/g dry air.
X
X 16 16
t c ln c ln Calculate the pounds of dry air passing through the dryer and the humidity of the air
f Rc X Rc Rc
2 leaving the dryer.

Latent heat of H2O at 40C = 575


t t t
T c f Cp for dry sand = 0.21 cal/gC
Rc = 4.3848 kg H2O/ h m2
Cp for dry air = 0.238 cal/gC
Cp for H2O vapor = o.48cal/gC
At 2nd condition:
X1 =31 ; X2 = 1
Given:

31 dx 31 1 30
TG1=45C,H1=? G1=?,TG2=120C,H2=0.007
t
c
1 Rc Rc 4.3848

6.84 hrs

X X Ls = 10 kg/s Ts2 = 49C


16 16
t c ln c ln Ts1 = 25C X2 = 0.03
f Rc X 4.3848 1
2 X1 = 0.5

10.12 hrs Required:


G, H1

t 6.84 10.12
T Solution:

tT = 16.36 hrs GH2 + LsX1 = H1 + LsX2


G(0.007) + 10 x3(0.5) = GH1+10 x 3(0.003)

0.007G + 4.7 x103 = GH1 (1)


EVAPORATION
HG2 = Cs(TG2- To) + H2
= [1.005 + 1.88(0.007)](120-0) + 0.007(2501) 1. It is a unit operation which means to concentrate a solution considering a non-volatile
HG2 = 139.6862 kJ/kg d.a. solute and volatile solvent.
a. condensation
For the exit gas, b. evaporation
c. precipitation
HG1 = Cs(TG1- To) + H1 d. extraction
= [(1.005 + 1.88H1)(45-0) + H1 (2501) 2. It is conducted by vaporization of a portion of the solvent to produce a concentrated
HG1 = 45.225 + 2585.6 H1 solution
a. condensation
For the entering solid, b. evaporation
c. precipitation
Hs1 = Cps(Ts1-To) + X1 Cpa(Ts1-To) d. extraction
= 0.221(25-0) + 0.5(0.48)(25-0) 3. Which of the following is not a processing factor in evaporation?
Hs1 = 11.25 cal/g a. solubility
Hs2 = Cps(Ts2-To) + X2Cpa(Ts2-To) b. temperature
= 0.21(400-0) + 0.03(0.48)(40-0) c. frothing
Hs2 = 8.976 cal/g d. specific heat
4. Which of the following is not a proper assumption in evaporator calculations?
Substituting into Eq, a. The standard temperature difference is based on the temp of the boiling liquid at
the liquid vapor interface
G HG2 +Ls Hs1 = GHG1+Ls Hs2 + Q b. The standard temperature difference is based on the temp of the liquid at the liquid
G(139.6862) +10(11.25) = G(45.225 + 2585.6 H1) + 10(8.976) +5 interface
c. The log mean temperature difference is based on the temp of the boiling liquid at

94.4612G 17.74 = 2585.6GH1 (2) the liquid vapor interface


d. The log mean temperature difference is based on the temp of the liquid at the liquid

Using (1) &(2), interface

G=159140.7017g/h~159.1407 kg/h 5. The heat required to vaporize 1lb of the solvent is taken as the ____ at the exposed

H1=0.03653 gH2O/g air surface temperature of the solution


a. latent heat of vaporization
b. specific heat
c. heat transfer
d. specific heat of condensation
6. What is the usual solvent in an evaporation process? b. capacity
a. water c. percent recovery
b. alcohol d. efficiency
c. benzene 13. This can be determined by the measurement of the total heat transferred to the
d. ether evaporating mixture
7. For feed of organic salts in water, the heat capacity may be assumed ___ to that of a. economy
water alone b. capacity
a. greater c. percent recovery
b. lesser d. efficiency
c. equal 14. It is the most important single factor in evaporator design, since the heating surface
d. none of the above represents the largest part of the evaporator cost.
8. The effect of boiling point rise due to _____ is commonly neglected in evaporation a. temperature
calculations b. temperature difference
a. heat transfer c. heat transfer
b. temperature change d. pressure
c. hydrostatic head 15. The greatest increase in steam economy is achieved by reusing the vaporized solvent,
d. change in velocity which is done in the___
9. It is the difference in temperature of the liquid at the heat source and the liquid at the top a. single effect evaporator
evaporating liquid b. double effect evaporator
a. temperature change c. multiple effect evaporator
b. heat transfer d. multiple effect backward evaporator
c. boiling point rise 16. In the ___, the desirability of producing crystals of a definite uniform size usually limits
d. log mean temperature the choice to evaporators having a positive means of circulation.
10. When two or more evaporators are connected, it is called a. multiple effect evaporator
a. single effect evaporator b. single effect evaporator
b. double effect evaporator c. forced circulation evaporator
c. multiple effect evaporator d. crystallizing evaporator
d. multiple effect forward evaporator 17. ___ which is the growth on body and heating surface walls of a material having a
11. ___ is equivalent to the number of effects but it will never reach it unless the temp of the solubility that increases with increase in temperature
feed is higher than the boiling point of the liquid in the evaporator body a. salting
a. economy b. scaling
b. capacity c. crystals
c. percent recovery d. fouling
d. efficiency 18. It is the deposition and growth on body walls, and especially on heating surfaces, of a
12. ___ of the evaporator is the total amount of evaporation it is capable of producing per material undergoing an irreversible chemical reaction in the evaporator
unit time a. salting
a. economy b. scaling
c. crystals 25. this usually results from the presence in the evaporating liquid of colloids or of surface-
d. fouling tension depressants
19. It is the formation of deposits other than salt or scale and maybe due to corrosion a. splashing loss
a. salting b. entrainment losses
b. scaling c. heat losses
c. crystals d. foaming losses
d. foulingThis evaporator is suitable for the widest variety of evaporator applications 26. ___ are usually insignificant if a reasonable height has been provided between the liquid
a. multiple effect evaporator level and the top of the vapor head
b. Short-tube vertical evaporators a. splashing losses
c. forced circulation evaporator b. entrainment losses
d. crystallizing evaporator c. heat losses
20. This is one of the earliest types still in widespread commercial uses, and its principal use d. foaming losses
is in the cane industry 27. These are frequently encountered in an evaporator if feed is above the boiling point
a. multiple effect evaporator a. splashing losses
b. Short-tube vertical evaporators b. entrainment losses
c. forced circulation evaporator c. heat losses
d. crystallizing evaporator d. foaming losses
21. When the ratio of feed to evaporation is low, it is desirable to provide for 28. These are frequently used to reduce product losses
a. recirculation of product a. knitted wire mesh
b. steam recycling b. mechanical thermo compressors
c. used of multiple effect evaporator c. steam jacket
d. high powered evaporator d. entrainment separators
22. This is normally the cheapest per unit capacity type of evaporator 29. This employ reciprocating, rotary positive-displacement , centrifugal or axial flow
a. long-tube evaporator direction
b. single effect evaporator a. knitted wire mesh
c. short-tube evaporator b. mechanical thermo compressors
d. falling film long tube evaporator c. steam jacket
23. The principal problem in the falling film long tube evaporator is the d. entrainment separators
a. feed distribution 30. the requirement of low temperature for fruit-juice concentration has led to the
b. temperature control development of an evaporator employing a ___
c. high pressure a. steam economy
d. heat loss b. multiple effect
24. The falling film long tube evaporator is widely used for concentrating ___ c. temperature distribution
a. heat sensitive materials d. secondary fluid
b. highly soluble materials 31. The approximate ____ in a multiple effect evaporator is under the control of the designer,
c. high boiling point rise but once built, the evaporator establishes its own equilibrium.
d. corrosive materials a. recirculation of feed
b. multiple effect a. crystallization
c. temperature distribution b. seeding
d. secondary fluid c. solubility
32. The ___ of a multiple effect evaporator will increase in proportion to the number of d. frothing
effects
a. steam economy
b. multiple effect
c. temperature distribution
d. secondary fluid
33. It may influence the evaporator selection, since the advantages of evaporators having
high heat transfer coefficients are more apparent when expensive materials of
constructions are indicated
a. heat sensitivity
b. corrosion
c. fouling factor
d. scaling
34. ____ usually range from a minimum of about 1.2 m/s
a. horizontal tube velocity
b. tube velocity
c. tube rate
d. none of the above
35. s solutions are heated and concentration of the solute increases, ___ limit of the material
may be exceeded and crystals may form.
36. The simplest form of evaporator consists of an open pan in which the liquid is boiled d. Mollier chart
a. open kettle 43. When a multiple effect evaporator is at steady state operation, the flow rates and rate of
b. vertical type natural circulation evaporation in each effect are ___
c. falling film type evaporator a. greater
d. agitated film evaporator b. lesser
37. A variation of the long-tube evaporator c. constant
a. forced circulation type evaporator d. equal
b. vertical type natural circulation 44. In commercial practice, the areas in all effects for a multiple effect evaporator are
c. falling film type evaporator a. greater
d. agitated film evaporator b. lesser
38. This is done in a modified falling film evaporator c. constant
a. forced circulation type evaporation d. equal
b. vertical type natural circulation 45. The over-all material balance made over the whole system of a multiple effect evaporator
c. falling film type evaporation must be satisfied, and if the final solution is concentrated, the feed rate will be ______.
d. agitated film evaporation a. increased
39. In this operation, the fresh feed is added to the first effect and flows to the next in the b. decreased
same direction as the vapor flow c. held constant
a. Feed-forward d. neglected
b. Feed-backward 46. ___ of the vapor is recovered and reuse in a multiple effect evaporator
c. Parallel-feed a. heat transfer
d. None of the above b. latent heat
40. Involves the adding of fresh feed and the withdrawal of concentrated product from each c. specific heat
effect d. sensible heat
a. Feed-forward 48. The increase in steam economy obtained by using multiple-effect evaporator is at the
b. Feed-backward expense of ___.
c. Parallel-feed a. reduced capacity
d. None of the above b. product quality
41. The fresh feed enters at the coldest effect c. evaporators efficiency
a. Feed-forward d. percent yield
b. Feed-backward 49. Evaporation is also sometimes called as___
c. Parallel-feed a. Thermal recompression
d. None of the above b. Liquid compression
42. For strong solutions of dissolved solutes the boiling point rise due to the solutes in the c. Water distillation
solution cannot be predicted but the empirical law known as ___ is used d. Vapor compression
a. Enthalpy concentration chart 50. In a ____ system, the vapor is compressed by acting on it with high-pressure steam in a
b. Duhring chart jet ejector.
c. Equilibrium chart
a. Thermal recompression 47. b
48. a
b. Liquid compression
49. c
c. Water distillation 50. a
d. Vapor compression

Unit Operations Economics


Answer key
Evaporation (objective questions)
1. b 1. ____ is the money returned to the owners of capital for use of their capital.
2. b a. Interest
3. d b. Cash
4. a c. Loan
5. a d. credit
6. a 2. Any profit obtained through the uses of capital
7. c a. Interest
8. c b. Cash
9. c c. Loan
10. c d. credit
11. a 3. In economic terminology, the amount of capital on which interest is paid is designated as the
12. b principal, and the rate of interest is defined as the amount of interest earned by a unit of
13. b principal in a unit of time
14. c a. simple interest
15. c b. compound interest
16. d c. nominal interest
17. a d. interest on loan
18. b 4. When an interest period of less than 1 year is involved
19. d a. simple interest
20. c b. ordinary interest
21. b c. nominal interest
22. a d .compound interest
23. a 5. This interest stipulates that interest is due regularly at the end of each interest period.
24. a a. simple interest
25. a b. ordinary interest
26. d c. nominal interest
27. a d.compoundinterest
28. b 6. In ______interest rate, other time units are employed butthe interest rate is still expressed on an
29. d annual basis.
30. b a. simple interest
31. d b. ordinary interest
32. c c. nominal interest
33. a d.compoundinterest
34. b 7. The concept of ______is that the cost or income due to interest flows regularly, and this is just
35. b as reasonable an assumption for most cases as the concept of interest accumulating only at
36. c discrete intervals.
37. a a. continuous Interest
38. c b. Cash flow
39. d c. Loan
40. a d. credit
41. c 8. The present worth of a future amount is the present ___which must be deposited at a given
42. b interest yield tom yield the desired amount at some future date.
43. b a. principal
44. c b. Cash flow
45. d c. capital
46. a d. credit
Unit Operations Economics
9. An ____is a series of equal payments occurring at equal time intervals. 19. The point where total product cost equals total income represents the_____, and the optimum
a. principal production schedule must be at a production rate higher than that.
b. interest a. optimum
c. capital b. break-even point
d. annuity c. annuity
10. The amount of an ___is the sum of all the payments plus interest if allowed to accumulate at a d. balanced
definite rate of interest from the time of initial payment to the end of the term. 20. The total product cost per unit of time may be divided into the two classifications of operating
a. principal costs and ____costs.
b. interest a. optimum operating costs
c. capital b. Organization costs
d. annuity c. annuity costs
11. Common type of ____which involves payments, which occur at the end of each interest period d. superproduction costs
a. Perpetuity 21. This depends on the rate of production and include expenses for direct labor, raw materials,
b. Present worth of annuity power, heat, supplies, and similar items which are function of the amount of material
c. capital produced.
d. annuity a. operating costs
12. Defined as the principal which would have to be invested at the present time at compound b. Organization costs
interest rate to yield a total c. annuity costs
a. Perpetuity d. superproduction costs
b. Present worth of annuity 22. ______are due to expenses for directive personnel, physical equipment, and other services or
c. capital facilities which must be maintained irrespective of the amount of material produced. These
d. annuity are independent of the rate of production.
13. An annuity in which the first payment is due after a definite number of years. a. operating costs
a. Perpetuity b. Organization costs
b. Present worth of annuity c. annuity costs
c. deferred interest d. superproduction costs
d. deferred annuity 23. Extra expenses due to increasing the rate of production are known as ____.
14. It is an annuity in which the periodic payments continue indifferently. a. operating costs
a. Perpetuity b. Organization costs
b. Present worth of annuity c. annuity costs
c. deferred interest d. superproduction costs
d.deferredannuity 24. In a true ___operation, no product is obtained until the unit is shut down for discharging.
15. Defined as the original cost of the equipment plus the present value of the renewable a. batch
perpetuity. b. continuous
a. Perpetuity c. semi-batch
b. Present worth of annuity d. semi-continuous
c. deferred interest 25. In _____cyclic operations, product is delivered continuously while the unit is in operation, but
d.capitalizedcost the rate of delivery decreases with time.
16. An ____design could be based on conditions giving the least cost per unit of time or the a. batch
maximum profit per unit of production. b. continuous
a. optimum economic c. semi-batch
b. plant d. semi-continuous
c. simple economic 26. _____cyclic operations are often encountered in the chemical industry, and the design
d.plant economic engineer should understand the methods for determining optimum cycle times in this type of
17. A determination of an ____condition serves as a base point for a cost or design analyses, and operation
it can often be quantitized in specific mathematical form. a. batch
a. optimum b. continuous
b. plant design c. semi-batch
c. simple d. semi-continuous
d.plant economic 27. It is a mathematical technique, for determining optimum conditions for allocation of resources
18. The ___has one distinct advantage over the analytical method. and operating capabilities to attain a definite objective.
a. optimum a. economics
b. graphical b. programming
c. simple c. linear programming
d.economical d. dynamic programming
Unit Operations Economics
28. The concept of this is based on converting an overall decision situation involving many c. operating expenses
variables into a series of simpler individual problems with each of these involving a small d. sales
number of total variables. 37. This is a function of the quantity of goods and services produced and the selling price. a.
a. economics sales
b. programming b. gross income
c. linear programming c. operating expenses
d. dynamic programming d. profit
29. When quality constraints or restrictions on certain variables exist in an optimization situation, a 38. The method of approach for a profitability evaluation is by ____, which takes into account the
powerful analytical technique is the use of : time value of the money and is based on the amount of the investment that is unreturned at
a. Lagrange Multipliers the end of each year during the estimated life of the project.
b. Geometric Programming a. marketing analysis
c. steepest Ascent or Descent b. gross income
d. dynamic programming c. discounted cash flow
30. For the optimization situation in which two or more independent variables are involved, d. law of demand
response surface can often be prepared to show the relationship among the variables one of 39. In the net present worth study, the procedure has involved the determination of an index or
the early methods proposed for establishing optimum conditions from response surfaces is interest rate which discounts the annual ____to a zero present value when properly compared
known as the method: to the initial investment.
a. Lagrange Multipliers a. marketing analysis
b. Geometric Programming b. gross income
c. linear programming c. cash flow
d. steepest Ascent or Descent d. selling price
31. A technique for optimization, based on the inequality relating the arithmetic mean to geometric 40. The ____concept is useful for comparing alternatives which exist as possible investment
mean, with this method the basic idea is to start by finding the optimum way to distribute the choices within a single overall project.
total cost a. marketing analysis
a. Lagrange Multipliers b. sales inventory
b. Geometric Programming c. discounted cash flow
c. linear programming d. capitalized cost profitability
d. steepest Ascent or Descent 41. ____ is defined as the minimum length of time theoretically necessary to recover the original
32. ____(CPM) and program evaluation and review technique) have received particular attention capital investment in the form of cash flow to the project based on total income minus all cost
and have shown the desirability of applying mathematical and graphical analysis except depreciation.
a. critical path method a. deadline
b. critical planning method b. due date
c. careful planning and management c. payout period
d. none of the above d. maturity date
33. The word ____is used as a general term for the measure of the amount of profit that can be 42. The term ___ refers to a special type of alternative in which facilities are currently in existence
obtained from a given situation. and it may be desirable to replace these facilities with different ones.
a. profitability a. reserves
b. income b. replacement
c. net income c. substitute
d. sales d. none of the above
34. It is the common denominator for all business activities before capital is invested to a project or 43. In the formula, P = F(1+I )-N , where I = interest rate per period and N the number of interest
enterprise periods is known as
a. profitability a. sinking fund factor
b. income b. single payment present worth factor
c. net income c. uniform series
d. sales d. capital recovery factor
35. ____on investments is ordinarily expressed on an annual percentage basis. The yearly profit 44. Which of the following relationships between compound interest factors is not correct?
divided the by the total initial investment necessary represents the fractional return: a. Single payment compound amount factor and single payment present worth factor are
a. rate of return reciprocals
b. interest income b. Capital recovery factor and uniform series present worth are reciprocals
c. profitability c. Capital recovery factor equals the sinking fund factor plus the interest rate
d. annuity d. capital recovery factor and sinking fund factor are reciprocals
36. ___is defined as the difference between income and expense. 45. An annuity is defined as
a. profit a. Earned interest due at the end of each interest period
b. gross income b. Cost of producing a product or rendering a service
c. Amount of interest earned by a unit principal in a unit of time 56. The law of supply and demand, states that
d. A series of equal payments made at equal interval of time a. When free competition exists, the price of the product will be that value where supply is
46. Which one of the following method is not a method of depreciating plant equipment for equal to the demand
accounting and engineering economic analysis purposes? b. When perfect competition exists, the price of the product will be that value where supply is
a. double entry method equal to the demand
b. fixed percentage method c. When free competition exists, the price of the product will be that value where supply is
c. sum-of-years digit method greater to the demand
d. sinking fund method d. When perfect competition exists, the price of the product will be that value where supply is
47. ___ is a science which deals with the attainment of the maximum fulfillment of societys greater to the demand
unlimited demands for goods and services. 57. This is a form of market structure where the number of suppliers is used to determine the type
a. Political science of market.
b. Economics a. Market Structures
c. Engineering Economy b. Competition
d. Social Science c. Free competition market
48. It is the branch of economics which deals with the application of economics laws and theories d. Perfect Competition
involving engineering and technical projects or equipments. 58. This is a market situation wherein a given product is supplied by a very large number of
a. Political science vendors and there is no restriction of any additional vendor from entering the market.
b. Economics a. Market Structures
c. Engineering Economy b. Competition
d. Social Science c. Free competition market
49. This refers to the products or services that are directly used by people to satisfy their wants. d. Perfect Competition
a. Producer goods and services 59. A place where the vendors or the sellers and vendees or the buyers come together is called
b. Consumer goods and services a. Market Structures
c. Luxury Products b. Market
d. Supply c. Free competition market
50. Those that are used to produce the goods and services for the consumer are called d. Perfect Competition market
a. Producer goods and services 60. This is defined as the interest on a loan or principal that is based on the original amount of the
b. Consumer goods and services loan or principal.
c. Machineries and Technology a. Ordinary Simple Interest
d. Supply b. Simple Interest
51. This refers to the satisfaction or pleasure derived from the consumer goods and services. c. Exact Simple Interest
a. Product Satisfaction d. Compound Interest
b. Consumers contentment 61. This is based on one bankers year.
c. Luxury Products a. Ordinary Simple Interest
d. Utility b. Simple Interest
52. These are products that have an income-elasticity of demand greater than one. c. Exact Simple Interest
a. Basic Commodities d. Compound Interest
b. Consumer goods 62. __ is based on the exact number of days in a given year.
c. Luxury Products a. Ordinary Simple Interest
d.Supply b. Simple Interest
53. If the income elasticity of demand is greater than one, this means that c. Exact Simple Interest
a. as income decreases, more income will be spent on the basic commodities d. Compound Interest
b. as income increases, more expenses will be made on the basic commodity products 63. One bankers year is equivalent to
c. as income increases, more income will be spent on luxury items a. 365 days
d. as income decreases, less will be spent on the basic commodity products b. 350 days
54. It is the amount of goods and products that are available for sale by the suppliers c. 12 months and 30 days
a. Producer goods and services d. 12 months and 15 days
b. Consumer goods and services 64. This is defined as the interest of loan or principal which is based on the amount of the original
c. Machineries and Technology loan and the previous accumulated interest
d. Supply a. Ordinary Simple Interest
55. The want or desire or need for a product using money to purchase it. b. Simple Interest
a. Supply c. Exact Simple Interest
b. Consumer goods and services d. Compound Interest
c. Luxury Products
d. Demand
65. It is the amount of money or payment for the use of a borrowed money or capital a. Ordinary annuity
a. Annuity b. Perpetuity
b. Interest c. Annuity Due
c. Simple Interest d. Deferred Annuity
d. Simple Annuity 76. When an annuity does not have a fixed time span but continues indefinitely, then it is referred
66. This is defined as the basic annual rate of interest to as
a. effective rate of annuity a. Ordinary annuity
b. effective rate of interest b. Perpetuity
c. nominal rate or annuity c. Annuity Due
d. nominal rate of interest d. Deferred Annuity
67. It is defined as the actual or exact rate of interest earned on a principal during1 year period 77. This refers to the rate of interest that is quoted in the bond.
a. effective rate of annuity a. bond
b. effective rate of interest b. bond rate
c. nominal rate or annuity c. bond value
d. exact simple interest d. interest rate of bond value
68. This refers to the difference between the future worth of a negotiable paper and its present 78. It is the present worth of the future payments that will be received
worth. a. book value
a. Depreciation b. bond value
b. Market value c. fair value
c. Discount d. salvage value
d. Fair value 79. It is the amount a willing buyer will pay to a willing seller for a property where each has equal
69. This refers to the sales of stock or share at reduced price advantage and neither one of them is under compulsion to buy or sell
a. Depreciation a. Book value
b. Market value b. Market value
c. Discount c. Use value
d. Fair value d. Fair value
70. This is the deduction from the published price of services or goods. 80. The amount of the property which the owner believed to be its worth as an operating unit is
a. Depreciation called
b. Salvage value a. value
c. Discount b. Market value
d. Fair value c. Use value
71. Annuity is simply defined as d. Fair value
a. series of equal payments occurring at equal time interval of time 81. ___ is the amount obtained from the sale of the property.
b. series of payments occurring at equal time interval a. book value
c. series of equal payments occurring at certain time interval b. bond value
d. series of divided payments at pay periods c. market value
72. An annuity of a fixed time span is also called as d. salvage value
a. Ordinary annuity 82. It is the worth of the property determined by a disinterested person
b. Annuity Certain a. Book value
c. Annuity Due b. Market value
d. Deferred Annuity c. Use value
73. __ is the type of annuity where the payments are made at the beginning of each period starting d. Fair value
from the first period 83. It is the reduction or fall in the value of an asset or physical property during the course of its
a. Ordinary annuity working life due to the passage of time
b. Annuity Certain a. Depreciation
c. Annuity Due b. Depleting value
d. Deferred Annuity c. Discounted value
74. An annuity where the payments are made at the end of each period beginning on the first d. Fair value
period 84. __ is the money worth of an asset or product
a. Ordinary annuity a. Price
b. Annuity Certain b. Market value
c. Annuity Due c. value
d. Deferred Annuity d. Fair value
75. It is when the first payment does not begin until some later date in the cash flow 85. This refers to the present worth of all profits that are to be received through ownership of a
particular property
a. Price 95. It is defined as a distinct legal entity separate from the individuals who owns it and can engage
b. Market value in any business transaction which a real person could do.
c. value a. sole-proprietorship
d. capitalized cost b. Partnership
86. Refers to the sum of its first cost and cost of perpetual maintenance of a property c. Corporation
a. Price d. Entrepreneurship
b. Market value 96. Also known as joint-stock company or a cooperative
c. perpetual value a. Incorporation
d. capitalized cost b. Partnership
87. __ is a long term note or a financial security issued by businesses or corporation and c. Corporation
guaranteed on certain assets of the corporation or its subsidiaries. d. Entrepreneurship
a. Contract 97. This refers to the situation where the sales generated are just enough to cover the fixed and
b. Receipt variable cost.
c. bond value a. break-even
d. bond b. Break even chart
88. This value implies that the property will still be use for the purpose it is intended c. break even point
a. salvage value d. none of the above
b. book value 98. The break even chart shows
c. use value a. the relationship between income and fixed cost
d. depreciation b. the relationship between the volume and fixed cost, variable costs, and income
89. A depreciation computation method which is also known as Diminishing Balance Method c. the relationship between the assets and fixed cost, variable costs, and income
a. Sinking Fund Method d. the relationship between the liabilities and fixed cost, variable costs, and income
b. Straight-line Method 99. The level of production where the total income is equal to the total expenses is known as
c. Declining Balance method a. break-even
d. Break-even analysis b. Break even chart
90. Also called as Constant- Percentage Method in depreciation method c. break even point
a. Sinking Fund Method d. none of the above
b. Straight-line Method 100. The sum of perpetuity is a/an
c. Declining Balance method a. book value
d. Break-even analysis b. zero value
91. This is also known as Resale value c. infinite value
a. salvage value d. bond value
b. book value
c. use value
d. depreciation
92. ___ is considered as the simplest type of business organization wherein the firm is controlled Board Problems:
and owned by a single person
a. sole-proprietorship 1. Design based on conditions giving the least cost per unit time and maximum profit per unit
b. Partnership production
c. Corporation a. battery limit
d. Entrepreneurship b. break-even point
93. __ is a firm owned and controlled by two or more persons who are bind to an agreement c. optimum economic design
a. sole-proprietorship d. plant design
b. Partnership 2. A flow diagram, indicating the flow of materials, unit operations involved, equipment necessary
c. Corporation and special information on operating temperature and pressure is a
d. Entrepreneurship a. schematic diagram
94. It is a firm owned by a group of ordinary shareholders and the capital of which is divided up to b. qualitative flow diagram
the number of shares. c. process flow chart
a. sole-proprietorship d. quantitative flow diagram
b. Partnership 3. In plant design implementation, soil testing is done to determine
c. Corporation a. pH
d. Entrepreneurship b. load bearing capacity
c. porosity
d, viscosity
Unit Operations Economics
4. This includes all engineering aspects involved in the development of either a new, modified or F = 187.5 Lq 1.8 mc 0.20 in ft-lbs/lbm
expanded industrial plant is called
a. plant design d 0.20 Di 4.8
b. optimum design
c. process design Cf = 1.44 Di 1.5 L , in p/yr
d. engineering design
5. A chemical engineering specializing in the economic aspects of design is called Where: L = length of straight pipe, ft.
a. plant engineer q = steam flow rate, cu. ft. per sec
b. cost engineer mc = steam viscosity cp.
c. design engineer d = steam density, lb per ft3
d. process engineer Di = inside diameter of pipe, inches
6. This refers to the actual design of the equipment and facilities for carrying out the process The optimum pipe diameter that should be used for transporting the above steam is
a. process engineering a. 6 in b. 4 in c. 3 in
b. plant design d. 5 in
o
c. process design 13. A smelting furnace operating at 2, 400 F is to be insulated on the outside to reduce heat losses
d. optimum design and same on energy. The furnace wall consists of a inch steel plate and 4 inch thick
7. The final step before construction plans for plant and includes complete specifications for all refractory inner lining. During operation without other insulation, the outer surface of the steel
components of the plant and accurate costs based on quoted prices are obtained plate exposed to air has a temperature of 300oF. Ambient air temperature is at 90oF.
a. preliminary design Operation is 300 days per year. Thermal conductivities in Btu per hr-ftoF are: steel plate = 26;
b. quick estimate design refractory =0.1; insulation to be installed = 0.025. The combined radiation and convection loss
c. firm process design to air irrespective of material exposed is 3 Btu per hr-ft2-oF, annual fixed charge is 20 % of the
d. detailed design estimate initial insulation cost. If heat energy is P5.0 per 10, 000 Btu and installed cost of insulation is
8. A thorough and systematic analysis of all factors that affect the possibility of success of a P100 per inch ft2 of area, the optimum thickness of the outer insulation that should be installed
proposed undertaking usually dealing with the market, technical, financial, socio-economic is
and management aspects is called a. 8 in b. 12 in c. 10 in d. 6 in
a. pr5oject feasibility study 14. An organic chemical is produced by a batch process. In this process chemical X and Y react to
b. plant design form Z. Since the reaction rate is very high, the total time required per batch has been found
c. project development and research to be independent of the amount of materials and each batch requires 2 hr, including time for
d. product development charging, heating, and dumping. The following equation shows the relation between the
9. Discusses the nature of the product line, the technology necessary for production, its availability, pound of Z produced (lbz) and the pound of X (lbx) and Y (lby) supplied:
the proper mix of production resources and the optimum production volume
a. market feasibility lbz = 1.5(1.1lbxlbz +1.3lbylbz lbxlby)0.5
b. socio-economic feasibility
c. technical feasibility Chemical X costs P0.09 per pound, chemical Y costs P0.04 per pound and chemical Z sells
d. management feasibility for P0.8 per pound. If half of the selling price for chemical Z is due to cost other than raw
10. Discusses the nature of the unsatisfied demand which the project seeks to meet growth and materials, the maximum profit obtainable per pound of chemical Z is
the manner in which it is to be met a. P0.3 per lbz
a. financial feasibility b. P0.5 per lbz
b. management feasibility c. P0.12 per lbz
c. market feasibility d. P0.25 per lbz
d. technical feasibility 15. One hundred gram moles of R are to be produced hourly from a feed consisting of a saturated
11. A multiple effect evaporator produces 10, 000 kg of salt from a 20% brine solution per day. One solution of A. (Cao = 0.1 gmole per liter). The reaction is A R with rate R = (0.2/hr) Ca.
kg of steam evaporates 0.7 N kg of water in N effects at a cost of P25 per 1000 kg of steam. Cost of reactant at Cao = 0.1 gram mol per liter is P3.75/g-mole A; cost of backmix reactor,
The cost of the first effect is P450, 000 and the additional effects at P300, 000 each. The life installed complete with auxiliary equipment, instrumentation, overhead, labor depreciation,
of the evaporator is 10 years with no salvage value. The annual average cost of repair and etc. is P0.075 per hr-liter. The conversion that should be used for optimum operation is
maintenance is 10% and taxes and insurance is 5%. The optimum number of effects for a. 45% b. 60% c. 50%
minimum annual cost is d. 40%
a. 3 effect 16. One hundred lb moles of reactant A at a concentration of 0.01 lbmole per cuft is to be reacted
b. 5 effects with reactant B to produce R and S. The reaction follows the aqueous phase elementary
c. 4 effects reaction:
d. 2 effects
12. A process requires 20, 000 lb/hr of saturated steam at 115 psig. This is purchased from a A + B ------- R +S where k = 500 cuft/(lbmole-hr).
neighboring plant at P18. 00 per short ton and the total energy content rate (mechanical) in
the steam may be valued at P7. 5 x 10-6 per Btu. Hours of operation per year are 7200. The The amount of R required is 95 lbmoles/hr. Data:
friction loss in the line is given by the following equation * in extracting R from the reacted mixture, A and B are destroyed
* B costs P15 per lbmole in crystalline form, and is very soluble in aqueous solutions a. P275.3M b.P265.5M c. P295.3M
such that even when present in large amount does not affect A in solution d. P282.1M
* capital and operating cost for backmix reactor is P0.10 per(cuft-hr). 25. October 1995
The optimum backmix reactor size is: A company must relocate one of its factories in three years. Equipment for the loading dock is
a. 23, 900 ft3 being considered for purchase. The original cost is P20, 000; the salvage value of the
b. 24, 200 ft3 equipment after three years is P8, 000. The companys rate return on the money is 10% .
c. 25, 900 ft3 Determine the capital recovery per years.
d. 23, 500 ft3 a. P5, 115 b.P4, 946 c. P5, 625 d. P4,
805
17. April 1992. 26. October 1998.
A unit of welding machine cost P45, 000 with an estimated life of 5 years. Its salvage value id The annual maintenance cost of a machine shop is P69, 994. if the cost of making a forging is
P2, 500. Find its depreciation rate by straight-line method. P56 per unit and its selling price is P135 per forged unit, find the number of units to be forged
a. 17.75% b. 19.88% c. 18.89% to break-even.
d.15.56% a.886 units b. 885 units c. 688 units
18. April 1997. d.668 units
A machine has an initial cost of P50, 000 and a salvage value of P10, 000 after 10 years. Find 27. October 1990.
the book value after 5 years of using straight-line depreciation. Compute for the number of locks that an ice plant must be able to sell per month to break
a. P12, 500 b.P30, 000 c. P16, 400 even based on the following data:
d.P22, 300 Cost of electricity P20.00
19. October 1992. Tax to be paid per block 2.00
The initial cost of a paint sand mill, including its installation, is P800, 000. The BIR approved Real Estate Tax 3, 500.00 per month
life of this machine is 10 years for depreciation. The estimated salvage value of the mill is Salaries and wages 25, 000.00 per month
P50, 000 and the cost of dismantling is estimated is estimated to be P15, 000. Using straight- Others 12, 000.00 per month
line depreciation, what is the annual depreciation charge and what is the book value of the Selling price of Ice 55.00 per block
machine at the end of six years. a. 1228 b. 1285 c. 1373
a. P74, 500 ; P340, 250 d.1312
b. P76, 500 ; P341, 000 28. April 1998
c. P76, 500 ; P 342, 500 XYX Corporation manufactures bookcases that sell for P65.00 each. It costs XYZ Corporation
d. P77, 500 ; P343, 250 P35, 000 per year to operate its plant. This sum includes rent, depreciation charges on
20. November 1997. equipment, and salary payments. If the cost to produce one bookcase is P50.00, how many
The cost of the equipment is P500, 000.00 and the cost of installation is P30, 000. If the cases must be sold each year for XYZ to avoid taking a loss?
salvage value is 10% of the cost of equipment at the end of five years, determine the book a. 2334 b. 539 c. 750
value at the end of the fourth year. Use straight-line method. d.2333
a. P155, 000 b.P140, 000 c. P146, 000
d. P132,600 Answer Key
21. April 1998. Board Problems
An equipment costs P10, 000 with a salvage value of P500 at the end of 10 years. Calculate
the annual depreciation cost by sinking fund method at 4% interest. 1. c
a. P791.26 b.P950.00 c. P971.12 2. b
d. P845.32 3. b
22. November 1995. 4. a
A machine costing P720, 000 is estimated to have a book value of P40, 545.73 when retired 5. b
at the end of 10 years. Depreciation cost is computed using a constant percentage of the 6. c
declining book value. What is the annual rate of depreciation in %? 7. c
a.28 b. 25 c. 16 8. a
d.30 9. c
23. November 1998. 10. c
AMD Corporation makes it a policy that for any new equipment purchased; the annual 11. d
depreciation cost should not exceed 20 % of the first cost at any time with no salvage value. 12. a
Determine the length of service life is necessary if the depreciation used is the SYD method. 13. c
a.9 years b. 10 years c. 12 years d.19 14. c
years 15. c
24. November 1996. 16. a
At 6%, find the capitalized cost of a bridged whose cost is P250M and the life is 20 years, if 17. c
the bridge must be partially rebuilt at a cost of P100M at the end of each 20 years. 18. b
19. b 42. a
20. c 43. b
21. a 44. d
22. b 45. d
23. a 46. a
24. c 47. b
25. c 48. c
26. a 49. b
27. a 50. a
28. a 51. d
52. c
Answer Key 53. c
Objective Problems 54. d
55. d
1. a 56. a
2. a 57. b
3. a 58. d
4. b 59. b
5. d 60. b
6. c 61. a
7. a 62. c
8. a 63. c
9. d 64. d
10. d 65. b
11. d 66. d
12. b 67. b
13. d 68. c
14. a 69. c
15. d 70. c
16. a 71. a
17. a 72. b
18. a 73. c
19. b 74. a
20. b 75. d
21. a 76. b
22. b 77. b
23. d 78. b
24. a 79. b
25. d 80. c
26. d 81. d
27. c 82. d
28. a 83. a
29. d 84. c
30. b 85. c
31. a 86. d
32. a 87. d
33. a 88. a
34. a 89. c
35. a 90. c
36. d 91. a
37. c 92. a
38. c 93. b
39. d 94. c
40. c 95. c
41. a 96. c
97. a 7. The purchased equipment cost for a plant which produces pentaerythritol (solid-fuel
98. b processing plant) is $300,000. The plant is to be an addition to an existing formaldehyde
99. c plant. The major part of the building cost will be for indoor construction, and the
100. c contractors fee will be 7% of the direct plant cost. All other costs are close to the
average values found for typical chemical plants. On the basis of this information,
estimate the total direct plant cost.
Problem Solving a. $879 000
b. $879 253
1. The purchased cost of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger (floating head and carbon-steel c. $890 560
tubes) with 100 ft2 of heating surface was $3,000 in 1980. What will be the purchased d. $825 020
cost of a similar heat exchanger with 200 ft2 of heating surface in 1980 if purchased-cost- 8. The purchased equipment cost for a plant which produces pentaerythritol (solid-fuel
capacity exponent is 0.60 for surface area ranging from 100-400 ft2? processing plant) is $300,000. The plant is to be an addition to an existing formaldehyde
a. $4 547.15 plant. The major part of the building cost will be for indoor construction, and the
b. $4 127.25 contractors fee will be 7% of the direct plant cost. All other costs are close to the
c. $4 567.10 average values found for typical chemical plants. On the basis of this information,
d. $4523.00 estimate the fixed capital investment.
2. efer to problem no. 1. If the purchased-cost-capacity exponent for this type of exchanger a. $ 1 246 530
is 0.81 for surface areas ranging from 400-2,000 ft2, what will be the purchased cost of a b. $ 2 336 230
heat exchanger with1, 000 ft2 of heating surface in 1985? c. $ 2 546 531
a. $20 423.38 d. $ 1 246 830
b. $18 527.12
c. $14 547.00 9. Refer to the previous problem and on the basis of this information, what is the total
d. $24 542.05 capital investment?
3. If the purchased cost of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger (floating head and carbon-steel a. $1 542 125
tubes) with 100 ft2 of heating surface was $3,000 in 1980. Note that the purchase-cost- b. $1 478 570
capacity exponent is not constant over range surface area requested. What will be the c. $1 532 120
purchased cost of a heat exchanger with 700 ft2 of heating surface in 1985? d. $1 468 530
a. $15 398.79 10. The total capital investment for a chemical plant is $1,500,000 and the plant process 3M
b. $15 298.79 kg of product annually. The selling price of the product is $0.82/kg. Working capital
c. $16 498.79 amounts to 15% of the total capital investment. The investment is from company funds,
d. $16 598.79 and no interest is charged. Raw-material costs for the product are $0.09/kg, labor
4. From the preceding question, what will be the purchased cost of the heat exchanger with $0.08/kg, utilities $0.05/kg, and packaging $0.008/kg. Distribution costs are 5% of the
800 ft2 of heating surface in 1985? total product cost. Determine the percent change in total cost.
a. $18 046.32 a. 36.16%
b. $18 146.32 b. 45.32%
c. $17 046.32 c. 12.00%
d. $17 146.32 d. 35.61%
5. Refer to problem no. 3. What will be the purchased cost of the heat exchanger with 11. It is desired to have a $ 9000 available from 12 years from now. If $ 5000 is available for
1500 ft2 of heating surface in 1985? investment at the present time, what is discrete annual rate of compound interest on the
a. $38 363.62 investment would be necessary to give the desired amount?
b. $48 363.62 a. 6.02%
c. $18 363.62 b. 5.02%
d. $28363.62 c. 4.02%
d. 3.05%
6. The purchase and installation cost of some pieces of equipment are given as a function 12. An original loan of $2000 was made at 6 percent simple interest per year for 4 years. At
of weight rather than capacity. An example of this is the installed cost of large tanks. The the end of this time, no interest had been paid and the loan was extended for 6 more
1980 cost for an installed aluminum tank weighing 100,000 lb was $390,000. For a size years at a new, effective, compound-interest rate of 8 percent per year. What is the total
range from 200,000 to 1,000,000 ld, the installed cost-weight exponent for aluminum amount owned at the end of ten years if no intermediate payments are made?
tanks is 0.93. If an aluminum tank weighing 700,000 lb is required, what is the present a. $4 935.45
capital investment needed? b. $3 945.45
a. $3 160 100 c. $4 945.45
b. $3 060 000 d. $3935.45 The original cost for a distillation tower is $24,000 and the useful life of
c. $6 160 100 the tower is estimated to be 8 years. The sinking fund method for determining the
d. $6 060 000 arte of depreciation is used, and the effective annual interest for the depreciation
fund is 6 percent. If the scrap value of the distillation tower is $ 4000, determine the 18. A proposed chemical plant will require a fixed capital investment of $10 million. It is
asset value at the end of 5 years. estimated that the working capital will amount to 25% of the total investment and annual
a. $ 3,547.928 depreciation costs are estimated to be 10 percent of the fixed capital investment. If the
b. $2 235.623 annual profit will be $3 million, determine the standard percent return on the total
c. $2 547.928 investment
d. $3 235.623 a. 22.5%
13. An annuity is due to being used to accumulate money. Interest is compounded at an b. 11.25%
effective annual rate of 8 %, and $1000 is deposited at the beginning of each year. What c. 34.5%
will be the total amount of annuity due be after 5 years? d. 15.98%
a. $1233.24 19. If a plant will require a fixed capital investment of $10 million and the working capital will
b. $1173.32 amount to 25% of the total investment and annual depreciation costs are estimated to be
c. $3573.2 10 percent of the fixed capital investment. If the annual profit will be $3 million, what is
d. $183.23 the minimum payout period (POP)?
14. For the total year payments of $5000 for ten years, what will be the compound amount a. 2.5 years
accumulated at the end of ten years if the payment is at the end of the year? The b. 4 years
effective (annual) interest is 20% and payments are uniform. c. 3.5 years
a. $154 793.41 d. 2 years
b. $456 793.41 20. An annual investigation of a proposed investment has been made. The following result
c. $129 793.41 has been presented to management. The minimum payout period based on capital
d. $209 793.41 recovery using a minimum annual return of 10 percent as a fictitious expense is 10
15. Referring to the previous problem, estimate the compound amount accumulated at the years; annual depreciation costs amount top 8 percent of the total investment. Using this
end of ten years, if the payment is made weekly? information, determine the standard rate of return on the investment.
a. $143 951.49 a. 21%
b. $243 951.49 b. 10.5%
c. $443 951.49 c. 56.93%
d. $643 951.49 d. 11.5%
16. A multiple effect evaporator is to be used for evaporating 400,000 lb of water per day 21. The information given in the previous problem, applies to conditions before income
from a salt solution. The total initial cost for the 1st effect is $18,000 and each additional taxes. If 34% percent of all profits must be paid out for income taxes, determine the
effect costs $15,000. The life period is estimated to be 10 years, and the scrap value at standard rate of return after taxes using the figures given in the previous problem.
the end of the life period may be assumed to be zero. The straight-line depreciation a. 7.93%
method is used. Fixed charges minus depreciation are 15% yearly based on the first cost b. 6.93%
of the equipment. Steam cost $1.50 per 1000 lb. Annual maintenance charges are 5% of c. 4.93%
the initial equipment cost. All other cost is independent of the number of effects. The unit d. 5.93%
will operate 300 days per year. If the lb of water evaporated per pound of steam equals 22. A capitalized cost for a piece of equipment has been found to be $55,000. This cost is
0.85 x numbers of effects, determine the optimum number of effects for minimum annual based on the original cost plus the present value of an indefinite number of renewals. An
cost. annual interest rate of 12% was used in determining the capitalized cost. The salvage
a. 2 effects value of the equipment at the end of the service life was estimated to be 10 years. Under
b. 3 effects these conditions, what would be the original cost of the equipment?
c. 5 effects a. $57 391.47
d. 4 effects b. $27 291.47
17. Determine the optimum economic thickness of insulation that should be used under the c. $47 391.47
following conditions: Standard steam is being passed continuously through a steel pipe d. $37 291.47
with an outside diameter of 10.75 in. The temperature of the steam is 400F, and the For problems 24- 26.On Aug. 1, a concern had 10,000 lb of raw material on hand, which was
steam is valued at $1.80 per 1000 lb. The pipe is to be insulated with material that has a purchased at a cost of $0.030 per pound. In order to build up the reserve, 8000 lb of additional raw
thermal conductivity of 0.03 Btu/h-ft2-F/ft. The cost of installed insulation per foot of pipe material was purchased on Aug. 15 at a cost of $0.028 per pound. If none of the raw material was
length is $4.5xIt, where It is the thickness of the insulation in inches. Annual fixed used until after the last purchase.
charges including maintenance amount to 20% of the initial installed cost. The total 23. Determine the total cost of 12,000 lb of the raw material on an inventory or cost-of-sales
length of the pipe is 1000 ft, and the average temperature of the surrounding may be account for the month of August by current average method.
taken as 70F. Heat transfer resistance due to the steam film, scale and pipe wall are
negligible. The air film coefficient at the outside of the insulation may be assumed
constant at 2.0 Btu/h-ft2-F for all insulation thickness.
a. $3257
b. $4057
c. $3057
d. $4257
a. $0.00297/lb 29. What is the total amount of the Fixed Assets of the AMD Food Corporation?
b. $0.0297/lb a. $ 23,000
c. $0.2297/lb b. $ 33,050
d. $0.2970/lb c. $ 32,000
24. Determine the total cost of 12,000 lb of the raw material on an inventory or cost-of-sales d. $ 23,050
account for the month of August by FiFo method. During the month of October, the following information was obtained in the AC antifreeze retailing
a. $0.281/lb company:
b. $0.028/lb
c. $0.038/lb Salaries $ 3,000
d. $0.128/lb Delivery expenses 700
25. Determine the total cost of 12,000 lb of the raw material on an inventory or cost-of-sales Rent 400
account for the month of August by lifo method. Sales 15,100
a. $0.031/lb Antifreeze available for sale during October (at cost) 20,000
b. $0.041/lb Antifreeze inventory on Oct. 31 (at cost) 11,000
c. $2.031/lb Other expenses 1,200
d. $1.041/lb Earned surplus before income taxes as of Sept.30 800
For question nos. 27 31.
The following are the data gathered from the AMD Food Corporation:
30. Prepare an income statement for the month of October to determine the net income is for
the month of October.
Cash $20,000 a. $ 29,100
b. $ 19,200
Accounts payable: c. $ 29,200
B Company 2,000 d. $ 19,100
C Company 8,000 31. From the data above, determine also the total gross income of the AC Antifreeze
Company.
Accounts receivable 6,000 a. $26,900
Inventories 15,000 b. $36,100
Mortgage payable 5,000 c. $26,100
Common stock sold 50,000 d. $46,900
Machinery and equipment (at present value) 18,000 The following information applies to MADSteel Company on a given date:
Furniture and fixtures (at present value) 5,000
Government bonds 3,000
Surplus 2,000 Long-term debts $ 1,600
Debts due within 1 year 1,000
Accounts payable 2,300
Machinery and equipment (at cost) 10,000
Cash in bank 3,100
Prepaid rent 300
Government bonds 3,000
Social security taxes payable 240
26. From the data given above, determine the total asset of the AMD Food Corporation. Reserve for depreciation 600
a. $ 47, 050 Reserve for expansion 1,200
b. $ 67, 000 Inventory 1,600
c. $ 87, 050 Accounts receivable 1,700
d. $ 57, 000
27. Determine the total current assets of the AMD Food Corporation.
a. $ 11,000
b. $ 44,000
c. $ 22,000
d. $ 33,000
28. What is the total amount of the Current liabilities of the AMD Corporation?
a. $ 45,097 32. Determine the cash asset for the MADSteel Company at the given date.
b. $ 85,097
c. $ 25,000
d. $ 15,000
a. $6,100 depreciation fund is available for use, how much new capital must be supplied to make
b. $7,100 the purchase?
c. $7,900 a. $22,000
d. $6,900 b. $21,000
33. Determine the current asset for MADSteel Company c. $12,000
a. $8, 700 d. $11,000
b. $9, 500 40. The original investment for an asset was $10,000, and the asset was assumed to have a
c. $8, 500 service life of 12 years with $2,000 salvage value at the end of the service life. After the
d. $9, 700 asset has been in use for 5 years, the remaining service life and the final salvage value
34. Determine the current liabilities of MADSteel Company are reestimated at 10 years and $ 1,000, respectively. Under these conditions, what is
a. $5, 540 the depreciation cost during the sixth year of the total life is straight-line depreciation is
b. $1, 540 used?
c. $3, 540 a. $596.65/yr
d. $2, 540 b. $561.66/yr
35. Determine the Quick ratio for MADSteel Company c. $678.65/yr
a. 2.29 d. $566.66/yr
b. 9.87 A piece of equipment having a negligible salvage and scrap value is estimated to have a service
c. 2.56 life of 10 years. The original cost of the equipment was $40,000. Determine the following:
d. 9.56 41. Based on the above data, determine the depreciation charge for the fifth year if double-
36. Determine the current ratio of MADSteel Company declining balance depreciation is used.
a. 2.74 a. $ 3,567.2
b. 2.56 b. $ 3,276.80
c. 2.64 c. $ 4, 245.80
d. 1.98 d. $ 4,252.80
37. A reactor of special design is the major item of equipment in a small chemical plant. The 42. The depreciation charge for the fifth year if sum-of-the-years-digits depreciation is used.
initial cost of a completely installed reactor is $60,000, and the salvage value at the end a. $ 4,363.64
of the useful life is estimated to be $10,000. Excluding depreciation costs for the reactor, b. $ 5,572.14
the total annual expenses for the plant are $100,000. How many years of useful life c. $ 8,265.52
should be estimated for the reactor if 12 % of the total annual expenses for the plant are d. $ 9,356.45
due to the cost for the reactor depreciation? The straight-line method for determining 43. The percent of the original investment paid off in the first half of the service life using the
depreciation should be used. double-declining balance method.
a. 4 years a. 32.8%
b. 2 years b. 67.4%
c. 8years c. 23.4%
d. 1year d. 54.2%
38. The initial installed cost for a new piece of equipment is $10,000, and its scrap value at 44. The percent of the original investment paid off in the first half of the service life using the
the end of its useful life is estimated to be $2,000. The useful life is estimated to be 10 sum-of-the-years-digits method.
years. After the equipment has been in use for 4 years, it is sold for $7,000. The a. 45.45%
company which originally owned the equipment employs the straight-line method for b. 54.54%
determining depreciation costs. If the company had used an alternative method for c. 23.23%
determining depreciation cost, the asset (or book) value for the piece of equipment at the d. 35.53%
end of 4 years would have been $5240. The total income-tax rate for the company is 45. The original cost of the property is $30,000, and it is depreciated by a 6 percent sinking-
34% of all gross earnings. Capital-gains taxes amount to 34% of the gain. How much net fund method. What is the annual depreciation charge if the book value of the property
saving after taxes would the company have achieved by using the alternative (in this after 10 years is the same as if it had depreciated at $2,500/year by the straight-line
case, reducing-balance) depreciation method instead of the straight-line depreciation method?
method? a. $ 167.67/yr
a. $2161.60 b. $ 267.67/yr
b. $1261.07 c. $ 289.67/yr
c. $1171.70 d. $ 189.67/yr
d. $1161.60 46. A concern has a total income of $1 million/year, and all expenses except depreciation
39. A piece of equipment is originally costing $40,000 was put into use 12 years ago. At the amount to $600,000/year. At the start of the first year of the concerns operation, a
time the equipment was put into use, the service life was estimated to be 20 years and composite account of all depreciable items show a value of $850,000, and the overall
the salvage and scrap value at the end of the service life were assumed to be zero. On service life is estimated to be 20 years. The total salvage value at the end of the service
this basis, the straight-line depreciation fund was set up. The equipment can now be sold life is estimated to be $50,000. Thirty percent of all profits before taxed must be paid out
for $10,000, and a more advanced model can be installed for $55,000. Assuming the as income taxes. What would be the reduction in income-tax charges for the first year of
operation if the sum-of-the-years-digits methods were used for depreciation accounting b. $ 675
instead of the straight-line method? c. $278
a. $16,356.72 d. $955
b. $26,285.72 56. An asset with an original cost of $10,000 and no salvage value has a depreciation charge of
c. $26,356.72 $2381 during its second year of service when depreciated by the sum-of-digits method.
d. $16,285.72 What is its expected useful life?
47. The total value of anew plant is $2 million. A certificate of necessity has been obtained a. 6 years
permitting a write-off of 60 percent of the initial value ay 5 years. The balance of the plant b. 4 years
requires a write-off period of 15 years. Using the straight-line method and assuming c. 9 years
negligible salvage and scrap value, determine the total depreciation cost during the first d. 2 years
year. 57. An electronic balance costs P90, 000 and has an estimated salvage value of P8, 000 at the
a. $ 35, 555. 33/ yr end of its 10 years lifetime. What would be the book value after 3 years, using straight-line
b. $ 55, 333. 33/ yr method in solving for the depreciation?
c. $ 35, 333. 33/ yr a. P 65,200
d. $ 53, 333. 33/ yr b. P 76,466
50. A profit-producing property has an initial value of $50,000, a service life of 10 years, and c. P 24, 674
zero salvage and scraps value. By how much would annual profits before taxes be d. P 21,758
increased if a 5 percent sinking-fund method were used to determine depreciation costs A broadcasting corporation purchased equipment for P53, 000 and paid P1, 5000 for freight and
instead of straight-line method? delivery charges top the job sites. The equipment has a normal life of 10 year with a trade-in value
a. $ 3 556.24 of P5, 000 against the purchase of anew equipment at the end of the life.
b. $ 3 354.35 58. Referring to the problem above, determine the annual depreciation by straight-line
c. $ 3 484.31 method.
d. $ 3.034.35 a. P4, 950
51. In order to make it worthwhile to purchase a new piece of equipment, the annual b. P5, 950
depreciation costs for the equipment cannot exceed $3,000 at any time. The original cost c. P7, 950
of the equipment is $30,000, and it has a zero salvage and scrap value. Determine the d. P3, 950
length of service life necessary if the equipment is depreciated by the sum=of-the-years- 59. From the preceding number, determine annual depreciation by sinking fund method. Assuming
digits method by the straight-line method. interest 6 % compounded annually.
a. 19 years a. P 3,668
b. 23 years b. P 1,575
c. 17 years c. P 4,245
d. 18 years d. P6,258
52. Referring to the previous number, determine the length of service life necessary if the
equipment is depreciated by the straight-line method. A firm brought equipment for P56, 000. Other expenses including installation amounted to P4, 000.
a. 8 years The equipment is expected to have a life of 16 years with a salvage value of 10% of the original
b.10 years cost.
c. 12 years 60. Determine the book value at the end of 12 years by SLM:
d. 9 years a. P19, 500
b. P20,555
A materials-testing machine was purchased for $20,000 and was to be used for 5 years with an c. P15,582
expected residual salvage value of $5,000. Graph the annual depreciation charges and year-end d. P18, 562
book values obtained by using: 61. Determine the book value at the end of 12 years by SFM:
53. By using Straight-line depreciation a. P29, 520
a. $ 6,000 b. P29, 520
b. $ 5,000 c. P29, 520
c. $ 9,000 d. P29, 520
d. $ 7,000
54.By using Sum-of-digits depreciation
a. $ 6,000 For numbers 62 64. A certain type of machine losses 10% of its value each year. The machine
b. $ 5,000 cost P2, 000 originally. Make cut a schedule showing the following:
c. $ 9,000 62. By yearly depreciation
d. $ 7,000 a.131.32
b.132.12
55. By using Double-declining balance depreciation c.123.23
a. $ 625 d. 213.20
63. The total depreciation after 5 years. a. $2.88
a. P819.12 b. $3.88
b. P562.23 c. 4.88
c. P456.26 d. 1.88
d. P895.23 72. In a type 1 warehouse, initial cost will be $24, 000.This warehouse has adequate
64. Estimate the book value at the end year for 5 years. capacity for the near future, but 12 years from now an addition will be required that costs
a. P1, 180.98 $15, 000. A type 2 warehouse costs $34, 000. This type has the same capacity as the
b. P5, 125.25 type 1 warehouse with its addition. What will be the present cost of the type 1
c. P1, 256.32 warehouse? Which of these should be built, assuming that depreciation is negligible and
d. P5, 235.00 that the interest rate is 7%?
65. Determine the rate of depreciation, the total depreciation up to the end of 8th year and a. $30, 540
book value at the end of 8 years for an asset that costs P15,000 new and has an b. $30,660
estimated scrap value of P2,000 at the end of 10 years by DBM. c. $23, 548
a. P 12,108 d. $15,235
b. P12, 008 73. Determine the equal (year-end) payments that will be available for the next four years if
c. P11,355 we invest $4, 000 at 6%.
d. P10,245 a. $2533.23
66. Determine the rate of depreciation, the total depreciation up to the end of 8th year and b. $2322.25
book value at the end of 8 years for an asset that costs P15, 000 new and has an c. $1123.25
estimated scrap value of P2, 000 at the end of 10 years by DDBM. d. $1154.36
a. P 12,583 74. A new snow removal machine costs $50, 000. The new machine will operate at a
b. P 10,483 reputed savings of $400 per day over the present equipment in terms of time and
c. P 12,483 efficiency. If interest is at 5% and the machines life is assumed to be 10 years with zero
d. P 10,583 salvage, how many days per year must the machine be used to make the investment
67. Mr. Dim bought a calciner for P220, 000 and used it for 10 years, the life span of the economical?
equipment. What is the book value of the calciner after 5 years of use? Assume a scrap a. 15 days
value of P20, 000 for SLM; b. 16 days
a. P 120,566 c. 14 days
b. P 120,452 d. 12 days
c. P 120,000 75. Based on the sinking fund method and using the data in the previous problem, what
d. P 130,000 number of days must the machine be used if the amount to be accumulated in 10 years
68. Refer to the previous problem. What is the book value of the calciner after 5 years of is a. $50, 000
use? Assume a scrap value of P22, 000 for textbook for DBM. b. $60,000
a. P 96, 570.00 c. $55,000
b. P 69, 235.00 d. $45, 000
c. P 59, 235.00 76. Based on the sinking fund method and using the data in the previous problem, what
d. P 69, 570.00 number of days must the machine be used if the amount to be accumulated in 10 years
69. Refer to the previous problem. What is the book value of the calciner after 5 years of is $50, 000?
use? Assume a scrap value of P20, 000 for textbook for DDBM. a. 12 days
a. P72 091 b. 10 days
b. P72 356 c. 14 days
c. P71 190 d. 13 days
d. P72 090 77. A consulting engineer decides to set up an educational fund for his son that will provide
70. A structure costs P12, 000 new. It is estimated to have a life of 5 years with a salvage $3000 per year for 6 years starting in 16 years. The best interest rate he can expect to
value at the end of life of P1, 000. Determine the book value at the end of three years. get is 5% compounded quarterly. He wants to accumulate the necessary capital by
a. 733 making quarterly deposits until his son starts college. What will be his needed quarterly
b. 562 deposit?
c. 252 a. $15, 210
d. 377 b. $16,213
71. Operator A produces 120 spindle/hr on a lathe. His hourly rate is $1.80. Operator B, c. $15, 213
using an identical lathe, is able to produce 150 identically units/hr. The overhead charge d. $16, 210
for a lathe is fixed at $2.50/hr. Determine operator Bs hourly rate so that his cost per 78. A low carbon steel machine part, costing $350 installed, lasts 6 years when operating in
piece is identical to As. a corrosive atmosphere. An identically shaped part, but treated for corrosion resistance,
would cost $650 installed. How long would the corrosion resistance part have to last to
be at least as good investment as the untreated part? Assume money is worth 7%
a. 11 years d. $37, 291.47
b. 12 years 84. A heat treating furnace is used to preheat small steel parts. The furnace uses fuel oil
c. 14 years consisting $0.04 per gallon, with a heating value of 142, 000Btu/gal. The furnace has a
d. 13 years firebrick lining, the outside temperature of which is 1210 F, this is to be covered with
79. The total cost of a cast product consists of (1) the raw material cost that is directly insulation costing $300 per 1000 board feet. The air temperature is 110 F. Operations is
proportional to the weight, of the casting, (2) the machining cost that varies inversely as 7200 hr/yr. Conductivity is 0.028 for insulation in Btu/hr-ft2-F. Calculate the most
the weight, and (3) overhead cost that remains constant per unit produced regardless of economical thickness of insulation. Furnace life is 8 years. Assume negligible
weight. Find the weight giving the minimum cost per casting. temperature drop from insulation to air.
a. W = (k1/k2)1/4 lb a. 5.52 in
b. W = (k2/k1)1/2 lb b. 5.24 in
c. W = (k2/k1)1/4 lb c. 5.48 in
d. W = (k1/k2)1/2 lb d. 5.45 in
80. Based on the previous problem, what is the minimum total cost? 85. A batch inorganic chemical operations gives product C from two chemicals A and B
a. Ct = [k2(k2 / k1)1/2 = k2 (k1 / k2) 1/4+ Co] according to the following empirical relation:
b. Ct = [k1(k2 / k1)1/2 = k2 (k1 / k2) + Co] C = 2.8 (AB AC 1.2 BC + 0.5C2 )0.5
c. Ct = [k1(k2 / k1)1/4 = k2 (k2 / k1) + Co] where A, B and C are pounds of respective components. The reaction rate is sufficiently high to be
d. Ct = [k2(k1 / k1)1/4 = k2 (k1 / k2) + Co] neglected, and the time to make any batch is essentially the charging and discharging time,
81. Methyl alcohol condensed at 148 F is to be cooled to 100 F for storage at a rate of 10, including heating up, which totals 1 hr. If A costs $0.10 per lb and B costs $0.05 per lb, what is the
000gal/hr by water available at 75 F in a countercurrent heat exchanger. The over-all ratio of B to A to give the minimum costs of raw materials per lb of product . what is the cost per lb
heat transfer coefficient is constant and estimated at 200 Btu/ft 2-hr-F. Heat exchanger of C?
annual costs including operation are estimated at $2 per ft2 including depreciation. The a. $4.08
cooler is to operate 5, 000 hr/year, and the value of heat utilized is estimated at $5x10 -7 b. $3.23
per Btu. What is the estimated optimum cost of the heat exchanger if the cost for surface c. $4.23
is $9 per ft2? d. $3.08
a. $4, 014 86. Based from the previous problem, what is the cost per lb of C?
b. $4,123 a. $4.08
c. $5,545 b. $3.23
d. $5,123 c. $4.23
82. What is the most economical number of effects to use in the recovery of black liquor in a d. $3.08
paper plant if the following cost data are available? The annual fixed costs increase 87. Seven million pounds of water per year is to be obtained from 8 percent solids slurry to
essentially linearly with each effect (except for condensing, feeding, and other equipment be filtered on a leaf filter to produce a cake containing 40 percent solids. The area of the
costs for multiple units which may be considered to balance each other). If a fixed filter is 200 ft2. Tests show a value of 2 x 104 for k in pound units. The cake is not
amount of evaporation is to be obtained and each units to have 1, 000 ft 2 of heating washed. The dumping and cleaning time is 3 hr and costs $39 each cycle. Filtration
surface with a service life of five years, the annual fixed costs Cf would be (using cost costs are $14 per hr, and inventory charges maybe neglected. What is the cycle time for
data of $25, 000 for a single evaporator of 5, 000 ft2, employing the 0.6 factor, and minimum costs?
neglecting the interest). a. 0.014 hrs
Cf =( 1, 000)0.6 25, 000 N . dollars per year b. 0.015 hrs
5, 000 5 c. 1 hr
where N is the number of effects. d. 0.25 hrs
Because of the steam economy in multiple-effect operation, the direct costs for steam 88. Referring to the previous problem, calculate the cycle time for maximum production.
will decrease and the total of all annual direct costs, CD, has been established for this type of a. 3.04 hrs.
operation as b. 2.04 hrs
CD = 65, 000 N -0.95 dollars c. 3.52 hrs
a. 4 effects d. 1.02 hrs
b. 2 effects
c. 6 effects For nos. 89- 91.
d. 5 effects In processing 500 ton/day of ore assaying 50% mineral, 300 tons of concentrate containing 66.7 %
83. A capitalized cost for a piece of equipment has been found to be $55, 000. This cost is are obtained at a cost of sales ( all fixed operating cost are excluded) of $15 per ton concentrate.
based on the original cost plus the present value of an indefinite number of renewals. An An investment of $200, 000 of concentrate that will assay 71% mineral. If the plant operates 200
annual interest rate of 12% was used in determining the capitalized cost. The salvage days/year, equipment must pay out in 5 years with interest at 15% and no salvage value and no
value of the equipment at the end of the service life was estimated to be 10 years. Under additional labor or repair costs need to be considered.
these conditions, what would be the original cost of the equipment?
a. $36, 861.47 89. Based on the stated problem above, calculate the additional cost per ton of concentrate
b. $32, 251.47 for capital recovery on the new equipment.
c. $27, 291.47
a. $74.6 d. 2, 845.17 pesos
b. $56.2 97. A one bagger concrete mixer can be purchased with a down payment of P8, 000 and
c. $15.2 equal installments of P600 each paid at the end of every month for the next 12 months. If
d. $14.0 the money is worth 12% compounded monthly, determine the equivalent cash prize of
90. Determine the selling price in dollars per ton (100% mineral basis) required for which the the mixer.
cost of the n new equipment is justified. a. 4, 753.05 pesos
a. $ 123.12 b. 34, 753.05 pesos
b. $ 123.50 c. 24, 753.05 pesos
c. $ 263.25 d. 14, 753.05 pesos
d. $ 263.13 98. A certain company makes it the policy that for any new piece of equipment, the annual
91. What is the % increase in recovery and rejection for the new process based on mineral depreciation cost should not exceed 10% of the original cost at any time with no salvage
and gauged? or scrap value. Determine the length of service life necessary if the depreciation method
a. 42.567% use is straight line formula.
b. 22.224% a. 10 years
c. 52.677% b. 12 years
d. 12.235% c. 18 years
92. A ties on a plant railroad sliding are to be replaced. Untreated ties consisting $ 2.50 d. 8 years
installed have a life of 7 years. If created ties have a life of 10 years, what is the 99. Solve the previous problem with the sinking fund formula at 8%
maximum installed cost that should be paid for treated ties if money is worth 8 percent? a. 8 years
a. $3.15 b. 10 years
b. $3.10 c. 6 years
c. $3.25 d. 12 years
d. $3.20 100. Determine the ordinary simple interest on $10, 000 for 9 months and 10 days if the rate
93. Powdered coal having a heating value of 13, 500 Btu/ lb is to be compared with fuel oil of interest is 12%.
worth $2.00 per bbl (42 gal) having a heating value of 130,000 Btu/gal as a source of fuel a. $433.33
in the processing plant. If the efficiency of the conversion of the fuel is 64% for coal and b. $633.33
72 % for oil, with all other costs being equal, what is the maximum allowable selling price c. $333.33
for coal per ton? d. $933.33
a. $15.13 / ton
b. $11.13 / ton Answers:
c. $21.13 / ton
d. $25.13 / ton 1. The purchased cost of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger (floating head and carbon-steel tubes)
94. A steam boiler is purchased on the basis of guaranteed performance. However, initial with 100 ft2 of heating surface was $3,000 in 1980. What will be the purchased cost of a similar
tests indicate that the opening (income) cost will be P400 more per year than heat exchanger with 200 ft2 of heating surface in 1980 if purchased-cost-capacity exponent is 0.60
guaranteed. If the expected life is 25 years and money is worth 10 %, what deduction for surface area ranging from 100-400 ft2?
from the purchase price would compensate the buyer for the additional operating cost? GIVEN:
a. 3, 635.82 pesos A1 = 100 ft2 i100-400 = 0.60
b. 3, 660.82 pesos P1980 = $3, 000 i400-1,000 = 0.81
2
c. 3,560.82 pesos A2 = 200 ft
d. 3, 630.82 pesos REQUIRED:
95. If the sum of P12, 000 is deposited in an account earning interest at the rate of 9% $ of 200 ft2 in 1980
compounded quarterly, what will it become at the end of 8 years? SOLUTION:
a. 14, 857.24 0.6
200 ft2
b. 34, 457.24
cost200 ft2 = $3,000 2
100 ft
c. 14, 527.24
d. 24, 457.24
96. At a certain interest rate compounded quarterly, P1, 000 will amount to P4, 500 in 15
years. What is the amount at the end of 10 years? cost 200 ft 2 = $4, 547.15
a. 2, 125.17 pesos
b. 2, 725.17 pesos
c. 2, 625.17 pesos 2. Refer to problem no. 1. If the purchased-cost-capacity exponent for this type of exchanger is
0.81 for surface areas ranging from 400-2,000 ft2, what will be the purchased cost of a heat
exchanger with1, 000 ft2 of heating surface in 1985?
GIVEN:
A1 = 100 ft2 i100-400 = 0.60
P1980 = S3,000 i400-1,000 = 0.81 0.60
A2 = 200 ft2 400
C1985 = $8,181.50
REQUIRED:
$ of 1,000 ft2 in 1985 300
SOLUTION: C1985 = $9,722.91
using table 3, page 163 (Cost indexes as annual average)
where: 1980 = 560, and 1985 = 790 For 500 ft2
0.81
400 ft2
0.6
500
cost = $3,000 C1985 = $9,722.91
2 400
100 ft
C1985 = $11,649.13
cost = $6,892.19 For 600 ft2
0.81
600
C1985 = $11,649.13
1,000 ft2
0.81 500
790
cost1985 = $6,892.19 2 C1985 = $13,503.00
400ft 560
For 700 ft2
0.81
cost1985 = $20, 423.38 700
C1985 = $13,503.00
600
3. If the purchased cost of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger (floating head and carbon-steel tubes)
with 100 ft2 of heating surface was $3,000 in 1980. Note that the purchase-cost-capacity exponent C1985 = $15,298.79
is not constant over range surface area requested. What will be the purchased cost of a heat
exchanger with 700 ft2 of heating surface in 1985? 4. From the preceding question, what will be the purchased cost of the heat exchanger with 800 ft 2
GIVEN: of heating surface in 1985?
A = 100 to 2,000 ft2 GIVEN:
Present year = 1980 A = 100 to 2,000 ft2
P1980 = $3,000 Present year = 1980
REQUIRED: P1980 = $3,000
1985 purchase cost with 700 ft2 REQUIRED:
SOLUTION: 1985 purchase cost with 800 ft2
Using table 3, page 163 (Cost indexes as annual average) SOLUTION:
2
Where: 1980 = 560, and 1985 = 790 For 700 ft2
For 200 ft 0.81
0.60 700
200 790 C1985 = $13,503.00
C1985 = $3,000 600
100 560
C1985 = $15,298.79
C1985 = $6,414.73
For 300 ft2
0.60 For 800 ft2
300
C1985 = $6,414.73 800
0.81

200 C1985 = $15,298.79


C1985 = $8,181.50 700
For 400 ft2 C1985 = $17,046.32

5. Refer to problem no. 3. What will be the purchased cost of the heat exchanger with 1500 ft 2 of
heating surface in 1985?
GIVEN:
A = 100 to 2,000 ft2
Present year = 1980 of the building cost will be for indoor construction, and the contractors fee will be 7% of the direct
P1980 = $3,000 plant cost. All other costs are close to the average values found for typical chemical plants. On the
REQUIRED: basis of this information, estimate the total direct plant cost.
1985 purchase cost with 1500 ft2 GIVEN:
SOLUTION: Equipment Cost = $300,000
For 800 ft2 Contractors Fee = 7% of the direct plant cost
0.81
800
C1985 = $15,298.79
REQUIRED:
700 SOLUTION:
Total direct plant cost

C1985 = $17,046.32 Purchased Equipment 100% ($300,000)= $300,000


Purchased Installation 39% ($300,000) =
For 1,000 ft2 $117,000
0.81
1,000 Instrumentation 13% ($300,000) =
C1985 = $17,046.32 $39,000
800 Piping 31% ($300,000) =
$93,000
C1985 = $20,423.39 Electrical 10% ($300,000) = $30,000
For 1,500 ft2 Building 29% ($300,000) = $87,000
0.81 Yard Improvements 10% ($300,000) = $30,000
1,500 Service Facilities 55% ($300,000) = $165,000
C1985 = $20,423.39 Land 6% ($300,000) =
1,000 $18,000
C1985 = $28,363.62 Total Direct Plant Cost = $879,000

8. The purchased equipment cost for a plant which produces pentaerythritol (solid-fuel processing
6. The purchase and installation cost of some pieces of equipment are given as a function of plant) is $300,000. The plant is to be an addition to an existing formaldehyde plant. The major part
weight rather than capacity. An example of this is the installed cost of large tanks. The 1980 cost of the building cost will be for indoor construction, and the contractors fee will be 7% of the direct
for an installed aluminum tank weighing 100,000 lb was $390,000. For a size range from 200,000 plant cost. All other costs are close to the average values found for typical chemical plants. On the
to 1,000,000 ld, the installed cost-weight exponent for aluminum tanks is 0.93. If an aluminum tank basis of this information, estimate the fixed capital investment.
weighing 700,000 lb is required, what is the present capital investment needed? GIVEN:
GIVEN: Equipment Cost = $300,000
W1980 = 100,000 lb i200, 000-1,000,000 = 0.93 Contractors Fee = 7% of the direct plant cost
C1980 = $390,000 REQUIRED:
REQUIRED: Fixed capital investment
C in $ for 700,000 lb

SOLUTION: SOLUTION:
0.60 0.93
200,000 700,000 Purchased Equipment 100% ($300,000)= $300,000
C = $390,000 Purchased Installation 39% ($300,000) =
1,000,000 200,000 $117,000
Instrumentation 13% ($300,000) =
C = $1,900,000 $39,000
Present Cost Piping 31% ($300,000) =
using table 3, page 163 (Cost indexes as annual average) $93,000
where: 1980 = 560, and 1985 = 904 Electrical 10% ($300,000) = $30,000
Building 29% ($300,000) = $87,000
904
C1990 = $1,900,000
Yard Improvements 10% ($300,000) = $30,000
560 Service Facilities 55% ($300,000) = $165,000
Land 6% ($300,000) =
C1990 = $3,060,000 $18,000

Engineering and Supervision 32% ($300,000) = $96,000


7. The purchased equipment cost for a plant which produces pentaerythritol (solid-fuel processing
plant) is $300,000. The plant is to be an addition to an existing formaldehyde plant. The major part
Construction Expense 34% ($300,000) =
$102,000 after producing only 500,000 kg of product
TPC = 0.35 + 0.20 + 0.084 = 0.6384
$198,000
Constructors Fee 7% ($879,000) = $61,530 % change = 100 - 63.84
Contingencies 36% ($879,000) =
$108,000 % change = 36.16%
$169,530
11. It is desired to have a $ 9000 available from 12 years from now. If $ 5000 is available for
Fixed Capital Investment = $1, 246, 530 investment at the present time, what is discrete annual rate of compound interest on the
9. Refer to the previous problem and on the basis of this information, what is the total capital investment would be necessary to give the desired amount?
investment? GIVEN:
GIVEN: S = $ 9000
Equipment Cost = $300,000 P = $ 5000
Contractors Fee = 7% of the direct plant cost n = 12
Fixed capital investment = $1, 246, 530 REQUIRED: Interest, i
REQUIRED: SOLUTION:
Total capital investment S = P (1 + i )n
SOLUTION: $9000 = $5000(1 + i) 12
Fixed Capital Investment $1, 246, 530 i = 0.05 or 5.02 %
Working Capital 74% ($300,000) =
$222,000
12. An original loan of $2000 was made at 6 percent simple interest per year for 4 years. At the
end of this time, no interest had been paid and the loan was extended for 6 more years at a new,
Total Capital Investment = $1, 468, 530 effective, compound-interest rate of 8 percent per year. What is the total amount owned at the end
of ten years if no intermediate payments are made?
GIVEN: P = $2000
10. The total capital investment for a chemical plant is $1,500,000 and the plant process 3M kg of i = 6%
product annually. The selling price of the product is $0.82/kg. Working capital amounts to 15% of n = 4 years
the total capital investment. The investment is from company funds, and no interest is charged. REQUIRED: SC
Raw-material costs for the product are $0.09/kg, labor $0.08/kg, utilities $0.05/kg, and packaging SOLUTION:
$0.008/kg. Distribution costs are 5% of the total product cost. Determine the percent change in SS = P (1 + in)
total cost. = 2000 [1 + 0.06(4)]
GIVEN: SS = $2480
Total Capital Investment $1,500,000 Extended for 6 years
Product 3,000,000 kg annually SC = $2480 (1 + 0.08)6
Selling Price $0.82/kg
Working Capital 15% of the total capital
Raw Materials Cost $0.09/kg SC = $ 3,935.45
Labor $0.08/kg
Utilities $0.05/kg
Packaging $0.008/kg 13. The original cost for a distillation tower is $24,000 and the useful life of the tower is estimated
Distribution Cost 5% of total capital cost to be 8 years. The sinking fund method for determining the arte of depreciation is used, and the
REQUIRED: % change in total cost effective annual interest for the depreciation fund is 6 percent. If the scrap value of the distillation
tower is $ 4000, determine the asset value at the end of 5 years.
SOLUTION: GIVEN: n = 8 years
TPC = FC + WC +VO V = $ 24,000
TPC = 0.35 + 0.040 + 0.25 VS = $4000
TPC = 1 or 100% REQUIRED: R

1.5
x 500,000
by ratio and proportion =
25 1,000,000 SOLUTION:
x = 8.84%
i For new ieff = [1+ r/m) m-1
R (V VS ) Ieff = [1 + 0.2/52) -1 = 0.2209
(1 i)n 1 Solving for S,
S = R[1+ ieff) 1]/ieff
S = $5000 [1.02209) 10-1]/0.2209
0.06
R (24000 4000) S = $ 143951.4873
(1 0.6)5 1
R = $ 3,547.928 17. A multiple effect evaporator is to be used for evaporating 400,000 lb of water per day from a
salt solution. The total initial cost for the 1st effect is $18,000 and each additional effect costs
$15,000. The life period is estimated to be 10 years, and the scrap value at the end of the life
14. An annuity is due to being used to accumulate money. Interest is compounded at an effective period may be assumed to be zero. The straight-line depreciation method is used. Fixed charges
annual rate of 8 %, and $1000 is deposited at the beginning of each year. What will be the total minus depreciation are 15% yearly based on the first cost of the equipment. Steam cost $1.50 per
amount of annuity due be after 5 years? 1000 lb. Annual maintenance charges are 5% of the initial equipment cost. All other cost is
GIVEN: independent of the number of effects. The unit will operate 300 days per year. If the lb of water
R = $1000 evaporated per pound of steam equals 0.85 x numbers of effects, determine the optimum number
N = 5 yrs. I=8% of effects for minimum annual cost.
REQUIRED: S5 GIVEN:
SOLUTION: Initial cost = $18000
If no interest: S5 = R [ ( 1+ i) n 1]/i Lb of water = 400000 lb
S5= $5000 Cost of additional effect = $15000
But with interest: Life period = 10
S5 = 1000[(1 + 0.08) 5-1]/0.08 Salvage value = 0
Fixed charges = 15% of first cost
S5 = $ 5866.6009 Steam cost = $1.50/1000 lb
Per year: S = $5866.6009/5 = $ 1173.32 Maintenance charges = 5% of first cost
Operation = 300 days/year
Lb of steam/lb water = 0.85 x no. of effects
15. For the total year payments of $5000 for ten years, what will be the compound amount REQUIRED:
accumulated at the end of ten years if the payment is at the end of the year? The effective (annual) Optimum number of effects for minimum annual cost
interest is 20% and payments are uniform.
GIVEN: SOLUTION:
R = $5000 Let x = additional no. of effects
20% annual interest Cost of equipment = 18000 + 15000x
REQUIRED: FC = 0.15 (18000 +15000x)
S at the end of the year = 2700 + 2250 x
SOLUTION:
S = R [(1+ i) n 1]/i Annual maintenance = 0.05(18000+15000x)
S = $5000[(1 +0.2) 10-1]/0.2 = 900 + 750x
S = $ 129793.41
Depreciation/yr = (18000+15000x)/10
d = 1800 + 1500x
16. Referring to the previous problem, estimate the compound amount accumulated at the end of
ten years, if the payment is made weekly? lb of steam = 400000lbH2O/day (300 days/yr)
GIVEN:
0.85(x+1)
R = $5000
= 1.41176 x 108
20% annual interest (x+1)
REQUIRED:
S at the end of the year Steam cost / yr = 1.50 1.41176x10 8

1000 x 1
SOLUTION: = 70,588.23 / (x+1)

For weekly i 0.2 Total Cost per year = CT = FC + Steam cost + depreciation + maintenance cost
CT = (2700 + 2250x) + (1800+1500x) + (900+750x) + (70588.23/x+1)
A = DoL =
10.75 2I t (1000)
CT = 5400 + 4500x + 70588/(x+1)2
dC T 70588 12
4500 1
dx ( x 1) 2 Uo
1 x w Do
2
0 = 4500(x +2x+1) 70588
0 = 4500x2 + 9000x 66088 ho kDln
Do do
Using quadratic equation: Dln
9000 90002 44500 66088 2
x=
2(4500) Dln
10.75 2I t (10.75)
10.75 I t
x = 2.96 2
1
Use total effect = 3 Uo
1 I t (10.75 2I t )
18. Determine the optimum economic thickness of insulation that should be used under the 2 0.03(10.75 I t )(12)
following conditions: Standard steam is being passed continuously through a steel pipe with an
outside diameter of 10.75 in. The temperature of the steam is 400F, and the steam Cost is valued at
of steam=
$1.80 per 1000 lb. The pipe is to be insulated with material that has a thermal conductivity of 0.03
dTAC
Btu/h-ft2-F/ft. The cost of installed insulation per foot of pipe length is $4.5xI t, where It is the 900 I t 458 .8(10 .75 2It )
thickness of the insulation in inches. Annual fixed charges including maintenance amount to 20% dI t
of the initial installed cost. The total length of the pipe is 1000 ft, and the average temperature of
the surrounding may be taken as 70F. Heat transfer resistance due to the steam film, scale and

pipe wall are negligible. The air film coefficient at the outside of the insulation may be assumed 1

1 I t (10.75 2I t )
2 0.03(10.75 I t )(12)
constant at 2.0 Btu/h-ft2-F for all insulation thickness. TAC = 900 I t 2.31 ( 10 .75 I t )(10 .75 2I t )
GIVEN: (10 .75 I t )(2I t ) 2 0.935
0 = 900 I t 2.31 ( 10 .75 I t )(10 .75 2I t )
Steam
400F do = 10.75 in
(10 .75 I t )(2I t ) 2 0.935
Do (with insulation) = 10.75 + 2 It It = 1 TAC = $3228
Cost of steam = $1.80/1000lb = 1.5 TAC = $3054
Thermal conductivity = 0.03 Btu/h-ft2-F/ft
Cost of insulation/ft = $4.5 It It = 1.4 TAC = $3057
Annual fixed charges + maintenance = 20% of Initial cost
Length = 1000 ft 19. A proposed chemical plant will require a fixed capital investment of $10 million. It is estimated
T surrounding = 70F that the working capital will amount to 25% of the total investment and annual depreciation costs
h = 2 btu/h-ft2F are estimated to be 10 percent of the fixed capital investment. If the annual profit will be $3 million,
REQUIRED: determine the standard percent return on the total investment
Optimum economic thickness insulation

SOLUTION: GIVEN:
Cost of insulation = (4.5 It) (1000 ft ) = 4500 It FCI = $10 M
Working capital = 25% TCI
FC = 0.20 (4500 It) Annual depreciation costs = 10% FCI
FC = 500 It Annual profit = $3 M
REQUIRED:
cost of steam = m = UAoT % return on investment (ROR)
T = 400 70 =330F SOLUTION:
= 826 btu/lb
annualprofit = x 0.10TCI
ROR =
TCI 10 = 0.85TCI
But TCI = FCI + WC (x 0.10TCI) 0.8TCI
Let x = TCI
x = 10 M + 0.25x x = 0.105 TCI
x = TCI = $13.33M %rate of return = annualprofit x100
TCI
ROR = $3M
x100 ROR = 10.50%
$13.33M
ROR = 22.5% 22. The information given in the previous problem, applies to conditions before income taxes. If
34% percent of all profits must be paid out for income taxes, determine the standard rate of return
after taxes using the figures given in the previous problem.
20. If a plant will require a fixed capital investment of $10 million and the working capital will GIVEN:
amount to 25% of the total investment and annual depreciation costs are estimated to be 10 Payout period = 10 years
percent of the fixed capital investment. If the annual profit will be $3 million, what is the minimum Minimum annual return = 0.10 of fictitious expense
payout period (POP)? Annual depreciation cost = 8% TCI
GIVEN: 34% of all profits must be paid out for income taxes
FCI = $10 M REQUIRED
Working capital = 25% TCI Standard rate of return after taxes
Annual depreciation costs = 10% FCI SOLUTION:
Annual profit = $3 M Profit = 0.105TCI (before taxes)
REQUIRED: Profit = 0.105TCI 0.34(0.105TCI) (after taxes)
minimum payout period Profit = 0.0693TCI
SOLUTION:
ROR = annualprofit x100
depreciableFCI TCI
POP =
profit dep' n = 0.0693TCI x100
TCI
yr yr
ROR = 6.93%
= 10M
$3M
0.1($10M) 23. A capitalized cost for a piece of equipment has been found to be $55,000. This cost is based
yr on the original cost plus the present value of an indefinite number of renewals. An annual interest
POP = 2.5 years rate of 12% was used in determining the capitalized cost. The salvage value of the equipment at
the end of the service life was estimated to be 10 years. Under these conditions, what would be the
21. An annual investigation of a proposed investment has been made. The following result has original cost of the equipment?
been presented to management. The minimum payout period based on capital recovery using a GIVEN:
minimum annual return of 10 percent as a fictitious expense is 10 years; annual depreciation costs k = $55,000 i = 12%
amount top 8 percent of the total investment. Using this information, determine the standard rate of Vs = 0 n = 10 yrs.
return on the investment. REQUIRED: Cv
GIVEN SOLUTION
k = C R (1 i) V
n
Payout period = 10 years
Minimum annual return = 0.10 of fictitious expense (1 i) 1
n s
Annual depreciation cost = 8% TCI
REQUIRED Vs = 0
Standard rate of return
55 000 = C R (1 0.12)
10
SOLUTION
10 1
FCI (1 0.12)
Payout period =
averageprofit avedep'n CR = $37 291.47

yr yr
Ave. profit = annual profit expenses
k= C CR Current Assets Current Liabilities
(1 i) n 1
v
Cash $ 20,000 Accounts Payable
37291 .47 Accounts Receivable 6,000 MC Company $ 2,000
Cv = 55 000-
(1 0.12 )10 1 Inventories 15,000 MD Company 8,000
Cv =$37 291.47
Government Bonds 3,000 Mortgage Payable 5,000
For problems 24- 26.On Aug. 1, a concern had 10,000 lb of raw material on hand, which was Total $ 44,000 Total $ 15,000
purchased at a cost of $0.030 per pound. In order to build up the reserve, 8000 lb of additional raw Fixed Assets Stockholders Equity
material was purchased on Aug. 15 at a cost of $0.028 per pound. If none of the raw material was
Machinery & Equipment 18,000 Common Stocks Sold 50,000
used until after the last purchase.
Furniture & Fixtures 5,000 Total $ 50,000
24. Determine the total cost of 12,000 lb of the raw material on an inventory or cost-of-sales Total $ 23,000 Surplus 2,000
account for the month of August by current average method.
SOLUTION: Total $ 2,000
Ave = $ (0.030 + 0.028 + 0.031) / 3 Total Assets $ 67,000 Total Equities $ 67,000
Ave = $ 0.0297/ lb
Total Assets: $ 67, 000
25. Determine the total cost of 12,000 lb of the raw material on an inventory or cost-of-sales
account for the month of August by FiFo method. 28. Determine the total current assets of the AMD Food Corporation.
SOLUTION:
ANSWER: From the balance sheet;
10,000 lb = $ 0.030 Total Current Asset = $ 44,000
other 2000 lb cost = $ 0.028/lb
29. What is the total amount of the Current liabilities of the AMD Corporation?
26. Determine the total cost of 12,000 lb of the raw material on an inventory or cost-of-sales ANSWER: From the balance sheet;
account for the month of August by lifo method. Total Current Liabilities = $ 15,000
ANSWER: recent price = $ 0.031/lb
30. What is the total amount of the Fixed Assets of the AMD Food Corporation?
ANSWER: From the balance sheet;
Total Fixed Assets = $ 23,000
For question nos. 27 31.
The following are the data gathered from the AMD Food Corporation:
Cash $20,000 During the month of October, the following information was obtained in the AC antifreeze retailing
company:
Accounts payable:
B Company 2,000 Salaries $ 3,000
C Company 8,000 Delivery expenses 700
Rent 400
Accounts receivable 6,000 Sales 15,100
Inventories 15,000 Antifreeze available for sale during October (at cost) 20,000
Mortgage payable 5,000 Antifreeze inventory on Oct. 31 (at cost) 11,000
Common stock sold 50,000 Other expenses 1,200
Machinery and equipment (at present value) 18,000 Earned surplus before income taxes as of Sept.30 800
Furniture and fixtures (at present value) 5,000
Government bonds 3,000
Surplus 2,000 31. Prepare an income statement for the month of October to determine the net income is for the
month of October.
ANSWER:
27. From the data given above, determine the total asset of the AMD Food Corporation. AC Antifreeze Retailing Company
ANSWER: Income Statement
BALANCE SHEET As of October
Income
ASSETS EQUITIES
Sales $ Current Assets
15,100 Accounts Receivable 1,700
Antifreeze available for sale 20,200 Cash in Bank
Earned Surplus before income 3,100
800 Government Bonds 3,000
Total Gross Income 36,100 Inventory 1,600
Deductions Prepaid Rent
Antifreeze inventory on Oct.31 11,600 300
Salaries
3,000
Delivery 700
Total
Rent
9,700
400
Other Expenses
Long-term Debts 1,600
1,200
Current Liabilities
Net Income $
Departments due within 1 year
19,200
1,000
Accounts Payable 2,300
Social Security Taxes payable 240
32. From the data above, determine also the total gross income of the AC Antifreeze Company.
Total
ANSWER:
From the income statement;
5,140
Gross Income = $36,100

The following information applies to MADSteel Company on a given date:

34. Determine the current asset for MADSteel Company


Long-term debts $ 1,600
Debts due within 1 year 1,000
ANSWER: Current Asset = $9, 700
Accounts payable 2,300
Machinery and equipment (at cost) 10,000
35. Determine the current liabilities of MADSteel Company
Cash in bank 3,100
Prepaid rent 300
ANSWER: Current Liabilities= $3, 540
Government bonds 3,000
Social security taxes payable 240
Reserve for depreciation 600
36. Determine the Quick ratio for MADSteel Company
Reserve for expansion 1,200
Inventory 1,600
SOLUTION: Quick Ratio = Current assets Inventory
Accounts receivable 1,700
Current liabilities

= $9,700 $1, 600


$3, 540

Quick Ratio = 2.29

33. Determine the cash asset for the MADSteel Company at the given date. 37. Determine the current ratio of MADSteel Company

ANSWER: Cash Asset = $6,100 SOLUTION: Current ratio = current assets

Current liabilities
Cash Assets = $9, 700
Cash in Bank $ 3,100
Government Bonds 3,000 $3, 540
Total 6,100
40. A piece of equipment is originally costing $40,000 was put into use 12 years ago. At the time
Current ratio = 2.74 the equipment was put into use, the service life was estimated to be 20 years and the salvage and
scrap value at the end of the service life were assumed to be zero. On this basis, the straight-line
depreciation fund was set up. The equipment can now be sold for $10,000, and a more advanced
38. A reactor of special design is the major item of equipment in a small chemical plant. The initial model can be installed for $55,000. Assuming the depreciation fund is available for use, how much
cost of a completely installed reactor is $60,000, and the salvage value at the end of the useful life new capital must be supplied to make the purchase?
is estimated to be $10,000. Excluding depreciation costs for the reactor, the total annual expenses GIVEN:
for the plant are $100,000. How many years of useful life should be estimated for the reactor if 12 Vo = $40,000
% of the total annual expenses for the plant are due to the cost for the reactor depreciation? The Vs = 0
straight-line method for determining depreciation should be used. a = 12
GIVEN: n = 20
Vo = $60,000 REQUIRED: New Capital needed
Vs = $10,000 SOLUTION:
Total expenses annually exc. Depreciation = $ 100,000 Vo Vs
i = 0.12 d=
REQUIRED: n using SLM n
SOLUTION: 40,000 0
Vo Vs d=
20
d=
n
$2,000
d=
x = total annual expenses inc depn/yr yr
x = 100,000 + 0.12x Va = Vo ad

x = $ 13,636.36 = d Va = 40,000 - 8 ( 2000 )


Va = $24,000
60,000 10,000 New Capital = 55,000 (24,000 + 10,000)
13,636.36 =
n New Capital = $21,000
n = 3.67
n = 4 years 41. The original investment for an asset was $10,000, and the asset was assumed to have a
39. The initial installed cost for a new piece of equipment is $10,000, and its scrap value at the end service life of 12 years with $2,000 salvage value at the end of the service life. After the asset has
of its useful life is estimated to be $2,000. The useful life is estimated to be 10 years. After the been in use for 5 years, the remaining service life and the final salvage value are reestimated at 10
equipment has been in use for 4 years, it is sold for $7,000. The company which originally owned years and $ 1,000, respectively. Under these conditions, what is the depreciation cost during the
the equipment employs the straight-line method for determining depreciation costs. If the company sixth year of the total life is straight-line depreciation is used?
had used an alternative method for determining depreciation cost, the asset (or book) value for the GIVEN:
piece of equipment at the end of 4 years would have been $5240. The total income-tax rate for the Vo = $10,000
company is 34% of all gross earnings. Capital-gains taxes amount to 34% of the gain. How much Vs = $2,000
net saving after taxes would the company have achieved by using the alternative (in this case, a=5
reducing-balance) depreciation method instead of the straight-line depreciation method? GIVEN: n = 12
Vo = $10,000 REQUIRED: d during the sixth day
Vs = $2,000 SOLUTION:
V4 DBM = $5,240 Vo Vs
n = 10 years d=
V4 SLM = $7,000 n
Tax = 0.34 10,000 2,000
REQUIRED: Net saving after taxes d=
SOLUTION: 12
SLM: $666.67
$7,000 7,000 (0.34) = $4,620 d=
DDB: yr
$5,240 5,240 (0.34) = $3,458.40
Net saving after taxes = $4,620 - $3,458.40 = $1161.60 Va = Vo ad
V 5 = 10,000 - 5 (666.67) = $6666.65
After 5 years of use: Vo = $40,000
6666.65 1,000 Vs = 0
da = n = 10
10 REQUIRED: da & % paid off
da = $566.65/yr
SOLUTION:
SYDM
A piece of equipment having a negligible salvage and scrap value is estimated to have a service
V1 = 40,000 4,363.64 = $ 35,636.36
life of 10 years. The original cost of the equipment was $40,000. Determine the following:
V2 = 35,636.36 - 4,363.64 = $ 31,272.72
42. Based on the above data, determine the depreciation charge for the fifth year if double-
V3 = 31,272.72 - 4,363.64 = $ 26,909.08
declining balance depreciation is used.
V4 = 26,909.08 - 4,363.64 = $ 22,545.94
GIVEN:
V5 = 22,545.94 - 4,363.64 = $ 18,181.8
Vo = $40,000
Vs = 0
n = 10 18,181.80
% paid off = = 45.45%
REQUIRED: da & % paid off 40,000
Solution:
da = 40,000 ( 1-2/10)5-1 2/10 % = 45.45
da = $ 3,276.80
46. The original cost of the property is $30,000, and it is depreciated by a 6 percent sinking-fund
43. The depreciation charge for the fifth year if sum-of-the-years-digits depreciation is used.
method. What is the annual depreciation charge if the book value of the property after 10 years is
GIVEN:
the same as if it had depreciated at $2,500/year by the straight-line method?
Vo = $40,000
GIVEN:
Vs = 0
Vo = $30,000
n = 10
i = 0.06
REQUIRED: da & % paid off
n = 10 years
SOLUTION:
REQUIRED:
SYDM
da = $2,500/yr



10 5 1 da using SFM if Va SLM = Va SFM
da = 2 ( 40,000)
1010 1 SOLUTION:
Using SLM:
da = $ 4,363.64 Va = 30,000 10 (2,500)
Va = $ 5,000
44. The percent of the original investment paid off in the first half of the service life using the
double-declining balance method. Using SFM:
GIVEN: 30,000 5,000 = R (1+ 0.06)10 - 1 / (0.06)
Vo = $40,000 R = $ 1,896.70 / 10 yr
Vs = 0 da = $ 189.67/yr
n = 10
REQUIRED: da & % paid off 47. A concern has a total income of $1 million/year, and all expenses except depreciation amount
SOLUTION: to $600,000/year. At the start of the first year of the concerns operation, a composite account of all
5 depreciable items show a value of $850,000, and the overall service life is estimated to be 20
V 5 = 40,000 1 2 = $13,107.20 years. The total salvage value at the end of the service life is estimated to be $50,000. Thirty
10 percent of all profits before taxed must be paid out as income taxes. What would be the reduction
in income-tax charges for the first year of operation if the sum-of-the-years-digits methods were
13,107.2 used for depreciation accounting instead of the straight-line method?
% paid off = = 32.768%
40,000 GIVEN:
Total income = $ 1 million/yr
% = 32.8 Annual expenses exc depn = $600,000
For the 1st yr of operation:
y = $ 850,000
45. The percent of the original investment paid off in the first half of the service life using the sum-
n = 20 yr
of-the-years-digits method.
GIVEN: Vs = $ 50,000
Income tax rate = 0.45
REQUIRED: percent sinking-fund method were used to determine depreciation costs instead of straight-line
Reduction in income taxes if SYDM is used instead SLM method?
SOLUTION: GIVEN:
Using SYDM: Vo = $50,000,000
da = 2 ( 850,000 50,000 ) = $ 76,190.48 Vs = 0
Gross Earnings = Total income total expense n = 10
GE = $ 1,000,000 ( $600,000 + 76,190.48 ) = $ 323,809.52 REQUIRED: Annual profits increase
SOLUTION:
Net Profit = $ 323,809.52 (1 - 0.45) = $ 178,095.24 5
1
0.05 1

Income tax = 0.45 (323,809.52) = $ 145,714.28 Using SFM: Va = 50,000 - (50,000-0)
Using SLM: !0
1
0.05 1


Vo Vs
d= Va = $28034.35
n Using SLM

d=
850,000 50,000 Vo Vs
20 d=
n
$40,000 d = $ 25,000
d=
yr inc = $28034.3 - $25,000
inc = $ 3.034.35
Basis: 1 yr
51. In order to make it worthwhile to purchase a new piece of equipment, the annual depreciation
GE = $ 1,000,000 (600,000 + 40,000) = $ 360,000
costs for the equipment cannot exceed $3,000 at any time. The original cost of the equipment is
Net Profit = $ 360,000 (1 - 0.45) = $ 198,000 $30,000, and it has a zero salvage and scrap value. Determine the length of service life necessary
if the equipment is depreciated by the sum=of-the-years-digits method by the straight-line method.
Income Tax = 0.45 ($ 360,000) = $ 162,000 GIVEN:
Reduction in net profit = $198,000 - $178,095.24 = $19,904.76 da = $ 3,000 Vo = $30,000 Vs = 0
REQUIRED: n
Reduction in income tax = $162,000 - $ 145.714.28 = $16,285.72 SOLUTION:
Using SYDM: a=1
Reduction in income tax = $16,285.72
da = 2 ( n-1+1)/ n (n+1) x ( Vo Vs )
3000n2 + 3000 n = 60000n
48. The total value of anew plant is $2 million. A certificate of necessity has been obtained
n = 19 years
permitting a write-off of 60 percent of the initial value ay 5 years. The balance of the plant requires
a write-off period of 15 years. Using the straight-line method and assuming negligible salvage and
52. Referring to the previous number, determine the length of service life necessary if the
scrap value, determine the total depreciation cost during the first year.
equipment is depreciated by the straight-line method.
GIVEN:
GIVEN:
Vo = $2,000,000
da = $ 3,000 Vo = $30,000 Vs = 0
Vs = 0
REQUIRED: n
n = 15
a=5
SOLUTION:
Vs = negligible
Using SLM: a=1
REQUIRED: d after 1 year
SOLUTION: Vo Vs
d=
Vo new = 2,000,000 2,000,000 ( 0.6) = $ 800,000 n
Vo Vs
d= 3000 = 30000n
n
80,000 0 n= 10 years
d=
15 A materials-testing machine was purchased for $20,000 and was to be used for 5 years with an
d = $ 53, 333. 33/ yr expected residual salvage value of $5,000. Graph the annual depreciation charges and year-end
book values obtained by using:

50. A profit-producing property has an initial value of $50,000, a service life of 10 years, and zero 53. By using Straight-line depreciation
salvage and scraps value. By how much would annual profits before taxes be increased if a 5 GIVEN:
Vo = $20,000 Vo = $20,000
Vs = $5,000 Vs = $5,000
n=5 n=5
REQUIRED: da & Va REQUIRED: da & Va
SOLUTION: SOLUTION:
SLM DDBM
Vo Vs Vs = 2 5,000 = 0.5
d= f = 2 20,000
n Vo
20,000 5,000
d= = $ 3,000 a 1
5 Va 1 = Vo 1 f
= 20,000

1 0.5 = $ 10,000

Va1 = Vo ad = $17,000 Va2 = $ 5,000


Va3 = $ 2,500
Va2 = $14,000 Va4 = $ 1,250
Va3 = $11,000 Va5 = $ 625
Va4 = $ 8,000
Va5 = $ 5,000 56. An asset with an original cost of $10,000 and no salvage value has a depreciation charge of
$2381 during its second year of service when depreciated by the sum-of-digits method. What is its
expected useful life?
54. By using Sum-of-digits depreciation GIVEN:
GIVEN: Vo = 120,000
Vo = $20,000 Vs = 0
Vs = $5,000 a=2
n=5 da = $2381/yr
REQUIRED: da & Va REQUIRED: n
SOLUTION: SOLUTION: n = 2(n-a+1)/(n (n+1) x ( Vo-Vs)
n 2381n2 + 2381n = 2n 2 (10,000)
d= (Vo-Vs) 2381 n2 - 17619n + 20,000 = 0
nt By quadratic formula: n = 5.9998
n = 6 years
nt = 15 57. An electronic balance costs P90, 000 and has an estimated salvage value of P8, 000 at the
5 end of its 10 years lifetime. What would be the book value after 3 years, using straight-line method
d1 = 15 (20,000-5,000) = $ 5.000 in solving for the depreciation?
GIVEN:
Co = P90, 000
d2 = $ 4,000
d3 = $ 3,000 CL = P8, 000
d4 = $ 2,000 L = 10
d5 = $ 1,000 n=3
REQUIRED: d using SLM
Va1 = Vo d = $ 15,000 SOLUTION:
Va2 = $ 11,000 CO C L
Va3 = $ 8,000 d=
Va4 = $ 6,000 L
Va5 = $ 5,000 90,000 8,000
d= = P 8,200
55. By using Double-declining balance depreciation 10
GIVEN: D3 = n(d) = 3(8,200) = P24,600

C3 = CO - D 3 = 90,000 - 24,000

C 3 = P 65,200
A broadcasting corporation purchased equipment for P53, 000 and paid P1, 5000 for freight and SOLUTION:
delivery charges top the job sites. The equipment has a normal life of 10 year with a trade-in value CO CL 60,000 6,000 P54,000
of P5, 000 against the purchase of anew equipment at the end of the life. d= = = = P 1,263
58. referring to the problem above, determine the annual depreciation by straight-line method. F F 42.7533
GIVEN: , 12% , 16
Co = P53, 000 + 1,500 = 54,500 A A,6.5% ,10
D 12 = d F 12% , 16
CL = P5, 000 L = 10
REQUIRED: da using SLM 1263 (24.1331)
SOLUTION: A,

CO C L
d= d12 = P30, 480
L C12 = Co - d12 = 60,000 30,480
54,500 5,000 C12= P29, 520
d=
10
d = P4, 950 For numbers 62 64. A certain type of machine losses 10% of its value each year. The machine
59. From the preceding number, determine annual depreciation by sinking fund method. Assuming cost P2, 000 originally. Make cut a schedule showing the following:
interest 6 % compounded annually. 62. By yearly depreciation
GIVEN:
Co = P53,000 + 1,500 = 54,500 GIVEN:
CL = P5, 000 L = 10 Co = P2, 000
REQUIRED: da using SFM depn = 10%
SOLUTION: REQUIRED: C5
SOLUTION:
d= CO CL = 54,500 5,000 =
P49,500
Year Book value at Depn (10%) Total depn Book
F 13.3846
F value
, 6.5% , 10 the beginning at the end
A A,6.5% ,10
d= P 3,668 1 P 2,000 P 200 P 200
A firm brought equipment for P56, 000. Other expenses including installation amounted to P4, 000. P 1,800
The equipment is expected to have a life of 16 years with a salvage value of 10% of the original 2 1,800 180 380
cost. 1,620
60. Determine the book value at the end of 12 years by SLM: 3 1,620 162 542
GIVEN: 1,458
Co = P56,000 + 4,000 = P60,000 4 1,458 145.8 687.8
CL = 0.1 Co 1,312
L = 10 5 1,312.20 131.22 819.12 1,180.98
i = 0.12
REQUIRED: C12 using SLM
SOLUTION: 63. The total depreciation after 5 years.
GIVEN:
CO C L Co = P2, 000 depn=10%REQUIRED: C5
d=
L ANSWER: P819.12

d12 = P3, 375 (12) = P 40,500


64. Estimate the book value at the end year for 5 years.
C12 = Co - d12 = 60,000 40,500 Answer from the above table: P1, 180.98
65. Determine the rate of depreciation, the total depreciation up to the end of 8th year and book
C12= P19, 500
value at the end of 8 years for an asset that costs P15,000 new and has an estimated scrap value
of P2,000 at the end of 10 years by DBM.
61. Determine the book value at the end of 12 years by SFM: GIVEN:
GIVEN:
Co = P56, 000 + 4,000 = P60, 000 CL = 0.1 Co
L = 10
i = 0.12
REQUIRED: C12 using SFM
Co = P15, 000 n
CL = P2, 000
CL L
REQUIRED: d8 & V8 Cs= Co = (220,000( 22,000/220,000)^(5/10)= P 69,570
Co
SOLUTION:

CL = 10
2,000 Cs = P 69, 570.00
k=1- L
C 15 ,000 = 0.1825 or 18.25%
O 69. Refer to the previous problem. What is the book value of the calciner after 5 years of use?
Assume a scrap value of P20, 000 for textbook for DDBM.
C9 = Co (1 k) 8 = P 2,992 GIVEN:
D8 = Co - C8 = 15,000 2,992 Co = P220, 000
D8 = P 12,008 L = 10
66. Determine the rate of depreciation, the total depreciation up to the end of 8th year and book n=5
value at the end of 8 years for an asset that costs P15, 000 new and has an estimated scrap value REQUIRED: D5 & C5
of P2, 000 at the end of 10 years by DDBM. SOLUTION:
GIVEN: 5 5
Co = P15, 000 C 5 = Co 1 2 =
2
P220,000 1 10
CL = P2, 000
L
REQUIRED: d8 & V8
SOLUTION: Cs = P 72, 090
2 2
dR = = = 0.2 or 20 %
70. A structure costs P12, 000 new. It is estimated to have a life of 5 years with a salvage value at
L 10 the end of life of P1, 000. Determine the book value at the end of three years.
GIVEN:
8 8
2 2 Co= P12, 000 CL =P1, 000 L=5
C8 = co 1 L = 15,000 1 10 = P2, 517 REQUIRED: Va
SOLUTION:
D9 = Co - C8 = 15,000 2,517 Co - Cl = 12,000 - 1,000 = P 11,000
D9 = P 12,483
Year Year in reverse order Depn during the year Book value
67. Mr. Dim bought a calciner for P220, 000 and used it for 10 years, the life span of the
equipment. What is the book value of the calciner after 5 years of use? Assume a scrap value of 1 5 5/15 (11,000) = 3,664 P 8,333
P20, 000 for SLM; 2 4 4/15 (11,000) = 2,933 5,400
GIVEN: 3 3 15 (11,000) = 2,200 3,200
Co = P220, 000 4 2 2/15 (11,000) = 1,467 1,733
L = 10 5 1 1/15 (11,000) = 733 1,000
n=5
REQUIRED: D5 & C5 71. Operator A produces 120 spindle/hr on a lathe. His hourly rate is $1.80. Operator B, using an
SOLUTION: identical lathe, is able to produce 150 identically units/hr. The overhead charge for a lathe is fixed
SLM at $2.50/hr. Determine operator Bs hourly rate so that his cost per piece is identical to As.
n Co CL SOLUTION:
D5
5220,000 20,000 Cost per unit for operator A = 1.80 + 2.50 = $0.0358
= = = P100, 000
L 10 120
Let x = hourly rate of operator B. Then;
C5 = Co D5 = 220,000 100,000 = P 120,000
x + 2.50 = $0.0358
C5 = P 120,000
150
x = $2.88
68. Refer to the previous problem. What is the book value of the calciner after 5 years of use?
Assume a scrap value of P22, 000 for textbook for DBM.
GIVEN: 72. In a type 1 warehouse, initial cost will be $24, 000.This warehouse has adequate capacity for
the near future, but 12 years from now an addition will be required that costs $15, 000. A type 2
warehouse costs $34, 000. This type has the same capacity as the type 1 warehouse with its
Co = P220, 000
addition. What will be the present cost of the type 1 warehouse? Which of these should be built,
L = 10
assuming that depreciation is negligible and that the interest rate is 7%?
n=5
REQUIRED: D5 & C5
GIVEN:
SOLUTION:
Present cost = $15, 000
Present worth factor, i = 7% 4
n = 12 i = 0.051
REQUIRED: present cost of warehouse 1
SOLUTION:
P = S/ (1+i) n Six equal payments of $3, 000 are required; their worth at the beginning of the 16th year is
= 15, 000 x 0.444 = $6660
P = R [ ( 1+ i )n 1] / i (1 + i ) n
the present cost of type 1 is seen to be 24, 000 + 6660 = $30, 660. Since this is smaller than the = 3000 [ (1+0.051)6 1] / 0.051 ( 1+0.051)6
type 2 building, it is more economical to build P = $15, 210

73. Determine the equal (year-end) payments that will be available for the next four years if we 77. The engineer has 15 years to accumulate this fund. His quarterly deposits are determined by u
invest $4, 000 at 6%. sing the sinking factor. There are 15 x 4 or 60 interest payments to be made at a quarterly interest
SOLUTION: rate of 0.0125
R = $4, 000 0.06 (1 + 0.06) 4 SOLUTION:
= $4, 000 (0.28859) R = Si/[(1+i)n 1 ]
(1 + 0.06) 4 - 1 Using n = 60
R = $15, 210 ( 1/88.5745)
R = $1154.36 R = $172.00 where 88.5745 represents the amount of annuity.

74. A new snow removal machine costs $50, 000. The new machine will operate at a reputed 78. A low carbon steel machine part, costing $350 installed, lasts 6 years when operating in a
savings of $400 per day over the present equipment in terms of time and efficiency. If interest is at corrosive atmosphere. An identically shaped part, but treated for corrosion resistance, would cost
5% and the machines life is assumed to be 10 years with zero salvage, how many days per year $650 installed. How long would the corrosion resistance part have to last to be at least as good
must the machine be used to make the investment economical? investment as the untreated part? Assume money is worth 7%.
SOLUTION: SOLUTION:
Assume straight-line depreciation and no salvage value. R=P [ i(1+i)n ]
Annual depreciation = 50, 000 0 = $5, 000 [ (1+i)n - 1]
= 350 x 0.2098
10
R = $73.50 per year required
Average annual unearned interest = [50, 000 x 0.05 + 50, 000 (0.05)] = $1375
10 $73.50 = $650 x c.r.f.
Annual cost = $6375 c.r.f. = 73.50/ 650.00 = 0.113

To invest in the machine, the yearly savings must at least be equal to $6375. The number of days for n = 14 crf = 0.114
m the machine must be used is therefore n=x crf =
0.113
m = 6375 / 400 = 15.9 or 16 days n = 15 crf = 0.109 crf =
0.109
75. Based on the sinking fund method and using the data in the previous problem, what number of
days must the machine be used if the amount to be accumulated in 10 years is $50, 000? Difference = 15 -14 = 1.00 0.005 0.004
SOLUTION:
R = S i / [(1+i)n 1 ] 0.004/0.005 = (15 x)/ 1.00
For i = 5% and n = 10
x = 14.20 years
i/[(1+i)n 1 ] = 0.0795
79. The total cost of a cast product consists of (1) the raw material cost that is directly proportional
therefore R = 50, 000 x 0.0795 to the weight, of the casting, (2) the machining cost that varies inversely as the weight, and (3)
R = $3975 overhead cost that remains constant per unit produced regardless of weight. Find the weight giving
the minimum cost per casting.
m = 3975/400 = 9.9 or 10 days
76. A consulting engineer decides to set up an educational fund for his son that will provide $3000 SOLUTION:
per year for 6 years starting in 16 years. The best interest rate he can expect to get is 5% Let Ct = total cost
compounded quarterly. He wants to accumulate the necessary capital by making quarterly deposits Cw = cost based on weight
until his son starts college. What will be his needed quarterly deposit? Cm = machining cost
SOLUTION: Co = overhead unit cost
i = (1+ 0.05 )4 - 1 W = weight
Cw = k1W (direct proportion of raw material cost to weight) which may be considered to balance each other). If a fixed amount of evaporation is to be
Cm = k2/W (inverse proportion of machining cost to weight) obtained and each units to have 1, 000 ft2 of heating surface with a service life of five years, the
Co = Co (constant value) annual fixed costs Cf would be (using cost data of $25, 000 for a single evaporator of 5, 000 ft 2,
employing the 0.6 factor, and neglecting the interest).
The minimum total cost can be determined by differentiating cost with respect to weight.
dCt/dW = k1 k2/W Cf =( 1, 000)0.6 25, 000 N . dollars per year
5, 000 5
the minimum cost can be ascertained by equating the right hand side of the above eqn to 0.
where N is the number of effects.
W = ($ x lb)1/2 = lb Because of the steam economy in multiple-effect operation, the direct costs for steam
( $/lb)1/2 will decrease and the total of all annual direct costs, CD, has been established for this type of
operation as
Therefore, minimum cost occurs when: CD = 65, 000 N -0.95 dollars
W = (k2/k1)1/2 lb
SOLUTION:
Ct = 1, 900 N = 65, 000 N-0.95
80. Based on the previous problem, what is the minimum total cost? Differentiating: dCt = 1, 900 61, 800 N -0.95 = 0
SOLUTION: dN
Ct = [k1(k2 / k1)1/2 = k2 (k1 / k2) + Co] N = 5.95 or 6

81. Methyl alcohol condensed at 148 F is to be cooled to 100 F for storage at a rate of 10, 83. A capitalized cost for a piece of equipment has been found to be $55, 000. This cost is based
000gal/hr by water available at 75 F in a countercurrent heat exchanger. The over-all heat transfer on the original cost plus the present value of an indefinite number of renewals. An annual interest
coefficient is constant and estimated at 200 Btu/ft2-hr-F. Heat exchanger annual costs including rate of 12% was used in determining the capitalized cost. The salvage value of the equipment at
operation are estimated at $2 per ft2 including depreciation. The cooler is to operate 5, 000 hr/year, the end of the service life was estimated to be 10 years. Under these conditions, what would be the
and the value of heat utilized is estimated at $5x10-7 per Btu. What is the estimated optimum cost original cost of the equipment?
of the heat exchanger if the cost for surface is $9 per ft2?
GIVEN: k = $55, 000
SOLUTION: i = 12%
Since the outlet temperature is fixed; Vs= 0
t is fixed at 100 75 = 25 F N = 10 yrs
REQUIRED : Cv
Hourly cost: 2 = $4x10-4 per (ft2-hr) SOLUTION:
5, 000 k = CR ( 1 - i)n + Vs
(1 + i )n 1
t1 = (M/R) (T1 t1) = 4/5 x 103 (148 75) = 11.7 F 55000 = CR ( 1 0.12)10
U x 25 200 x 25 (1 + 0.12 )10 1
CR = $37, 291.47
Outlet temp. for water : 148 11.7 = 136 F
cp = 0.5 k = Cv + CR
methanol = 0.79g/cc (1 + 0.12 )10 1
q = 10, 000 x 8.33 x 0.79 (0.5)(148 -100) = 1, 580, 000 Btu/ hr Cv = $37, 291.47

tm = 25 11.7 = 17.7 84. A heat treating furnace is used to preheat small steel parts. The furnace uses fuel oil consisting
ln (25/11.7) $0.04 per gallon, with a heating value of 142, 000Btu/gal. The furnace has a firebrick lining, the
outside temperature of which is 1210 F, this is to be covered with insulation costing $300 per 1000
q = UAt board feet. The air temperature is 110 F. Operations is 7200 hr/yr. Conductivity is 0.028 for
A= 1, 580, 000 insulation in Btu/hr-ft2-F. Calculate the most economical thickness of insulation. Furnace life is 8
200 x 17.7 years. Assume negligible temperature drop from insulation to air.
A = 446 ft2 GIVEN:
Estimated optimum cost: 446 x 9 = $4, 014 Heat treating furnace
T1 = 1210 F
T2 = 110 F
82. What is the most economical number of effects to use in the recovery of black liquor in a paper Cost of fuel oil $ = 0.04 / gal
plant if the following cost data are available? The annual fixed costs increase essentially linearly Heating value = 142000 Btu/gal
with each effect (except for condensing, feeding, and other equipment costs for multiple units Cost of insulation = $300/1000bdft
Operation = 7200 hrs/yr GIVEN:
k = 0.028 Btu Reaction:
REQUIRED: Most economical thickness of insulation A+B C
SOLUTION: 1 hr time per batch
Basis: A = 1 ft1 A = $0.10/lb
q = - kAT B = $ 0.05/ lb
= - (0.028)(1)(110-1210) REQUIRED: cost per lb of C
x SOLUTION:
q = 30.8 By ratio and proportion:
x If A = $0.1 /lb and B = $0.05/lb
cost of fuel = 30.8 x 1gal/142000 Btu ($0.04/gal)(7200hr/yr C = $3.08/ lb
x
87. Seven million pounds of water per year is to be obtained from 8 percent solids slurry to be
cost of fuel = 0.06246705 filtered on a leaf filter to produce a cake containing 40 percent solids. The area of the filter is 200
x ft2. Tests show a value of 2 x 104 for k in pound units. The cake is not washed. The dumping and
cleaning time is 3 hr and costs $39 each cycle. Filtration costs are $14 per hr, and inventory
cost of insulation = 0.06246705 + 0.3 x charges maybe neglected. What is the cycle time for minimum costs?
x GIVEN:
dTc = -0.06246705 + 0.3 = 0 7000000 lbwater/yr can obtained from 8% slurry
x2 A filter = 200 ft2
Dumping and cleaning time = 3 hr
x = 5.48 in Filtration costs = $14/hr
85. A batch inorganic chemical operations gives product C from two chemicals A and B according REQUIRED: cycle time for minimum cost
to the following empirical relation: SOLUTION:
Q = A ( k f) 0.5
C = 2.8 (AB AC 1.2 BC + 0.5C2 )0.5 = 200 ( 2x104)(f)0.5

where A, B and C are pounds of respective components. The reaction rate is sufficiently high to be 7, 000, 000 lb/ yr is also equal to 799.08 lb/hr
neglected, and the time to make any batch is essentially the charging and discharging time, 799.08 = 200 ( 2x104)(f)0.5
including heating up, which totals 1 hr. If A costs $0.10 per lb and B costs $0.05 per lb, what is the f = 0.014 hrs
ratio of B to A to give the minimum costs of raw materials per lb of product . what is the cost per lb 88. Referring to the previous problem, calculate the cycle time for maximum production.
of C? GIVEN:
7000000 lbwater/yr can obtained from 8% slurry
A filter = 200 ft2
GIVEN: Dumping and cleaning time = 3 hr
Reaction: Filtration costs = $14/hr
A+B C f = 0.014 hrs
1 hr time per batch REQUIRED: cycle time for maximum production
A = $0.10/lb
B = $ 0.05/ lb SOLUTION:
REQUIRED: minimum cost of raw materials / lb of product total = f + w + d
SOLUTION: w = 0 ; since the cake is not washed
Ratio of B: A = 0.5 f = 0.014 hrs
Assume: 1 LB OF a AND 1LB OF b are used in the making of C d = 3 hrs

C = 2.8 ( 1 C 1.2C + 0.5C2 ) 0.5 total = ( 0+0.014+3)


dC = 1.4 ( 1 C 1.2C + 0.5 C2) 0.5 total = 3.04 hrs.

equating to 0
For nos. 89- 91.
0 = 1.4 (-2.2 +C) In processing 500 ton/day of ore assaying 50% mineral, 300 tons of concentrate containing 66.7 %
0 = -3.08 +C are obtained at a cost of sales ( all fixed operating cost are excluded) of $15 per ton concentrate.
C = $3.08 An investment of $200, 000 of concentrate that will assay 71% mineral. If the plant operates 200
days/year, equipment must pay out in 5 years with interest at 15% and no salvage value and no
86. Based from the previous problem, what is the cost per lb of C? additional labor or repair costs need to be considered.
Fixed cost = $15/ton
89. Based on the stated problem above, calculate the additional cost per ton of concentrate for Operation = 200 days/year
capital recovery on the new equipment. Pay out period = 5 years
GIVEN: Interests = 15%
500 tons/day of ore with assay of 50 % mineral No salvage value
300 tons/day of ore with assay of 66.7% mineral Selling price = $ 263.13
fixed cost = $15/ton REQUIRED: efficiency
Operation = 200 days/year SOLUTION:
Pay out period = 5 years E = 500(0.5) + 300(0.6667) 300(0.71)
Interests = 15% 500(0.5) + 300(0.6667)
No salvage value E = 52.677%
REQUIRED: additional cost per ton concentrate
SOLUTION: 92. A ties on a plant railroad sliding are to be replaced. Untreated ties consisting $ 2.50 installed
Let x additional cost of equipment have a life of 7 years. If created ties have a life of 10 years, what is the maximum installed cost that
FCI = $15 + x should be paid for treated ties if money is worth 8 percent?
Annual share with 15% interest GIVEN:
= 0.15 (15+x) Untreated ties = $2.50
= 2.25 + 0.15x n=7
with 5 year payment period Created ties = X
15 + 0.15x n = 10
5 REQUIRED: maximum installed cost
Cost of equipment invested:
= $200, 000 x / 300 tons/day (200 days/yr) SOLUTION:
=3.33 x Getting the annual depreciation cost
tons of concentrate per year
= [500 (0.5) + 300 (0.667) + 300 (0.71) ]tons/day ( 200d/yr) 0.08 = (2.50/7) ( x /10)
= 19893 / x +1 X 2.50
Cost total/yr = FCI + Cost concentrate + Annual Charges + Investments
X = $3.10
Ct = 15 +3.825x +(19893/x+1) 9+ 2.25 +0.15x +3.33x
dCt/dx = 3.48x - 19893/ (x+1)2 = 0 93. Powdered coal having a heating value of 13, 500 Btu/ lb is to be compared with fuel oil worth
3.48 ( x2 +2x +1) 19893 = 0 $2.00 per bbl (42 gal) having a heating value of 130,000 Btu/gal as a source of fuel in the
by quadratic equation: processing plant. If the efficiency of the conversion of the fuel is 64% for coal and 72 % for oil, with
x = $74.6 all other costs being equal, what is the maximum allowable selling price for coal per ton?

90. Determine the selling price in dollars per ton (100% mineral basis) required for which the cost SOLUTION:
of the n new equipment is justified. Powdered coal
GIVEN: Let x be the selling price per ton
500 tons/day of ore with assay of 50 % mineral
300 tons/day of ore with assay of 66.7% mineral (X / ton)(ton/ 2000lb) (lb / 13500Btu) (0.64)
Fixed cost = $15/ton = 2.37 x 10 -8- /Btu
Operation = 200 days/year Fuel Oil
Pay out period = 5 years (2.00/bbl) (bbl/42gal) (gal/130000Btu)(0.72)
Interests = 15% = 2.67x 10 -7 / Btu
No salvage value Equating both prices:
REQUIRED: selling price X = $11.13 / ton
SOLUTION:
Since x = $74.6 94. A steam boiler is purchased on the basis of guaranteed performance. However, initial tests
19893 / (74.6 + 1) = $ 263.13 indicate that the opening (income) cost will be P400 more per year than guaranteed. If the
expected life is 25 years and money is worth 10 %, what deduction from the purchase price would
91. What is the % increase in recovery and rejection for the new process based on mineral and compensate the buyer for the additional operating cost?
gauged? SOLUTION
GIVEN:
500 tons/day of ore with assay of 50 % mineral A = 400
300 tons/day of ore with assay of 66.7% mineral N = 25 i = 0.10
n = 10 years
P = 400 ( 1 ( 1+0.10)-25)
0.10
P = 3, 630.82 pesos
99. Solve the previous problem with the sinking fund formula at 8%
95. If the sum of P12, 000 is deposited in an account earning interest at the rate of 9% SOLUTION
compounded quarterly, what will it become at the end of 8 years? 0.10V = (V-0) ( 0.08)
(1 + 0.08)n 1

SOLUTION: n = ln 1.08
= 7.64
P = 12, 000 n = 8 years
i = 9% / 4 = 2.25%
n = 8 (4) = 32 100. Determine the ordinary simple interest on $10, 000 for 9 months and 10 days if the rate of
interest is 12%.
n
F = P(1+i) SOLUTION
= 12, 000 (1 + 0.0225)32 9 months and 10 days = 9 (30) + 10 = 280 days
F = 24, 457.24 P = $10, 000
96. At a certain interest rate compounded quarterly, P1, 000 will amount to P4, 500 in 15 years. I = Pi (d/360)
What is the amount at the end of 10 years? I = 10, 000 (0.12) (280/360)
SOLUTION: I = $933.33

For 15 years, P = 1000


n = 4 (15); 6o periods
F = 4, 500

F= P (1+i)n
4, 500 = 1, 000 (1+ i)60
i = 0.02538

For 10 years
n = 4 (10); 40 periods
F= 1, 000 (1 + 0.02538)40
F = 2, 725.17 pesos

97. A one bagger concrete mixer can be purchased with a down payment of P8, 000 and equal
installments of P600 each paid at the end of every month for the next 12 months. If the money is
worth 12% compounded monthly, determine the equivalent cash prize of the mixer.
SOLUTION
P = 8, 000 = 600 ( 1 (1+ 0.01)-12)\
0.01
P = 14, 753.05 pesos

98. A certain company makes it the policy that for any new piece of equipment, the annual
depreciation cost should not exceed 10% of the original cost at any time with no salvage or scrap
value. Determine the length of service life necessary if the depreciation method use is straight line
formula.
SOLUTION

Vs = 0
d = 0.10 V
d = V Vs
n
0.10V = V 0
n