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Special 2007
The international
smelting industry
Alcoa image - used with permission

Positive mood in the


German aluminium
industry

Strapping technology
with PET high per-
formance strip

Volume 83 January / February 2007


International Journal for Industry, Research and Application 1/2
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EDITORIAL

Die erste Ausgabe der ALUMINIUM One of the first things that will be
unter neuer redaktioneller Leitung noticed about this first issue of ALU-
und dann gleich in einem neuen MINIUM under its new editorial man-
Look: Das knnte schnell auch als agement, is a new look. That might at
inhaltlicher Bruch mit der bisherigen first sight also lead to the expectation
Tradition der Zeitschrift interpretiert of a break from the previous tradition
werden, doch wre dies ein Missver- of the journal in terms of content, but
stndnis. this would be a misunderstanding.
Der langjhrige Chefredakteur Dr.-Ing. Peter Johne, Editor in
Dr.-Ing. Peter Johne hat die ALUMI- Chief of ALUMINIUM for very many
NIUM in den vergangenen mehr als years, developed it over much more
zehn Jahren zu einer international than a decade into an internation-
renommierten Fachzeitschrift entwi- ally renowned technical journal dis-
ckelt, die sich durch fundierte und gut tinguished for its authoritative and
Volker Karow recherchierte Berichte aus Industrie, well-researched reports on industry,
Chefredakteur Forschung und Praxis auszeichnet. research and practical applications.
Editor in Chief Diese Prgung, das ist der Anspruch, Naturally, we aim to maintain that
soll natrlich fortgesetzt werden. Da- reputation and image. It is only to be
bei liegt es in der Natur der Sache, expected, however, that a trained po-
dass ein gelernter Volkswirt einen litical economist will see matters from
etwas anderen Blickwinkel als ein a viewpoint somewhat different from
Ingenieur hat. Das mag hier und da that of an engineer. Here and there this
mit einer leichten inhaltlichen Ak- may result in a slight shift of empha-
pro domo: zentverschiebung einhergehen, doch sis in the content, but technical and
bleiben technische und wissenschaft- scientific contributions will as always
Kontinuitt im liche Beitrge auch knftig zentrale remain cornerstones of ALUMINIUM
Bausteine der ALUMINIUM. Die neue in the future as well. The new Chief
Wandel Chefredaktion wei sich dabei glck- Editor is only too happy to make the
lich, auf die Expertise des geschtzten most of the expertise of his esteemed
Kollegen zurckgreifen zu knnen. colleague Dr. Johne, who will still lend
Dr. Johne wird dieser Zeitschrift wei- his services to this journal, both as an
terhin zur Verfgung stehen: als Autor author and as publisher.
und auch als Herausgeber. As regards the redesigned layout:
Was nun die berarbeitung des readers leafing through the new is-
pro domo: Layouts betrifft: Der Leser wird beim sue will note that the proportion of
Durchblttern der neuen Ausgabe coloured pages has been increased.
Change with feststellen, dass der Anteil der far- Careful observation will show that the
bigen Seiten erweitert wurde. Bei ge- structure and organisation of ALU-
continuity nauerem Hinsehen wird erkennbar, MINIUM have been modified with
dass Struktur und Gliederung der a view to greater clarity and reader
ALUMINIUM mit Blick auf bersicht- guidance. In relation to the bilingual
lichkeit und Leserfhrung berarbei- presentation of articles as well, the
tet wurden. Auch hinsichtlich der publisher and editor have striven to
Zweisprachigkeit von Artikeln waren achieve optimisations from the read-
Herausgeber und Redaktion bestrebt, ers standpoint. Last but not least, some
aus Lesersicht Optimierungen vorzu- further changes have had to be made
nehmen. Zu guter Letzt ging es auch in order to provide greater variety in
darum, die Zeitschrift layouttech- the technical layout of the journal.
nisch abwechslungsreicher zu gestal- We hope that we have managed this
ten. Wir hoffen, dies ist uns gelungen successfully and that sympathetically
und der geneigte Leser sieht in der inclined readers will find the changes
berarbeitung einen Gewinn. beneficial. Notwithstanding its new
Jenseits gestalterischer Neuerun- design features, ALUMINIUM will in
gen bleibt die ALUMINIUM auch the future too remain a journal that
knftig eine die Branchenwelt abbil- faithfully portrays the world of the
dende Fachzeitschrift und den sich aluminium branch and does all that
daraus ergebenden Anforderungen is necessary to fulfil the responsibility
verpflichtet. of doing so.

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 3
I N H A LT

EDITORIAL
pro domo: Kontinuitt im Wandel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

A KT U E L L E S
Personen, Unternehmen, Mrkte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

WIRTSCHAFT
Aluminiumpreise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Produktionsdaten der deutschen Aluminiumindustrie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Die deutschen Httenbetriebe: technisch effizient, umweltpolitisch

16 vorbildlich und ein wichtiges Glied in der Wertschpfungskette . . . . . 16


European Coil Coating Kongress: Marktentwicklung, Technologie-
trends, Gesetzgebung ................................................................. 20

S P E C I A L 2 0 0 7: D I E I N T E R N AT I O N A L E
A L U M I N I U M - H T T E N I N D U S T R I E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

I N T E R N AT I O N A L E B R A N C H E N N E W S . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

M A R KT U N D T E CH N I K
Signode: Umreifungstechnik mit PET-Hochleistungsband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Alcutec Engineering rstet russische Umschmelzhtte aus . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Deutsche Aluminiumkonjunktur luft derzeit rund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
30 Audi fr innovatives Karosseriekonzept ausgezeichnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Kolbenschmidt Pierburg setzt auf AGR-Khler aus Aluminium. . . . . . . . 86

M A R K T B E R I C H T: A L U M I N I U M I M B A U W E S E N
Energieeffizientes Bauen im Fokus von Politik und Wirtschaft . . . . . . . . 88
bergeordnete Trends im Fenster- und Fassadenbau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Europischer Architektur-Wettbewerb von Corus Bausysteme ......... 90
Fenstermarkt im Plus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Grtes deutsches Broprojekt mit Wicona-Fassaden .................... 91

RECYCLINGINDUSTRIE
Vorbericht: 9. Internationaler Aluminium Recycling Kongress der OEA 92
0 Hydro vollendet Metallkreislauf in Neuss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

FORSCHUNG
Rhrreibschweien von artungleichen Aluminiumknet-
und -druckgusslegierungen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

V E R A N S TA LT U N G E N
22 nd ASK Metal Forming, Termine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Fortbildung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
BDI-Umweltpreiswettbewerb 2007/08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

D O K U M E N TAT I O N
Neue Redaktionsanschrift
New editorial office Neue Bcher .......................................................................... 105
Firmenschriften . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Volker Karow Literaturhinweise .................................................................... 107
Franz-Meyers-Strae 16 Patente ................................................................................... 109
D-53340 Meckenheim Impressum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Tel: +49(0)2225/8359643 Vorschau ................................................................................ 130
Fax: +49(0)2225/18458
E-Mail: vkarow@online.de B E Z U G S Q U E L L E N V E R Z E I C H N I S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

4 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
CONTENTS

EDITORIAL
pro domo: Change with continuity ........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

NEWS IN BRIEF
People, companies, markets ................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

ECONOMICS
European Coil Coating Congress: market development,
technology trends, legislation ................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
The Russians are coming: example Rusal .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Hydro maintains speed in aluminium repositioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Global roll-out of breakthrough Novelis Fusion technology . . . . . . . . . . 27
Alcoa joint venture with Sapa group ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

S P E C I A L 2 0 0 7: T H E I N T E R N AT I O N A L
A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y
Almeq electric preheater for cathode blocks ................................. 30
Alprg: a software tool for aluminium smelting .............................. 32
Vittorio de Nora honoured by ECS ............................................... 36
Aumund cooling conveyor for hot bath material ............................ 38
Advances in gas suspension calcination technology ........................ 40
Anode rod repair and manufacture .............................................. 42
Integrated continuous billet processing ......................................... 44
De Nora inert metallic anode: further developments ...................... 48
Boron nitride plus binder a synonym for higher productivity ....... 53
Thyristor rectifiers for aluminium plants with advanced
free-wheeling control ........................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Moeller direct pot feeding technology ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
88
C O M PA N Y N E W S W O R L D W I D E
Aluminium smelting industry .................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Bauxite and alumina activities ................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Secondary aluminium smelting and recycling activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Aluminium semis, Suppliers .................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
On the move...................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Inserenten
M A R K E TS A N D T E CH N O LO GY
dieser Ausgabe
Signode: strapping technology with PET high-performance strip . . . . 70
Alcutec: German know-how for Russian recycling complex . . . . . . . . . . . 74 List of advertisers
Positive mood in the German aluminium industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 ABB AG, Schweiz 51
GDA participation at UN conference on sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Alcutec Engineering GmbH 93
EAA launches new sustainability development indicator results . . . . . . 81 Bhler Edelstahl GmbH, sterreich 23
Russias packaging market: aluminium processing technology at Buss ChemTech AG, Schweiz 65
the forefront ...................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 BWG Bergwerk- und Walzwerk-
Audi takes award for innovative TT body concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Maschinenbau GmbH 13
Kolbenschmidt Pierburg successfully marketing its EGR system . . . . . . 86 Coiltec Maschinenvertriebs GmbH 27
Recent advances in coil coating technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Drache Umwelttechnik GmbH 81
Dovebid, USA 63
Edimet SpA, Italien 11
RECYCLING INDUSTRY
Glama Maschinenbau GmbH 15
Preview of the 9 th International Aluminium Recycling Hartmann Frderanlagen GmbH 57
Congress of the OEA ............................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Hertwich Engineering GmbH, sterreich 02
High Performance Industrie-Technik GmbH,
EVENTS sterreich 17
Dates, 22 nd ASK Metal Forming: Forming the Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Innovatherm Prof. Dr. Leisenberg
GmbH + Co. KG 37
D O C U M E N TAT I O N Inotherm Industrieofen- und
Wrmetechnik GmbH 22, 78
New books ............................................................................. 105
Moeller Materials Handling GmbH 61
company brochures .................................................................. 106 Moltech Sytems Ltd., Schweiz 132
Literature service ................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Padelttherm GmbH 55
Imprint ..... ........................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Precimeter Control AB, Schweden 19
Preview .... ........................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Bruno Presezzi Officine Meccaniche, Italien 59
SMS Demag AG 131
S O U R C E O F S U P P LY L I S T I N G .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 5
AKTUELLES

Aluminiumbranche vor groen Herausforderungen


GDA-Prsident Gerhard Budden- Dem Wettbewerbsdruck der Niedrig-
baum (Foto) auf der Jahrespresse- lohnlnder setzen unsere Unterneh-
konferenz des Gesamtverbandes der men ein hohes Qualittsniveau,
Aluminiumindustrie im November absolute Zuverlssigkeit und groe
2006: Die Aluminiumindustrie ist Flexibilitt entgegen. Die europische
heute, mehr noch als viele andere Aluminiumindustrie wird sich nur
Branchen, ein internationales, globa- durch ihre eigene Innovationskraft
les Geschft. Rohstoffe, Httenstand- langfristig an den Mrkten behaup-
orte, Verarbeitungsstandorte und ten. Nur wenn sich die Branche auf
Verbrauch sind breit gestreut und zu- die Herstellung von Produkten kon-
nehmend eng miteinander vernetzt. zentriert, die Marktnhe brauchen,
Unsere Branche steht vor hohen eine hohe Wertschpfung aufweisen
Herausforderungen. Dass man auch und viel Know-how und gut ausge-
in Deutschland produzieren kann, bildetes Personal verbunden mit ho-
beweist die Aluminiumindustrie seit hen Serviceleistungen bentigen, hat
Jahren, allerdings insbesondere bei Europa als Produktionsstandort eine
GDA

Produkten mit hoher Wertschpfung. Zukunft. (s. S. 78f)

Bundeswirtschaftsminister Michael Glos


trifft Vertreter der NE-Metallbranche
Bundeswirtschaftsminister Michael stein, um Deutschland international tungen der Nachhaltigkeit, erwarte
Glos hat gegenber Vertretern der wettbewerbsfhig zu halten. Er un- aber zugleich bei allem politischen
deutschen und europischen NE- terstrich die Bedeutung internatio- Handeln die Gleichrangigkeit von
Metallindustrie auf die Bedeutung nal wettbewerbsfhiger Strompreise konomie, kologie und Sozialem.
der Leicht- und Buntmetalle fr den und funktionierender nationaler und
technologischen Fortschritt und den europischer Mrkte fr die energie-
Exporterfolg der deutschen Wirt- intensive Industrie. ber die ange-
schaft hingewiesen. Deutschland und spannte Lage auf den internationalen Trimet
die EU brauchen nach Ansicht des Rohstoffmrkten msse man im Rah-
M. Rosenbaum neuer
Ministers auch in Zukunft eine ge- men der Rohstoff- und Handelspolitik
schlossene Wertschpfungskette bei intensiv sprechen, so Glos. Es gehe
Automotive-Vorstand
der Erzeugung und Verarbeitung von darum, Handelshemmnisse zu besei-
Aluminium, Kupfer, Zink und den an- tigen und alle politischen Instrumente Matthias Rosenbaum ist neuer Vor-
deren NE-Metallen. Besonders fr die zu nutzen, um zu einem zu gleichen stand des Geschftsbereichs Auto-
Autoindustrie und die Luftfahrt seien Bedingungen funktionierenden Roh- motive bei der Trimet Aluminium AG.
sie von steigender Bedeutung. stoffmarkt zu kommen. Er bernimmt die Verantwortung der
Energiepolitik ist nach Aussage WVM-Prsident Ulrich Grillo Werke in Harzgerode (Sachsen-An-
des Ministers ein wichtiger Bau- verdeutlichte zusammen mit natio- halt) und Smmerda (Thringen) und
nalen und internationalen folgt damit auf Uwe Prnger, der den
Vertretern der NE-Metal- Geschftsbereich sechs Jahre geleitet
lindustrie die zentralen hat.
Herausforderungen der Rosenbaum, geboren in Reckling-
im globalen Wettbewerb hausen, studierte an der RWTH Aa-
stehenden Branchenun- chen Elektrotechnik. Bevor er im
ternehmen. Neben der En- Herbst 2006 zur Trimet wechselte,
ergie- und Rohstoffpolitik war er unter anderem fr die Moto-
gehre hierzu ein Umwelt- rola AIEG (Automotive and Industrial
und Klimaschutz, der das Electronics Group), als Sprecher der
WVM

industrielle Engagement Geschftsfhrung der KS Kolben-


v.l.n.r.: Guy Thiran, Geschftsfhrer Eurometaux; Martin und die internationale schmidt GmbH und als European
Kneer, Hauptgeschftsfhrer WVM; Bundesminister fr Wettbewerbsfhigkeit be- Sales Manager bei General Motors
Wirtschaft und Technologie, Michael Glos; Ulrich Grillo,
Vorstandsvorsitzender Grillo-Werke AG; Javier Targhetta, rcksichtige. Die Industrie Delco Remy ttig. Matthias Rosen-
Geschftsfhrer Atlantic Copper S.A. stehe zu den Verpflich- baum ist 52 Jahre alt.

6 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
NEWS IN BRIEF

Alcoa appoints President V. de Nora Norsk Hydro top focus


of Flexible Packaging honoured by ECS on aluminium

Alcoa has named Jeff Kellar President Vittorio de Nora has been honoured as Hydro will focus on aluminium fol-
of its Alcoa Flexible Packaging busi- the recipient of The Electrochemical lowing the US$ 30 billion takeover of
ness, succeeding Bimal Kalvani. Kel- Society (ECS) 2006 Edward Goodrich its oil and gas assets by Statoil. Fol-
lar joins Richmond, Virginia-based Acheson Award. The award was es- lowing the completion of the recom-
Alcoa Flexible Packaging from Tetra tablished in 1928 to recognise distin- mended merger, Hydro will be the
Pak of Chicago, where he was Vice guished contributions which advance worlds third-largest listed alumin-
President of strategic development objects, purposes or activities of ECS. ium company and is expected to be
and marketing. De Nora has dedicated his career to the fourth-largest company listed on
scientific research in the field of elec- the Oslo Stock Exchange in terms of
Aston Martin
trochemistry, in- market capitalisation. The company
cluding in partic- will continue to focus on its high per-
ular the fields of forming primary production system
chlorine-alkali and well-developed casthouse and
and aluminium remelter system in Europe and the
production. His United States. It will also pursue new
research achieve- alumina and metal growth opportuni-
ments centre on ties in attractive areas.
his efforts to find
a feasible inert an-
ode. More about Novelis with new CEO
de Noras career Novelis has named Edward A. Blech-
on page 36 of this schmidt, a member of its Board of
issue. Directors, to become Acting Chief
Executive Officer, effective January
The Aston Martin V8 Vantage Roadster was revealed at the 2006 Los Angeles Auto
Show end of November. The Roadster shares the unique-to-Aston Martin bonded 2, 2007. Mr. Blechschmidt succeeds
aluminium VH (Vertical Horizontal) architecture the backbone to all modern Aston Board Chairman William T. Mona-
Martins. Adding to this structure sophisticated materials such as lightweight alloys,
han, who has been Interim CEO since
magnesium and advanced composites are used for the body, further contributing to
the cars low weight and high rigidity. Body specification: Aluminium alloy, steel, com- August 2006. Mr. Monahan remains
posite, and magnesium alloy body. Extruded aluminium side impact bars and integral Chairman of the Novelis Board. Nov-
rollover bars. Suspension: Independent double aluminium wishbones, coil over alumi-
elis will continue its search for a per-
nium monotube dampers and anti-roll bar.
manent CEO.

Shell Lubricants with new rolling oils production facility


Shell Lubricants have opened a well as producing Croda specification
state-of-the-art rolling oils produc- rolling oils, the new facility will house
tion facility in Dortmund, Germany a product development team that will
to develop and produce rolling oils, continue to upgrade and extend the
thus incorporating proven Control- rolling oils portfolio.
led Particle Size (CPS) technology to The production of rolling oils at the
meet the increasing demands of the new facility is proof of Shells com-
metals industry. This new facility will mitment to the metals industry. In the
enable Shell lubricants companies last 12 months, Shell Lubricants have
to provide a one-stop-shop for the introduced a number of products
metals industry, offering high quality aimed at helping metals operators
factory plant maintenance lubricants, to increase productivity and reduce
speciality greases and rolling oils, on downtime. In addition to the one-
a global basis. stop-shop range of lubricants, metals
Shell Lubricants

Following the acquisition of Croda operators will in future be able to ben-


Chemicals Internationals (CCI) roll- efit from having access to Shell lubri-
ing fluid and production engineer- cants experts at a local level to assist
ing business in January 2006, Shell in reducing downtime and increasing
Roger Moulding (left) and Peter Rommers-
Lubricants have now successfully productivity, said Roger Moulding, kirchen from Shell Lubricants inaugurating
integrated CCIs range of rolling oils Vice President Specialities for Shell production of rolling oils in Dortmund,
Germany
into their metals product portfolio. As Lubricants .

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 7
AKTUELLES

Mikrochip-Forschung
Leserreise zur
Aluminium lsst Nanodrhte wachsen Expo Aluminio
dem Aluminium-Teilchen. Wenn Eine Leserreise der Extraklasse: Der
dieses kein weiteres Silizium aufneh- Giesel Verlag, Isernhagen, organisiert in
men kann, kristallisiert es an der Un- Zusammenarbeit mit Reed Exhibition in
terseite des Partikels wieder aus. So der Zeit vom 20. bis 25. Mai 2007 einen
wchst ein einkristalliner Silizium- Besuch der Expo Aluminio in Sao Paulo
Nanodraht von etwa 40 Nanometern (22. bis 24. Mai). Auf dem Business-
Durchmesser heran, der an der Spitze Programm stehen der Messebesuch so-
Max-Planck-Institut

ein Katalysatorteilchen trgt. wie Besuche bei brasilianischen Alumini-


Die viel versprechende Forschung umunternehmen. Eine gute Gelegenheit,
an Halbleiter-Nanodrhten bewegt Kontakte zu wichtigen Firmen und Be-
sich an der Schnittstelle von Grund- hrden zu knpfen. Ein Flug nach Rio de
Eingefrbte Aufnahme von lagenforschung und technischer An- Janeiro mit Stadtrundfahrt und Besuch
Silizium-Nanodrhten ( 40 nm).
wendung. Neben ihrem denkbaren von Zuckerhut oder Christusstatue auf
Einsatz in der Halbleiterindustrie dem Corcovado runden das Programm
Silizium-Nanodrhte knnen helfen, sind die Nanodrhte sehr interessant ab. Neugierig geworden? Detailfragen
Mikrochips weiter zu verkleinern. fr die physikalische Grundlagenfor- beantwortet Jutta Illhardt, Tel: 0511 /
Wissenschaftler des Max-Planck-In- schung, da ber ihre Eigenschaften 7304-126, Fax: 0511 / 7304-157, E-Mail:
stituts fr Mikrostrukturphysik in und ihr Wachstum noch nicht viel Illhardt@giesel.de.
Halle haben nun erstmals einkristal- bekannt ist, so Senz.
line Silizium-Nanodrhte gezchtet,
die wichtige Voraussetzungen dafr
erfllen: Sie haben Aluminium als Neuer Airbus A350 mit CFK-Auenhaut
Katalysator verwendet, um die Na-
nodrhte wachsen zu lassen. Bislang Um die Kerosin- und Wartungsko- wird zu ber 60 Prozent aus neu
setzten Wissenschaftler zu diesem sten zu reduzieren, wird der Flug- entwickelten Werkstoffen bestehen.
Zweck vor allem Gold ein. Doch zeugrumpf des neuen Airbus A350 Die Aufnahme des Flugbetriebs des
schon Spuren des Edelmetalls beein- XWB erstmals mit kohlefaserverstrk- neuen A350 XWB ist fr das Jahr 2013
trchtigen die Funktion von Halblei- ten Kunststoffen anstelle von Alumi- vorgesehen.
terbauteilen drastisch. nium ausgestattet. Die Flugzeugzelle
Aluminium dagegen beeintrchtigt
die Chipeigenschaften nicht und lsst
im Gegensatz zu anderen Metallen
schon bei relativ niedriger Tempe- Bundesumweltministerium fr-
ratur von rund 450 C Silizium-Na-
nodrhte von besonders hoher Quali- dert innovative Recyclinganlage
tt sprieen - eine Voraussetzung, um
die Kosten des Prozesses zu begrenz- Bundesumweltminister Sigmar Gabriel gut fr die Umwelt, sondern aufgrund der
en. Das neue Verfahren erfllt die untersttzt die Errichtung eines innovativen Energieeinsparung auch aus wirtschaftlicher
wichtigsten Bedingungen, um Silizi- Schmelzofens zur Herstellung von Kupfer in Sicht attraktiv.
um-Nanodrhte industriell einsetzen Osnabrck. Die KM Europa Metal AG plant, Im Rahmen des Vorhabens soll erstmals
zu knnen, erluterte Stephan Senz, einen bisher nur in der Aluminiumindustrie ein kippbarer Drehtrommelofen aus der
einer der beteiligten Wissenschaftler. eingesetzten kippbaren Drehtrommelofen Aluminiumindustrie zum Schmelzen und
Um Aluminium in so kleine Par- zu modifizieren und zum energieeffizien- Raffinieren von Sekundrkupfer eingesetzt
tikel zu zerlegen, dass sich an ihm ten Schmelzen und Raffinieren von Kupfer werden. Der neue Ofen verfgt im Gegen-
die feinen Drhte bilden, erhitzen die einzusetzen. Das Vorhaben wird vom satz zu den bisher in der Kupferindustrie
Forscher eine dnne Schicht davon Bundesumweltministerium mit rund 1,3 eingesetzten Drehtrommelfen ber nur
auf einer Silizium-Unterlage. Die Folie Millionen Euro aus dem Umweltinnovati- eine ffnung. Dadurch knnen Abgase op-
zerreit dann in lauter winzige Teil- onsprogramm gefrdert. timal erfasst und diffuse Emissionen auf ein
chen. Anschlieend gehen die Wis- Fortschritte bei der Energieeffizienz Minimum reduziert werden. Zudem wird
senschaftler wie in schon bekannten in energieintensiven Industrien tragen eine verbesserte Energieausnutzung gegen-
Verfahren vor: Sie dampfen Silan, ein in besonderem Mae zum Erreichen der ber beidseitig offenen Drehtrommelfen
siliziumhaltiges Gas, auf die Oberfl- Emissionsminderungsziele bei den Treibh- erreicht. Im Vergleich zu den bisherigen
che, das sich am Katalysatorpartikel ausgasen bei, so Gabriel. Die Durchfh- Verfahren werden 10 bis 20 Prozent Ener-
in elementares Silizium umwandelt. rung des Vorhabens sei jedoch nicht nur gie eingespart.
Das Silizium lst sich daraufhin in

8 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
NEWS IN BRIEF

Raw material prices remain high New Airbus A350

According to the branch report of IKB level of aluminium, IKBs Research De- With CFRP panelled
Deutsche Industriebank, the develop- partment expects a medium-term de- fuselage skin
ment of international raw material velopment within the range between
prices has now exceeded its all-time 2,000 and 2,500 US$/t. In the medium To set new standards in fuel-efficien-
high. Decisive for further price devel- term the worldwide enlargement of cy and maintainability the new Airbus
opment will be above all the future electrolysis capacities will relieve the A350 XWB will feature the latest in-
trade environment. Owing to the rela- situation. IKB also assumes that specu- novations in terms of advanced tech-
tively stable boundary conditions of lative demand for aluminium by hedg- nologies. Amongst those is the use of
the world economy it is unlikely that ing funds will not increase further. all-new, easy to maintain and much
in the medium term there will be any Assuming a slight slowdown of lighter Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plas-
appreciable downturn in the demand the world economy, IKB in any event tic panelled fuselage skins instead of
for raw materials. expects a sideways movement of alu- aluminium.
The increasing access of develop- minium demand. There is unlikely to This innovation in manufacturing
ing countries, above all China, to raw be an appreciable fall in consumption permits easier maintainability and
material reserves will further boost in the future. The worldwide trend to- reparability of individual airframe
worldwide needs and therefore also wards lightweight construction in the parts, while also allowing the struc-
maintain prices at a relatively high transport sector (automotive, aviation), ture of the panels to be much better
level. This applies to steel and NF the growing need for packaging and the optimized in terms of design to the
metals such as aluminium as much as recovery of the building economy in stress and load requirements of each
to oil and natural gas. All in all, it can Europe will be major driving forces. individual airframe part. Over 60 per
be assumed that for metallic and also In the automotive industry alumin- cent of the airframe will be made of
energy raw materials the low prices ium and plastics are seen as the most new materials.
of the mid-1990s and the beginning important materials for reducing en- Entry into service of the first A350
of the present decade will for the time ergy consumption and for meeting the XWB is planned for 2013.
being not recur. As regards the price objectives of the Kyoto protocol.

Giesel Verlag bernimmt APT International


und APT News
Der Giesel Verlag aus Isernhagen bei der beiden APT-Zeitschriften sind erluterte Travis. ber eine Vernet-
Hannover, Verlagsheimat dieser Zeit- wir weltweit optimal aufgestellt und zung mit den bisherigen Titeln des
schrift, hat zum 1. Januar 2007 die knnen global agierenden Kunden die Giesel Verlags ergeben sich fr Leser
beiden Publikationen APT Internati- passende redaktionelle und Werbe- und Anzeigenkunden sprbare Sym-
onal und APT News bernommen. Plattform bieten, sagte Taubert. biosen hinsichtlich Inhalt und Marke-
Durch die Akquisition wird die vor- John Travis wird weiterhin als tingmglichkeiten.
handene umfassende Zeitschriften- Chefredakteur
reihe im Werkstoffbereich erweitert, der APT-Medien
so Dietrich Taubert, Geschftsfhrer ttig sein. Der
des Giesel Verlags. Gleichzeitig ent- Giesel Verlag
steht durch die Bndelung der Krfte verantwortet Ver-
ein Verlag mit sehr groem Potenzial trieb, Anzeigen-
im Aluminiumbereich. Taubert: Mit akquisition und
unserem Angebot an hochwertigen Produktion. Die
Publikationen knnen wir die Markt- Fokussierung auf
bedrfnisse der Aluminiumbranche die redaktionelle
auf den internationalen Mrkten be- Ttigkeit und die
dienen. Integration in die
Der Giesel Verlag gibt mit den be- Strukturen eines
stehenden Zeitschriften ALUMINI- fhrenden Fach-
UM International Journal, Alumini- verlags sind wich-
um Praxis, METALL International tige Schritte bei
Journal sowie Composite Materials der konsequen-
und Automotive Materials europa- ten Weiterent-
weit fhrende Werkstoff-Fachpublika- wicklung dieser
tionen heraus. Durch die Integration Zeitschriften, John Travis (l.) und Dietrich Taubert

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 9
AKTUELLES

82m cans recycled


The U.S. Conference of Mayors, Keep
America Beautiful, Inc. and Novelis
Inc. announced the winners in the
2006 Cans for Cash: City Recycling
Challenge on America Recycles Day.
For the third year, the program chal-
lenged like-sized cities to compete
against each other in aluminum can
collection for monetary awards and
to encourage recycling. During two
weeks in September 2006, more than
30 cities collected over 2.4 million
pounds of aluminum cans which
equates to over 82 million used bev-
Seit dem Jahr 2000 haben sich die Industriestrompreise mehr als verdoppelt
erage cans. The aluminum can is the
countrys most recycled beverage
Deckelung der Energiekosten beschlossen container and has been for more than
20 years. In 2005, more than 100 bil-
Stromintensive Unternehmen wie Alu- nderung des EEG fllt die Entlastung lion aluminum beverage cans were
miniumhtten werden 2007 erneut deutlich hher als bisher aus. So be- produced in the United States and
bei ihren Energiekosten entlastet. Be- trgt die so genannte EEG-Umlage der 52% of them were recycled (a 1.0% in-
gnstigt sind laut Bundesumweltmi- besonders stromintensiven Unterneh- crease over the previous year). Nearly
nisterium rund 330 Firmen des pro- men knftig nur noch 0,05 ct/kWh. the same amount - close to 50 billion
duzierenden Gewerbes, die um rund Die rckwirkende Anwendung der cans or roughly US$ 1.5 billion worth
345 Mio. Euro entlastet werden. Im Neuregelung ab dem 1. Januar 2006 of aluminum - was lost to landfill.
Auftrag des Bundesumweltministeri- hat fr die begnstigten Unterneh-
ums hat das Bundesamt fr Wirtschaft men zustzlich einen Wert von etwa
und Ausfuhrkontrolle (BAFA) Ende 80 Mio. Euro. Im Antragsverfahren fr Coperion bernimmt
Dezember 2006 ber die Antrge 2007 hat BAFA eine zu privilegieren-
Hartmann Frder-
nach der besonderen Ausgleichsre- de Strommenge von insgesamt 72.040
gelung des Erneuerbaren-Energien- GWh ermittelt, die nicht mit vollem,
anlagen
Gesetzes (EEG) entschieden und zum sondern begrenztem EEG-Anteil ab- Mit Wirkung zum 1. Januar 2007 hat
Jahreswechsel die entsprechenden zunehmen ist. Hiervon entfallen etwa die Coperion Waeschle Beteiligungs
Bescheide versandt. Durch eine zum 94 % (67.826 GWh) auf Unternehmen GmbH die Geschftsaktivitten der
1. Dezember 2006 in Kraft getretene des produzierenden Gewerbes. Hartmann Frderanlagen GmbH,
Offenbach, bernommen. Das Un-
ternehmen, ein fhrender Anbieter
im Schttguthandling von Tonerde,
Stromvertrag fr Hamburger wird innerhalb der Coperion-Grup-
pe in den Geschftsbereich Materials
Aluminiumhtte perfekt Handling eingegliedert und knftig
als Coperion Hartmann firmieren.
Die Trimet Aluminium AG und der Strom- verschiedene innovative Stromprodukte. Der Sitz der Gesellschaft und die Ar-
versorger RWE haben sich auf einen neuen So kommt das aus der Finanzwirtschaft beitspltze der Mitarbeiter bleiben
Stromliefervertrag fr die Aluminiumhtte bekannte Optionsprodukt Multi Period erhalten. Eigentmer der Coperion
in Hamburg (ehemals HAW) geeinigt. Extendible auch in der Energiewirtschaft Gruppe ist die britische Private Equity
Der Vertrag hat ein Volumen von 2 TWh zur Anwendung. Es gewhrt dem Kunden Gesellschaft Lyceum Capital. Coperi-
pro Jahr und gilt von 2008 bis minde- deutliche Preisvorteile in den frhen Lie- on Waeschle liefert fr die Kunststoff-
stens 2010. Trimet plant die schrittweise ferphasen, whrend der Energieversorger herstellung die gesamte Prozesskette
Wiederinbetriebnahme ab April 2007. Die gegen Preisverfall in den spten Liefer- vom Reaktor bis zur Logistik. Erklrtes
Produktion soll 2008 wieder in vollem phasen abgesichert ist. Auerdem ist der strategisches Ziel von Coperion ist es,
Umfang laufen. Der Anfahrbetrieb im Jahr von Trimet zu zahlende Strompreis an den auch in der Aluminiumherstellung
2007 wird ber flexible, kurzfristige Strom- Aluminiumpreis gekoppelt. Des Weiteren die komplette Prozesskette von der
kontrakte sichergestellt. Der Liefervertrag besteht die Mglichkeit, kurzfristig Lastab- Rohmaterialannahme ber das La-
nutzt alle Mglichkeiten der liberalisierten schaltungen vorzunehmen, die dem Strom- gern und Transportieren bis zur Be-
Grohandelsmrkte und kombiniert versorger zustzliche Flexibilitt bieten. schickung der Elektrolysezellen mit
Systemlsungen abzudecken.

10 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
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WIRTSCHAFT

Quelle:
Trimet AG, Dsseldorf
Trimet Aluminium AG

12 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
  


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WIRTSCHAFT

Produktionsdaten der deutschen Aluminiumindustrie


Primraluminium Sekundraluminium Walzprodukte > 0,2 mm Press- & Ziehprodukte**
Produktion +/- Produktion +/- Produktion +/- Produktion +/-
(in 1.000 t) in % * (in 1.000 t) in % * (in 1.000 t) in % * (in 1.000 t) in % *
Okt 05 53,4 -6,0 61,2 5,9 153,1 9,4 43,2 0,9
Nov 51,1 -7,1 65,3 6,7 150,7 -0,9 47,3 9,2
Dez 47,6 -16,5 54,6 6,6 122,6 2,6 31,4 13,4
Jan 06 42,9 -24,8 65,4 16,2 136,2 -4,2 45,4 10,7
Feb 38,7 -25,5 65,1 9,6 145,5 5,8 46,0 8,6
Mrz 43,1 -24,8 78,9 27,1 160,1 6,1 51,9 22,0
Apr 42,4 -23,8 62,5 2,8 133,3 -12,9 42,8 -3,8
Mai 43,4 -24,0 68,0 22,1 154,4 5,2 49,7 21,8
Jun 43,2 -20,7 65,7 3,3 146,4 -2,4 47,8 0,1
Jul 45,1 -17,9 64,0 4,6 148,8 -5,2 48,5 9,3
Aug 45,2 -16,7 59,6 7,2 149,8 -6,0 48,1 9,1
Sep 42,8 -19,4 66,9 6,9 144,2 -8,8 51,1 9,2
Okt 44,1 -17,4 65,0 6,1 153,2 0,0 52,2 21,1
* gegenber dem Vorjahresmonat, ** Stangen, Prole, Rohre; Mitteilung des Gesamtverbandes der Aluminiumindustrie GDA, Dsseldorf

Primraluminium Sekundraluminium

Walzprodukte > 0,2 mm Press- und Ziehprodukte

14 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
WIRTSCHAFT

Die deutschen Aluminiumhtten

Technisch hoch effizient, umweltpolitisch vorbildlich


und ein wichtiges Glied in der Wertschpfungskette
Christian Wellner, Jrg H. Schfer, Dsseldorf

Die Konjunktur in Deutschland Bei aller Euphorie kann jedoch nicht weit um rund 38 Prozent auf knapp
entwickelte sich 2006 mit einer bersehen werden, dass die Zukunft 34 Mio. jato und die Nachfrage nach
Dynamik, wie sie lange nicht fr energieintensive Unternehmen in Aluminium wird in den kommenden
mehr gesehen war. Selbst aus dem Deutschland nebelverhangen bleibt. Jahren weiter steigen.
Arbeitsmarkt kamen positive Mel- Generell gilt dagegen: Die Energie-
dungen. Kurzfristig stellt sich die und insbesondere die Strompreise Die Entwicklung des
Frage, inwieweit die jngste Erh- sind im internationalen Mastab nach Httenstandorts Deutschland
hung der Mehrwertsteuer zu einem wie vor sehr hoch. Auch die politisch
konjunkturellen Dmpfer fhren bedingten Energiekosten belasten Es ist eine Ironie der Geschichte, dass
wird. Langfristig kann selbst die trotz regierungsseitig beschlossener die Standortprobleme in einem Land
gute Konjunktur des vergangenen Erleichterungen weiterhin. auftreten, das zu den ltesten Htten-
Jahres nicht darber hinwegtu- standorten fr Aluminium zhlt. Der
schen, dass seit Anfang der 1990er erste Elektrolysebetrieb in Deutsch-
Jahre zwei Millionen industrielle land wurde schon 1898 in Rhein-
Arbeitspltze in Deutschland ver- felden an der Grenze zur Schweiz
loren gegangen sind. Nach wie vor errichtet, wo dank der Rheinflle der
wandern zahlreiche Unternehmen erforderliche Strom zur Aluminium-
mit Teilen ihrer Produktion ins produktion kostengnstig bereitge-
Ausland, weil die wirtschaftlichen stellt werden konnte.
Rahmenbedingungen in unserem Niedrige Strompreise sind fr die
Land erhebliche Wettbewerbsnach- Primrhtten seit jeher unabdingbar.
teile generieren. Doch ohne eine Deshalb entstanden ab 1917 groe
breite industrielle Basis, auch von Aluminiumwerke am Niederrhein
energieintensiven Branchen, wird (Erftwerk) und in der Lausitz (Lauta-
das strukturelle Beschftigungspro- werk), beide bezogen ihren Strom auf
blem hierzulande nicht zu lsen Basis gnstiger Braunkohle. Mitte der
GDA

sein. Umso wichtiger ist es, den 1920er Jahre wurde das Innwerk in
Exodus von Industrien zu stoppen. GDA-Geschftsfhrer Christian Wellner: Tging und in den 1930er Jahren das
Alle Bestrebungen zur Optimierung des
Das schliet die Aluminiumindus- Lippewerk in Lnen gebaut. Anfang
Elektrolysebetriebes zielen auf ...
trie ein. der 1960er Jahre wurde das Rhein-
Planungssicherheit ber Zeitrume, werk bei Neuss errichtet. Weitere
Noch Anfang 2006 sah es so aus, als die sich in Jahrzehnten statt Jahren Kapazitten wurden schlielich in
htte das Httensterben in Deutsch- bemessen, gibt es somit nach wie vor Essen, Ludwigshafen, Voerde, Stade
land beschleunigte Fahrt aufgenom- nicht. Das belastet die Httenbetrei- und Hamburg geschaffen.
men. Die Schlieung des Hamburger ber mit erheblichen Risiken, wenn sie Die grte Anlagenkapazitt in
Aluminium-Werks HAW Ende 2005 ntige Investitionen in ihre Anlagen Deutschland gab es 1985/86 mit
und das angekndigte Aus frs El- planen oder sie wagen es gar nicht, 790.000 jato, als insgesamt neun Alu-
bewerk in Stade zum Jahresende was ein allmhliches Ende des Be- miniumhtten produzierten. Heu-
2006 warfen die Frage auf, wann es triebs zur Konsequenz hat. te wird nur noch an wenigen der
schlielich die verbleibenden Ht- Und all dies vor dem Hintergrund, genannten Standorte Primrmetall
tenbetriebe treffen wrde. Dass HAW dass die deutschen Aluminiumhtten erzeugt. Das Erftwerk schloss seine
nun von der Trimet Aluminium AG in heute technologisch und mit Blick auf Elektrolyse bereits 1978, die Alumi-
Essen erworben wurde und die Elek- die Umweltstandards international auf niumhtte in Ludwigshafen 1987, das
trolysefen in den nchsten Monaten Augenhhe produzieren, ja vorbild- Lippewerk 1989, die Aluminiumhtte
wieder hochgefahren werden, knnte lich sind. All dies auch vor dem Hin- in Rheinfelden 1991 und das Innwerk
als Indiz gewertet werden, dass sich tergrund, dass wir es in der Branche 1996. Das Elbewerk in Stade hat sei-
die standortpolitischen Rahmenbe- keineswegs mit einem Verdrngungs- ne Tore vor wenigen Wochen (70.000
dingungen in Deutschland zum Bes- wettbewerb in einem schrumpfenden jato) geschlossen.
seren gewendet haben und es nun Markt zu tun haben. Im Gegenteil: Die War es frher eher eine zu geringe
wieder aufwrts geht mit dem Wirt- Produktion von Primraluminium Betriebsgre bzw. ineffiziente Pro-
schaftsstandort Deutschland. stieg zwischen 2000 und 2005 welt- duktion, die zum Aus fr eine Htte

16 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
WIRTSCHAFT

fhrte, haben sich seit der Jahrtau-


sendwende vor allem die erheblich ge-
stiegenen Energiekosten zum Existenz
bedrohenden Kriterium verschlim-
mert. Dies wirft die Frage auf, wie
lange die heute in Deutschland noch
produzierenden Elektrolysen betrie-
ben werden knnen. Stromvertrge

Corus Aluminium Voerde, Fotograf Thea Weires


zwischen den Energieversorgern und
den Htten werden nur noch kurzfri-
stig fr einige Jahre abgeschlossen,
so dass das Damoklesschwert einer
Betriebsschlieung permanent ber
den Unternehmen und ihren Beschf-
tigten hngt obwohl, wie erwhnt,
die deutschen Anlagen hoch effizient
produzieren und technisch internati-
onal wettbewerbsfhig sind.
... eine hohe Stromausbeute, einen niedrigen spezifischen Energieverbrauch der Zellen ...

Elektrolyseprozess deutlich
effizienter lnger bekannt. Dennoch hat es erst Verbrauchsabsenkungen weitgehend
die Entwicklung einer Technologie ausgeschpft ist.
Das Prinzip der Aluminiumgewin- zur przisen Dosierung von Tonerde
nung ist in den vergangenen 100 durch Prozesskontrollrechner, die so- Moderne Techniken der
Jahren zwar weitgehend unverndert genannte Point-Feeder-Methode, er- Luftreinhaltung
geblieben, doch wurden in den ver- mglicht, Anodeneffekte weitgehend
gangenen Jahrzehnten Modernisie- zu vermeiden. Die Manahmen zur Prozessverbes-
rungen durchgefhrt, die die heutige Die Betriebsfhrung mit hohen serung umfassten stets auch die Tech-
Produktion wesentlich effizienter Stromstrken sowie durch compu- niken zur Luftreinhaltung. Als Emis-
macht als frher. Alle Bestrebungen tergesttzte Steuerungssysteme und sionen der Elektrolyse, die gereinigt
zur Optimierung des Elektrolysebe- Dosiereinrichtungen machen die werden mssen, treten vor allem die
triebes zielen auf eine hohe Stromaus- Schmelzflusselektrolyse hoch effizi- Komponenten Staub und Fluorwas-
beute, einen niedrigen spezifischen ent und umweltvertrglich. Der Rein- serstoff auf. Vor wenigen Jahrzehnten
Energieverbrauch der Zellen und ei- heitsgehalt des Aluminiums liegt bei war die beste Methode der Staubab-
nen geringen Anodenverbrauch. Auf 99,7 Prozent. Die Stromausbeute be- scheidung noch die Abtrennung mit
diese Weise konnten die Produktivitt trgt bei den modernen Hochstrom- Zyklonen, fr die Fluoridabscheidung
enorm gesteigert und schdliche Um- Elektrolysezellen rund 95 Prozent. war es die Abgaswsche mit Kalkmilch
weltwirkungen minimiert werden. Der spezifische Strombedarf liegt in und anschlieender Fllung und Ab-
Die im Laufe der vergangenen deutschen Htten um die 14 kWh/kg trennung des gebildeten Calciumfluo-
Jahrzehnte getroffenen Manahmen Aluminium ein erheblicher Fort- rids. Dieser Feststoff musste abfiltriert
dazu sind vielfltig: Alle fen in schritt gegenber 50 kWh/kg zu Be- und deponiert werden. Allein fr die
Deutschland sind seit Jahrzehnten ginn der industriellen Aluminiumer- Luftreinhaltung einer Elektrolyse von
komplett gekapselt und bleiben auch zeugung um 1900 und 20 kWh/kg rund 78.000 jato bedeutete dies einen
whrend der Oxidzufuhr geschlossen. in den 1970er Jahren. Mit den Pro- Wassereinsatz von circa 100.000 m3
Die Entdeckung, dass der spezifische zessoptimierungen der vergangenen pro Jahr und ein Abfallaufkommen
Elektrolytwiderstand mit dem Oxid- Jahre zeichnet sich zugleich ab, dass von rund 6.000 Tonnen Calciumflu-
gehalt korreliert, war zwar schon das technische Potenzial zu weiteren oridschlamm.

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 17
WIRTSCHAFT

Mitte der 1980er Jahre kam eine in- es infolge einer lokalen Verarmung soluten Spitzenfeld. Sie liegen mit
novative Technik auf den Markt, die an Aluminiumoxid zu einer Zerset- den erwhnten 0,07 kg/t auch um fast
mit der TA Luft 1986 schnell in die zung des Kryoliths und zur Bildung zwei Drittel unter dem vom Internati-
Htten integriert wurde. Diese neue von Tetrafluormethan (CF4) und He- onal Aluminium Institute (IAI) fr das
Technik nutzt aus, dass Tonerde in xafluorethan (C2F6). Die Ursache fr Jahr 2000 ermittelten internationalen
der Lage ist, gasfrmige Stoffe zu ab- das Entstehen eines Anodeneffektes Referenzwert von 0,22 kg/t CF4. Sogar
sorbieren, also an ihrer Oberflche kann eine abnehmende Tonerdekon- der IAI-Durchschnittswert speziell
anzulagern. Der Staub, der durch die zentration im Schmelzbad oder das fr Point-Feeder-Anlagen von 0,11
Zugabe von Tonerde zur Absorption berschreiten der kritischen Strom- kg/t wird von den deutschen Anlagen
der Fluorwasserstoffe im Rohgas ent- dichte in der Elektrolysezelle sein: klar unterschritten. Bei diesem stati-
steht, lsst sich mit einem Gewebefil- zum Beispiel verstopfte Point-Feeder, stischen Vergleich ist wichtig anzu-
ter unproblematisch abreinigen. Die das Wechseln der Tonerdesorte und merken, dass technisch rckstndige
mit Fluoriden angereicherte Tonerde damit verbundene Lslichkeitspro- chinesischen und russischen Anlagen
wird in die Elektrolyse zurckgefhrt, bleme, ein Anodenwechsel oder das in den IAI-Zahlen nicht einbezogen
was den erforderlichen Einsatz von Absaugen von Metall. sind. Inzwischen ist das Modernisie-
Aluminiumfluorid weiter reduziert. CF4 und C2F6 sind nicht toxisch und rungspotenzial durch eine weiter ver-
Insgesamt knnen die Fluoride mit fr Menschen und Tiere unschdlich, besserte Ofensteuerung hierzulande
einem Wirkungsgrad von ber 99 Pro- gelten jedoch als Klimagase. Sie ent- technisch weitgehend ausgereizt. Da
zent aus dem Abgas entfernt werden. stehen nur kurzfristig whrend des der Treibhauseffekt eine globale He-
Die Vorteile dieses Verfahrens Anodeneffektes und treten in relativ rausforderung ist, kommt es knftig
sind offensichtlich: Der hohe Ab- geringen Mengen auf. verstrkt darauf an, dass die groen
scheidegrad von Fluorid entlastet die Die deutschen Primrhtten ha- Aluminiumproduzenten Russland
Umwelt, es werden wertvolle Einsatz- ben seit 1990 eine Menge getan, um und China ihre veraltete Anlagentech-
stoffe zurckgewonnen, auerdem den Anodeneffekt und das Entste- nik modernisieren. Mit Manahmen,
wie sie in den vergangenen Jahren in
Deutschland umgesetzt wurden, liee
sich ein enormes Potenzial zur Emis-
sionsminderung erschlieen.

Energie- und standortpolitische


Corus Aluminium Voerde, Fotograf Thea Weires

Sonderlasten

Die Errichtung neuer Htten erfolgt


heute auerhalb Europas an Standor-
ten, die ber preiswerte Energie ver-
fgen, wie dies zum Beispiel in Katar
der Fall ist. Dort wird bis 2009 eine
Aluminiumhtte mit einer Anfangs-
kapazitt von 570.000 Jahrestonnen
errichtet, die ber ein eigenes Kraft-
... und einen geringen Anodenverbrauch. werk verfgen wird.
Dies ist keine Perspektive hier-
wird Wasser eingespart und das Ab- hen dieser Gase zu unterbinden. So zulande, doch sind Politik und Ge-
fallaufkommen reduziert. Die damit wurden 2005 in den damals produ- sellschaft gefordert, die industriellen
verbundenen Vorteile fr die Um- zierenden fnf deutschen Htten Rahmenbedingungen der deutschen
welt gehen mit Kosteneinsparungen insgesamt 270 Tonnen weniger CF4 Volkswirtschaft so zu verbessern,
einher eine ideale Situation, in der emittiert als 1990. Die spezifischen dass die schleichende Deindustri-
sich kologische und konomische Emissionen lagen durchschnittlich alisierung gestoppt wird und Wirt-
Vorteile gleichermaen ergeben. bei knapp 0,07 kg/t Aluminium. Die schaftswachstum und Beschftigung
gegenber der Bundesregierung abge- deutlich gestrkt werden. Daher
Anodeneffekte minimiert gebene Selbstverpflichtung der deut- ist es unverzichtbar, jede Stufe der
schen Primraluminiumhtten, die Wertschpfungskette durch eine
Weitere umweltorientierte Manah- CF4/C2F6-Emissionen zwischen 1990 Wirtschaftspolitik zu halten, die den
men zielten darauf, den sogenann- und 2005 absolut und auch spezifisch Standort Deutschland strkt und den
ten Anodeneffekt zu minimieren. Er um die Hlfte zu vermindern, wurde fairen Wettbewerb mit dem Ausland
ist durch einen raschen Anstieg der damit deutlich bererfllt. ermglicht.
Spannung in den Elektrolysezellen Die deutschen Aluminiumhtten Die deutsche Energiepolitik muss
gekennzeichnet, die kurzfristig auf das bewegen sich im weltweiten Vergleich dazu ebenfalls einen Beitrag leisten,
6-fache ansteigen kann. Dabei kommt bei den CF4-Emissionen in einem ab- orientiert sich aber seit Jahren fast

18 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
WIRTSCHAFT

ausschlielich an Klimazielen. Statt und Entwicklungszentren der Unter- den Werkstoff an seine Zugfestig-
sich auf die wahren Herausforde- nehmen folgen, was am Ende negative keit, an sein Umformvermgen, an
rungen zu konzentrieren, die sich aus Rckwirkungen bis hin zum Dienst- seine Gefgeeigenschaften , die
der langfristigen Entwicklung auf den leistungssektor htte. oft in jahrzehntelang gewachsenen
internationalen Energiemrkten er- Die Aluminiumindustrie ist durch Kunden-Lieferanten-Beziehungen
geben, leistet sich die deutsche Ener- eine enge Verzahnung der einzelnen zwischen Aluminiumproduzent und
giepolitik den Ausstieg aus der Kern- Glieder in der Wertschpfungskette Verarbeiter gelst worden sind. Diese
energie ohne klares Bekenntnis zur Metallerzeugung, Halbzeugfertigung, Technologiepartnerschaft zwischen
Steinkohle als Ersatzenergie, gepaart Endprodukt geprgt. Dabei zeigt sich, den Wertschpfungsgliedern ist viel-
mit einer massiven Subventionierung dass optimale Produktlsungen sich fach fr die hohe Produktqualitt und
der erneuerbaren Energien durch im- gerade dann erzielen lassen, wenn den viel beschworenen Exporterfolg,
mer hhere koabgaben und ergnzt zwischen den einzelnen Wertschp- auch von Unternehmen der Alumini-
um eine CO2-Zertifikatepolitik, die fungsgliedern eine enge Zusammen- umbranche, mitverantwortlich.
den Stromkonzernen riesige Windfall arbeit besteht, in der das gesamte In einer solchen Technologie-
Profits einbringt, die von Haushalts- Know-how und die Erfahrung aller partnerschaft kommt den Htten als
und Industriekunden gleichermaen Beteiligten zum Tragen kommen: Basis des Geschfts eine wichtige
finanziert werden. von der Werkstoff-, Fertigungs- und konomische Funktion zu. In einer
Rechnet man die CF4-Reduktion Entwicklungskompetenz bis hin zur globalisierten Welt, in der sogar mit-
(2005: 270 t) um, die die Aluminium- Qualittssicherung, Logistik und dem telstndische Unternehmen Produk-
htten durch erhebliche Investitionen Service. tionsstandorte in Osteuropa, Asien
an CO2-Menge eingespart haben, er- In diesem Kompetenzverbund und Lateinamerika errichten, ist die
gibt dies gemessen an den aktuellen knnte die rumliche Nhe zwischen Gefahr eines Domino-Effektes Erst
Marktpreisen fr Emissionszertifikate den einzelnen Fertigungsstufen, kur- gehen die Htten, dann die Verar-
eine Sonderleistung im Wert von ze Kommunikations- und Logistik- beitung konkreter denn je. Wenn
mehreren Millionen Euro, mit denen wege zwischen Kunde und Lieferant logistische Vorteile, etwa durch die
die deutschen Aluminiumhtten zum im internationalen Wettbewerb ein Versorgungsnhe zu den Htten-
deutschen Klimaschutz fr die Welt Standortvorteil sein, wenn die wirt- produzenten, wegfallen und sich die
beigetragen haben. schaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen ei- Waage dadurch weiter zuungunsten
nen fairen Wettbewerb mit dem Aus- des Standorts Deutschland neigt, wer-
Wertschpfungsglieder eng land zulieen. Aluminium ist eben den die Verarbeitungsbetriebe ihre
verzahnt lngst kein 08/15-Produkt mehr. Viele Kosten-Nutzen-Rechnung neu auf-
Walz- und Strangpresswerke, Form- stellen.
Die kostenlose Zuweisung von Emis- gieereien und weitere Verarbeiter
sionszertifikaten nach dem Natio- bentigen fr ihre hochwertigen Autoren
nalen Allokationsplan II wird die Produkte Aluminiumlegierungen
Strompreise weiter in die Hhe trei- mit definierten Qualitten. Eine Christian Wellner ist Geschftsfhrer des
ben, obwohl der bergroe Teil des Lithoplatte fr den Offsetdruck, ein Gesamtverbandes der Aluminiumindus-
trie (GDA), Dsseldorf.
produzierten Stroms vom Zertifikate- Fahrwerksteil fr Pkw, ein Auen- Jrg H. Schfer ist Referent fr Nach-
preis gar nicht beeinflusst wird. Fr hautblech fr Flugzeuge und zahl- haltigkeit beim GDA und leitet dort den
eine Aluminiumhtte, in der ber ein reiche andere Produkte stellen je- Fachbereich Metallpulver.
Drittel der Produktionskosten vom weils spezifische Anforderungen an
Strompreis diktiert wird, ist eine sol-
che Entwicklung katastrophal. Doch
auch die weiterverarbeitenden Alu-
miniumbetriebe sind auf kostengn-
stige Energie angewiesen und mssen
frchten, dass ihr Innovationsvorteil
gegenber wachsender globaler Kon-
kurrenz durch weiter steigende Mehr-
kosten aufgefressen wird, bis auch sie
nicht mehr im Wettbewerb bestehen World leader in
knnen.
Wer heute meint, die energieinten- molten metal level control
sive Grundstoffindustrie sei verzicht-
bar, muss sich morgen nicht wundern,
wenn die verarbeitenden Betriebe in PreciMeter Control AB, Sweden
dieser Wertschpfungskette in den phone +46 31 764 55 20 fax +46 31 764 55 29
Sog der Produktionsverlagerung gera- sales@precimeter.se www.precimeter.com
ten. Und bermorgen die Forschungs-

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 19
WIRTSCHAFT

Herbstkongress der European Coil Coating Association Autumn congress of the ECCA

Marktentwicklung, Technologie- Market development,


technology trends,
trends, Gesetzgebung legislation

Unter dem Motto Reviewing the nordamerikanischen und asiatischen Under the heading Reviewing the
advantages of coil coating against Region liegen noch nicht vor. In Nord- advantages of coil coating against
competitive materials bot die amerika ist jedoch davon auszugehen, competitive materials, at its au-
ECCA auf ihrem Herbst-Kongress dass der rcklufige Trend weiter an- tumn congress in Brussels at the
in Brssel Ende 2006 einen ber- hlt. Ganz anders die Entwicklung in end of 2006 the ECCA presented
blick ber die Marktentwicklung, Asien, allen voran China und Indien. a review of market developments,
ber neue Technologien bei der Dort sind neue Coil-Coating-Linien in new technologies for the coil coa-
Bandbeschichtung von Aluminium Betrieb gegangen, die diesen Lndern ting of aluminium and steel, and
und Stahl sowie ber die Weiter- nicht nur eine partielle Unabhngig- the further processing and uses of
verarbeitung und Anwendung vor- keit von Importen ermglichen. Beide pre-painted strip.
lackierter Bnder. Lnder haben zudem bewiesen, dass
sie, wenngleich noch mit geringen In 2004 deliveries of coated alumini-
Die Ablieferungen an beschichteten Mengen, durchaus zu Exporten in um and steel strips by ECCA members
Aluminium- und Stahlbndern durch europische Regionen wie Italien und amounted to 1.4 million m2, more that
die ECCA-Mitglieder hatten 2004 Spanien fhig sind. ever before.
mit einer Gesamtmenge von ber 1,4 Hauptanwender von Produkten
Mio. m2 den bisherigen Hchststand aus organisch beschichteten Alumini- Market development
erreicht. um- und Stahlblechen und -bndern
bleibt das Bauwesen mit zahlreichen Following a slight downturn in 2005,
Marktentwicklung Anwendungen im Auen- und Innen- it is expected that there was a recov-
bau. Bei beschichteten Aluminium- ery in the first half-year of 2006 to
Nachdem das Jahr 2005 leicht rck- bndern waren das rund 70 Prozent, the level of 2004. Comparable figures
lufig war, kann fr das erste Halb- bei Stahlbndern 67 Prozent der 2005 from the North American and Asiatic
jahr 2006 von einer Erholung auf erzeugten 224 Mio. bzw. 1.141 Mio. regions are not yet available, but it can
dem Niveau von 2004 ausgegangen m2. be assumed that in North America the
werden. Vergleichbare Zahlen aus der Die auf dem Kongress gezeigten recessionary trend is still persisting.
Beispiele sthetisch gelungener An- The development in Asia is quite the
wendungen bei ffentlichen und B- opposite, most of all in China and In-
European Coil Coating Association rogebuden, aber auch zunehmend dia where new coil-coating lines have
im privaten Hausbau spiegelten die come into operation, which have made
Die ECCA existiert seit 1967 als Verei- unzhligen Variationsmglichkeiten those countries more than partially in-
nigung der europischen Coil Coating aus Form und Farbe wider. Im Seg- dependent of imports. Both countries
Industrie. Die derzeit rund 200 Mitglieds- ment Fassadentechnik wird weiteres have indicated that, although still in
firmen sind vor allem europische, teils Marktwachstum innerhalb bautech- small quantities, they are fully capable
aber auch auereuropische Bandher- nischer Anwendungen erwartet. Dies of exporting to European countries
steller und -veredler sowie Lackhersteller, gilt sowohl fr Neubauten als auch fr such as Italy and Spain.
Anlagenbauer, Zulieferer und Handelsun- die Sanierung vorhandener Bausub- The largest user of products made
ternehmen. Ziel der ECCA ist es, die Ver- stanz. Hierbei sollen Profilelemente from organically coated aluminium
wendung von vorlackierten Bndern und und Sandwichplatten zunehmend and steel sheets and strips is still the
Blechen aus Aluminium und Stahl als konventionelle Werkstoffe wie Beton, building industry, with numerous out-
umweltvertrgliche, kosteneffiziente und Backstein, Holz und Glas ersetzen. door and indoor applications. In the
qualitativ wertvolle Methode zur Erzeu- Gepunktet wird dabei mit den lang- case of coated aluminium strips these
gung von Fertigerzeugnissen zu frdern. fristigen Kostenvorteilen dank War- accounted for some 70 per cent, and
Dabei widmet sich der Verband neben tungsfreiheit und mit Kriterien wie in the case of steel strips 67 per cent
dem politischen Lobbying der Entwick- Umweltvertrglichkeit, Brandschutz of the respective total productions of
lung von Qualittsstandards (verbunden und modernes Design bandbeschich- 224 million and 1,141 million m2 in
mit der Entwicklung von Testmethoden). teter Substrate. Ein weiterer Trend ist, 2005.
Darber hinaus fhrt er Trainingskurse dass immer mehr Architekten neben The examples exhibited at the
durch, um die Verwendung vorlackierter Form und Funktion die Wirkung der congress, showing aesthetically suc-
Metalle bei Designern und Herstellern Farbe entdecken. cessful applications in public and
bekannt zu machen. Weitere wichtige Einsatzgebiete fr office buildings but to an increasing
bandbeschichtetes Aluminium und extent also in the building of private

20 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
ECONOMICS

residences, reflected the countless Stahl, die mit Anteilen von unter zehn
possible variations of shape and col- Prozent folgen, sind der Fahrzeugbau
our. In the sector of faade technology und die Hausgerteindustrie. Wh-
further market growth in the field of rend bei Hausgerten fertig lackierte
building applications is anticipated. Bnder seit Jahren als Stand der Tech-
This applies both to new buildings nik verwendet werden, beschrnken
and in the refurbishment of exist- sich die Automobilhersteller nach wie
ing structures. Section elements and vor auf den Einsatz funktionsbeschich-
sandwich plates will increasingly re- teter Bleche. Hier spielen chemische
place conventional materials such Behandlungen zur Verbesserung der
as concrete, brick, wood and glass. Haftvermittlung und Schmierstoffe
This is encouraged by long-term cost fr die Umformung eine Rolle. Der
benefits thanks to low maintenance Einsatz von fertig lackiertem Stahl
requirements, and by criteria such as oder Aluminium in der Karosserie
environment-friendliness, fire protec- scheitert bislang noch an vielerlei
tion and the modern designs that can Problemen: zum Beispiel am Korrosi-
be produced from strip-coated sub- onsschutz der Schnittkanten oder an
strates. A further trend is that more einer lackvertrglichen, automobil-
and more architects are discovering gerechten Fgetechnik. Dies hat zur
the effects of colour in addition to Folge, dass Autos auch in Zukunft
shape and functionality. ihre Endlackierung erst an der zu-
Other important fields of use for sammengebauten Karosserie erhalten
strip-coated aluminium and steel, werden.
which come next although with re-

Fata Hunter
spective shares of less than 10%, are Technologie-Trends
vehicle engineering and the house-
hold appliances industry. Whereas Die technologische Entwicklung so- Fata Hunter: Eine von zwei nach China
gelieferten Bandbeschichtungslinien
finish-painted strips have been used wohl bei der Beschichtung als auch
as standard for years in the appliances bei der Weiterverarbeitung beschich- Fata Hunter: One of two parallel coil
coating lines supplied to China
industry, automobile engineers still teter Bnder und Bleche wird von
restrict themselves to the use of sheets Herstellern und Anwendern stetig
with functional coatings, including vorangetrieben. Kernthemen der Vor- Eigenschaften bisher verwendeter
chemical treatments to improve ad- tragsreihe galten der Entwicklung chrombasierter Erzeugnisse.
hesion and lubricants for deformation neuer Produkte fr die Beschichtung. Weitere Entwicklungsziele gelten
processes. The use of finish-painted Verbesserte Eigenschaftsprofile von dem Korrosionsschutz der Schnitt-
steel or aluminium for auto bodies is Produkten und Prozessen sind auf kanten ohne Primereinsatz. Der Ein-
still held back by many problems, for Wirtschaftlichkeit, Umweltschutz, satz von Antikorrosionslacken auf
example the cut edge corrosion pro- Technologie und sthetik ausgerich- unbeschichtete Substrate wird noch
tection or joining methods compatible tet. Seitens der Beschichter gehen die einige Jahre auf sich warten lassen.
with the paint and which are suitable Forderungen in Richtung Automati- Die Adphos AG berichtete ber
for use in automobiles. As a result, sierung, Einfhrung schnellerer Ver- ihre Weiterentwicklungen bei der
in the future too automobiles will be fahren und verbesserte Prozessstabi- NIR-Aushrtung von organischen
given their final paint treatment only litt. Die Entwicklung neuer Lacke fr Beschichtungen. NIR steht fr Near
after assembly of the body shell. bautechnische Anwendungen, die zur Infra Red und beschreibt ein Verfah-
Abstrahlung der Sonnenenergie kon- ren, mit dem im nahen Infrarotbereich
Technology trends zipiert sind, zielen darauf, den Ener- mittels speziellen Hochleistungsstrah-
gieverbrauch zur Gebudekhlung lern, die eine Energiedichte von bis zu
Technological development, both for deutlich zu reduzieren. Fr die Ent- 3.000 kW pro Quadratmeter besitzen,
coating and for the further processing wicklung solcher Lacke wird von den eine sehr schnelle direkte Aufheizung
of coated strips and sheets, is con- Herstellern eine spezielle Software der organischen Beschichtung er-
tinually being taken further by both eingesetzt, welche die Umgebungs- reicht wird. Die Folge sind sehr kurze
manufacturers and users. The core einflsse unterschiedlicher Orte si- Prozesszeiten in der Grenordnung
theme of a series of presentations muliert. Nach wie vor bleiben chrom- von ein bis drei Sekunden, verglichen
was the development of new coating freie Vorbehandlungen und Lacke ein mit den 15 bis 25 Sekunden bei kon-
products. Improved property profiles Schwerpunkt der Entwicklung. Die ventionellen fen. Dank der unmit-
of products and processes are orien- mittlerweile verfgbaren Produkte telbaren Trocknung und Aushrtung
tated towards economy, environment entsprechen hinsichtlich Korrosions- durch NIR wird ein sehr schneller
protection, technology and aesthetics. bestndigkeit und Lackhaftung den und nahezu schrottendenfreier Farb-

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 21
WIRTSCHAFT

Siemens VAI

Siemens VAI: Eingangsbereich einer Bandbeschichtungsanlage in Polen


Siemens VAI: Entry section of a coil coating line in Poland

wechsel bei Coil-Coating-Linien, ringen Radien abkanten. Neben dem fr den Umgang mit Gefahrenstoffen
aber auch bei kombinierten Verzin- Umformen widmet sich das Unter- werden zur Substitution von Stoffen
kungs- und Beschichtungslinien er- nehmen auch Methoden zum Fgen fhren. Dies wird die unternehme-
reicht. Die NIR-Technik ermglicht bandbeschichteter Bleche: je nach rische Ttigkeit stark berhren. Die
eine wirtschaftliche und flexible Ver- Blechdicke und Verwendungszweck Empfehlung an die Unternehmen
arbeitung auch kleinster Losgren durch Widerstands-Buckelschweien lautet, frhzeitig einen vorausschau-
und kommt damit dem kundenorien- oder punktuelles Durchsetzfgen. enden Ansatz fr organisatorische
tierten Trend zu immer enger gestuf- Anpassungen zu verfolgen, um so den
ten Farbnuancen entgegen. Bei der Gesetzgebung Ersatz von Substanzen und mgliche
Modernisierung vorhandener Anla- nderungen der gesamten Prozess-
gen gestattet die kurze Bauweise der Mehr Forderungen als derzeit bekann- kette mglichst reibungslos zu bewir-
NIR-Trockner den Einbau weiterer te konkrete Umsetzungen enthielt ken zumal die Umsetzungsphase
Coater fr einen mehrschichtigen die Information ber die europische relativ kurz ist.
Lackauftrag in einem Banddurchlauf. REACH-Verordnung (Registration, B. Rieth
Bauteile aus fertig lackierten Bn- Evaluation, Authorization of Chemi-
dern und Blechen werden durch un- cals). Klar ist, dass auf die Hersteller,
terschiedliche mechanische Bearbei- Importeure und Anwender von che-
tungsvorgnge wie Stanzen, Biegen, mischen Substanzen und damit auf
Tiefziehen oder Walzprofilieren in die gesamte mit dem Coil Coating be-
ihre endgltige Form gebracht. Viele fasste Industrie neue Verordnungen
dieser Bearbeitungen erfordern vom zukommen. Derzeit am konkretesten
Beschichter das Aufbringen von Fo- ist der Zeitplan fr die stufenweise
lien zum Schutz der lackierten Ober- Einfhrung: Auf erste Schritte zur
flchen whrend der Bearbeitung. Einfhrung ab April 2007 folgt von
Die hollndische Firma Wemo stellte April 2008 bis April 2010 eine Erfas-
   
Werkzeuge vor, mit denen auch unge- sungsperiode. Weitere Meilensteine    



schtzte Lackflchen ohne Beschdi- im Hinblick auf die mengenmige
#"%&"&"%&$* 
gung bearbeitet werden knnen. Die Relevanz sind der April 2010 und der
+"" 
so genannte swivel bending techno- April 2013 bis zur vollen Wirksam-
 #"   
   
logy verwendet gelenkig bettigte werdung ab April 2018.  (   
   
Balken, die mit einer Relativbewe- Was bedeutet das fr Produzenten ! "#"#&$!!
"&$"& '''"#&$!!
gung und damit kratzerfrei mit ge- und Anwender? Neue Vorschriften

22 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
ECONOMICS

From the coaters standpoint what is fore well suited to satisfy the increas- European Coil Coating Association
needed is more automation, the in- ing demand by customers for ever
troduction of more rapid processes, more subtle colour nuances. When The ECCA has existed since 1967 as the
and improved process stability. The existing plants are being modernised, Association for the European coil coating
development of new paints for build- the compact structure of NIR driers industry. Its 200 members are mainly Eu-
ing applications, which are designed enables further coaters to be fitted in ropean companies but also include from
to reflect back solar energy, aim to for multi-layer paint application dur- outside Europe a number of strip produ-
reduce considerably the energy con- ing a single pass of the strip. cers and finishers as well as paint manuf-
sumed for the cooling of buildings. Articles made of finish-painted acturers, plant engineering companies,
For the development of such paints strips and sheets are given their fi- suppliers and trading companies. ECCA is
manufacturers use special software nal shape by a variety of mechanical to promote the use of pre-painted strips
which simulates the influence of the processes such as stamping, bending, and sheets of aluminium and steel, as
surroundings at a variety of locations. deep-drawing or roll-profiling. Many environmentally safe, cost-effective and
As before, chromium-free pretreat- of these methods require the coater to qualitatively high-grade means for the
ments and paints are at the focus of apply foils in order to protect the pain production of finished goods. For this,
development. The products that have surface during processing. The Dutch the ECCA engages in political lobbying
meanwhile become available match company Wemo described tools with and in the development of quality
the properties of the previously used, which even unprotected painted sur- standards (combined with the develop-
chromium-based products in relation faces can be worked without dam- ment of test methods). Furthermore, it
to corrosion resistance and paint ad- age. The so-termed swivel bending organises training courses to familiarise
hesion. technology uses articulated beams designers and manufacturers with the
A further development objective is that can bend through tight radii with uses of pre-painted metals.
cut edge corrosion protection without a relative movement and therefore
the use of a primer. The use of anti- without scratching. Besides shaping
corrosion paints on uncoated sub- methods, the company also focuses gradual implementation: after the first
strates is still a few years off. Adphos on methods for joining strip-coated introduction step from April 2007 on-
AG reported its further developments sheets: depending on the sheet thick- ward, between April 2008 and April
in the NIR hardening of organic coat- ness and the intended use, by resist- 2010 there will be a period of adapta-
ings. NIR stands for Near Infra Red ance stud welding or point to point tion. Other milestones of quantitative
and describes a process in which high- penetration welding. relevance are April 2010 and April
powered radiators operating with an 2013, until the Directive comes fully
energy density of up to 3,000 kW/m2 Legislation into effect from April 2018.
in the near infra-red range are used What does this mean for produc-
for the very rapid direct heating of the The report concerning the European ers and users? New prescriptions for
organic coating. This results in very REACH (Registration, Evaluation and operating with hazardous substances
short process times of the order of 1 Authorisation of Chemicals) Direc- will lead to substance substitutions.
to 3 seconds, instead of the 15 to 25 tive gave notice of more requirements This will greatly affect company ac-
second in conventional ovens. Thanks than there are at present known and tivities. The recommendation for
to the direct drying and hardening by concrete conversion provisions. What companies is to be prompt in plan-
NIR very rapid colour modification al- is clear, is that there are new direc- ning anticipatory action for organisa-
most without scrap offcuts is achieved tives to come, which will affect the tional adaptations, so as to implement
on coil-coating lines, but also on com- manufacturers, importers and users of substance replacements and possible
bined galvanising and coating lines. chemical substances and therefore the modifications of the entire process
The NIR technique enables economi- entire range of industry that has to do chain with as few problems as pos-
cal and flexible processing even of with coil coating. The most concrete sible especially since the conversion
very small batch sizes, and is there- aspect at present is the timetable for phase is relatively short. B. Rieth

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 23
ECONOMICS

The Russians are coming: example Rusal


R. P. Pawlek, Sierre

Russian companies have hit the pick-up in Russian investment abroad


headlines recently, surprising the is driven by a wide range of factors:
established business world with gaining critical mass to survive con-
their sudden emergence as major solidation; getting access to new
global players. From steelmaker markets, raw materials, technology
Severstal, to aluminium producer transfer and management know-how;
Rusal and energy giants Lukoil coping with excess liquidity and lack
and Gazprom, these emerging of expansion opportunities at home.
Russian multinationals are buil- Globalising Russian companies
ding on successful acquisition enjoy a number of significant com-
sprees, at home and abroad, to petitive advantages over established
stake a claim for global market global players. In particular they have
leadership. emerging markets know-how as well
as a powerful but flexible corporate
Western companies need to take a structure, together with liquidity and
fresh look at these rapidly changing, enormous ambition. But many Rus- portion of investment is carried out
emerging multinationals and recog- sian companies also have a number indirectly through offshore vehicles
nise that they are primarily driven of substantial weaknesses, including and registered in host countries as
by commercial logic and competi- complicated ownership structures, investment from Cyprus, the British
tive advantage. Equally, the emerging a lack of transparency in corporate Virgin Islands and Luxembourg.
Russian giants need to focus on im- culture, shallow management capaci- Until recently, the bulk of Russias
proving their image by systematically ties and a poor understanding of mod- outward foreign investment went to
institutionalising international best ern environmental, health and safety the CIS. As a result, Russian com-
practice standards in key areas such standards. panies now by far dominate foreign
as transparency, corporate govern- Governance weaknesses, in par- investment in these difficult markets.
ance, accounting and environmental ticular, have sullied the international Rusal, for example, resuscitated Ar-
standards. image of Russian companies, adding menias massive aluminium company,
The emergence of new multina- to an already murky reputational leg- now known as Armenal, which had
tionals in Russia is part of a broader acy from the 1990s and remnants of been forced to stop production follow-
global phenomenon. Indeed, Russia is post-Soviet cold war prejudice. Tack- ing the collapse of the Soviet Union.
now the third biggest foreign inves- ling these weaknesses must become Rusal invested over US$ 100 million
tor among emerging markets. Emerg- a priority task for Russias emerging to modernize the plant, guaranteeing
ing Russian multinationals span the multinationals. a supply of raw materials, and intro-
entire spectrum from state-owned Russias largest aluminium pro- ducing new standards of labour.
giant to privately owned conglomer- ducer Rusal has assets in 13 countries If the CIS is the near-abroad for
ates holding former state assets and in the CIS, Eastern Europe, Africa, Russian companies, Central and
to newly established companies with Latin America and Australia and has South-Eastern Europe are also famil-
international shareholders. raised US$ 2 billion in a syndicated iar territory, but one with a far more
Russian global corporate expan- loan in 2006 to finance further invest- ambivalent attitude towards Russian
sion is still largely limited to a handful ments. Following the current merger investors. Russias leading metal com-
of companies in the oil and gas, metals with its Russian rival Sual and Swiss panies, like Evraz, Rusal and Sevestal,
and mining, and telecommunications commodities group Glencore, due to are far less politicised than Gazprom,
sectors. Most Russian multinationals be finalised by April 2007, the new but they are products of the oligarch
still have a regional bias, but are now Rusal will be self-sufficient in raw ma- era, when well-connected entrepre-
looking to invest more heavily in the terials. Its aim: to become the worlds neurs were able to buy up state assets
mature markets of Europe, the US and largest diversified energy and metals cheaply and then consolidate them to
Australia. The expansion drive began corporation. forge huge corporate empires. While
in the CIS and Eastern Europe, and is Russia is rapidly becoming one of these owners still play a key role in
now moving rapidly into Africa. the leading foreign investors among strategic direction, the businesses they
Russian investors have generally emerging countries although they own are changing rapidly, absorbing
been welcomed in the CIS and Africa, tend to keep a low profile about this. international business practices as
while facing a strong degree of suspi- First, most Russian companies are they expand and acquire listing on
cion in most parts of Eastern Europe privately owned and disclose little international exchanges. If Russian
and in the developed world. The rapid information. Secondly, a high pro- investors frequently face suspicion in

24 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
ECONOMICS

Europe, they are welcomed with open it brought new competition into the across the CIS and Eastern Europe.
arms in Africa. Aluminium producer alumina market and it wiped out Kai- The metals industry focused initially
Rusal, for example, is constantly look- sers US$ 60 million debt, in addition more on consolidation at home, buy-
ing for opportunities to strengthen its to paying US$ 401 million for a 20% ing up assets to re-create a vertically
raw material base, aiming to become stake. With Australia holding up to integrated supply chain, from raw
self-sufficient by 2013. One of its first 30% of global alumina production and materials to processing and distribu-
moves was to move into Guinea, tak- bauxite reserves, Rusal is now in talks tion. Global acquisitions are now part
ing over the management of the Com- with the government to develop pow- of a complex strategy of securing raw
pagnie des Bauxites de Kindia (CBK) er-generating capacities and to build a materials, expanding capacities and
for a 25-year period. Guinea holds new aluminium smelter in the coun- opening access to new customers.
two-thirds of the worlds bauxite re- try. Rusals investment had to obtain Russian companies are now looking
serves and the company was already approval from the countrys Foreign for long-term competitive advantage
a traditional supplier of bauxite to the Investment Review Board as well as and better margins. By buying estab-
Nikolaev Alumina Refinery in Ukraine, from two existing shareholders, rival lished companies, they get not only
which Rusal bought in 2000. aluminium giants Alcan and Comalco. technological patents, but also mar-
With a long history of economic It took 18 months to finalise the deal ket access for specialised high value-
ties between Russia and Guinea, Rusal after Rusals bid won in 2004. added products.
soon expanded its operations there, The rapid rise in Russias outward Most of Russias leading compa-
taking over the management of the investment is driven in part by global nies have a strategy for joining the
Alumina Company of Guinea, one of consolidation pressures, which are es- worlds leading players in their sec-
the largest employers in the country, pecially strong in the natural resource tor. They are steadily putting the
which it is buying as the company is industries and the telecommunica- pieces in place to make it possible
privatised. Rusal has a good reputation tion sector. The globalisation process expanding capacity, opening up
for doing more than just extracting re- can only be understood in the context markets, distributing networks and
sources. Rusal is now implementing of Russias unique path of transition. access to raw materials. They are
a US$ 300 milion modernisation pro- During the Soviet era, Russias huge not seen as world-class competitors
gramme to double the alumina com- state-owned enterprises acted much yet. Nevertheless, Russian companies
panys refining capacity over the next like vertically integrated multination- possess three characteristics that give
three years and to improve the trans- als, enjoying almost complete control them a significant advantage over es-
port, water and energy infrastructure of the supply chain across the net- tablished players. Emerging markets
for both the refinery and the town. work of satellite states. This structure know-how; liquidity; and strong, but
With the Guinean authorities looking was pulled apart by the disintegration flexible structures.
for value-added processing to remain of the Comecon trade agreement and As Russian multinationals shift
in-country, Rusal is also considering the Soviet Union. As a result, one of their global expansion plans up a
the construction of a new bauxite the major challenges facing Russian gear and start taking their interna-
and alumina complex, including an companies ever since transition be- tional competitors head on, their big-
aluminium smelter. gan has been how to restore the value gest obstacle will be image. Russian
When Rusal bought into Austral- chain and how to find new markets to companies cannot yet take over large
ias Queensland Alumina from the utilise their vast excess capacity. foreign companies, because the com-
financially distressed Houston-based The energy companies quickly petition for these assets is intense and
Kaiser Group, its value to the Austral- moved abroad to restore their mar- public companies still have a negative
ian company was three-fold: Rusal kets and improve their pricing power, image of Russian businesses.
was a major customer for alumina, taking control of distribution channels In an Economist Intelligence Unit
survey more than 300 international
business executives around the world
were interviewed to explore these
perceptions. Three key findings came
out of the survey:
O Overall international business per-
ceptions of Russia are negative as a
market, an investment location and as
a source of investment.
O The level of international business
knowledge about Russia and Russian
companies is very low.
O International executives with ex-
perience in the Central and East Eu-
Rusal

ropean region and knowledge of Rus-


Primary aluminium production at Rusal

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 25
ECONOMICS

sian companies have more nuanced process of disclosing information on take a much closer look at their Rus-
views but not always more positive its ownership structure as well as data sian counterparts. Emerging multina-
ones. on consolidated accounts. tionals are already competing hard
For Russian companies, the sur- The progress from the pioneer- for customers, talent and resources,
veys message is clear. The process ing days of the 1990s is substantial taking the more complacent global
has already begun, prompted by the and has continued over the past few players by surprise. Those Russian
need to secure international financ- years as companies learn from busi- companies that are able to transform
ing and work to with international ness partners and list on international themselves into world-class com-
partners. Several Russian compa- exchanges. However, if Russian com- petitors will be able to determine the
nies have now set up new corporate panies are to become global players, shape of international business in
governance structures. Rusal has de- it is not enough to talk of a rhetoric their sectors.
veloped an 18-month corporate gov- change companies will now have to
ernance programme with the help of show that they run their business in This is a summary of a paper edited by Rusal
in November 2006 entitled: The Russians
EBRD and IFC and has appointed an line with international norms. are coming: understanding emerging multi-
independent board, among a series of As this happens, the international nationals; in cooperation with The Econo-
other measures. It has also started the business community will be forced to mist Intelligence Unit, 2006

Hydro maintains speed in aluminium repositioning


Hydro is well-positioned for Divestment of Hydros 49 per cent
long-term profitable growth in its share in Meridian Technologies for
upstream aluminium operations, 73.7 million euros and divestment of
the Norwegian-based company Automotive Castings for 454.3 mil-
said at its Capital Markets Day. lion euros are key steps to reduce the
Following the recommended mer- engagement in the downstream alu-
ger of Hydros oil and gas activi- minium business. Investments and
ties with Statoil Hydro will conti- exploration expenditures in 2007 are
nue as one of the worlds leading, expected to be 491.1 million euros in
integrated aluminium companies. Aluminium Metal.

Norsk Hydro, Dag Jenssen


The ongoing restructuring of the
downstream aluminium portfolio Aluminium Metal on track
is expected to be completed in to reposition and grow
2007.
Demand for primary aluminium is
Hydro is stronger than ever. Our expected to increase by 15 million Hydro is about to exit Automotive Com-
ponents, but will continue to focus on the
technology, competence and finan- tonnes, or about 4 per cent annually,
sectors Rolled Products, Extrusion Europe,
cial strength, together with a broader by 2020. Rising costs is an industry Extrusion Overseas, Building Systems and
portfolio of development and explo- challenge but the increase has been Precision Tubing

ration projects beyond 2010, give me more than offset by higher aluminium
great confidence in our strategy for prices. Restructuring of Aluminium growth opportunities in alumina and
future growth, said Eivind Reiten, Metal is on track with approx. 110,000 metal. The planned Qatalum smelter,
Hydros President and Chief Execu- tonnes of annual capacity to be closed a 50/50 joint venture between Qatar
tive Officer. We are manoeuvring down by the end of 2006 and during Petroleum and Hydro, is on track with
in an increasingly challenging global 2007, thereby completing the closure construction start scheduled for fall
landscape but our talented organisa- program of 180,000 tonnes of high- 2007 and start-up of production in
tion, proven project execution skills cost primary production capacity. late 2009. The capital expenditure es-
and our experience in cooperating The measures will significantly im- timate has been increased from 2.3 to
with partners are more valuable than prove Hydros smelter cost position. 3.4 billion euros, on a 100 per cent ba-
ever. The company is well positioned with sis, as a result of general cost increases
Hydros Capital Markets Day pres- long-term power contracts extending for key materials and construction, a
entation as to the aluminium business up to 2020 and alumina equity cover- weaker USD/EUR exchange rate as
included the following highlights: age increasing to 75 per cent in 2010. well as design changes. Final cost es-
Primary aluminium production is Operational excellence remains a top timate and build decision are sched-
expected to be 1.7 million tonnes in priority. uled for summer 2007.
2007 and 2 million tonnes in 2010. Hydro is pursuing a number of

26 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
ECONOMICS

Novelis Korea invests in multi-alloy casting

Investment continues global roll-out of


breakthrough Novelis Fusion technology
Novelis Inc. announced that its house at its Sierre, Switzerland, facil- said Jacquie Bartlett, Vice President,
joint venture in Korea, Novelis Ko- ity. The Novelis Fusion casting centre Sales and Marketing, for Novelis Ko-
rea Ltd., will invest US$ 4.1 milli- at Ulsan is expected to be operational rea. With the Novelis Fusion tech-
on to install Novelis Fusion casting by mid-2007 and will have an initial nology, we will start by offering a full
technology in its Ulsan, South annual capacity of more than 25,000 range of high-quality brazing sheet
Korea, plant. tonnes. The existing configuration and fin stock products to local cus-
of the Ulsan casting facilities allows tomers that today must rely on im-
The Korean investment continues the a rapid and cost-efficient conversion ports.
global roll-out of the breakthrough to the Novelis Fusion process, said It was Novelis second major in-
technology which first went into pro- Martha Brooks, Chief Operating Of- vestment in South Korea last year. In
duction in March 2006 at the Compa- ficer for Novelis Inc. And added, This March 2006, the company announced
nys plant in Oswego, New York. In investment is further evidence of our that it will invest US$ 30 million over
September 2006, Novelis announced confidence in the Novelis Fusion tech- a two-year period to increase produc-
that it will invest US$ 32 million in the nology and the positive response we tion capacity at its Yeongju rolling
construction of a Novelis Fusion cast- are receiving from the marketplace. mill by 100,000 tonnes and expand
In North America, Novelis has con- its capability in the beverage can end
verted virtually all of its traditional market.
clad material to the new technolo-
gy. We are working with dozens of About Novelis Korea
customers around the globe on the
development of applications in mar- Novelis Korea Limited is a joint ven-
kets such as automotive, architecture, ture company between Novelis Inc.
electronics and household applianc- (68%), Taihan Electric Wire Co. Ltd.
es, said Martha Brooks. (31%), and Hyundai Group (1%). Its
Traditional multi-alloy aluminium plants in Yeongju and Ulsan were
ingots are produced using a manual commissioned in 1993 to meet the
cladding process, and are limited to a growing demand for rolled aluminium
small range of alloys. Novelis Fusion products principally in Korea, China
technology delivers both process and and Southeast Asia. Including its cor-
product improvements, including the porate office in Seoul, Novelis Korea
ability to cast previously impossible has more than 1,200 employees who
Novelis

combinations of alloys. supply a broad range of high quality


A crane lifts a Novelis Fusion multi-alloy Commercially, this investment products and services to its custom-
aluminum ingot from the casting pit at the
will open the door to a new range of ers in Asia.
companys Oswego, N.Y., facility
high-end product offerings in Asia, N

Executing Aluminium Products Hydros magnesium plant in Canada Rolled Products delivers consistently
portfolio restructuring will be closed during first half of strong cash flow, but industrial chal-
2007, and the remaining magnesium lenges remain.
Cash generation in Aluminium Prod- remelting plants will be divested. N
ucts has been solid during the first
nine months of 2006, but profitability
remains unsatisfactory. Operational
improvements have been achieved
in most areas, and the outlook for
Extrusion and Building Systems is
good. In addition to the agreements
to divest Automotive Castings and
Meridian Technologies, the process
for divesting Automotive Structures
has started.

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 27
ECONOMICS

Alcoa to reposition downstream operations

Soft alloy extrusion joint venture


with Sapa group announced
Alcoa is to relocate several of its lected other markets. Separately, the on an annualised basis. Through the
downstream operations in order concern will begin the process to di- first three quarters of 2006, Alcoa
to further improve returns and vest the three soft alloy facilities not generated more earnings than in any
profitability through a targeted re- included in the joint venture located full year of the companys history. In
structuring of operations and the in Warren, Ohio, in Tifton, Georgia, order to continue to move forward,
creation of a soft alloy extrusion and in Plant City, Florida. we now need to take the difficult but
joint venture. The joint venture Alcoa Chairman and CEO Alain necessary restructuring steps that
will become a global leader in the Belda said, The combination of will continue to maximise profitabil-
aluminium extrusion business, these two operations provides many ity across the company, said Belda.
with an estimated turnover of US$ opportunities to improve profitability Included in the fourth quarter 2006
4 billion in 2006. by leveraging the scale of a broader restructuring are the following major
global manufacturing system. He components:
Following an extensive review of its added, Our overall downstream op- Flat rolled products (FRP): Restruc-
downstream operations, Alcoa has erations have continued to improve turing of the companys can stock op-
signed a letter of intent with Norwe- their financial performance the past erations resulting in the elimination
gian Orkla ASAs Sapa group to create few years. We have leading positions of approx. 320 jobs, including the clo-
a joint venture that would combine in key flat-rolled product segments sure of the Swansea can stock facility
its soft alloy extrusion business with where we have grown 14% annually in UK. Conversion of the idle rolling
Sapas profiles extruded aluminium since 2002 and where we are also in mill in San Antonio, Texas, into a tem-
business, with the intention of even- a strong position to capture further porary flat rolled products technical
tually offering an IPO of the combined growth in China and Russia. Other facility serving Alcoas global FRP
entity. The new venture will be major- downstream operations such as Alcoa business.
ity owned by Orkla and operated by Howmet and Alcoa Fastening Sys- Extruded and end products: Op-
Sapa. It is anticipated that the joint tems improved profitability by more timisation of the companys global
venture will be formed by the end of than 60% in 2005. And our forgings, hard alloy extrusion production op-
the first quarter 2007. global building and construction and erations which serve the aerospace,
Alcoas soft alloy extrusion busi- hard alloy extrusion businesses are automotive and industrial products
ness encompasses 22 facilities in eight solid performers. This move and our markets. This will result in the elimi-
countries and about 6,400 employees. continued focus upon continually nation of around 370 jobs in the US
In 2005, total soft alloy extrusion ship- maximising returns should serve our and Europe.
ments amounted to around 585,000 downstream operations well for the Engineered solutions: Restruc-
t, with revenues of approx. US$ 2.1 next several years, said Belda. turing and consolidation of the com-
billion. Sapas extrusion business en- panys automotive and light vehicle
compasses 18 facilities in 12 countries Savings of US$ 125m wire harness and component opera-
and about 6,000 employees. In 2005 before taxes expected tions, including closure of the manu-
section shipments were 275,000 t and facturing operations of the AFL Seixal
revenues amounted to US$ 1.3 billion. As part of the review of its overall plant in Portugal and restructuring of
Alcoa will continue to operate its hard downstream operations, Alcoa also the AFL light vehicle and component
alloy extrusion business which serves plans a targeted restructuring pro- operations in the US and Mexico.
the aerospace, automotive, and se- gramme in order to further increase These measures will affect more than
efficiency as well 4,800 jobs.
as profitability. The Packaging and consumer: Consoli-
restructuring will dation of selected operations within
encompass plant the companys global packaging pro-
closures and conso- duction to increase productivity, re-
lidations that will sulting in the elimination of around
affect some 6,700 470 jobs.
positions across the Primary metals and alumina: Cuts
concerns global bu- within the companys global primary
sinesses in 2007. metals and alumina operations by ap-
This programme is prox. 330 jobs to further strengthen
Alcoa

expected to save the companys position on the global


Corporate centre of Alcoa, Pittsburgh around US$ 125 million before taxes cost curve. N

28 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

Fig. 1: Patented electric preheater for cathode blocks

Almeq electric preheater for cathode blocks


J. D. Hansen, Langhus

The electromagnetic stability of


the liquid aluminium pad depends
on the uniformity of the electric
current passing through it from
above and below. Therefore, just
as every anode needs good electri-
cal connection to an anode rod, so
every cathode block needs good
electrical connection to a steel
cathode collector conductor bar.
Since it cannot be repaired in
service, the cathode connection
All illustrations: Almeq

must reliably last the lifetime of


the pot, and its fabrication is a vi-
tal step in pot assembly.

The steel bar is sealed into the cath-


ode blocks using a paste, glue or cast Fig. 2: Clamping system
iron. To improve the electrical con-
nection, this cathode block must be preheater for cathode elements be- stages to 700 C; the cathode blocks
preheated to about 700 C. Tradition- fore the rodding. Its key elements are reach 400 C and do not need more,
ally this has been done by flame heat- illustrated as follows. as they are already calcined. The fully
ing the assembly from outside. This A patent covers the principle of automated process has an accurate
is not very efficient or convenient: it electric resistance heating of cathode clamping mechanism to introduce the
involves substantial fuel costs, noise, blocks. The carbon blocks with steel heating current. To avoid overheating
and fumes. Also, it requires close su- conductor bars are placed in an insu- the copper clamps, these are water
pervision, as it tends to oxidise carbon lated chamber, where the steel bars cooled. If the cathode consists of a
from the cathode blocks, there is a risk are connected to an electric current of split steel bar, the preheater station is
of gas explosions. To overcome these between 4 kA and 7 kA. This uniformly equipped with an electrical contact in
problems, Almeq invented an electric and heats the steel bar in programmed the middle to bridge the gap.

30 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
SPECIAL A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

Propane 0.40 x 400 = 160.00


Electricity 0.04 x 600 = 24.00
Saving per heating 136.00.
Besides this direct cost compari-
son, experience in service confirms a
range of advantages for the automated
system:
High power factor (cost )
No supervision needed during
procedure
No hazard to personnel nor
facilities
Low energy consumption
(1:5 reduction)
No noise
Negligible carbon oxidation
Fig. 3: Process control Uniform temperatures in the steel
bars and in the carbon blocks
The process is controlled by thermo- the new, bigger blocks. The latest in- Identical conditions prior to
couples monitoring the temperature stallation was delivered to Nordural, each casting
in the steel bar and carbon cathode Iceland for the Phase III expansion Fully automated feeding
block. The exact temperatures are set project. The system has been run- No exhaust gases.
according to the customers specifica- ning for a year and has heated 6,000
tion. cathode blocks. The results from the Summary and Conclusion
Different methods are available for system are as follows:
feeding the carbon and steel assem- Previously, 400 kg of propane was Before cathodes blocks are assembled
blies to the preheater. Alternatives required to heat 6 cathode blocks. The into electrolysis pots, the steel con-
range from a single loading wagon estimated cost of propane is 0.40 euros ductor bars must be sealed into them,
to complete arrangements including per kg. With the electric preheater for and then heated to ensure adequate
shot blasting and casting station. cathodes the required electrical con- electrical conductivity.
sumption is 600 kWh with an estimat- Compared to the external gas or
Results in service ed cost of electricity of 0.04 euros per oil burners traditionally used for this
kWh (In Iceland, the cost of electricity preheating, electric resistance heating
Four machines are in service, totalling is less than 1/3 of this). The savings for from within is safe, clean, and reliable.
17 years of experience: heating 6 cathode blocks: Experience in four smelters proves
that this automated system is amor-
tised by the fuel, operator and other
Country Place Customer Year
costs it saves.
Iceland Hafnafjordur Icelandic Aluminium Company 1997
Norway Husnes Sr-Norge Aluminium 2002
UAE Dubai Dubai Aluminium Company 2003 Author
Iceland Grundartangi Nordural 2005
Jan D. Hansen is General Manager of Almeq
Norway AS, based in Langhus, Norway.
The first machine installed replaced
propane gas heating at Isal, Iceland, in
1997, and it gave the following results:
yearly saving in energy: 1.28 GWh,
elimination of CO2: 360,000 kg/year,
saving in manpower: 2 men.
Five years later, a duplicate ma-
chine was installed at SRAL, Nor-
way, which uses identical cathode
blocks to Isal. In 2003, Almeq deliv-
ered an improved system to Dubai
Aluminium (Dubal). To increase pro-
ductivity, this system has two trolleys
to prepare the cathode blocks. Due to
changes in cathode design, the Dubal
preheater will be modified to handle Fig. 4: Feeding

31
ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 31
ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

AlPrg: a software tool for aluminium smelting


P. M. Entner, Sierre

AlPrg is a collection of computer


programmes (modules) for PCs
using interactive graphics to dis-
play the results of calculations
concerning aluminium produc-
tion by electrolysis. The user ap-
plies these modules among other
things to visualise how varying
the parameters will affect pot
operation. He can then choose
the best values to operate the
electrolytic cells of a potroom so
as to optimise the most important
technical and economic results.
This paper reports on the use of
All illustrations: Entner

one of these modules, namely the


Electrolyte Properties Module.
This module calculates the physi-
cal and chemical properties of the
cryolite electrolyte as a function
of its composition and tempera- Fig. 1: Layout of the User Interface of AlPrg. The figure shows 3 tab groups with the cal-
culation pages Technical Profitability Analysis, Aluminium Production and Pot Parameters
ture. The Electrolyte Properties
being selected. Two diagram panes namely the Pot Voltage Diagram Pane and the Electro-
Diagram Pane shows plots of these lyte Composition/Properties Diagrams Pane are docked on the programme user interface.
bath properties in function of the
electrolyte parameters. This plot This module shows the physical and ing on various parameters. Formed as
predicts the behaviour of the bath chemical properties of the cryolite graphical user interfaces (GUIs), the
after a parameter change, and so electrolyte, like the liquidus tempera- plots allow the user to change values
identifies the optimal bath com- ture or electrical conductivity. AlPrg on the plot by dragging their size rep-
position and bath temperature to determines these values in relation resentation with the mouse pointer.
operate the electrolytic cells. to the chemical composition and the AlPrg calculates the corresponding
temperature of the electrolytic bath. new resulting values and updates the
AlPrg was developed with the aim of The electrolyte properties diagram relevant pages and plot panes.
helping people occupied with alumin- pane shows diagrams of these bath The user selects pages or plot
ium production by electrolysis. AlPrg properties in function of various plots. panes by clicking on the correspond-
contains several modules that the These plots predict the behaviour of ing menu or tab items. He can arrange
user selects depending on the tasks the bath after a parameter change and several pages on the programme user
he wants to study. For instance, if he so help to determine the optimal bath interface and see them simultane-
wants to know how much aluminium composition and bath temperature. ously so as to study the calculation
a potroom is producing in one month, results. The diagram panes can float
then he uses the aluminium produc- Programme layout on the computer screen or they can
tion module. If he needs to find the set be docked, i.e. added on the AlPrg
value of the pot voltage, the alumina When the author of this paper worked user interface. The next figure (Fig. 1)
feeder setting or how much alumini- with Alusuisse and later with Alcan he depicts an example of the AlPrg user
um fluoride to add, he will apply the developed ElysePrg [1] a precursor of interface containing three tab groups
corresponding, obviously more com- AlPrg. AlPrg is, however, a completely and two diagram panes. From the tab
plex, modules of AlPrg. Finally if the new concept for this application, espe- groups the user has selected the tech-
user wants to improve the economic cially regarding the program features nical profitability analysis page, the
performance of the aluminium smelt- and program layout. AlPrg consists aluminium production page and the
ing plant, the profitability analysis of pages and diagram panes. In the pot parameter page. In addition he has
modules will help him to determine windows the user changes numerical docked the pot voltage diagram pane
those operational parameters to run values in input fields, and then AlPrg and the electrolyte composition/prop-
the plant in a better way. calculates the corresponding results. erties pane on the user interface.
This paper deals with the elec- The diagrams (plots) show graphical The user finds more information
trolyte properties module of AlPrg. representation of properties depend- about AlPrg in the conventional ac-

32 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
SPECIAL A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

companying help system. He may also cosities of the electrolytic bath and of
consult the corresponding website [2] the aluminium metal.
that contains practically the same us- The bath temperature can be ex-
ers guide and theoretical background pressed as the liquidus temperature
information. plus the superheat. The user selects
as input value either the superheat
The Electrolyte Composition/ (as shown in Fig. 2) or the electrolyte
Properties Page temperature. Selecting a value as in-
put means that it is constant for the
Fig. 2 shows the electrolyte compo- following calculations (the superheat
sition/properties page. In the upper in Fig. 2) and the other depending
part of the page the user changes the value (the bath temperature in Fig. 2)
concentration values of the electrolyte is calculated correspondingly.
components of aluminium fluoride To determine the liquidus tempera-
(AlF3), calcium fluoride (CaF2), alu- ture, the electrical conductivity or the
minium oxide (alumina Al2O3), lithi- densities the user can choose between
several relation-
ships published by
different authors. Fig. 4: The Electrolyte Composition/Properties Diagram Pane
docked on the AlPrg user interface. Small icon-like plots
Fig. 2 shows a Drop
represent the selected electrolyte property (the liquidus
Down Combo Box temperature in this figure) in function of the electrolyte
where the user has components. The user has selected the liquidus temperature
vs. aluminium fluoride content to be shown in the larger
selected the equa- property plot. The circles represent the current values of
tions of Solheim [3]. the electrolyte composition.
He could alterna-
tively also click on the liquidus temperature depends on
the names of Rs- these variables, the other parameters
Fig. 2: Electrolyte Composition/Properties Page. In the upper part tum [4], Peterson staying constant. The small circles
of the page the user may change the concentration values in the
[5], Bullard [6], Lee represent these constant concentra-
input fields. The lower part contains the property values. The
user may select the authors of the corresponding equations that [7] or Dewing [8] to tion values shown on the electrolyte
AlPrg uses to calculate the properties. choose the corre- composition/properties page.
sponding relations.
um fluoride (LiF), magnesium fluoride The theoretical part of the AlPrg Property plot
(MgF2) and potassium fluoride (KF). website [9] contains all the relations
The bath ratio is the weight ratio of and equations that AlPrg uses for its If the user wants to study an icon-
sodium fluoride over aluminium fluo- calculations. plot more profoundly he clicks on
ride. Aluminium oxide at anode effect the icon-plot with the mouse pointer
is the alumina concentration when The Electrolyte Composition/ and the icon-plot expands to replace
the anode effect occurs. The user can Properties Plot the larger property plot. In Fig. 4 the
suppress this parameter by inactivat-
ing the check box. Fig. 4 shows the electrolyte compo-
The lower part of the page contains sition/properties plot pane together
the values of the electrolyte proper- with the electrolyte composition/
ties, namely the liquidus temperature, properties page.

Icon plots

The idea of this plot pane


is to show a property of the Fig. 5: Liquidus temperature vs. Alumina Concentration
Property Plot. The user has clicked on the Al2O3 icon-plot
electrolytic bath in depend-
and the property plot shows the liquidus temperature vs.
ence of the bath composi- the alumina concentration. The gray areas are the regions
tion and the bath tempera- where the alumina concentration is lower than anode effect
concentration (on the left side) or higher than the maxi-
Fig. 3: Drop Down Combo Box to select the authors of ture. The plot pane of Fig. mum alumina solubility (right side).
the relations that AlPrg uses to calculate the liquidus tem-
4 consists of small icon-like
perature. The user has chosen the equation of Solheim
[3] by clicking on the name with the mouse pointer. plots of the liquidus temper- user has clicked on the aluminium
ature against the concentra- fluoride concentration icon-plot, and
the electrical conductivity, the maxi- tions of aluminium fluoride, calcium consequently the property plot shows
mum alumina solubility, the total va- fluoride, aluminium oxide etc. From the liquidus temperature in depend-
pour pressure, the densities and vis- these plots the user can visualise how ence of the aluminium fluoride con-

33
ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 33
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A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

centration between 0 and 30 weight


%. The circle represents the liquidus
temperature of 953.7 C at the alu-
minium fluoride concentration of 12
weight %.
Gray areas in the icon or property
plots are regions where values are not
available or not possible. Fig. 5 shows
the property plot of the liquidus tem-
perature vs. the alumina content. The
grey regions show where the alumina
concentration is smaller than the an-
ode effect concentration (on the left Fig. 7: Dragging of the Value Line. When the user holds down the right mouse button AlPrg
draws the so-called value line. When the user drags this line by moving the mouse, AlPrg
side) or greater than the maximum
registers a new input value and plots new density values in the property and icon plots.
solubility of alumina in the electro-
lyte. is drawn. When the user displaces plot (densities vs. superheat on Fig.
the mouse (dragging) the value line 6, 7) and the electrolyte temperature
Electrolyte and aluminium follows this motion on the property plot (bath temperature vs. aluminium
densities plot. AlPrg registers this new concen- fluoride on Fig. 6, 7).
tration input value (5% aluminium Clicking on the superheat icon-
As an example the following chapter fluoride in Fig. 7) and calculates the plot ('T) AlPrg draws the correspond-
discusses the densities of the elec- corresponding new density values in ing property plot, namely aluminium
trolyte and of the liquid aluminium the icon and property plots (and elec- and electrolyte density vs. superheat.
metal. In the electrolytic production trolyte composition/properties page). By dragging the value circles, the user
of aluminium the density values es- If the user wants to change another can modify the input value of the su-
parameter, the lithium fluoride con- perheat.
centration, the procedure is the same. Since the last selected composi-
The user clicks on the lithium fluoride tion icon plot was the densities vs.
icon plot. This icon plot is then se- aluminium fluoride icon-plot, AlPrg
lected, i.e. AlPrg shows this plot in the shows in the bath temperature icon
main property plot. By again dragging plot how the electrolyte temperature
the value line with the mouse point- depends on aluminium fluoride con-
er, the user changes then the lithium centration.
fluoride concentration,
Fig. 6: Aluminium and Electrolyte Densities Plot Pane. The and AlPrg calculates the
user has clicked on the aluminium fluoride icon-plot, so that
corresponding density
the property plot shows the aluminium and electrolyte den-
sity vs. the aluminium fluoride concentration. values.

pecially the density difference be- Temperature plots


tween aluminium and electrolyte af-
fects the separation of the produced The superheat, i.e. the
aluminium metal from the bath. This temperature difference
difference should be larger than 0.2 between the electrolyte Fig. 9: Property Plot of Densities vs. Superheat. The user has
g/cm3 in order to prevent mixing and temperature and the selected the superheat icon-plot of Fig. 6 and so AlPrg draws
the corresponding property plot densities vs. superheat.
to maintain good separation between liquidus temperature, is
the metal pad and the electrolyte lay- a very important value for everyday If the electrolyte temperature is
er. In the electrolyte and aluminium pot operation. Sometimes some quite selected as input value on the elec-
density plot pane AlPrg shows simul- puzzling events are observed, namely trolyte composition/properties page
taneously the densities of the liquid that the superheat might be nega- (see Fig. 2, 3 and 4), then the electro-
aluminium metal and the liquid elec- tive (the electrolytic bath should be lyte composition/properties diagram
trolyte. In this way the user sees im- solid) even for a rather long time pe- pane shows the densities vs. electro-
mediately the influence of parameter riod. This effect is called the liquidus lyte temperature icon-plot (Fig. 11). By
changes on the density difference. enigma [10]. clicking on this icon plot, the user in-
If the superheat ('T) is selected as structs AlPrg to show the correspond-
Dragging input value on the electrolyte compo- ing aluminium and electrolyte density
sition/properties page (see Fig. 2, 3 vs. bath temperature property plot, as
If the mouse pointer is over the prop- and 4), then the electrolyte composi- well as the electrolyte temperature
erty plot and the user presses the right tion/properties diagram pane shows plot (bath temperature vs. aluminium
mouse button a so-called value line two icon-plots, namely the superheat fluoride on Fig. 6, 7).

34 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
SPECIAL A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

however also incorporated into other


modules where it is needed, for in-
stance into pot voltage or the profit-
ability module. It works there in the
same interactive way as described in
this paper; this means the user can
change an input value either from the
key board on the electrolyte property
page, or else by dragging on the cor-
responding property plot. AlPrg then
recalculates other parameters and
updates the corresponding pages or
Fig. 10: Property Plot of Bath Temperature vs. Aluminium Fluoride Concentration. The user plot panes.
has selected the bath temperature icon-plot of Fig. 6, and so AlPrg draws the correspond-
ing property plot bath temperature vs. aluminium fluoride concentration.
References
Conclusions plot is a graphical user interface, i.e.
the user can change input values by [1] P. M. Entner, New Feature of ElyseSem/
This paper describes the calculation dragging the so called values line with ElysePrg, Aluminium 75 (1999) 12, 1064-
1072
page and the diagram pane of the elec- the mouse pointer to a new position [2] http://www.peter-entner.com.
trolyte properties module of AlPrg. In and value. [3] A. Solheim, S. Rolseth, E. Skybakmoen,
the calculation page the user enters The user investigates in this way L. Sten, . Sterten, T. Stre, Liquidus
or modifies in a rather conventional the behaviour not only of those elec- Temperature and Alumina Solubility in
way values in the corresponding input trolyte properties already described in the System Na3AlF6-AlF3-LiF-CaF2-MgF2,
Light Metals (1995), 451-460.
fields, and AlPrg then determines the this paper (liquidus temperature and [4] A. Rstum, A. Solheim, A. Sterten, Phase
corresponding electrolyte properties, densities), but also the electrical con- Diagram Data in the System Na3AlF6-Li-
like liquidus temperature, electrical ductivity (interesting for pot voltage 3
AlF6-AlF3-Al2O3. Part I: Liquidus Temper-
conductivity etc. The diagram pane settings), maximal alumina solubility atures for Primary Cryolite Crystallisation,
shows graphical representations, i.e. (used for point feeder setting) , vapour Light Metals (1990), 311-316.
[5] R. D. Peterson, A. T. Tabereaux, Liqui-
dus Curves for the Cryolite-AlF3-CaF2-
Al2O3 System in Aluminum Cell Electroly-
tes, Light Metals (1987), 383-388.
[6] G. L. Bullard, D. D. Przybycien, DTA De-
termination of Bath Liquidus Temperatures:
Effect of LiF, Light Metals (1986), 437-443.
[7] S. S. Lee, K.-S. Lei, P. Xu, J. J. Brown
Jr., Determination of Melting Tempera-
tures and Al2O3 Solubilities for Hall Cell
Electrolyte Compositions, Light Metals
(1984), 841-855.
[8] E. W. Dewing, The Chemistry of the
Alumina Reduction Cell, Can. Metallurgi-
cal Quarterly (1974), 13 (No.4), 607-618;
JOM 53 (2001) 5, pp. 29-34.
[9] http://www.peter-entner.com/e/theo-
ry/thcontents.htm.
[10] B. P. Moxnes, A. Solheim, T. Stre, B.
E. Aga, L. Sten, The 'Liquidus Enigma'
revisited, Light Metals (2006), 285-290.

Author
Fig. 11: Densities vs. Electrolyte Temperature Property Plot. The user has selected the elec-
trolyte temperature as input value on the electrolyte composition/properties page. AlPrg Peter M. Entner has studied chemistry at
then shows the densities vs. electrolyte temperature icon- and property plot after appro- the University of Vienna. He pursued his
priate selection by the user. The shaded area is the region where the bath temperature is
lower or higher than the liquidus temperature +/- the maximum superheat (50 C).
studies at the University of Pennsyslvania
and University of Geneva (high tempera-
ture electrochemistry and crystallography).
small icon-plots, of how a selected pressure (necessary for environmen- He joined then Alusuisse that later became
property (the liquidus temperature, tal issues) and the viscosities of the Alcan to work on research and develop-
for instance) depends on the elec- liquid aluminium pad and electrolyte ment projects about aluminium smelting.
Being retired, Peters passion for bytes and
trolyte composition values and the (used for hydrodynamic studies). pixels keeps him busy to work on software
bath temperature. The user selects This paper describes the electro- that might be useful for the members of the
an icon-plot to be drawn in the larger lyte properties module as a stand- aluminium smelting community.
and more precise property plot. This alone programme. This module is

35
ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 35
ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

Honoured by The Electrochemical Society cal Chemistry in just nine months.


Vittorio de Nora is a Volta Fellow, a
Vittorio de Nora receives 2006 Acheson Weston Fellow and a Case Centennial
Scholar. He was elected an Honorary
Award for lifetime career achievements Member of ECS in 1982, and he be-
came a Fellow of the Society in 1992
Vittorio de Nora has been hon- Biographical Note in recognition of his contributions
oured as the recipient of The to science and electrochemical en-
Electrochemical Society (ECS) Vittorio de Nora was born in Alta- gineering. Case Western University,
2006 Edward Goodrich Acheson mura, Italy, on 11 November 1912. Lehigh University and the University
Award. The Acheson Award was He attended middle school, graduat- of Cincinnati have conferred on him
established in 1928 to recognise ing in 1929, and was admitted to the the honorary degree of Doctor of Sci-
distinguished contributions which Royal Politecnico Institute of Milan in ence. He was one of the five found-
advance objects, purposes or ac- October of the same year, where he ers of International Physicians for the
tivities of ECS. Requirements for received a doctorate in Electrochemi- Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW),
receiving the award are distin- cal Engineering with full honours in to whose activities he contributes as
guished services to the Society, 1935. In 1936, he was chosen to be the only non-medical founder. IPP-
as well as distinguished scientific Professor of Physical Chemistry and NW received the Nobel Peace Prize
discoveries or inventions in elec- Electrochemistry at the Royal Politec- in 1985.
trochemical or solid state science nico Institute but he decided to spend Vittorio de Nora has inspired
and technology. two years to carry out research at noteworthy technical achievements
Kings College, University of London, by encouraging research in electro-
Vittorio de Nora has dedicated his with the famous Professor Allmand. chemistry through his endowment of
career to scientific research in the the annual Electrochemical Society
field of electrochemistry, including Vittorio de Nora Award for distin-
in particular the fields of chlorine-al- guished contributions in the field.
kali and aluminium production. Dr. de He is the author of hundreds of
Noras research achievements centre worldwide patents related to indus-
on his efforts to find a feasible inert trial electrochemistry. His most im-
anode, that is an anode that operates portant patents in the chlorine-alkali
in a cell without becoming corroded field include not only the DSA itself,
as part of the electrochemical process, but also the great advantage of a new
and which could be used to replace membrane cell design, which direct-
carbon anodes in electrochemical ly produced concentrated salt-free
cells. He succeeded, first with the caustic and also eliminated pollution,
Dimensionally Stable Anode (DSA) particularly by eliminating mercury
that revolutionised chlorine-alkali cathodes and asbestos diaphragms.
production and other electrochemi- De Nora companies have also de-
Moltech

cal industries. By saving electrical veloped the bi-polar chlorine cell,


energy, improving cell operation and built plants producing one-third of
eliminating or substantially reducing Vittorio de Nora the worlds chlorine production,
pollution, the DSA has contributed to including the largest chlorine cell
a predominant position for electro- Later, at the Hochschule of Dresden, (450,000 A), still the largest electro-
chemistry worldwide. he worked for one year with Profes- chemical cell ever built, and have also
Recently, Dr. de Nora and his sor Muller, who decided to delay his constructed the worlds largest water
scientific team based in the modern retirement in order to accept the chal- electrolysis plant having heavy water
laboratories purpose-built in the lenge of working with de Nora. as a by-product. N
Swiss Valais, have developed the pro- Leaving Dresden in 1937, Vittorio
totype of a de Nora inert anode for de Nora went to the United States,
aluminium production. Inert anodes
not only eliminate serious pollution
where he enrolled at Lehigh Univer-
sity in Pennsylvania. While at Lehigh,
For subscribers
problems, including carbon dioxide, he became one of the first members
carbon monoxide and perfluorocar- of ECS, and today he has the distinc- www.alu-archiv.de
bon emissions from carbon anodes, tion of being the Society member with
but also improve energy efficiency of the longest membership record. He
inert anodes in electrowinning cells chose Lehigh in order to work with Knowledge with
and also significantly reduce operat- Professor Butts and the results of his a lasting impact!
ing costs. research earned him a Ph.D. in Physi-

36 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

Aumund cooling conveyor for


hot bath material
M. Coopmann, Rheinberg

In the course of more than 80


years the Aumund Group has
earned its reputation as a special-
ist in supplying equipment for raw
material handling in the cement
industry, in the iron and steel as
well as in the primary aluminium
industry. From its headquarters
in Rheinberg, Germany, the Au-
mund Group has integrated the
All illustrations: Aumund

companies Schade Lagertechnik


GmbH at Herne in Germany, and
B&W Handling Ltd. at Ely, UK, in
the last years. With more than
10.000 machines installed in over
100 countries, the Group continu- Fig. 1: Fluoride emissions
ously faces market challenges and
tries new solutions. Especially the usually been collected in containers of time not longer than 12 hours. Prior
handling of hot and abrasive bulk and allowed to cool naturally. Due to to this cooling on an Aumund deep-
materials in the steel and primary the thickness of the layer of hot bath drawn pan conveyor, a specially de-
aluminium industry puts severe material in these containers, there is signed hot bath crusher from SMV A/S
requirements on the conveying no guarantee that the bath lumps will receives up to 850 C hot bath mate-
technique. Aumund already se- have cooled below 100 C even after rial and crushes it down to a lump size
cured an entry into the Guinness 24 hours of cooling time. However, of about 200 mm. Directly underneath
world record book for supplying before further processing, the mate- the hot bath crusher, the Aumund
of the longest bucket apron con- rial must cool down to below 70 to cooling conveyor is connected and re-
veyor for the transport of 900 C 80 C. Special coolers have been tried
hot direct reduced iron. to cool down the bath material to the
required temperature but without
To solve a particular problem in con- success.
veying technique Aumund invented In order to give the new anode good
a customer-specific solution in 1995 starting conditions, the solid bath sur-
for the aluminium smelting plant face has to be cleared from under it.
SR Norge Aluminium in Norway. This allows high current efficiency
It was developed with the manager and stable pot operation. Previously,
of the engineering department of the point feeding prebake technology did
smelting plant at that time and with not employ side breaking operation,
a Norwegian specialist for hot mate- so this bath material was stored in the
rial crushers, and it became the first service area of the pot. The crust with
economical and efficient solution for alumina and bath material was then Fig. 2: Covered conveyor connected to dry
scrubbing system
the clean handling of 850 C hot bath later broken into the liquid bath by
material. Since then this concept has the tools of the crust breaker vehicle,
meanwhile been successfully used for while fluoride gases escaped uncon- ceives the red-hot bath material. With
five units in other European smelting trolled. a variable speed between 0.15 m/min
plants. and 0.5 m/min the conveyor works
Solution and functional like a moveable storage and is able to
Problem description adapt to the discontinuous operation
of a smelting plant. After a distance
When using the prebake technology, For defined cooling of bath material, of 95 m, approximately 3 tonnes per
anode butts are removed together with Aumund developed a solution de- hour bath material is finally cooled
a substantial quantity of hot bath ma- signed to cool down hot bath material down on a 1400 mm wide conveyor to
terial. This fluoride-rich material has from 850 C to 80 C within a period approximately 80 C and is ready for

38 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
SPECIAL A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

further processing in the bath treat- ers, and thus to higher investments in restrictions in conveyor length or air
ment plant. infrastructure, civil work, etc. flow capabilities, according to our
Based on these requirements, Au- customers references.
Research on the process of mund started investigations at the pri-
conveying hot bath material mary aluminium smelter of Slovalco Benefits and advantages of the
in 2006. Since 2002 an Aumund cool- Aumund cooling system
HF-emissions under control ing conveyor had already been oper-
ating at the Slovalco plant to handle Reduction of investment cost in
HF-measurements at SR Norge Alu- hot bath material. At our works in infrastructure, such as avoiding
minium in 2005 have shown that the Germany a new conveyor section the need for a building to store
HF-gases evaporate into the environ- was equipped with a Data logger and bath skips while the bath is cool-
ment at temperatures above approx. six thermocouples (Fig. 3) and then ing prior to crushing;
400 C material temperature and thus installed in the conveyor operating at No need for skips to cool bath
risk damaging the health of employ- Slovalco. Reduction of operating cost
ees in the potroom. At the tipping The measurements taken during (no double handling of the skips
point already, where the 850 C hot the normal daily operation of the pri- and associated vehicles and
mary aluminium smelter provided us operators)
with valuable data for further investi- Increased rate of automation
gations and led to a new Thermody- Clean bath handling
namical Calculation Software (TCS). Defined cooling of bath material
This new TC-Software (Fig. 4) has Fluoride gases removed by
now replaced the old conventional controlled suction;
way of designing cooling conveyors Significantly increased safety and
and is based on the following param- health conditions in the potrooms
eters: Improved environmental
material layer height conditions.
Fig. 3: Conveyor section with heat air flow above the conveyor
protection box and data logger inside number of suction points References
conveyor width
bath material is fed into the crusher, conveyor speed 1995 SR Norge Aluminium, Norway
there is a suction point which leads lump size of bath material. 2002 SR Norge Aluminium, Norway
the emitting HF-gases into the existing As a theoretical reflection, we used 2002 Slovalco Aluminium, Slovakia
dry scrubbing system. As the cooling the new TC-Software to recalculate 2002 Alcan Icelandic Aluminium,
process progresses, the emissions of our first installation at SR Norge Iceland
the HF-gases progressively decrease, Aluminium. Compared with our 2006 Nordural Aluminium, Iceland
until they finally become negligible original figures, the result would 2006 Fjardal Smelter, Iceland
small for a bath material temperature have allowed a reduction in length 2007 Trimet Aluminium, Germany
below 400 C (Fig. 1). by 1/3 while doubling the conveyor
Moreover, the cooling conveyor is speed and reducing by half the layer Author
covered by a hood and connected to height of bath material. An additional Marco Coopmann is Sales Manager, Divi-
the existing dry scrubbing system via advantage of the new TC-Software is sion Metallurgy of Aumund Frdertechnik
several suction points (Fig. 2). Meas- the option to adapt and incorporate based in Rheinberg, Germany.
urements show that the suction sys-
tem absorbs approx. 60 g per tonne
of bath emissions on average during
a 3-shift operation.

Investigations of the cooling


characteristics of hot bath
material

In contrast to capacity needs in 1995


to cool 2.5 t/h of bath material, Au-
mund nowadays receives inquiries
calling for up to 36 t/h bath mate-
rial cooling and conveying capacity.
Calculating such applications in the
conventional way would lead to un-
economical solutions for our custom- Fig. 4: Cooling curve of bath material

39
ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 39
ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

Advances in gas suspension calcination technology


B. E. Raahauge, Copenhagen

The principle of the gas suspen-


sion calciner (GSC) was develo-
ped by F. L. Smidth & Co. in the
early 1970s for pre-calcination
of cement raw meal (d50 = 10 to
20 m), as feed to the rotary kiln
burning the final cement clinker.
Following the successful commis-
sioning of the first 4,600 tpd rotary
kiln with pre-calciner in 1976, F.
L. Smidth decided to develop the
GSC technology for application
within the alumina industry. The
state of the art of the GSC tech-
nology in commercial operation
producing smelter grade alumina
(SGA) covers a capacity range
from 820 to 4,500 tpd of SGA. Fig. 2: Principle flow sheet for gas suspension calciner unit bag house and booster fan

The economics of bag house versus from the outlet gas. A series of cool- sumption of 20 to 24 kWh per tonne
electrostatic precipitators for meet- ing cyclones recover heat from the alumina depends on the type of gas
ing environmental requirements have calcined SGA to preheat air and fuel, de-dusting equipment, the type of
changed over the past 20 years. This while a series of heating cyclones fuel used, and whether a forced draft
paper describes developments since recover heat from the combustion booster fan is installed on the clean air
the first 850 tpd GSC unit for alumina gases to dry, preheat, and pre-calcine side. The specific heat consumption is
was started up in 1986. the hydrate feed. The GSC furnace is about 3.2 to 3.4 GJ per tonne alumina,
refractory lined and operates at a tem- depending on moisture content in the
GSC for smelter grade alumina perature in the 950 to 1150 C range. hydrate feed and on the type of fuel
(SGA) production Preheated alumina enters the GSC used.
furnace at a temperature ranging from
The GSC furnace comprises a cylin- 320 to 370 C in a direction parallel Thermal energy options for
drical vessel with a conical bottom to to the conical bottom of the furnace. calcination
let in pressurized air or gas, as well Preheated air enters from the cooler
as a hot cyclone to separate of solids at a temperature of 700 to 800 C and The GSC units in operation today use
is used to burn the fuel. The operat- either heavy fuel oil (HFO), natural
ing temperature chosen for the GSC gas, or coal gas as fuel. Since all the
furnace and hot cyclone depends on combustion air is preheated by cool-
what degree of calcination the alumina ing the alumina, the air flow through
requires and on how long it stays hot a calciner, and thus the excess air
in the equipment downstream of the factor, has little impact on the energy
hot separation cyclone. The operating requirements. If more air enters the
temperature can be lowered when cooling section, then more energy
the GSC furnace and hot cyclone is will be recovered from the alumina,
retrofitted behind a rotary kiln to act but this is mostly offset by an increase
as cooler (GSC retrofit), or if the hot in the volume of hot gas lost to the
separation cyclone is equipped with stack.
All illustrations: F.L.Smidth

a fluidized holding vessel. The higher However, when using coal gas,
operating temperature range is used the losses to the stack will be higher
when alumina from the hot cyclone than for heavy fuel oil and for natu-
discharges into a four (4) stage cy- ral gas, because coal gas produces a
clone cooler. The GSC units are de- much greater volume of combustion
signed for an overall pressure drop of gases per unit of combustion heat.
Fig. 1: Gas suspension calciner furnace and
cyclone (HFO: heavy fuel oil; SGA: smelter 8 to 11 kPa before the gas dedusting This means that large volumes of coal
grade alumina) equipment. The specific power con- gas must be heated to calcining tem-

40 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
SPECIAL A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

perature, further reducing the energy requires any


efficiency. The relatively low volume particulate
of air for burning coal gas results in filter technol-
a relatively higher loss of potentially ogy to achieve
recoverable heat to the cooling water higher clean-
(less recovery of heat from the alu- ing efficiency
mina). and on-line
Compared to natural gas, heavy availability, as
fuel oil has the disadvantage of requir- the allowed
ing a significant investment in storage emission level
and oil heating equipment. This, along is lowered
with the potential restrictions regard- year by year.
ing sulfur emissions, makes heavy fuel Most alu-
oil less attractive than natural gas as mina calcin- Fig. 3: 3 x 4500 tpd GSC units at Queensland Alumina Ltd.
a fuel for alumina calciners, although ers decured equipped with bag houses
the latters higher heating value (HHV) environmental
is 4 to 5% less per unit heat utilized by compliance by using electrostatic pre- correct start and stop procedures. The
combustion (LHV). Overall, coal gas cipitators (ESP), which until recently table below compares process data, a
increases the specific heat consump- were the state-of-the-art equipment. fabric filter and an ESP to achieve the
tion of GSC units with 6 to 7% when However, the bag house, or fabric fil- same level of emissions for a specific
compared to GSC units using heavy ter, is now considered an attractive
fuel oil or natural gas. economic alternative. The electrostat- Gas flow [Nm3/min] 10,9
Temperature [C] 155-240
Typical lower Combustion air Combustion gas HHV/ Outlet emission [mg/Nm3, dry] 30
Fuel type heating value theoretical volu- theoretical volu- LHV
(LHV) me (Nm3/ GJ) me (Nm3/ GJ) Tab. 2: Overall process data for a typical
gas suspension calciner filter plant
Heavy fuel oil 40.485 MJ/kg 264 279 1.061
Natural gas 37.345 MJ/Nm3 253 281 1.107
GSC unit. Both technologies have
Coal gas 6.530 MJ/Nm3 208 326 1.058
been selected to meet the same envi-
Tab. 1: Properties for alternative fuels used in calciner operation ronmental performance for the same
process conditions (i.e. flow, tempera-
However, at todays high energy ic precipitator loses competitiveness ture and pressure) when applying the
cost ranging from 3.3 euros per GJ for at lower outlet emission levels. This is same local conditions (i.e. wind load,
coal to 7.5 euros per GJ for oil, coal because it needs more electrical fields earthquake load).
gas may be a viable economic alterna- in the filter, which increases the as- The table below shows that the
tive to natural gas and HFO as fuel for sociated total installed cost. fabric filter is lower in capex (initial
new GSC units wherever coal is read- On the other hand, the total in- investment cost) compared with the
ily available. This is the case in many stalled cost of a fabric filter will gen- ESP. However the opex (operational
countries such as China, where most erally not change when the required cost) for the fabric filter is higher than
of the GSC units installed use coal gas emission is lowered. This is because the opex cost for the ESP. The opex for
as fuel. Preliminary economic analy- the outlet emission do not depend the fabric filter depends on the type
sis suggests that the pay-back time for very much on the air to cloth ratio. of filter media used and obviously on
a coal gasification plant is about one The major environmental advan- its lifetime. This data for capex and
year. tage of the fabric filter is its ability opex has been entered into a NPV (net
Finally it should be noted that coal to maintain envi-
gas produces 16 to 17 per cent more ronmental compli- Capex (capital expenditure) US$ Fabric Electrostatic
combustion gas volume when com- ance even when Supply cost 1,320,000 1,334,000
Installation cost 656 1,407,000
pared to natural gas and heavy fuel the high voltage Total capex, US$ Flange/Flange 1,976,000 2,741,000
oil, which requires relatively larger power supply fails. Opex (operational expenditure)
equipment for dedusting the calciner The electrostatic Bag life: assumed to be 3 years, cage life
exhaust gases to an acceptable emis- filter has, however, is assumed to be 2 set of bags
sion level. a higher degree of Pressure drop, mm WG 150 25
Power consumption, fan, kW 302 50
robustness in case Power consumption, hopper heaters, kW 24 58
Trends in air pollution control: of deviations from Power consumption, T/R set, kW NA 184
bag house versus electrostatic normal process pa- Power consumption, compressor, kW 25 NA

precipitator rameters, whereas Total opex, US$/year, 230,000 138,000


the fabric filter is based on 0.06 US$/kWh
The trend towards increasing en- sensitive to excess Tab. 3: Capex and opex for a fabric filter versus electrostatic
vironmental awareness worldwide temperature and in- precipitator

41
ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 41
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A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

present value) cost analysis made for ity to maintain environmental compli- Author
a 20 year period. ance even in situations when the high
The result is a break-even point voltage power supply fails. And this Benny E. Raahauge, MSc (Chem. Eng.) has
after approximately nine years before feature may overrule any economic worked since 1976 with development,
marketing and sales of the gas suspension
the ESP becomes the lower cost al- disadvantage over the long term, as calcination technology for alumina. His
ternative. the local population will not allow any current position is General Manager, Alu-
Anyway, the major environmental temporary dust emissions, whatever mina & Pyro Technology, at FFE Minerals
advantage of the fabric filter is its abil- the cause. Denmark A/S, based in Copenhagen.

Anode rod repair and manufacture


D. Madden and B. Dalton, Gladstone

The anode rod was developed to


coincide with the introduction
of the prebaked anode and the

Holcan
advent of prebake cell technology.
The early development phase gen-
erally consisted of a copper stem
joined to a steel pin or stub via
a bolted connection. The second
generation saw the introduction of
an aluminium stem joined to the
steel yoke. This connection was
achieved through the use of a bi-
metallic joint, commonly referred
to as a transition joint. The bolted
stub connection was replaced by a
welded connection and became an
integral part of a cast steel yoke. In some cases the original anode rod The design of the anode rod should
was modified: take into account:
The copper stem anode rod evolved Extra stubs added Current carrying capacity
with the introduction of a welded Stub size increased Mechanical strength
connection from the stem to the yoke. Transition joint type changed Choice of material
This generation of anode rod also saw Offsets in anode rod. Ease of manufacture
the introduction of a multi pin yoke. These changes did not necessarily re- Life of anode rod
Generally this generation design has sult in the optimum rod design, but Ease of repair
survived through to todays technol- with a typical inventory of 10,000 Cost of repair
ogy. The changes to the anode rod plus rods in an older smelter pro- Electrical resistance
have mainly been attributed to the in- ducing 100,000 to 200,000 tonnes of Initial cost
creases in line amperage necessitating metal, modification is sometimes the Cell thermal requirements.
the use of much larger anodes. only viable option. As line amperages In recent years the industry has set-
further increase the anode rod may tled on aluminium rods as a standard
Upgrading existing anode rod require redesign; however, the deci- compared to copper rods. This seems
fleets sion to pursue this route will need due to a combination of factors:
careful planning, as major, expensive Aluminium is slightly cheaper for
The industry has seen extremely large changes to other areas of the plant the same electrical performance
increases in line amperage and cur- may be required. The larger section area of the alu-
rent efficiencies. In order for existing minium rod is mechanically more ro-
plants to stay competitive with new Current day anode rods bust
smelters, they have increased their Aluminium rods last longer, typi-
amperage. We are seeing plants that Typical materials used in modern-day cally more than 15 years compared to
were designed for 100 to 150 kA now anode rods are transition joint (roll often less than 7 years for copper
running at 200 to 250 kA. bonded, aluminium to steel), yoke Supports the aluminium industry.
To achieve these increases, vari- (cast steel or fabricated mild steel), The procedure to manufacture an an-
ous modifications were carried out. stub (mild steel). ode rod is relatively straightforward.

42 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
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The cost to manufacture the yoke is saving of US$ 200,000 per year for the Friction welding: Due to very high
generally driven by up-front costs, smelter. capital start up costs, this process is
with far less consideration given to Cost of not repairing: For the smelt- more suited to being an owners re-
on-going repair costs once the plant er, the cost of rod repair is immediate pair. A contractor would find it dif-
is in operation. A cast steel yoke com- and tangible. There is, however, a hid- ficult to justify the cost of installing
plete with stub may cost 60 to 70% den cost the cost of reduced oper- this equipment. Close tolerances are
more than a fabricated yoke. ating performance (increased voltage required to achieve a sound weld.
On a plant with 14,000 new assem- losses and changed thermal perform- Generally it requires saw cutting of
blies, this could represent savings of ance) due to poorly maintained and the old stub, which is often problem-
US$ 3-4 million. Depending on the repaired assemblies. Typical defects atic and expensive.
fabricated yoke design, however, the which lead to reduced anode assem- Robotic welding: This system can
potential for extra repairs due to poor bly performance include: perform poorly with out-of-tolerance
design could easily cost the operating Reduced stub diameter in the stub anode rods, and will require a skilled
plant the construction savings within hole workforce to programme the robot.
a few years of operation. These costs Reduced stub diameter above the Additionally it generally requires saw
could be incurred by: stub hole cutting, which is problematic as stated
Failed stub welds from either poor Stub not central in stub hole previously.
welds or operational stresses Stub not seated flat on the base of
Full stub replacement versus par- stub hole Conclusion
tial stub replacement Reduced yoke arm section.
Twisting of assemblies once intro- For illustrative purposes: It is estimat- Particular attention should be paid to
duced into the cell, due to welding ed for the 280,000 tpy potline that, if the design of the anode rod yoke, as
stresses not being addressed during all stubs were allowed to drop from regards to future repair costs a poor
manufacture; increasing repair needs 180 mm to an average diameter of 160 design will lead to excessive repair
and increasing voltage losses during mm within the stub hole, then the ad- work which can easily consume ini-
operation due to poor fit of stubs in ditional voltage loss (40 mV) would tial capital savings. The repair meth-
the stub holes. consume US$ 900,000 of power per ods chosen should take into account
year (at US$ 0.025 per kWh). This all the costs and the methods that will
Economics of rod repair example highlights the importance of be adopted to complete these repairs.
maintaining the rod fleet. Often reduced material usage, e.g
Cost of repair: On a modern day pot- The smelter operator must, how- steel, can easily outweigh other costs.
line of 280,000 tpy with a 180 mm ever, be careful in setting rod rejec- Evaluate the hidden costs which
stub, the cost of repair can be in the tion criteria the temptation to un- would arise if the stub, yoke and rod
millions of dollars per year. Reduc- der-repair anode rods, so as to reduce condition deteriorate pick rejection
ing repair costs is naturally a target the obvious costs of rod repair, could criteria which gives the lowest overall
for many smelter operators. There are ultimately be penalizing the smelters cost to the smelter.
means by which rod repair costs can total cost performance. But too strict
be reduced as shown in the exam- criteria will waste money in unneces- Accuracy of information
ple below. There are also pitfalls in sary repairs. Typically there is a trade
attempting to reduce repair costs as off between yearly repair costs and Given the many assumptions and
discussed in the next section Cost of the assembly performance as illus- types of calculations, it is recom-
not repairing. trated in the graph. mended that these results be consid-
Example: If a 280,000 tpy potline ered as order of magnitude estimates
repairing 12,000 stubs per year were Repair methods for partial stub only. It is recommended that actual
to convert from a full stub replace- replacement test data be gather under normal op-
ment to a partial stub replacement, erating conditions.
then savings in steel consumption, To perform partial stub replacement
based on a price of US$ 1,000 per repair, three systems are compared: Authors
tonne, will be in the order of US$ Holcan stub welding system, friction
290,000 per year. welding, robotic welding. Dan Madden is the Managing Director of
This repair saving must be set Holcan welding system: This low- Holcan Constructions Pty. Ltd. and has
worked in the aluminium industry for 28
against a slight increase in voltage (4 cost system has been in use for 20 years. He advises the industry on the man-
mV) across the extra weld, amount- years and employs the MIG (GMAW) ufacture and fabrication of anode rods.
ing to US$ 90,000 extra power cost welding method in a semi-automatic
(at US$ 0.025 per kWh). mode. It is very forgiving for out-of- Bill Dalton has spent 10 years as a Senior
This shows that the gains from tolerance dimensions of the anode Research Engineer with Comalco and a fur-
ther 5 years as consultant to the aluminium
adopting a partial stub replacement rods already subjected to the opera- and wider metals industries. He is also an
far out weigh the extra cost in power tional stresses, and suggests the use expert in due diligence and production
due to extra weld resistance a net of flame cutting over sawing. cost analysis for the aluminium industry.

43
ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 43
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Integrated continuous billet processing


F. Niedermair, Braunau

Developed in the 1970s by Hert-


wich Engineering (HE), continu-
ous billet processing plants have
become the accepted standard for
the processing of extrusion billets.
Today more than 60% of world-

All illustrations: Hertwich Engineering


wide production of extrusion bil-
let pass through such a HE plant,
which englobes inspection/QA,
HE.C-homogenisation, sawing, and
packaging.

This extraordinary success stems


from a number of clear advantages:
Perfectly uniform metallurgical Fig. 1: Typical plant layout
property of billet due to precise
and reproducible temperature motive components are inspected Heating
regime during heating, holding with the helical method, whereby
and cooling the entire cylindrical billet volume is In the heating zone of the furnace,
Combination of various process inspected, incl. surface defects with extrusion-quality logs are heated to
steps into one fully automated, perpendicular and angular probes. homogenizing temperature within 1,5
continuous process, hence Logs are rotated while several probes to 2,5 hours, holding times may range
substantial labour savings move along the billet surface, each between 2 to 4 hours (blue curve).
All equipment components fully probe inspects only its section of the However, certain plants have been
compatible, because developed, log. This arrangement is necessary to built to meet different, special heat-
designed and built by HE achieve the required throughput. Fur- ing requirements (Fig. 4).
Plants built to latest thermore the helical UT is designed to For instance a plant in Scandinavia
state-of-the-art technology, meet the requirements of ASTM B 594 processes hard ZnMg alloys. This fur-
80 such plants in operation, Class A or B respectively. nace is capable of slow heating in the
HE-CIP, Continuous Improvement HE has achieved market leader- critical temperature range to avoid de-
Process. ship with such ultrasonic inspection velopment of cracks due to inner ten-
HE extrusion billet plants are cus- stations. Fault sizes as small as 1,2 sions (red line vs. standard blue line).
tom-designed to meet individual mm FBH can be detected.
requirements of clients, in terms of Data of UT-inspection-re-
throughput, floor area and technical sults for each individual
features. billet is recorded and re-
mains attached to the
Description of a modern plant billet throughout the sys-
tem (log-tracking). For
Description of a modern plant (60.000 instance, a centre crack
to 120.000 tpy) with the emphasis on detected in a certain log
technical features, novelties and spe- causes the integrated billet
cific options (Fig. 1): saw to automatically re-
The fully automated processing move and scrap the faulty
sequence starts with laydown of cast section of the log (Figs. 2 Fig. 2: Linear testing
lengths of extrusion ingot on the en- and 3).
try table. From there logs are moved A storage conveyor pro-
over a storage conveyor to the inspec- vides adequate log storage
tion station, for visual inspection for between (UT) inspection
surface defects and for ultrasonic in- and continuous homogeni-
spection (UT) for centre cracks and sing furnace. For reduced
inclusions. For extrusion billets the noise, logs are lifted and
linear UT station is adequate, while lowered during transfer,
billets destined for aircraft or auto- no rolling is permitted. Helical testing

44 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
SPECIAL A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

requirements of nation of storage conveyors, shuttle


mainstream extrud- cars, roller table lines etc. Once cut
ers. at the saw, all billets are marked. The
Line d portrays introduction of a pin-stamping unit
step-cooling. Only in recent years is a small but essen-
one of our plants is tial innovative contribution to full
equipped for this automation. Prior to that, changing
type of cooling. of hard stamp stencils was the only
However, due to the remaining operator task. Todays pin
associated impact stamping unit receives marking in-
on extrudability formation directly from the control
this cooling regime system, eliminating time-consuming
is not applied in manual changing of stencils and po-
Fig. 4: Heating curves practice. tential mistakes by inserting incorrect
blue: standard, red: special slow heating Line e shows extremely slow cool- numbers.
ing in the range 75 to 150 C per hour, HE has developed its own pin
Cooling which is required for certain special stamping unit, as other systems avail-
alloys. Such slow cooling rates can- able on the market were too slow.
Cooling after homogenising is an im- not be achieved simply, not even with Head and butt ends and scrap piec-
portant aspect for extrudability and stagnant air, but require closed cool- es are gripped in sawing position by
mechanical properties of billets. Many ing chambers with several zones of a scrap manipulator and deposited in
different cooling regimes are in use, different air temperatures. scrap containers. The manipulator is
depending on metallurgical require- In accordance with this variety of designed to also remove sample discs,
ments and clients recipes, hence a cooling regimes, actual cooling sta- which are placed on a dedicated tray
wealth of different coolers have been tions vary much in design and con- or chute.
built to date (Fig. 5). struction. We distinguish between Swarf is extracted directly from the
saw and pneumatically transported to
the briquetting press. There swarf bri-
quettes are formed immediately after
sawing, to a density 2.2 to 2.4 kg/dm3.
Such briquettes remelt in a similar
way to ingots, achieving extremely
Temperature (C)

low melt loss.


Cut billets now travel to the pack-
ing area on roller table lines. The
packing plant shown is designed for
creating long and short billet stacks
simultaneously. This type stacker is
particularly suited for bulk produc-
tion of short billets, when long billet
requirement is limited to say 6.0 m,
whereby 8.0 or 9.0 m is the actual cast
length. This way both casting pit and
Time (min) homogenising furnace are optimised
Fig. 5: Cooling curves open and closed type coolers, and for maximum throughput.
even coolers with built in heating de- Todays standard strapping cen-
Line a shows cooling by water vices. tre, also developed by HE, includes
quench. With AlMgSi alloys, Mg2Si For certain countries with cold automatic wooden runner magazine
thereby remains completely dissolved. climate we have built cooling stations and positioning device. The number
Line b represents cooling in with integrated waste-heat recovery. and position of wooden runners and
very intense air flow, with cooling Thereby cooling air is re-circulated strapping bands are applied fully au-
rates 600 to 800 C/hour. until it is suitable for heating of build- tomatically according to customer
Line c shows the log temperature ings. specification; no operator interven-
during cooling in a moderate airflow, tion or adjustments are required.
whereby cooling rates can be adjusted Sawing, marking, packing, Actual strapping is with steel tape, or
350 to 550 K/hour. weighing, strapping more recently with PET-tape. Weigh-
The majority of plants built to ing of stacks is done prior to and after
date are designed and equipped for After cooling logs are transported to strapping, to generate net- and gross
such cooling rates, as these meet the the saw plant, passing over a combi- weight.

45
ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 45
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A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

Ancillary equipment may comprise ficiently and reliably bring the plant creates a need for more measuring
label printer and applicator into a predefined condition, eliminat- points, ever more accurate tempera-
stack manipulator. (Fig. 6) ing potential human error. ture control, and for refined data
The label applicator attaches the label Log/Billet tracking ensures rel- processing. Consequently direct tem-
in a defined position on the bundle. evant data on each log or billet is perature measurement is now done at
The manipulator stacks completed tracked throughout the system. more positions and with higher accur-
bundles in dedicated positions for re- Operator-friendly graphic display ancy. The intelligent analyses soft-
moval by fork truck, or stacks directly of billets within the system includes ware with trend analyses provides
onto trailers. all associated data like batch no, di- an appropriate tool for early recogni-
ameter, UT-inspection data. tion of possible changes to the heating
regime. Implementation provides the
Host connection of the plant means for even tighter quality con-
Relevant production data, including trol: Billet diameter and homogeniz-
homogenizing parameters, sawing ing temperature can be changed with
and stacking dimensions, positioning higher safety and great flexibility.
of wooden runners, strapping specifi-
cations etc. are downloaded from the Increased throughput of large
clients production planning and order furnaces
procession host system, directly to the The past 10 years has shown a trend
plant control PC. Conversely the plant to ever greater throughput of fur-
PC transmits data to the clients host naces and plants. To date the highest
Fig. 6: Sawing and packing system including throughput rate is achieved at Dubal
measured data of homogenizing (for IV plant, where one billet leaves the
Summary of improvements quality assurance) furnace every 82 sec. Throughput is
quality inspection results, i.e. centre 22 t/hour or 1.050 billets per day.
Hertwich has achieved numerous cracks, inclusions, surface defects
improvements in reliability, compu- produced quantities, weights, charge Conclusion
terised control and data collection, No., log No., time stamp etc.
prevention of surface damage, and HE continuous production plants for
furnace control and productivity. Careful handling for improved extrusion billet have been steadily im-
billet surface proved and are therefore fully devel-
Increase of operational reliability A new generation of billet supports oped plants: HE draws from a wealth
with extensive, ongoing development, with special inlays (patented) has of experience, with 80 such plants
many improvements were achieved been developed for the furnaces bil- built to date, so as to provide tailor
in recent years. Plants are of sturdy let transport system. Thereby surface made solutions in terms of functional-
construction, and of the highest qual- damage to billets can be largely elim- ity and available space.
ity. Plant availability is 99%. inated. Removal of billets from the All HE plants are designed and
furnace is by a shuttle car, replacing built exclusively upon proprietary
Improved, innovative control earlier roller table lines. know-how by HE itself, including an-
software for operator- and mainte- cillary equipment like UT-inspection,
nance-friendly production Improved heat transfer strapping, and swarf briquetting.
Fully integrated, automated produc- More intense hot gas convection and 20 highly qualified engineers are
tion plants need an excellent control modified air guide channels have available to develop control software
and monitoring system to ensure safe substantially increased heat transfer and data management for clients host
and reliable production and high rate to billets without increasing the systems. Our customers can be sure
availability. number of fans. of busing a fully developed, top-qual-
Each individual movement of the HE always prefers to rely on a lim- ity plant, which ensures reliable pro-
plant is monitored for correct execu- ited number a high-quality powerful duction throughout an exceptionally
tion. ventilators rather than a forest of long service life. With HE building and
The refined fault diagnosis sys- ventilators on top of a furnace. This supplying all components of a plant,
tem efficiently guides operators and concept directly results in an air over comprehensive after sales and spare
maintenance personnel to the causes temperature (heat head) in the heat- part support is offered.
of malfunctions, thereby support- ing zone of max. 5 to 10 K above the
ing easy and quick corrective action. set metal homogenizing temperature. Author
Malfunctions are recorded and can be
queried in statistical and trend form, Improved direct measurement of Dipl.-Ing. Franz Niedermair (1952) is since
providing a potent tool to permanent- billet temperature inside the furnace 1989 with Hertwich Engineering (HE) in
R&D and marketing. Since 1994 he is Man-
ly fix weak points. and cooler aging Director of HE.
Automatic restart programs ef- Increased production of the furnaces

46 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007

  



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A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

De Nora inert metallic anode: further developments


V. de Nora, T. Nguyen, R. von Kaenel, J. Antille, and L. Klinger, Sierre

A stable inert metallic anode of-


fers many advantages [1,2] and
allows great freedom in choice
of shape. However, an oxygen
evolving anode (OEA) may need
more electrical energy if used in
a conventional way. To minimise
the specific energy consumption,
semi-vertical electrodes were
studied and tested on a laboratory
scale. A semi-vertical configura-
tion helps to maintain the cells
thermal equilibrium even if the in-
terpolar distance is less than 3 cm.
This advantage compensates for
the thermodynamic penalty of the
oxygen evolving anode, and could
double the cells productivity. This
paper establishes the thermo-elec-
tric conditions of the cell having
a semi-vertical configuration of
the oxygen evolving anode, and
presents the experimental results
of the semi-vertical electrode con- Fig. 1: de Nora inert metallic an-
odes used to operate between
figuration in a 100 A laboratory
100 A to 300 A per anode in labo-
cell. ratory cells

For several years Moltech studied and


developed an OEA for the aluminium
reduction cell; some examples of lab-
oratory cells of de Nora Inert Metallic
Anodes are shown in Fig. 1. The ret-
rofitting of the de Nora inert metallic
anode in commercial cells has been
demonstrated in a pilot cell of 25 kA
[1] using larger anodes (Fig. 2). De-
spite the low oxygen over-potential of
the cobalt oxide based active coating,
the OEA still presents a penalty of 650
mV [2]. This penalty must be compen- Fig. 2: Pilot de Nora inert metallic
anodes used to operate between
sated by increasing the anode current
3500 to 4500 A per anode.
density (horizontal configuration) or
by increasing the anode surfaces with
a semi-vertical configuration.
Table 1: Characteristics of the de Nora inert metallic anode

De Nora inert metallic anode


Metal substrate resistivity (:.m) 3.10-7
The de Nora inert metallic anode Oxide coating resistivity (:.m) 3.10-2
consists of a metallic substrate made Oxygen activation over-potential (V) 0.10
of cast Ni-Fe-Cu alloy; the external Experimental oxidation rate of metal substrate (m/year) 1.8 10-3
surfaces of the anode are protected Linear dimension change (m/year) - 2.0 10-3
by an active coating of CoxNiyO, with Expected life time (years) 1 - 1.5
0.65 < x < 0.85 and 0.15 < y < 0.35.
Table 1 summarises the anode char-

48 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
SPECIAL A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

acteristics and performance tests in square section of 180 x 180 mm and compact arrangement of the elec-
horizontal configuration, described 300 mm height is used as the elec- trode assembly; the total active sur-
previously [2]. trolysis cell. The graphite crucible is faces can be increased by a factor of 2
The anode metallic structure is fab- protected by an Inconel 600 pot, with compared to the horizontal surface
ricated by a sand casting technique, a cast alumina sleeve on the top. movable cathodes which can be
which can be adapted to every size Depending on the operational changed at the end of the coating life-
and form of the anode. This advan- mode, the crucible can be used as the time
tage is valuable for adapting to non- cathode current feeder through the no vertical polarisation interference
horizontal configurations. In fact, the electrical connection by the Inconel with the metal pool stored on the cell
shapes of the anode and active runner pot. The vertical side walls of the bottom.
need to respect the: crucible are protected and insulated
current distribution electrically by four alumina sheets of Experimental results
gas escape direction 15 mm thickness. The cell set-up is
hydrodynamic effects of the placed in an electrical furnace, which The cell operates at a very stable volt-
gas-liquid energy transfer assuring controls and maintains constant the age of 4.0 0.1 volts; the wettability
the bath circulation. operating temperature. and the draining operation of the
The electrolysis tests are per- cathode can be observed by the saw
Non-horizontal electrode formed in a bath of 11% AlF3 excess tooth profile of the cell voltage, which
configuration 4% CaF2 7% KF 9% Al2O3 (satu- corresponds to the formation and de-
ration), at 930 +/- 5 C. The cathode tachment of the aluminium drop at
Test description and anode current densities are iden- the cathode bottom.
tical and maintained constant at 1 After 500 hours (more than 20 days)
Several configurations of the non- A/cm2. the test had to be shut down because
horizontal electrode assembly were
designed and tested in 100 A labora- Vertical assembly with
tory cells. The selected electrode ma- hanging cathode
terials were the following:
cathode: semi-graphitised BN car- In the vertical configuration the in-
bon substrate, totally covered by 1.2 clination of the electrodes is 0, the

All photos: Kannak


mm of Tinor 2000 coating. The coat- assembly is composed of one cen-
ing was pre-aluminised by 3 layers of tral cathode and two parallel anodes
aluminium slurry in basic colloid as as illustrated in Fig. 4. The cathode
shown in Fig. 3. electrical connection is through an
anode: Ni-Fe-Cu alloy substrate external stem made of steel core in- Fig. 4: Vertical assembly with Tinor coated
hanging cathode
made by sand casting, and totally serted inside a copper tube of 2 mm
covered by 250 Pm of Co-Ni electro- wall thickness. Two similar stems are
deposition. The oxide active coating also used for the two anodes; the three of deterioration of the alumina side
was obtained by pre-oxidation in horizontal active runners of the anode wall protection, and because of cor-
air at 950 C. The coated anode was are inclined with a slope of 10 to the rosion of the cathode stem by liquid
cooled down to room temperature be- vertical, so allowing the gas to escape aluminium. The cathode and anodes
fore use. along the anode back. The anode- were removed for examination:
The 100 A laboratory cell is exter- cathode distance is fixed at 2 cm. The anodes were slightly corroded
nally heated by an electrical furnace. The advantages of the hanging at the back and at the lower runner.
A graphite crucible having an internal cathode assembly are: This local corrosion is due to chemi-
cal interaction with carbon dust (from
the crucible) and with the metal pool
stored on the cell bottom.
The cathode remained intact, and
totally covered by a layer of alumini-
um of 2 to 3 mm.

Discussion

As expected, the fundamental behav-


iour of the de Nora inert metallic an-
ode is not influenced by the vertical
position. However the observations
during the test make it possible to
Fig. 3: Semi-vertical cathode before and after aluminisation point out the following aspects of the

49
ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 49
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A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

vertical configuration: able, thus it cannot be changed during ginal ohmic resistance. The concept
The initial current efficiency of operation. of an immersed cathode must be
75% decreases rapidly, and stabilises developed so that the cathode can
at about 40% after 24 hours. Experimental results be removed at the end of the Tinor
The oxygen separation, in escaping coating life-time. Fig. 6 shows an in-
along the anode back, is not optimal The cell operates at a very stable volt- clined metallic anode after 500 hours
in the vertical position, namely with age of 3.8 0.1 volts; in comparison to of operation.
an ACD as low as 2 cm. The re-oxida- the previous case the saving of 0.2 volt
tion of the metal by oxygen seems to should be due to the lower ohmic drop ACD in semi-vertical
be one of the factors decreasing the of the cathode body and connection. configuration
current efficiency.
The aluminium pool stored on the A numerical study of the semi-vertical
cell bottom is subjected to the positive configuration has been made in order
electrical field of the anodes (poten- to investigate the current density dis-
tial of + 0.3 volt versus the cathode); tribution and the impact on the cur-
an electrochemical dissolution of the
metal can occur probably further de-
creases the current efficiency.

Semi-vertical electrode
configuration

To improve the gas separation, a


semi-vertical electrode assembly
was designed and tested. The active Fig. 5: Semi-vertical cathode-anode assembly
surfaces of the cathode and the an-
ode are inclined with a slope of 40. The visual observations during opera-
The cathode is one semi-graphitised tion show that the gas separation is
block having adequate active surface greatly improved by the inclination of
geometry; the cathode is glued on the the anode; and because the metal pool
graphite crucible bottom and totally is protected by the cathodic polarisa- Fig. 6: Inclined anode after 500 hours of
operation
covered with 1.2 mm of Tinor 2000 tion, the current efficiency stabilises
coating; the coating is pre-aluminised at about 70 to 75%. At a minimum
by aluminium slurry. The cathode distance of 4 cm between the lower rent density of a slight mis-alignment
electrical connection is made via the runner of the anode and the metal of the electrodes.
crucible and an aluminium pool of pool level, the vertical polarisation is The first experimental setups
about 4 to 6 cm on the bottom. An less than 10%, estimated by measur- showed oscillations in the voltage.
inclined anode presents three hori- ing the variation of the cell voltage in Although the cause was eventually
zontal runners with a flat active face raising the anode position. After 500 shown to be related to an insufficient
parallel to the cathode surface; to hours of operation the anode is intact bath level (causing too large a thermal
minimise the vertical polarisation the (Fig. 6), and the cathode active surface volatility), it was first thought that the
lower runner is kept at least 4 cm from remains clean, without any sludge de- cause might be a difference in the
the metal pool on the crucible bottom. posit or dimensional change. current carried by each of the three
The cathode-anode distance is fixed horizontal runners. Indeed, when the
at 2 cm (see Fig. 5). Discussion mean current density is above 1.3 A/
The advantages of the semi-verti- cm2, this leads to voltage oscillations.
cal configuration are: The gas separation is a major pa- The theoretical model, a plain elec-
better gas separation minimises the rameter in current efficiency; as the trostatic computation of the electrical
metal re-oxidation by oxygen better results with the semi-vertical potential and current density, showed
no external stem needed for the electrode assembly clearly demon- that in the nominal configuration,
electrical connection of the cathode strate. The angle of inclination can be there is a difference in the amount of
cathodic protection of the metal optimised in taking into account the current carried by each runner, but
pool stored on the crucible bottom gas hydrodynamic, the compactness the difference is too low to explain
suppresses its electrochemical disso- of the assembly, and the runner form the oscillations. There is, however, an
lution. for the current distribution. interesting point to be made by elec-
However, this assembly is less Thanks to the wettability of Tinor trostatic modelling, as follows.
compact than in the previous one; coating, a good cathode electrical Fig. 7 is a typical result for the se-
the maximum surface increase factor feeding through the liquid metal mi-vertical configuration. Along with
is about 1.5. The cathode is not mov- pool should induce only a very mar- the anode (top) and cathode (bot-

50 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007

 


  

   
 

 
 

  
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A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

tom), a surface of constant potential horizontal conventional industrial the fractional current efficiency. The
is shown (middle). It explains why cells. If the anode current densities third condition, Qc = Qm, is in fact a
more current is carried by the lower are too different, large horizontal cur- condition on the current. For typical
runner. Because the current density rent take place in the liquid metal that designs, we get Im = 1.7 Ic. Is it possible
is proportional to the gradient of the may lead to metal pad wave oscilla- to meet both the voltage and current
electrical potential, it follows that tions. If the cathode current density conditions?
regions where the isosurface of the is too uneven, large local electro-ero- The electrode settings studied in
potential are curved, a large current sion may take place, leading to short this paper address the conditions
density results. cell lifetime. above. Let us consider only the semi-
Two main conclusions can be vertical configuration, since it is more
drawn from such electrostatic mod- Energy considerations efficient. The cell voltage condition
elling: can be met by decreasing the ACD, to
In order to obtain a more homo- As has been noted before [7], one of overcome the voltage penalty of the
geneous distribution of the current the problems to address to bring the oxygen-evolving anode. When taking
density, one should purposely set the oxygen-evolving anode to industri- both the reversible decomposition
anode in a non-parallel position rela- alisation is the thermal balance of the voltage and the over-voltages of the
tive to the cathode, and specifically by cell. About 1 V of the total cell voltage various electrodes into account, it is
having a slightly lower ACD under the is used differently in each technology: commonly assumed to be about 0.6 V
top runner. as heat for the classical Hall-Hroult [1,2]. For typical electrolyte conduc-
In a future semi-vertical design cell, and to produce aluminium in the tivities used in our tests, it amounts to
gathering many anodes, it will be OEA cell. From the point of view of a reduction in ACD of about 1 to 2 cm.
necessary to perform electrostatic energy efficiency, this is very positive Thus, operating a semi-vertical con-
simulations of this kind to optimise for cells implementing the de Nora figuration at 2 cm ACD makes it pos-
the arrangement and setting of the inert metallic anode, but the corre- sible to meet the voltage condition.
electrodes, in order to smooth the sponding loss in heating is significant Finally, to meet the condition on
current density distribution as far as and means that a balanced thermal the current, for a similar overall cell
possible. design is difficult to achieve. size, the semi-vertical setting offers
Let us consider the problem in- a two-fold gain: by using a de Nora
versely: assume that we want to op- inert metallic anode, one can work at
erate an oxygen-evolving anode that higher current densities (by a factor
has of 1.4), while using slanted de Nora
a. the same current efficiency anodes permits an increase in the
b. the same specific energy working area (thus the total current)
c. and the same heat losses by a factor of at least 1.5. Thus, expect-
as a conventional cell; how do these ing a total current Im = 2.1 Ic appears
conditions translate into operat- realistic. The 1.4 factor is explained by
ing parameters? The first condition the typical current density in conven-
should be relatively easy to meet, tional technology (0.9 A/cm2), com-
since Moltech could operate a 25 pared to the maximal current density
kA OEA cell with 90% CE [1], while for metallic anodes (1.3 A/cm2). The
struggling against various operational second factor is geometrical. For the
difficulties that are to be expected in setting presented above, the cathode
such novel tests. We thus assume that surface is 100 cm2, and only the flat
Fig. 7: Semi-vertical electrodes setting, and the current efficiency is the same for surface of the runners is about 55
an isosurface of the electrical potential.
both technologies, K= 0.95. cm2. However, while exact quantifi-
The second condition, when the cation is difficult, the active surface of
We recall that optimising the current first is met, consists in having the the anode is more than the flat area.
density distribution in the above- same cell voltage in both technolo- For conventional designs, a horizontal
mentioned sense is important for de gies. To work out the third condition, cathode occupying the same overall
Nora inert metallic anodes, because, we recall that the heat generation loss space has a surface of 50 cm2. Thus,
on the one hand, they require higher Q is given by ([8], respectively with a 1.5 geometric factor appears reason-
current densities (thermal equilib- only D alumina and no Boudouard able, and implies a more compact cell
rium, see below), while, on the other reaction): for the same productivity
hand, a critical current density exists, Qc = Ic (U 1.65 K 0.48)
above which the anode may be dam- Qm = Im (U 3.11 K) Conclusions
aged. Thus, a good inert anode design Where the c subscript designates
ensures an even, high current density carbon or conventional technology, The gains of energy and production of
distribution. In fact an even current m standing for metallic (anodes). I is the aluminium reduction cell in using
distribution is also very important in the current, U the cell voltage and K the semi-vertical electrode configura-

52 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
SPECIAL A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

ceramic based drained cathode


tion are demonstrated by our prelimi- the metallic inert anode and the technology for aluminium reduction
nary simulation calculations: wettable Tinor coated cathode can cells US DOE DE-FC07-97 / ID /
The thermodynamic penalty of the operate at an ACD as low as 2 cm. 13567 Dec. 2002, pp 1-42
oxygen evolving anode is largely com- the gas separation is an important [5] Huimin Lu et al.: Light Metals 2006,
pp. 687-690
pensated by decreasing the ACD. factor influencing the current effi-
[6] H.A. Oye et al.: Light Metals 1997,
The cell thermal balance can be ciency, which can be optimised by p. 279-286
maintained by higher current thanks appropriate anode design. [7] V. de Nora: Proceedings 11th
to a significant increase of the operat- the design freedom of metallic Intern. Aluminium Symposium;
ing surface area. anodes is unique, and constitutes an Trondheim Bergen Trondheim;
Sept. 2001, pp 155-160
The preliminary tests in laboratory important advantage for the non-hori-
[7] H. Kvande: Light Metals 1999,
100 A cells have demonstrated that: zontal electrode configuration. pp. 369-376
the de Nora inert metallic anode [8] W. Haupin and H. Kvande:
and the Tinor coated carbon cathode References Light Metals 2000, pp. 379-384
can be used as dimensionally stable
electrodes for the non-horizontal [1] J. Antille et al.: Light Metals 2006,
Authors
electrode configuration. However, pp. 391-396
[2] T. Nguyen and V. de. Nora.: Vittorio de Nora, Thin Nguyen and Rene
the dimension stability of the car- Light Metals 2006, pp. 385-390
bon cathode was only proven for 500 von Kaenel are with Moltech Technology
[3] V. de Nora: Electrochemical Soc. Center, while Jacques Antille and Laurent
hours. This dimensional stability is Interface - Winter 2002, pp 20-24. Klinger are with KANNAK S.A.
still in question for longer duration. [4] J.N. Bruggeman et al: Wettable

Aluminium casting

Boron nitride plus binder a synonym for


higher productivity
Chr. Klpfer, Th. Jngling, G. Heuts

With its new generation of boron foundries and smelting works as a liq- skin rapidly forms on the surface of
nitride, ESK Ceramics GmbH & uid at a temperature of around 700C. the hot aluminium. A release agent
Co. KG in Kempten, Germany is Since this melt is very aggressive, the must be added to prevent this skin
providing the casting industry contacting surfaces must be protect- sticking to the surface. Traditionally,
with tailored materials for laun- ed. That is first to counteract wear of bone ash is added, which does indeed
ders, ladles, dies and crucibles the tools and vessels and, second, to have the required release properties
that offer unrivalled protection prevent the aluminium from being but because of its poor adhesion must
against aggressive molten alu- contaminated with dissolved foreign be repeatedly replenished, since it is
minium. A critical factor in this matter. That means specifically the entrained by the flowing molten
advance in casting technology is launders in casthouse applications as aluminium.
a novel nanoscale binder that al- well as crucibles, ladles and dies used
lows boron nitride coatings to be in foundries. The surfaces that come Boron nitride versus bone ash
produced that adhere strongly to into contact with the molten alumin-
different materials. ium must be coated to prevent cor- Ceramic coatings offer an alternative
rosion. The quality of these surfaces to bone ash. These foundry coatings,
Thanks to its low density, aluminium not only determines the lifetimes of which are applied as liquids and dry
has become established as a key ma- the equipment and tools used, but also to form a solid film, should have high
terial with an unparalleled breadth has a critical effect on the quality and thermal and chemical stability and a
of applications. This light metal has mechanical and physical properties of similar thermal expansion to the coat-
applications extending from packag- the resulting castings. ed surface in order to prevent the coat-
ing, through automotive engineering, A typical example is the transport ing flaking off. A material that ideally
to aerospace. Furthermore, when al- of molten aluminium in cast houses, meets all these requirements is boron
loyed with various metals, such as which is usually performed in laun- nitride (BN). The graphite-like chemi-
magnesium or silicon in extruded pro- ders with a refractory lining. Of course, cal structure of BN makes it an ideal
files, its strength can rival that of steel. such launders have poor thermal con- release agent and lubricant. However,
Obtained by an electrochemical proc- ductivity, which prevents rapid cool- unlike graphite, which oxidizes at
ess, the metal occurs in aluminium ing of the melt. However, a thin oxide above 500C in air, boron nitride is

53
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of a melt droplet on the substrate is ample, BN coatings can be applied


measured by forming a tangent. Large by spraying, brushing or dipping.
angles over 90 mean poor wetting, Although BN coatings develop their
while small angles less than 90 indi- protective effect at a few microns
cate good wetting. At a temperature thickness, the new BN foundry coat-
of 900C, boron nitride has a wetting ings from ESK can be applied in
angle of 160, which corresponds to thicknesses up to 1 mm. That means
poor wetting. the coating can be readily applied by
However, this welcome property untrained staff. The new coating can

All photos: ESK


also has a downside, since the poor be used wherever liquid aluminium is
wetting of the BN platelets also im- processed. The range of applications
pairs their adhesion to the substrates extends from compact aluminium
Casting table for aluminum billet production coated with to be coated, such as ceramic laun- ingots to aluminium car wheels and
EKamold Cast-C prior to use ders, ladles, crucibles, dies or metal engine blocks.
moulds. To improve adhesion, there- Furthermore, the new BN coatings
fore, a refractory binder must be used. developed by ESK, for the first time
In the coatings, these binders bond ever, allow damaged coatings and
the BN particles together as well as cracks in the substrate to be repaired.
to the substrate. In the past, phyllo- In the traditional process, if the coat-
silicates, monoaluminium phosphate ings were damaged, they had to be
and magnesium silicate have been the painstakingly removed and then reap-
chief refractory binders. plied. With the new systems, damaged
areas of the coating can be repaired
High adhesion thanks to nano- e.g. with a brush. Moreover, the
particles coatings can seal cracks and chipping
in the substrate by infiltrating them.
The binders that have been commer-
Casting table for aluminum billet production coated with cially available so far are not ideal for No sedimentation thanks to
EKamold Cast-C after use
the casting industry, says Christiane thixotropy
Klpfer of the technical marketing
department at ESK. A major disad- Traditional BN coatings generally
vantage is that they are only suitable had the problem of sedimentation of
for applying thin coatings, since oth- the BN solid particles, and had to be
erwise the rapid temperature cycles very carefully stirred to prevent set-
could cause them to flake off. In tling out, which would change the
looking for improved high-tempera- properties. The new ESK coating
ture binders, we hit on sol-gel systems offers a further advantage, since, al-
reinforced with nanoscale particles, though it becomes gel-like after stand-
explains Klpfer. ing for a long time, it can be easily liq-
The patented binder system, as a uefied again by stirring or shaking a
BN coating for the casting industry, is property known as thixotropy. All
called EKamold Cast-C, and is a real these completely new possibilities
SEM picture of a cross section of EKamold Cast-C Coating innovation for high-temperature ap- offer major advantages to users, en-
plications. The system develops its ef- thuses Thomas Jngling, Chief Tech-
characterized by a high thermal sta- fect in situ when heat treated during nology Officer of the California-based
bility that allows it to be processed the first casting cycle, similar to two- Ceradyne Inc. Cast houses and foun-
up to over 900C. That makes boron pack adhesives, and forms a film that dries are harsh environments, where
nitride completely thermally stable in is resistant to both heat and abrasion. users must be able to depend on the
the temperature range used for light- Compared to conventional boron ni- materials used operating flawlessly.
metal casting. tride-based coatings, this product in- The casting industry is very interest-
A property that is particularly at- novation offers unrivalled durability ed in the new boron nitride coatings,
tractive for casting is the poor wetta- together with ease of application and observes Jngling. The new coatings
bility of its surface by liquid alumin- extremely low requirements on the have already been subjected to practi-
ium and other molten metals. They substrate. cal tests in aluminium foundries.
do not stick to the smooth surface
but roll off like water droplets from a Coatings can be repaired Boron nitride coatings last longer
lotus leaf. The wetting of ceramics by
melts is usually described by means of There are also processing advantages Guido Heuts of the Dutch company
the wetting angle. The contact angle to using boron nitride (BN). For ex- Ceranex, a supplier of heat-resistant

54 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
SPECIAL A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

Why Boron nitride has similar properties to graphite


Boron nitride, a synthetic substance with the and chemical similarity. For example, at tem- compared to graphite which will start to oxi-
chemical formula BN, is a sort of inorganic peratures of around 1600C and pressures dize already at 500C. In its most widespread
carbon. That means BNs chemical and of 50,000 bar, graphite-like -BN can, in a form, as a graphite-like hexagonal boron
physical properties are very similar to those similar way to carbon, be transformed into 2 nitride, the snow-white material possesses
of graphite, since both compounds crystal- diamond-like cubic high-pressure allotropes exceptional thermal and chemical resistance.
lize with the same layer lattice and almost with similar hardness to diamond. However, At the same time, the highly thermally
identical dimensions. Two adjacent carbon the striking difference between graphite and conductive material but electrically insulating
atoms of the graphite lattice can therefore BN is that the latter is white and does not boron nitride also has good lubricity. This
be substituted with a nitrogen and a boron conduct electricity. That is because BN, un- unique combination opens up a wide field
atom, since two carbon atoms together like graphite, does not possess any mobile - of applications in which the material often
have exactly the same number of electrons electrons, since, because the member atoms provides the critical enhancement to high-
as a boron-nitrogen pair. Accordingly, graph- of the lattice are dissimilar, the excess elec- end products. Some would not be possible
ite and BN are isosteric, which, as with other trons remain fixed to the nitrogen as lone at all without boron nitride. In this manner,
isosteric pairs, such as nitrogen and carbon electron pairs. However, more important for the range of applications extends from elec-
monoxide or nitrous oxide and carbon the application in the aluminium industry is trical insulation in high-temperature furnaces
dioxide, is manifested as a striking physical the resistance against oxidation up to 900C to applications in the cosmetics industry.

and chemically resistant materials for ievable elasticity to the coatings. The tive for aluminium production, con-
manufacturing industry, emphasizes coatings have a levelling effect since, tinues Klpfer. For example, liquid
the high abrasion resistance of the within certain limits, they adapt to aluminium cools by about 1C per
new BN coatings. Heuts is responsi- their environment and can expand second on average when conveyed
ble for the aluminium industry divi- and shrink without suffering damage, with ladles. This heat loss has to be
sion in his company and understands explains Christiane Klpfer. compensated by auxiliary heating.
the particular challenges faced by this The flexibility also applies to the ESK is currently working on BN coat-
sector. Traditional coatings were al- adhesion of the binder to the substrate ings precisely tailored to the needs
ways entrained by the flowing molten to be coated, which may be smooth or of the aluminium-processing indus-
aluminium. But the new product ad- porous. We were even able to make try. The aim of this work is to find a
heres much better and does not have boron nitride adhere to graphite, further additive that will allow us to
to be reapplied as often, he explains. Klpfer says. This additional proper- market a boron nitride with reduced
The coatings have much longer life- ty is important for graphite parts that thermal conductivity.
times if the liquid aluminium does not are used in aluminium cast houses
have a chance to attack the substrate. and foundries. They include rotors Authors
This could greatly reduce downtimes. for melt degassing or boron nitride-
The bottom line for aluminium proc- coated graphite thermocouple tubes. Christiane Klpfer, ESK Ceramics GmbH
essors is significant boost in efficiency Other additives are under develop- & Co. KG, Germany.
Dr. Thomas Jngling, Ceradyne, Inc., USA.
as a result of time savings and higher ment. Boron nitride has high thermal Guido Heuts, Ceranex B.V., Netherlands.
productivity. The improvement is conductivity. That is counterproduc-
documented by the results of the qual-
ity control. With the BN coatings we
tested, in contrast to traditional ma-
terials such as bone ash, the castings
did not contain any residues, Heuts
assures.

and they are flexible Platzhalter fr die


redigitalisierte Anzeige Padelttherm
Besides their high mechanical stabil- 90x63 mm, sw, Motiv: Industrieofen
ity, the new BN coatings are also char-
acterized by high flexibility. To rec-
oncile apparently contradictory ma- Original-Datei:
terial properties, a third component Padeltherm_Metall_11_03.EPS
was incorporated into BN coatings
besides the binder. This innovation,
which has also been patented, is an
additive that imparts hitherto unach-

55
ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 55
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A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

Thyristor rectifiers for aluminium plants


with advanced free-wheeling control
S. Tambe, W. M. Lauwrens, M. Rechsteiner, Turgi

Potline current demand for alu- free-wheeling circuit. But with thyris- section of 200300,000 mm2, results
minium plants is constantly in- tor rectifiers, the last pair of conduct- in a process time constant W (= L/R)
creasing. Many potlines with 350 ing thyristors suffers overload. A spe- of about | 250 ms, where L is busbar
kA are in operation, and the trend cial technique was necessary to avoid inductance and R busbar resistance.
is towards 500 kA in the near fu- overload damage. This means the potline current will
ture. Such requirements call for This paper discusses the new tech- require at least a second (4 x W = 1000
many rectifier units in parallel. nique implemented by ABB to avoid ms) to decrease from its rated value to
Due to physical limitations on the overloading of any pair of conduct- practically zero.
size of a rectifier, as well as to re- ing thyristors. The advantage of this Rectifier behaviour under tripping
dundancy requirements for safety, technique is that algorithms are im- modes:
using many units in parallel poses plemented for each unit, and hence
a great problem of how to handle the design of all rectifier units remains Normal mode: Unlike diode rectifier
current stoppage when all units identical in power and controls cir- units, thyristor rectifier units have a
are tripped simultaneously. Due cuits. This paper also describes how faster response time and are fully con-
to staggered switching-off times of overloads relate to potline circuit trollable. But it is a fact that a thyris-
the rectifiers, it is likely that the behaviour and process, and to other tor rectifier cannot cutoff the current
last unit will briefly carry the full sources of overload. once it has been triggered. In rectifier
potline current. In a diode plant This paper covers the following ar- operation thyristors are line commu-
this phenomenon can be handled eas: process characteristics, minimis- tated. This inherent characteristic of
easily, as all diodes go into a natu- ing the risk with advanced control, each individual unit, together with
ral free-wheeling mode. Thyristor results and conclusion. the phase shift between various other
plants by contrast, require imple- parallel feeding units, corresponds to
menting a special technique to Process characteristics the asynchronous behaviour of each
prevent destructive overloading of rectifier unit, functioning in turn.
the last switched unit. ABB has de- A typical equivalent circuit diagram During operation each unit can be
veloped an advanced technique to of an aluminium smelter application switched off manually or automati-
handle such phenomena without can be represented as follows: cally tripped by abnormal operating
over-dimensioning any unit. The rectifiers connected in parallel conditions, such as overtemperatures,
loss of cooling medium, etc.
Continuity and reliability of DC pow- As long as only one unit goes
er supply are the basic requirements out of service, this does not
for aluminium smelters, together pose a serious threat to con-
with safety. In the past, diode recti- tinuous potline operation.
fiers were the natural choice due to
their simplicity. However, tap-chang- Potline trip mode: However,
er maintenance was always an issue there are certain conditions
for maintenance people, and control under which it becomes
speed is another drawback. necessary to trip all units
With the availability of reliable thy- simultaneously. This is
ristors and digital firing circuits, users known as potline trip. On
All illustrations: ABB

also started selecting thyristor recti- initiation of a potline trip


fiers for smelting aluminium. These command, the rectifiers can-
rectifiers need less maintenance and not all switch their current
have higher efficiency. Though nor- to zero at exactly the same
mal operation with thyristor rectifiers Fig. 1: Equivalent circuit diagram of an aluminium pot- time. Another reason why
line with parallel feeding thyristor rectifier plant
was simple to handle, potline trip was the potline current cannot
a serious concern. This is due to the be interrupted instantly is
fact that the last fired thyristor pair deliver the required total process cur- because of the large circuit reactance
will take the load of the full potline rent. This current is called as potline associated with the energy stored in
current. This led to overloading of the current (Idc-PL). its large magnetic field. Assuming the
last switched rectifier. In case of diode The considerable busbar length of current remains constant during this
plants, the complete bridge acts like a more than 1000 meters, and cross brief switching period, the last unit to

56 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
SPECIAL A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

switch off has to carry the total potline Network under-voltages leading which controls the free-wheeling re-
current. In this undesirable situation, to trips placed this by a different mode.
this unit consists of only two legs, one Loss of total network Firing mode on a single unit (Fig. 2):
positive group and one negative group Process trip. As soon as the control system senses
of one rectifier. In order to prevent the damage to cer- a fast hardware trip (trip due to un-
To prevent these thyristors from tain thyristors as mentioned above, it der-voltage or loss of network) then,
overload requires forcing conduction is essential to share the free-wheeling on the next firing instant it fires all
in all thyristors from positive and neg- current among all units and all semi- thyristors coloured red in all units. At
ative groups of all the rectifier units. conductors. The duration of this, free- the same time it initiates an off com-
This conduction mode, when the en- wheeling mode could be of the order mand to all the breakers. As soon as
ergy driving current flow is circuit in- of one second to evacuate reactance the control system from a particular
ductance, is called free-wheeling. energy. In a 50 Hz, six pulse system, unit receives back signalization that
the firing angle is updated every 3.3 its breaker is open, then it initiates the
Minimising the risk with milliseconds. The advance control next action as mode 2 shown in Fig. 3.
advanced control As soon as a control system receives

A potline trip as described above will


lead to lead thyristor failures, if no
remedial measures are taken. Exces-
sive current may cause major damage
to the rectifier as a whole. ABB has
developed special control and firing
techniques to handle such trips. Some
of the abnormal and high risk condi-
tions for rectifiers are:
Hardware trip of all units, such as
an emergency stop Fig. 2: Mode 1 Fig. 3: Mode 2

57
ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 57
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A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

a feedback signal that a main breaker and


filter breaker (if installed) are open, then it
fires all thyristors in that unit. All units be-
haviour: Mode 1 can be implemented in all
units. But as all units are not synchronised in
firing, they come to mode 1 independently of
each other. Fig. 4 shows when all units are
in mode 1.
Fig. 4: Mode 1 This technique shares the current among all
units so that no single arm gets overloaded.
It thereby dissipates potline energy safely.
When all breakers are open, all units come to
mode 2 as shown in Fig. 5.
It should be noted that all units do not
shift from mode 1 to mode 2 simultaneously.
Switching occurs depending upon breaker
opening instant. This logic, which is imple-
mented in each unit control software, needs
Fig. 5: Mode 2 fast information about a trip. This is imple-
mented as shown on Fig. 6. This technique brings all units and
all thyristors into free-wheeling mode with minimal time dif-
ference between the units.

Results and conclusion

This advance technique was implemented on an aluminium


plant and was tested under different modes of tripping. Fig.
7 shows typical overloading current of the thyristors during
a trip condition. Fig. 8 shows that thanks to the free-wheeling
technique, overloading of the thyristors was prevented. The
advanced and proven technique developed by ABB for thyr-
Fig. 6: Fast links for hardware trips and controls istor plants ensures safety of thyristor plants for electrolysis
applications under the most severe conditions.

Authors

Shripad Tambe, Master of Technology, IIT Kanpur, started in 1977 with


HBB, India. In HBB India he was Senior Research and Development
Manager. Since 1986 he has been working with ABB Switzerland, and
up to 1999 worked in various technical departments including sys-
tem engineering. He is the inventor of two patents registered in many
countries in the area of rectifiers for DC arc furnaces. From October
1999 to 2005 he has been worldwide responsible for retrofit, revamp
and upgrades of rectifier plants for electrolysis and arc furnaces. He is
DGM, Systems Group and head of sales and projects ABB Switzerland
Ltd. Service Division and is presently DGM for large projects and is
responsible for rectifier systems for aluminium and DC arc furnaces.
Fig. 7

Wynand M Lauwrens gained a Bachelor of Engineering in South Af-


rica. He joined ABB South Africa in 1994 and was responsible for
engineering and commissioning drives and rectifiers control systems.
He joined ABB Switzerland in 2002 as control engineer in the HPR
Division, and is responsible for engineering and commissioning recti-
fier control systems.

Markus Rechsteiner gained a Bachelor of Engineering at ITR Rapper-


swil Switzerland. He joined ABB in 1997 as Project- and Commis-
sioning engineer. From October 2001 to 2005 he acted as sales and
project manager in the HPR Service Division. Presently he is responsi-
ble for marketing and communication in the ABB High Power Rectifier
group.
Fig. 8

58 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
SPECIAL A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

Moeller direct pot feeding technology


T. Letz and C. Duwe, Pinneberg

Since September 2001 the Moeller


direct pot feeding system for the
smelter plant Aluminij Mostar in
Bosnia-Herzegovina has been in
successful operation. VAW Alumi-
nium Technology chose Moeller in
July 2000 to modify 256 alumini-
um smelting pots (4 potlines with
64 cells each).

The Moeller direct pot feeding for


Aluminij Mostar employs dense phase
conveying via pressure vessel and
Moeller turbuflow conveying pipe to

All illustrations: Moeller


take the secondary alumina from the
storage silo to intermediate bins near
the pots and combines this with the
Moeller fluidflow air slide pipe within
the pots. A schematic presentation
of the system installed in Mostar is Fig. 1: Direct pot feeding side-by-side (Mostar, Bosnia-Herzegovina)
shown in Fig. 1.
The (single-)pressure vessel sys- pneumatic conveying system for section of pots. The pressure vessel
tem is a non-continuously working feeding secondary alumina to one (2) for the dense phase conveying to

59
ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 59
ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

ate bins near the pots to the bunkers


of the pots without any kind of main-
tenance. The MDPF system is thus an
integrated component and is one of
the reasons for the success and the
high performance of this smelter at
Aluminij Mostar.

Moeller Fluidflow

Especially for green field applications,


but also for retrofit projects, Moeller
Materials Handling can offer a direct
pot feeding system as Moeller fluid-
Fig. 2: Direct pot feeding with Moeller Fluidflow flow air slide pipe system (Fig. 2).
The alumina will be taken from the
the intermediate bin (5) is equipped reliability at the smelter plant Alumin- secondary alumina silo by a Moeller
with a Moeller filling valve, a Moel- ij Mostar in Bosnia-Herzegovina since fluidflow air slide pipe. The fluidflow
ler conveying pipe shut-off valve and September 2001. It has maintained feeds a so-called main intermediate
the necessary pneumatic valves, ball without any problem conveying a ca- bin. This main intermediate bin will
valves, non-return valves, etc. for the pacity of about 10 t/h over around 150 be operated between full and half
optimal fluidising and conveying air m for each of the 4 sections (64 cells full. From this main intermediate bin,
distribution of the alumina. The fluid- each). Furthermore, it has fulfilled all the alumina will be fed via fluidflow
ising and conveying air is supplied by environmental aspects, especially the air slide pipe along the pot room to
a separate compressor (8) or the plant limits on dust emission has been ful- all pots.
net. The secondary alumina, generally filled. The MDPF system works abso- The fluidflow air slide pipe along
from the secondary alumina silo of the lutely dust free. It has generated no the pot room is equipped with T-
fume treatment plant (FTP), is con- measurable fines (attrition) or segre- pieces, which are connected with the
veyed via the turbuflow conveying gation in the last five years. fluidflow air slide pipe on top or in-
pipe (3) to intermediate bins (5). The maintenance costs for the tegrated in the superstructure of each
The intermediate bin (5) is the in- MDPF system at Aluminij Mostar are pot. Normally, two pots will be feed
terface to the fluidflow air slide pipe extremely low. The Moeller turbuflow via one T-piece. The fluidising air is
and is equipped with a filling valve, system minimises scaling effects and supplied by a separate rotary piston
air slides at the outlet and level indi- maintenance for long distance trans- blower. The MDPF system is working
cators. The intermediate bins (5) start port from the secondary alumina stor- fully automatically and is more or less
to fill at a minimum level indication age silo to intermediate bins near the 100% filled with alumina all the time.
or after a precisely defined period of pots. No turbuflow conveying pipe When the bunker of a pot is full, the
time. The fluidflow air slide pipe con- or conveying pipe bend has been bulk material cone level reaches the
nects the intermediate bin (5) with the changed in the last five years. fill spout discharge opening of the flu-
ore bunkers of the pots (7) and pro- Since start-up in September 2001 idflow air slide pipe, and so automati-
vides a continuous supply of second- the fluidflow air slide pipe has been cally blocks the mass flow of alumina.
ary alumina. Compressed air (8) for bringing alumina from the intermedi- When secondary alumina is removed
the fluidising air of the fluidflow air
slide pipe comes either from the plant
net for or from a separate blower.
The supply of secondary alumina
to the ore bunkers of the pots (7) is
self-regulating. For safety reasons, the
fluidflow air slide pipe of each pot is
equipped with the 2 m long Moeller
insulation air slide pipe. This equip-
ment does not directly influence the
conveying process, but is a key com-
ponent.

Experiences at Aluminij Mostar

The Moeller direct pot feeding (MDPF)


system has been working with 100% Fig. 3: Moeller fluidflow air slide pipe on top of the pot

60 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
SPECIAL A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G I N D U S T R Y

fine particles, no segregation, no scal-


ing, lowest possible (over)pressure,
no pressure-tight sealing of the pot,
minimized energy consumption, min-
imized maintenance work.

Conclusion

The Moeller fluidflow direct pot feed-


ing is designed to ensure most con-
stant and reliable feeding possible of
secondary alumina to the ore bunkers
of the pot. Lowest possible conveying
velocities preserve the particle size
Fig. 4: Self-closed feeding spout and filling process of ore bunkers distribution and the flowability of the
secondary alumina and avoid scaling
from the ore bunker of the pot, the ore bunkers during operation of the effects. This most competitive system
pneumatic transport starts again au- smelting plant. The self-closed feed- demonstrated superiority by mini-
tomatically and ensures a constant ing spout and the filling process of mal wear and maintenance, as well
and reliable mass feed rate to the ore bunker are shown in Fig. 4. Fur- as minimal energy consumption, and
pots. The fluidising of the secondary thermore, no pressure-tight sealing of last but not least by its high operating
alumina inside the fluidflow air slide the pot is necessary, because of the reliability.
pipe works permanently to ensure a low over-pressure in the fluidflow air
constant bulk density. slide pipe. Authors
The self-closing filling spout due The main advantages of the MDPF
to the material cone level in the ore system are: self-regulating and con- Dipl.-Ing. Timo Letz and Dipl.-Ing. Carsten
bunker of a pot is self-regulating and tinuous feeding of bunkers, absolutely Duwe are with Moeller Materials Handling
GmbH, Pinneberg, Germany.
ensures continuous refilling of the dust free operation, no generation of

61
ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 61
ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
CO M PA N Y N E W S

Company news worldwide


Aluminium smelting industry

Alcan entertaining potential nium plant, and has also delivered


buyers for Vlissingen aluminium technology to the hydrogen filling
plant station that supplies Icelandic buses
with emission-free fuel. Hydro is able
Canadian aluminium major Alcan is to build on its position as a technolo-
entertaining bids from any potential gy leader in the aluminium industry
buyers of its 200,000 tpy aluminium and intends to invest in a 600,000

Norsk Hydro
smelter in Vlissingen in The Nether- tpy aluminium smelter in the 2010 to
lands. Ongoing negotiations involving 2015 period, based on the availability
a consortium of energy-intensive of power. Hydros new North Atlan-
companies have so far failed to satisfy tic office in Reykjavik is headed by
the smelters requirements for a long- Bjarne Reinholdt. aluminium at the site. Local reports
term competitive energy supply. The- are correct that output at Moatize
re may be some potential buyer who could reach a total of 12 million tpy
will have some special way of working Qingtongxia Glencore talks of coal, of which around 40 per cent
with it to make it more viable. But the on the rocks as smelter project would be metallurgical (coking) coal
smelters casthouse is good and Alcan faces delay and 60 per cent steam (thermal) coal.
plans to keep it, no matter what the The metallurgical coal would be for
outcome of the smelter. In addition, Glencores plans to co-operate with export. Studies are under way into
the smelter has a good carbon plant Qingtongxia Aluminium Group have developing the thermoelectric plant.
that has been modernised. hit problems as the future of a 250,000 Likewise, the company continues to
tpy smelter project planned by the study the possibility of using the en-
Chinese company looks increasingly ergy produced at the proposed ther-
Malaysias Jabat Yakin plans uncertain. Glencore signed a memo- moelectric plant to fuel aluminium
300,000 tpy aluminium smelter randum of understanding with Qing- smelting facilities that could also be
tongxia in August 2006, which was de- set up at Moatize. In theory it should
Malaysian construction firm Jabat signed to facilitate investment in the be cheaper to produce primary alumi-
Yakin is seeking financial backers for Chinese companys planned 250,000 nium in Mozambique than in Brazil
a proposed 2.3 billion ringgit (US$ tpy aluminium smelting project. But due to the current high cost of elec-
631m) aluminium smelter in eastern talks have gone badly. Besides pro- trical energy in Brazil.
peninsular Malaysia. Jabat Yakin has blems with Glencore, Qingtongxia has
hired two Islamic finance institutions, yet to receive government approval
Kuwait Finance House and AmIslam- for the project. The delay is probably Ormet finalises power deal with
ic Bank, as well as accounting firm linked to Beijings plan to clamp down AEP
PriceWaterhouseCoopers, to arrange on the aluminium industry and to its
the financing for the project, which stricter stance on new aluminium pro- Ormet Corp. and American Electric
will be located in the state of Pahang. jects. New smelting projects in Chi- Power (AEP) have finalised their long-
The Malaysian company is in talks na are likely to find it more difficult term agreement under which AEP will
with potential joint venture partners to win government approval as the provide power to Ormets Hannibal,
Chalco and Dubal. The project will government is not encouraging new Ohio, operation. Two of Ormets six
yield 300,000 tpy of aluminium in a projects. potlines could now restart as early as
first stage of production. mid-December 2006 as 250 employees
were called back to work. Effective 1
CVRDs Mozambique coal January 2007, the pact places Ormets
Hydro opens office in Iceland project moving forward Hannibal facilities back into AEP ser-
vice territory, where the company will
Hydro has opened a North Atlantic CVRDs plans to produce coal at provide power at US$ 43 per MWh
office in Reykjavik to support its stra- Moatize, Mozambique, could move through the end of 2008. Following a
tegy of repositioning and growth in its forward quickly once the rail link to two-year period, Ormet will then be
primary aluminium activities. Hydro transport the coal from mine to port is able to obtain power at the same rate
is presently involved in supplying established. CVRD is still studying the as other large industrial users in the
technology to the Nordural alumi- possibility of later producing primary Ohio service territory.

62 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
A L U M I N I U M S M E LT I N G

Dubal completes US$ 280m


expansion to take capacity to Alcan to pilot advanced AP50 technology
861,000 tpy
through US$ 550m facility in Quebec
Dubal has completed a US$ 280 milli-
on expansion which will raise capaci- Alcan will invest US$ 550 million in a 60,000 tpy AP50 pilot plant at its
ty by 100,000 tpy to 861,000 tpy. The Complexe Jonquire site in Canada. The development plan is the first step
two expanded potlines, 7B and 9B, in a planned ten-year US$ 1.8 billion investment programme in Quebecs
were officially inaugurated at a gala Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region. The new AP50 pilot facility will be the
ceremony attended by His Highness cornerstone of an industrial strategy developed by Alcan with the support
Sheikh Hamdan. Expansion of the of the Government of Quebec. The AP50 pilot plant is the initial step in
two potlines began in November and creating up to 450,000 tpy of new generation AP smelting capacity, based
December 2005, adding 128 cells to entirely on clean, renewable hydroelectricity. Construction is expected to
potline 7B and 36 cells to potline 9B. begin in 2008 with first metal coming on stream in late 2010. This initial
Dubal is working on a further small in- phase would be followed by up to an additional 390,000 tpy in the Sa-
cremental 60,000 tpy expansion that guenay-Lac-St.-Jean region by 2015. For this project the Government of
will lift capacity to around 925,000 Quebec has provided financial support by means of R&D tax incentives and
tpy from the start of 2007. loans, and has made available up to 225 MW of additional power to support
the investment programme. The agreement with the Government of Que-
bec also reinforces Alcans electrical power position in Quebec through the
Ashapura Minechem to set up long-term extension of hydraulic leases and new power contracts which
aluminium project in Orissa provide a secure supply of approx. 2,600 MW of low-cost power through
the year 2045.
Ashapura Minechem, one of Indias
larger bauxite miners, plans to set
up an alumina refinery, aluminium ceived a formal invitation to begin munities and businesses. The Indone-
smelter and power plant in the mi- work on its alumina project in the sian government wants to change the
neral-rich state of Orissa in eastern Kutch region of Gujarat by the state Asahan project into an electricity
India. The company has submitted government. company, as the government has so
a proposal to the Orissa government far not gained any financial advantage
for an integrated aluminium project from the project.
in the bauxite-rich Koraput district Indonesia places smelters
in southern Orissa. The state govern- future under scrutiny
ment is vetting the proposal before a Columbia Falls hopes to restart
memorandum of understanding is si- The Indonesian authorities are kee- second potline in the first quar-
gned. Ashapura has yet to decide on ping up the pressure on their Japanese ter 2007
the size of the project and on how it joint venture partners to consider clo-
will be developed. The alumina refi- sing the 225,000 tpy Asahan Alumini- Columbia Falls Aluminum Co ho-
nery may be set up in the first phase um smelter in the countrys Sumatra pes to restart the second of its five
and the smelter in the second phase. province. The smelter has made a pro- potlines in the first quarter of 2007.
The integrated aluminium project is fit in only 3 of its 23 years of operation, Columbias one operating potline pro-
expected to cost come US$ 2 billion. A and Indonesia is now suggesting it be duces approx. 35,000 tpy of alumini-
formal announcement on Ashapuras closed when the existing joint venture um. While alumina might be readily
aluminium project can be expected agreement runs out in 2013, and the available, securing power for alumi-
early in 2007. The company has re- freed power used to supply local com- nium smelters in the U. S. northwest

 
 
 
  
    

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ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 63
CO M PA N Y N E W S

has been a hurdle for production. The revenues of approx. US$ 114 million sidewall blocks and ramming pastes.
plant produces primary aluminium in in 2005, Carbone Savoie is a leading The business employs approx. 500
sheet and T-bar. and profitable producer of cathode people at two sites, both in close pro-
blocks, including a growing share of ximity to Alcans R&D centre in Vor-
graphitised cathode blocks, as well as eppe, France. N
RusAl starts Khakass smelter

RusAl has begun the ramping up of Bauxite and alumina activities


its Khakass aluminium smelter on 15
December 2006, the first aluminium RusAl acquires 56.2% stake in Manantenia District. Alcan and Ac-
production facility in Russia built in Eurallumina refinery cess will undertake a concept study
the past 20 years. The company will to review the bauxite reserves and
initially operate the plant at 71,000 RusAl successfully completed the ag- logistics, estimate costs and look at
tpy and is aiming to complete in No- reement with Rio Tinto to purchase a social and environmental conditions.
vember 2007. Total investments into 56.2% stake in the Eurallumina alu- This concept study is expected to be
the project exceeded US$ 750 million. mina refinery in Italy. The remaining complete in the second quarter of
The 300,000 tpy smelter is located in 43.8% share of Eurallumina is owned 2007, and could then lead to feasi-
the Republic of Khakassia. It operates by Glencore. Ownership of the asset bility studies. On the basis of these
RA-300 reduction cells. The overall in- will be consolidated under United studies, Alcan will explore options
vestment into the regional infrastruc- Company RusAl, when the merger that could make an alumina refinery
ture amounted to some US$ 21m. The RusAl, SUAl and Glencores alumina project viable.
launch of the new production facility assets is completed in 2007.
created around 1,000 jobs.
Nanshan to expand alumina
Alcan looks Madagascar for capacity to 700,000 tpy
SUAl plans US$ 1.5b smelter bauxite and 1.5m tpy alumina
for northern Kazakhstan refinery Chinas Nanshan Group will expand
alumina refining capacity by 75 per
Russian aluminium producer SUAl Alcan signed a memorandum of un- cent to 700,000 tonnes per year by
plans to build a US$ 1.5 billion alu- derstanding with Access Madagascar September 2007. Nanshan is due to
minium smelter in northern Kazakh- Sarl to jointly study the possibility finish the first phase expansion of its
stan that could add 500,000 tpy to the of developing a bauxite mine and a new alumina refinery by the end of
companys output from 2011. SUAl 1 to 1.5 million tpy alumina refine- November, with capacity to produce
will begin the feasibility study in ear- ry in Madagascars south eastern 400,000 tonnes per year. The com-
ly 2007. If the feasibility study is suc-
cessful, as well as the following agree-
ments with the Kazakh government, Laos and Vietnam to host
construction will start in 2008. SUAl
has already signed a memorandum of new bauxite projects
understanding with Kazakh subsidia-
ry of US energy company AES Corp to Southeast Asia may soon join Australia, the Bolaven Plateau project could hold be-
supply power to the smelter from the Jamaica and the Republic of Guinea as tween 2 and 2.5 billion tonnes of bauxite.
Ekibastuz GRES-1 power station for one of the worlds chief bauxite-producing Laos is said to be well-suited for the devel-
20 to 30 years. regions. The recent agreement between opment of bauxite and alumina projects.
Aluminium Corp of China (Chalco) and Vi- The country has ample hydroelectric power
etnam National Coal and mineral Industries resources and already exports power to
Alcan completes purchase of Group (Vinacomin) to mine bauxite and Vietnam and Thailand. Furthermore, Laos,
cathode business in France produce alumina in Vietnam joins them Vietnam and China have signed an agree-
to a joint venture between Australias Ord ment to develop the Trans-Asian Railway
Alcan has completed the acquisition River Resources Ltd. and China Nonferrous (TAR) network, which will link China to
of the remaining 70% stake of Carbo- Metals International Mining Co Ltd. (CN- several Southeast Asian nations. Under an
ne Savoie, and certain related techno- MIM). They plan to develop a potentially agreement announced in January 2006
logy and equipment, from GrafTech huge bauxite project at the Bolaven Pla- between Chalco and Vinacomin, the com-
International for US$ 135 million teau in southern Laos. Ord has just moved panies are to build a US$ 2 billion bauxite
less certain price adjustments. Today, to establish a Laos-based joint-venture mining and alumina project in Dak Nong.
Alcans proprietary world-leading Pe- company with CNMIM in order to consoli- The alumina refinery will have a capacity of
chiney AP Series Smelting Technology date the companies commercial position 1.9 million tpy, rising to 4 million tpy in a
already uses Carbone Savoies advan- in the country. The partners believe that second phase of its development.
ced graphitised cathode blocks. With

64 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
BAUXITE AND ALUMINA

pany then plans to increase capacity ty at Pingguo from 130,000 to 250,000 modernise the main production faci-
by another 300,000 tonnes per year. tpy, though no date has been set for a lities at Alum, to cut the consumption
Output from the new plant will be second phase of construction. of materials and energy, upgrade the
used for its own aluminium smelters thermal power plant and to align the
owned by Nanshan Group and Shan- plant to European labour environ-
dong Nanshan Industrial Co. Nanshan Guangxi Huayin to commission ment protection standards. The work
Group and Shandong Nanshan have alumina refinery in 2007 will involve a temporary complete
156,000 tpy and 36,000 tpy of elec- shutdown of the plant. The upgrade
trolytic aluminium capacity respec- Guangxi Huayin Aluminium Corp will lift capacity at the refinery from
tively. plans to commission a 1.6 million 500,000 to 600,000 tpy. Beyond that,
tpy alumina refinery project in Octo- Alro aims to increase capacity to 1
ber 2007, as part of a growing drive million tpy by 2010.
Chalco to commission third by the government of the region to
phase of Pingguo refinery in strengthen its aluminium industry.
2008 Construction of Guangxi Huayins Iamgold to sell bauxite assets
project started in June 2005. to Bosai for US$ 46m
Aluminium Corp. of China (Chalco)
plans to commission a 900,000 tpy Toronto-based Iamgold Corp has
third phase expansion at its alumi- Romanias Alro plans signed a deal with Chinese alumina
na refinery in Pingguo in Chinas alumina capacity upgrade producer Bosai Minerals Group to
southern Guangxi autonomous region sell its bauxite assets for US$ 46 mil-
in late 2008. The expansion will take Romanian aluminium producer Alro lion. Under the agreement, Iamgold
alumina capacity at the Pingguo works plans to invest US$ 50 million over will sell interests in Omai Bauxite
also known as Chalcos Guangxi the next two years in upgrading the Mining Inc and Omai Services Inc
Branch to 1.8 million tpy. Chalco alumina refinery at its subsidiary to Bosai for approx. US$ 28 million
also plans to increase smelting capaci- Alum. The investment will be used to in cash. Bosai will also assume US$




 
      

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CO M PA N Y N E W S

18 million in third-party debt. If the of project manager and operator and Samara region. The company owns
deal is approved by regulatory autho- will lend as much as US$ 50 million Resal, also in Samara, which was set
rities, the transaction took place on to Global Alumina to help fund a fea- up by RusAl in 2000. In 2005, the
31 December 2006. The sale is con- sibility study. Under the agreement, Russian government has encouraged
sistent with Iamgolds aim to focus Global Alumina and BHP would each RusAl to buy secondary aluminium
on its core assets. Bosai based in own a third of the project, Dubal one assets and already RusAl has bought
southwest Chongqing province to the quarter, with Mubadala Development secondary aluminium assets in the
east of Sichuan plans to double its Co taking one-twelfth. If the transiti- Rostow, Samara and Leningrad regi-
200,000 tpy alumina refining capacity on goes ahead, the potential partners ons. The plan to produce 500,000 tpy
to 400,000 tpy within the next two to would receive shares in Global Alu- would give RusAl more than 60% of
three years. mina and reach separate shareholder, the Russian market. It has been esti-
project-management and off-take ag- mated that there are 440 businesses in
reements. BHP, Dubal and Mubada- Russia that produce aluminium alloys
BHP in talks to take a third of la Development Co have agreed to from scrap.
Globals US$ 2.8b alumina refin- provide US$ 100 million of interim
ery project financing for the project, which will
be guaranteed by Global Alumina and Spanish secondary aluminium
BHP Billiton has begun talks with Guinea Alumina. The refinery, to be producer Idalsa in trouble
Global Alumina Corp to take a 33.3 built at the inland town of Bok, is
per cent equity stake in its US$ 2.8 scheduled to come on stream in the Spanish secondary aluminium pro-
billion alumina refinery project in first half of 2009. ducer Iberica de Aleaciones Ligeras
Guinea. BHP would assume the role N (Idalsa) is facing a financial crisis,
struggling under the weight of 26
million euros (US$ 33.4m) in debt,
and sources at European secondary
Secondary aluminium smelting aluminium producers were reporting
that the company based in Zaragoza
and recycling activities in Aeragon had filed for bankruptcy
protection on 1 November 2006. The
Hydro Deeside aims to boost beverage cans (UBC). The new ca- news did not surprise the market as
sales to offset energy costs pacity will come on stream by the Idalsa, which produces around 30,000
start of 2008 and will turn the site at tpy of alloy, was a supplier to Man-
Hydro Aluminium Deeside plans to Neuf-Brisach into Europes only ful- zoni-Bouchot, the French die-caster
lift production to 55,000 tpy to boo- ly integrated UBC processing, rolling that filed for bankruptcy protection
st sales by the end of next year in a and finishing facility. The investment in October. Idalsa was owed some 13
bid to offset soaring electricity prices. will promote beverage can recycling million euros by Manzoni. Idalsa was
Over the past three years, the plants in Europe. In addition to the Neuf-Bri- set up in 1984.
spending on electricity has more than sach plant, in Europe Alcan operates
doubled. Currently the plant pays 4.6 recycling and rolling facilities in Sin-
pence per night unit and 7 pence per gen, Germany. Scholz buys Hungarian secondary
day unit. Deesides current electricity aluminium producer Eural
contract is 64% higher than the previ-
ous 18 month contract which ran out RusAl aims for 500,000 tpy of German non-ferrous and ferrous scrap
in October, while that contract was secondary aluminium by 2011 merchant Scholz AG has acquired
60% higher than the one before. The Hungarian secondary aluminium pro-
recycling and remelting plant located RusAl plans to produce some 500,000 ducer Eural kft from Spanish group
in Wrexham in northeast Wales pro- tpy of secondary aluminium by 2011 Pansoinco SA for an undisclosed sum.
duces more than 40,000 tpy of extrusi- through acquisitions and through Eural, which has a capacity to produ-
on ingots. Hydro Aluminium Deeside building its own production plants. ce 50,000 tpy of aluminium alloy, will
produces extrusion ingot from 90% Such a strategy would see RusAl probably source scrap from Audis
remelted aluminium scrap. surpass capacity of Aleris Recycling manufacturing plant in Gyr and
works in Germany, Europes largest supply aluminium alloy to automoti-
secondary aluminium producer, ve casting plants next to Audi. Eural is
Alcan invests US$ 7m in UBC which produces 400,000 tpy, and located in Tatabanya, just 60 km from
recycling at Neuf-Brisach compete directly with Asias largest Gyr. Eural is one of the main players
producers, Shanghai Sigma Metals in in the aluminium alloys and rod in-
Alcan will invest US$ 7 million in China and Daiki Aluminium in Japan. dustry in Central and Eastern Euro-
a special sheet Rhenalu facility in RusAl has recently acquired one pro- pe. Scholz is one of Europes largest
France to recycle aluminium used ducer, Tsvetmet Services, based in the scrap processors and merchants, with

66 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
ALUMINIUM SEMIS

12 centres in south and east Germany, was not given for that additional ex-
the Czech Republic and Croatia, in- pansion. India represents one of the
Suppliers
cluding eight shredders, 38 shearing most attractive aluminium recycling
machines, nine railtrack crushers and opportunities in the world. Recycled Dubal awards ABB contract
four cable shredders. aluminium consumption in India, dri- to upgrade smelter
ven by the automotive sector, is set to
boom in the next four years. Demand Dubai Aluminium has awarded a US$
Century Aluminium seeks foreign for recycled aluminium from automo- 39m contract to ABB of Zurich to up-
partner to increase capacity tive manufacturers is likely to increase grade electrical and automation systems
in India to some 350,000 tpy by 2010 at Dubals 861,000 tpy smelter complex
Indian secondary aluminium pro- from 93,700 tpy, and consumption in Dubai. ABB will replace five high-volt-
ducer Century Aluminium intends in the general engineering industry, age regulating rectifier transformers,
to increase its output to 50,000 tpy such as components for washing ma- which convert alternating current (AC)
from 35,000 tpy by the end of 2007, chines, is forecast to more than treble to direct current (DC), with larger units
and would like to increase output to to 87,500 tpy from 23,500 tpy. Indias rated at 86 MVA to increase capacity and
100,000 tpy in the long term by secu- domestic production of 200,000 tpy is to allow Dubal to combine two potlines.
ring a foreign partner. A time frame well below those levels. N ABB will upgrade existing systems,
including high-voltage cables and low-
voltage and control cables, as well as
provide control and protection systems
Aluminium semis and 250 kA field-oriented measuring
equipment. Commissioning of the new
Poland further investment and keep 1,400 of system will begin in July 2007.
Polish aluminium manufacturer the current 1,600 employees on the
allocates funds for German buy payroll for two years after the signing Aluminij dd Mostar chooses
of a purchase contract. Wagstaff equipment
Polish aluminium products manufac-
turer Grupa Kety will allocate up to Aluminij dd Mostar, aluminium producer
200 million zloty (around US$ 65.2m) Bahrain in Mostar, Bosnia-Herzegovina, has
to buy German companies operating New foil annealing furnace for placed an order with Wagstaff Inc, to
in the extruded products and systems Garmco Foil Mill modernise their third casting station.
segments. Grupa Kety is actively see- The new contract consists of a Wagstaff
king out a medium-sized German Garmco Foil Mill Co., Bahrain, has ShurCast casting machine, an AutoCast
company which also manufactures placed a second order for an indirect automated casting control system, and
and distributes extruded products. electrically heated chamber furnace LHC low head composite casting moulds
Germany has been chosen for the size with mass flow heating for the an- for use on all stations in the casthouse.
of the market for aluminium systems nealing of aluminium foils under air The equipment purchased in the new
used in the construction industry. or nitrogen. Garmco is expanding its contract is slated to be commissioned in
rolling facility and inquired for an early 2007.
additional aluminium foil annealing
Croatia furnace from Otto Junker, Germany. Stub milling machine for
Croatia tries again to sell alu- The ordered furnace is almost iden- NZAS
minium products maker tical to the furnace supplied by Otto
Junker in 2004. Stimir of Iceland has completed the de-
Croatias Privatisation Fund is trying The existing foil annealing facility sign of a stub milling machine for New
to sell the governments 80.2% sta- consists of three annealing furnaces Zealand Aluminium Smelters (NZAS). The
ke in Tvornica Lakih Metala (TLM), with a common rail mounted charging contract required Stimir to fully design a
which is the Balkan countrys largest car, nitrogen gas supply system, coil stub milling machine able to automati-
producer of extruded and rolled alu- cooling/waiting/loading stands and cally mill off excess stub length whilst
minium products. The company has steel coil racks/pallets. The ordered the anode rod is hanging in an overhead
high debts and a previous attempt to new foil annealing furnace is to be conveyor. The automatic stub milling
sell the stake in September drew no located in a new extension to the exi- machine will ensure that all stubs are of
bids. The latest tender has set a mini- sting bay with installation scheduled equal length, so as to improve electrical
mum price of 10% of the companys to commence in April 2007. conductivity, rodded anode geometry,
nominal value in an attempt to draw Garmco is supplied with feedstock and removal of cast iron thimbles. These
out more interest. As before, the la- from parent company Gulf Alumini- improved parameters increase electrical
test tender notice stimulates that any um Rolling Mill Co. which produces efficiency and maximise both rod avail-
potential buyer must maintain the cold rolled coil and sheet in 1xxxx, ability and rod service life.
companys core business, commit to 3xxx, 5xxx and 8xxx series alloys for

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 67
CO M PA N Y N E W S

a wide range of applications with a in eastern China, which is still under- China
current annual capacity of 162,000 going test-runs. Yangkuang Aluminium mulls
tonnes. downstream projects

China Chinas Yangkuang Ke-Au Alumini-


Taiwan Private aluminium fabricator in um Co is mulling downstream alu-
CS Aluminium delays cold China plans expansion to meet minium projects as Beijing tightens
rolling expansions rising demand controls on the primary aluminium
sector. Yangkuang, which operates
Taiwans CS Aluminium has delayed Modern International Enterprise a 140,000 tpy aluminium smelter in
plans to expand cold rolling capaci- (Nanhai) Holding is planning big ex- eastern Shandong province, is con-
ty at its Kaoshiung works on rising pansions to its aluminium fabricating sidering downstream projects, inclu-
competition from aluminium rollers and extruding capacity to meet rising ding aluminium alloy and recycling.
in China. CS Aluminium had planned demand in China and in export mar- The company has not finalized plans
to build a new 42,000 tpy cold rolling kets. The privately owned Chinese but once that is done, construction
line in southern Taiwan, which it ho- company intends to increase capacity is likely to start within the next two
ped to complete by the end of 2009. at a newly acquired 40,000 tpy alu- years. Projects will be at least 50,000
The plan has now been postponed minium extruder in Chiping, eastern tpy in capacity. Yangkuang exports
indefinitely. CS Aluminium plans Shandong province, to 100,000 tpy by the majority of it aluminium ingots to
to make another look at its product the end of February 2007. The com- south and southeast Asia.
mix and focus more on Taiwanese pany intends to raise aluminium fabri-
demand going forward. The compa- cating capacity in Foshan, southern
ny currently sells 70% of its produc- Guangdong province, to 120,000 tpy China
tion in Taiwan and exports the rest. over the next five years, from 20,000 Kunshan to commission 25,000
CS Aluminium has also a 35,000 tpy tpy. The Foshan plant produces alu- tpy foil mill in 2007
aluminium cold rolling mill in Ningbo minium alloy and aluminium bars.
Kunshan Aluminium Co (KAC), owned
by Hanjiang Group, will commission
a 25,000 tpy foil mill in Kunshan in
eastern Jiangsu province in June 2007.
On the move KAC intend to export the majority of
its foil and Europe is likely to be an
Alcoa has named Charles D. McLane as mining. Rice will serve on the Halco board export destination. The mill project is
its new Chief Financial Officer effective 1 and represent Alcoas interest in the CBG a first by Hanjiang Group, which also
January 2007. McLane will succeed Joseph Guinea Bauxite mining operations; Russell owns an aluminium smelter Hubei
Muscari who will retire to become Chair- Williams, Vice President of mining, will be- Danjiang Aluminium Co. Danjiang
man and CEO of Minerals Technologies Inc. come Vice President of mining projects in Aluminium is targeting production
Alcoa has appointed Joseph R. Lucot Vice Asia, focusing on Asian bauxite issues. of 101,000 tonnes of aluminium ingot
President Corporate Controller and elected The Novelis Board of Directors has accepted in 2006. Based in Danjiangkou city
him officer of the company. Alcoa elected the resignation of director John D. Watson, in central Hubei province, Hanjiang
new vice presidents: Kevin J. Anton, Presi- who informed the board of his need to step Groups main business is hydropo-
dent, Alcoa Materials Management; Olivier down as a director for personal reasons. wer.
Jarrault, who leads the Alcoa Fastening Hydro Aluminium appointed Cecilie Ditlev-
Systems business; Raymond B. Mitchell, Simonsen Executive Vice President, to join
who serves as President Alcoa Investment the companys top management team with U.S.A.
Cast and Forged Products; and Wayne G. overall responsibility for communication and Indalex to sell drawn tube plant
Osborn, Managing Director, Alcoa World reputation management. to Spectube
Alumina Australia. Rio Tinto has appointed Tom Albanese,
Alcoa has made several executive changes: currently Director of Group Resources, as its Indalex Holding Corp., Illinois, agreed
Michael Parker, currently General Manager, new CEO, to replace Leigh Clifford on 1 to sell its assets of its drawn tube ope-
Alcoa Materials Management, will become May 2007. ration in Winton, North Carolina, to
Vice President of that division; Timothy The President of Alcans Primary Metal Group Spectube Inc., Chicoutimi, Quebec.
Reyes, senior Vice President of Alcoa Ma- for the Asian Pacific area, Marco Palmieri, Under terms of the definite agreement,
terials Management, will become Vice Presi- has left the company to pursue other career Spectube will acquire substantially
dent of marketing for Alcoa World Alumina opportunities. His position no longer exists. all of the assets of the Indalex drawn
and Chemicals; William Rice, Vice President Bengt Lie Hansen has been appointed tube business in Winton including a
of marketing for Alcoa World Alumina and head of Hydros Russia business unit. The dormant aluminium extrusion facility
Chemicals, will become Vice President of change will be effective as of January 2007. on the site. Spectube will continue to
operate the Winton drawn tube plant,

68 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
ALUMINIUM SEMIS

which employs about 95 people, and


Indalex will continue to supply the Order for SMS Demag
plant with extruded aluminium un-
der a supply contract with Spectube. First 2-stand cold rolling mill for China
The Winton plant makes porthole and CSWA Cold Rolling Co., Ltd. (Southwest well as a large airwash exhaust-
seamless tube in alloys 6063, 6061, Aluminium), China, which belongs to the air cleaning system. The new rolling mill is
3003, 1100 and 6463 and has nine Chinalco Group, has placed an order with equipped with state-of-the-art actuators
high-speed draw benches and four SMS Demag, Germany, for the supply of a and technological control systems. Both
roll straightening machines. two-stand cold rolling mill for aluminium stands are designed with the CVC6 plus
and aluminium alloys. technology. Such a multi-stand mill is par-
The two-stand cold rolling mill constitutes ticularly sophisticated in terms of technol-
U.S.A. the core of an investment package by ogy because of the temperature sensitivity
Start-up of Kaiser Aluminums means of which CSWA intends to increase of the rolling oil used for the cold rolling
heat-treat furnace at Trentwood its cold rolling capacity to more than half a of aluminium. The mill stands as well as all
million tonnes per year. The new mill will core components are manufactured in SMS
The first heat-treat furnace in Kaiser produce tin-can strip, panelling and litho Demags workshop in Germany. Commis-
Aluminums US$ 105 million Trent- material for the printing industry. The cold sioning is scheduled for the spring of 2009.
wood rolling mill expansion is now strip can be rolled up to a width of 1800 The Southwest Aluminium Works is con-
at full production after going through mm and a maximum final thickness of 0.15 sidered a technology centre within the
shakedown and start-up procedures mm. Chinalco Group. It is located in the Xipeng
during the third quarter. The second SMS Demag is the technical and commer- District of Chongqing, the metropolis of 30
furnace is expected to be on line by cial leader of an international consortium. million at the upper course of the Yangtze
mid-2007 and the final furnace and The supply scope of the company covers a river. SMS Demag AG forms part of the
new stretcher by 2008. The expansi- two-stand tandem mill, three Multi-Plate Metallurgical Plant and Rolling Mill Technol-
on had been increased from an initi- plate filters for best rolling oil purity as ogy Business Area of the SMS group.
al US$ 70 to 105 million and Kaiser
would consider further expansions if
customer demand materialised.
and Electric Co Ltd for 360m yuan stock in the R&D venture in January
(US$ 46m) in a bid to secure raw ma- 2007, while Kobe Steel will purchase
U.S.A. terials and electricity for its Press Me- all shares in the production and sales
Quanex denies Nichols unit to go tal International (PMI) downstream firm a month later. Kobe Steel will
back on sales block aluminium manufacturing plant in also take over the marketing of pro-
Guangzhou. Huasheng Aluminium ducts in the Japanese market. Sales at
Quanex Corp., Houston, denies that owns the Huasheng Aluminium Smel- the Japanese unit for the current year
is will be shopping for a buyer for its ter, which produces aluminium ingot, are anticipated to be less than 20
Nichols Aluminum Corp. aluminium and the Huasheng Electricty Genera- billion (US$ 169.6m). N
sheet business sometime during 2007. tion power plant. Huasheng Alumini-
The breakout of Nichols Aluminum um produces 38,000 tpy of aluminium
financial results in Quanexs fourth ingots. PMI is in the process of dou-
quarter earning statement could be bling its capacity to 43,000 tpy. The Author
a signal that it is thinking about sel- The author, Dipl.-Ing. R. P. Pawlek is
ling the business. Nichols Aluminum founder of TS+C, Technical Info Services
is an earn-and-protect business and Japan and Consulting, Sierre (Switzerland), a
Quanex broke out the numbers to pro- Kobe Steel and Alcoa to dissolve new service for the primary aluminium
vide better transparency. Previously, auto sheet joint ventures industry. He is also the publisher of the
the numbers had been rolled into standard works Alumina Refineries and
overall results for Quanexs building Kobe Steel and Alcoa have agreed to Producers of the World and Primary
products segment. dissolve two aluminium auto sheet Aluminium Smelters and Producers of
joint ventures. The two companies the World. These reference works are
set up the 50 : 50 joint ventures, one continually updated, and contain use-
China based in the US and one in Japan, in ful technical and economic information
Malaysian aluminium extruder 1992. The US-based company, Alcoa on all alumina refineries and primary
Press Metal buys upstream plant Kobe Transportation Products Inc., aluminium smelters of the world. They
in China focuses on research and development, are available as loose-leaf files and/or
while Kobe Alcoa Transportation Pro- CD-roms from the Aluminium-Verlag,
Malaysian aluminium extruder Press ducts Ltd in Japan manufactures and Marketing & Kommunikation GmbH in
Metal plans to buy a 90% stake in supplies aluminium sheet to Japane- Dsseldorf, Germany.
Chinas Hubei Huasheng Aluminium se car makers. Alcoa will acquire all

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 69
MARKT UND TECHNIK

Umreifungstechnik mit PET-Hochleistungsband Strapping technology


with PET high-performance strip
Keine Konzessionen No concessions
an die Qualitt on quality
Lange Zeit galten Stahlbnder als Laks, der als General Manager den Steel strips have long been regard-
das non plus ultra, um Masseln, Lndervertrieb fr Westeuropa leitet, ed as the non plus ultra for the
Walzbarren, Pressbolzen, Bleche gibt unumwunden zu, dass die Umrei- strapping of ingots, rolling slabs,
oder Profile fr den Transport zu fungsmaschinen des Unternehmens extrusion billets, sheets or sec-
umreifen und sicher an ihren Be- nicht zu Discountpreisen erhltlich tions for transport and safe deliv-
stimmungsort zu bringen. Auch sind. Dafr machen wir keine Kon- ery to their destination. Signode
die Signode Packaging Systems, zessionen an die Qualitt unserer Pro- Packaging Systems too, a pioneer
ein Pionier in Sachen Umreifungs- dukte. Wenn jemand 20, 30 Prozent in the field of strapping technolo-
technik, ist mit Stahlbndern gro unter unseren Preisen liegt, bietet er gy, grew large on the strength of
geworden. Mittlerweile hat sich in im Grunde ein vllig anderes Produkt steel strip. Meanwhile, in wide
der Aluminiumindustrie in weiten als wir an, sagt Laks. areas of the aluminium industry
Bereichen Kunststoffband durch- Das Aushngeschild unter den Si- plastic strip has become accepted.
gesetzt. Vor allem das Hochleis- gnode-PET-Produkten ist die AK200- Above all the high-performance
tungsband Tenax aus PET bietet Technologie in Kombination mit dem strip Tenax made from PET, with
in der Kombination von hoher Hochleistungsband Tenax: einem its combination of high breaking
Bruchlast und Elastizitt einen op- hochfesten und uerst elastischen strength and elasticity, offers opti-
timalen Transportschutz. PET-Band, das in seiner 19 bis 25 mum protection during transport.
mm breiten Ausfhrung eine Bruch-
Signode ist seit 1986 ein Unterneh- last von fast 12000 Newton aufweist. Since 1986 Signode has been owned
men der ITW Illinois Tool Works Inc. Noch wichtiger aber als die Bruchlast by ITW Illinois Tool Works Inc. and
und beschftigt weltweit ber 7.000 (die von Stahl ist weit grer) ist die employs more than 7,000 people
Mitarbeiter in mehr als einhundert hohe Schlagfestigkeit des Tenax-Ban- worldwide in more than 100 coun-
Lndern. Rund 650 Mio. Euro Umsatz des. Sie ist 25 Mal grer als die von tries. In Europe alone its strapping
werden allein in Europa mit Umrei- Standard-Stahlbndern. Dieser Vor- technology generates a turnover of
fungstechnik erwirtschaftet. Im Jahr teil kommt beim Handling und Trans- around 650 million euros. Founded in
1913 zunchst als Seal and Fastener port zum Tragen etwa wenn ein 1913 first as Seal and Fastener Com-
Company gegrndet, ist Signode da- Ladung vom Gabelstapler fllt oder pany, Signode was then, as it is now, a
mals wie heute ein Vorreiter in die- auf einem Lkw, per Bahn oder Schiff front-runner in this business.
sem Geschft. durchgerttelt wird. Das Tenaxband The company views itself as a
Das Unternehmen sieht sich als lsst sich bis zu fnf Prozent dehnen technology and quality leader in the
Technologie- und Qualittsfhrer im ohne plastisch zu verformen. Erst bei strapping business. Evidence of this
Umreifungsgeschft. Dafr sprechen einer Dehnung von 16 Prozent reit are over 600 active patents. Qual-
ber 600 aktive Patente. Qualitt es. Im Gegensatz dazu reit Standard- ity, of course, has its price. General
hat natrlich ihren Preis. Gerard W. Stahlband bei 0,2 Prozent und Hoch- Manager Gerard W. Laks, Distributor
Sales Western Europe, states plain-
ly that the companys strapping ma-
chines are not to be had at discount
prices. We make no concessions on
the quality of our products. If anyones
prices are 20 or 30% lower than ours,
it is basically because he is offering
a product completely different from
ours, says Laks.
The flagship among Signode PET
products is AK200 technology com-
bined with the high-performance
strip Tenax: a high-strength and ex-
All illustrations: Signode

ceptionally elastic PET strip which, in


its 19 to 25 mm wide version, has a
breaking strength of almost 12,000 N.
Even more important than the break-
ing strength, however (that of steel
Mit PET-Band umreifte Palette Bolzen ... Strapped with PET strip: billets ... is far higher), is the high impact re-

70 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGY

sistance of Tenax strip, which is 25


times greater than that of standard
steel strips. That advantage is impor-
tant during handling and transport,
for example when a load falls off a
fork-lift or is juddered on a truck, rail
wagon or ship. Tenax strip can stretch
up to 5% without plastic deforma-
tion. It only snaps at an elongation of
16%. In contrast, standard steel strip
breaks at 0.2% and high-performance
steel strip at 6% elongation. Stretched
steel strip also essentially no longer
contracts again after extension.
A further advantage of PET strip is
that its tightness is maintained when ... und Stangen ... and bars
the strapped material cools down
stripping is often carried out at 70 C leistungs-Stahlband bei sechs Prozent Tenaxband bietet eine Reihe weitere
or more and shrinks slightly during Dehnung. Gedehntes Stahlband zieht Vorteile gegenber Stahlband. Es
this. Or when ingots are stacked in a sich zudem grundstzlich nicht mehr verkratzt nicht die Metalloberflche,
1200 kg bundle and the packet sags zusammen. kerbt sich nicht ein und verursacht
under its own weight. The PET plas- Der Vorteil des PET-Bandes besteht keine Korrosionsflecken. Die Verlet-
tic strip contracts correspondingly auch darin, dass die Spannung erhal- zungsgefahr ist geringer, da es nicht
so as to fit tightly again around the ten bleibt, wenn das umreifte Material scharfkantig wie Stahlband ist. Es ist
packaged material. In contrast steel abkhlt oft wird bei 70 C und mehr 80 Prozent leichter als Stahl, was die
strips have to be re-tightened, which umreift und dabei leicht schrumpft. Frachtkosten verringert, und bean-
incurs additional handling costs. But Oder wenn Masseln zu einem Bndel sprucht bis zu 50 Prozent weniger
if the material has left the companys von 1.200 kg gestapelt werden und Lagerraum. Und es muss nicht ent-
premises, its packaging can no longer sich das Paket unter seinem Eigen- fernt werden, wenn die Masselpakete
be re-tightened if the strapping be- gewicht staucht. Das PET-Kunststoff- in den Schmelzofen kommen. Tests
comes loose. band zieht sich entsprechend zusam- haben gezeigt, dass ein typisches
Tenax strip has a number of oth- men, so dass es weiterhin eng um das Masselbndel von 980 kg (mit ca. 50
er advantages compared with steel verpackte Material liegt. Stahlbnder Gramm Tenaxband) insgesamt 0,03
strips. It does not scratch or indent mssen dagegen nachgespannt wer- Prozent Asche hinterlsst. Die Me-
the metal surface and produces no den, was zustzliche Handlingkosten tallqualitt wird dadurch in keinster
corrosion spots. The risk of injury is verursacht. Hat das Material den Fir- Weise beeintrchtigt.
smaller, since it is not sharp-edged menhof verlassen, kann jedoch nichts Das Herzstck der Signode-Umrei-
like steel strip. It is 80% lighter than mehr an der Verpackung nachgezurrt fungsanlagen ist der AK-Umreifungs-
steel, which reduces freight charges, werden, falls die Umreifung sich lo- kopf. Entwickelt wurde er bereits in
and it occupies up to 50% less stor- ckert. den 1980er Jahren: als AK100
age space. And it does not have to be
removed when the ingot packs are
transferred to the melting furnace.
Tests have shown that a typical ingot
bundle of 980 kg (with about 50 g of
Tenax strip) produces a total of 0.03%
ash. This has no adverse effect at all
on the metal quality.
The centrepiece of Signode strap-
ping machines is the AK strapping
head. This was developed as early as
the 1980s: as the AK100 first for steel
strips and then as the AK200 for plas-
tic, and in the mid-1990s then for pol-
yester. The AK200-HD head enables
a tightening tension of up to 6000 N.
No other strapping head on the mar-
ket can do that, stresses Laks, who
has looked after business with the

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 71
MARKT UND TECHNIK

schlauer machen als ntig. aluminium industry since 1996. Simi-


hnliches gilt fr die larly impressive are the performance
Fertigung des AK-200- figures for the closure. The patented
Kopfes, der ausschlielich Z-weld closure process guarantees a
in Dinslaken produziert closure strength of 90%.
wird. An diesem Signode- This advantage stems from the fact
Standort erfolgte die Ent- that Signode straps not in a path-de-
wicklung des AK-Kopfs, pendent but in a load-dependent way.
hier sind rund 300 Mitar- Path-dependent strapping has the dis-
beiter beschftigt, hier wird advantage that the tightening stops as
das Fertigungs-Knowhow soon as there is a counter-pressure.
gebndelt. In contrast, during load-dependent
In der Aluminiumindu- strapping the strip is tensioned until
strie wurden die ersten zwei a slight extension takes place. Only
Maschinen mit AK200- then is the strap sealed under high
Kopf 1996 bei Alcan Isal pressure.
in Island zum Umreifen Both the strapping strips and the
von Masseln und Barren machines are produced by Signode
bis mittlerweile 30 Tonnen itself, in England and Finland. For
Begutachtung eines Masselbndel nach einem Falltest aufgestellt. Fr sehr schwe- Tenax strip virgin material is used,
Assessment of an ingot pack after a fall test re Gter wie Bolzen kommt to guarantee the full extent of its elas-
PET-Tenaxband in der Brei- ticity. Recycled material is only ever
zunchst fr Stahlbnder, als AK200 te von 19 bis 25 mm zum Einsatz. Fr used for standard strip. The ingredi-
anschlieend fr Kunststoff, Mitte Bolzen wird 25 mm breites Band ver- ents for strip production remain a se-
der 1990er Jahre dann fr Polyester. wendet, fr das Verpacken von Mas- cret between a few master-chefs, as
Der AK200-HD-Kopf leistet eine Zug- seln reicht dagegen 19 mm breites well-protected as the recipe for Coca-
spannung bis zu 6000 Newton. Das Hochleistungsband. Bei weniger ho- Cola. One does not want to make the
kann kein anderer Umreifungskopf hen Ansprchen (z. B. fr Profilver- competition any more cunning than
im Markt, betont Laks, der seit 1996 packungen) wird PET-Standardband necessary.
das Geschft mit der Aluminiumindu- in Breiten zwischen 12 und 16 mm The same applies to the production
strie betreut. hnlich anspruchsvoll verwendet. of the AK200 head, which is made ex-
sind auch die Leistungswerte fr den Mehr als 2.600 AK-Kpfe sind mitt- clusively in Dinslaken. The AK head
Verschluss. Das patentierte Z-Weld lerweile weltweit und branchenber- was developed at the Signode site in
Verschlussverfahren garantiert eine greifend im Markt. Und jede Woche Dinslaken, where 300 people are em-
Verschlussstrke von 90 Prozent. kommen weitere hinzu, so Laks. 890 ployed and all the production know-
Dieser Vorteil ergibt sich daraus, davon sind AK200-Kpfe fr Polyes- how is concentrated.
dass Signode nicht weg-, sondern last- terband. In der Aluminiumindustrie In the aluminium industry the
abhngig umreift. Eine wegabhngige sind etwa 155 AK200-Kpfe im Ein- first two machines with AK200 heads
Umreifung hat den Nachteil, dass satz. Hydro Aluminium ist laut Laks were set up in 1996 at Alcan Isal in
die Bespannung stoppt, sobald ein komplett mit Signode-Maschinen Iceland for strapping ingots and bars
Gegendruck erfolgt. Demgegenber bzw. AK200-HD-Kpfen ausgers- now up to 30 tonnes. For very heavy
wird das Band bei der lastabhngigen tet, die in Umreifungsmaschinen fr goods such as billets PET Tenax strip
Umreifung so lange gezogen, bis eine Stahlband nachgerstet wurden. of width 19 to 25 mm is used. For bil-
leichte Dehnung erfolgt. Erst dann Auslieferungen der vergangenen lets 25 mm strip is used, while in con-
wird das Band unter hohem Druck Monate betreffen unter anderem den trast 19 mm high-performance strip is
verschlossen. Verkauf von AK200 19mm-Anlagen enough for packing ingots. In less de-
Das Umreifungsband wird ebenso fr Masseln nach Albras in Brasilien. manding cases (e.g. for section pack-
wie die Maschinen von Signode selbst Alba Bahrain hat neue AK200-HD- ing) PET standard strip from 12 to 16
produziert, und zwar in England und Anlagen in Auftrag gegeben. CBA or- mm wide is used.
Finnland. Fr Tenaxband verwendet derte fr seine brasilianische Htte Meanwhile, more than 2,600 AK
man jungfruliches Material, da- eine Kombimaschine mit AK100/200- heads have been marketed world-
mit die Elastizitt in vollem Umfang Kpfen, die fr 25 mm Stahl- und 19 wide and in many branches. And the
gewhrleistet ist. Recyclingmaterial mm Polyesterband ausgelegt ist. Eine number is increasing every week, says
kommt nur bei Standardband mit zum Umstellung von PET auf Stahlband Laks. 890 of them are AK200 heads
Einsatz. Die Zutaten zur Bandherstel- kann brigens innerhalb von 15 Mi- for polyester strip. In the aluminium
lung bleiben ein Geheimnis weniger nuten erfolgen, denn die Bauart der industry about 155 AK200 heads are
Kchenchefs, so wohlbehtet wie AK100- und 200-Kpfe ist identisch. in use. According to Laks Hydro Alu-
die Rezeptur von Coca-Cola. Man will An Assan Aluminium in der Trkei minium is completely equipped with
den Wettbewerb ja nicht unbedingt ging eine Stahlbandanlage fr Coils, Signode machines and AK200 heads,

72 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGY

retrofitted in strapping machines for die wrmebehan-


steel strip. delt werden. Dubal
Deliveries in the last few months rstet derweil von
include for example the sale of AK200 Stahl auf Kunststoff
19 mm units for ingots to Albras in um.
Brazil. Alba Bahrain has ordered new Die anderen rund
AK200-HD units. For its Brazilian 1.700 verkauften Ag-
smelter CBA ordered a combination gregate sind AK100-
machine with AK100/200 heads, de- Kpfe fr Stahlbn-
signed for 25 mm steel and 19 mm der. Manche leisten
polyester strips. Besides, conversion seit ber 20 Jahren
from PET to steel strips can take place ihren Dienst, Tag fr
within 15 minutes, since the structure Tag. Gelegentlich
of the AK100 and AK200 heads is werden sie gereinigt
identical. A steel strip unit for coils to und gewartet, muss
be heat treated has gone to Assan Alu- ein Messer ausge-
minium in Turkey. Dubal is currently tauscht werden oder
converting from steel to plastic. ein Frderrad. Wei-
The remaining approximate- tere Verschleiteile
ly 1,700 aggregates sold are AK100 gibt es jedoch kaum.
heads for steel strips. Many have been Die Kosten fr die
giving good service day after day for Instandhaltung sind
over 20 years. Occasionally they are mit 2.000 bis 2.500 Zustzliche Sicherung mit dem neuen Signode Flex Stretch Net
cleaned and maintained, or a blade Euro pro Jahr laut The new Signode Flex Stretch Net for optimum transit security
or conveyor wheel has to be replaced. Laks die niedrigsten
There are, however, hardly any other im Markt. Auch weil sich die Technik also noch viel Spielraum fr Wachs-
parts affected by wear. According to an der Auenseite des Kopfes befindet tum, sowohl in Nord- wie in Sdame-
Laks, at 2,000 to 2,500 euros per year und damit einfach zu erreichen ist. rika. Erste AK200-HD-Maschinen fr
maintenance costs are the lowest on Man knnte meinen, diese Zuver- Bolzen sind jedoch schon in den USA
the market. This is also because the lssigkeit sei ein Stck weit schdlich und Kanada installiert.
technical components are on the out- frs Geschft, denn schlielich will Langfristig drften auch der chine-
side of the head and therefore easy man ja auch Maschinen verkaufen. sische und russische Markt attraktiv
to reach. Doch man bleibt der Firmenphiloso- werden. Dort dominiert noch das Um-
It might be thought that such reli- phie treu, die da lautet: Wie knnen reifen mit Stahlband oder sogar mit
ability is not very good for business, wir unsere Arbeit von heute fr mor- Aluminiumdraht.
since ultimately one wants to sell ma- gen verbessern. Verbessern, um dem Der Marktbedarf in Europa ist
chines. But the company stays true Kunden die Arbeit zu erleichtern, Ko- dagegen weitgehend gedeckt. Zumin-
to its philosophy, which can be ex- sten zu ersparen und sicherzustellen, dest in den Httenbetrieben. Wachs-
pressed as, How can we improve our dass die Ware ohne Schden beim tumspotenziale bietet dagegen die Re-
work today for the sake of tomorrow. Adressaten ankommt. Das zahlt sich cyclingbranche und die Verarbeitung.
Improve, in order to make the cus- langfristig aus. Denn sind die Kunden Signode hat hier vor allem die Umrei-
tomers work easier, save costs, and mit dem Werkzeug zufrieden, verdie- fung von Aluminiumwalzprodukten
ensure that the goods arrive at their nen wir langfristig am Verkauf des wie Bleche und Coils im Visier.
destination undamaged. That pays zugehrigen Bandes, so Laks. Zur Marktbearbeitung wurde da-
in the long term. As Laks explains, Im brigen wchst die Nachfrage her erst krzlich ein neues Global
Since the customers are happy with kontinuierlich. Das Geschft mit den Specialist Team gebildet, das von
the machine, we ensure long-term AK-Kpfen luft laut Laks gut. Sie wer- Laks gefhrt wird. Es soll die Kontakte
sales of the associated strip. den bislang vor allem in der Httenin- zu den Signode-Niederlassungen, die
Besides, demand is increasing con- dustrie eingesetzt. Fast zwei Drittel al- die OEMs weltweit betreuen, intensi-
tinually. Laks reports that business ler Htten verwenden AK200-Kpfe. vieren. Auerdem soll das Team die
with the AK heads is going well. So Tendenz steigend, denn immer mehr lokalen Key Account Manager von Si-
far they are mainly used in the smelt- Betriebe rsten von Stahlband auf Po- gnode dabei untersttzen, mit Alumi-
er industry. Almost two-thirds of all lyester um. Die Amerikaner hinken niumhtten und -verarbeitern Kon-
smelters use AK200 heads, with an dieser Entwicklung noch etwas hin- takt aufzunehmen, um sie mit Test-
upward trend since more and more terher, sagt Laks. Sie seien eben kon- versuchen von der Leistungsstrke
companies are converting from steel servativer als die Europer. Auer- des Polyesterbandes zu berzeugen.
to polyester strip. Americans are dem sind spezielle Begutachtungen Das sollte nicht allzu schwer fallen.
lagging rather behind in this develop- bei Einsatz von PET-Band fr Alumi-
ment, says Laks. They are even niumprodukte erforderlich. Da bleibt N

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 73
MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGY

more conservative than Europeans. minium wire is still dominant. It aims to intensify contacts with the
Moreover, special expertise is need- In contrast, market needs in Europe Signode establishments which look
ed when using PET strip for alumin- have largely been covered, at least after OEMs worldwide. In addition,
ium products. So there is still plenty in smelter operations. On the other the Team will support Signodes lo-
of room for growth, in both North and hand there is growth potential in the cal Key Account Managers in mak-
South America. However, the first few recycling branch and in processing. ing contact with aluminium smelters
AK200-HD machines for billets have Here, Signode mainly has the strap- and processors, in order to persuade
already been installed in the USA and ping of rolled aluminium products them of the effective performance of
Canada. In the long term the markets such as sheets and coils in its sights. polyester strip by means of tests. That
in China and Russia should also be- To prepare the market, therefore, a should not be difficult at all.
come attractive. In both countries new Global Specialist Team was re-
strapping with steel strip or even alu- cently formed, which is led by Laks. N

Alcutec Engineering

German know-how for Russian aluminium


recycling complex
MVS (Mordovvtorsyrio) in the
capital of the Russian republic of
Mordovia, Saransk, has started
the construction of an aluminium
recycling complex with an annual
capacity of 60,000 tonnes of metal
for a wide range of alloys. The
plant concept is based on the most
advanced equipment available for
this kind of production. The tech-
nology is provided by the German
company Alcutec Engineering,
which also implemented all the

Photos: Alcutec Engineering


engineering services and supplied
the required equipment. The indi-
vidual components were manufac-
tured in Germany with some com-
ponents supplied from the UK, the
Netherlands and France. The steel
structures were also built in Ger- In der Bauphase: Einer von zwei kippbaren Drehtrommelfen ...
many, since quality control and In the building phase: one of two tilting rotary drum furnaces
monitoring are very painstaking
and therefore costly, as Christoph a high performance shredder system sary plant also includes a state-of-the-
Schmitz, Managing Director of Al- with adjacent classifiers. Two rever- art gas scrubbing system to complete
cutec, stresses. beratory furnaces, each of 25 tonnes the plant set-up. This shows that the
bath capacity with a melting rate of Russian customer regards environ-
Key equipment for the melting sec- 3 tonnes per hour, facilitate casting. mental protection as extremely im-
tion are two tilting rotary drum fur- The melting capacity is required to portant and makes no concessions in
naces with a capacity of 25 tonnes be able to melt no-go production and that respect.
each, having a cycle time (tap to tap) clean scrap. The MVS contract is worth ap-
of 4 hours. To be able to process all The arrangement of the furnaces proximately 10 million euros. The
kinds of aluminium scrap of different permits continuous casting. A dual contract was awarded in May 2006
origin the complex is equipped with casting line with automatic stacker and delivery was concluded a few
produces remelt ingots. To obtain high days ago once reconstruction of the
quality standards an in-line, degas- shed for the plant had been completed.
Technological details of the tilting rotary drum
furnace were published in ALUMINIUM 2004, sing and filtration system is arranged The customer assigned to us highly
issue 3, 172-177, and issue 4, 288-290. ahead of the casting line. The neces- qualified staff, with whom outstand-

74 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGY

ing collaboration was possible, says


Schmitz in appreciation of the good
co-operation during the performance
of the contract work.
For Alcutec the Russian market
is very important and is a mainstay
of the companys business. After the
construction of plants at MOPM, Mos-
cow and VTORMET, MVS is the third
complete aluminium recycling com-
plex supplied to Russia by Alcutec.
A further advantage in this was that
Russian import duties are reduced in
the Province of Mordovia in order to
encourage the establishment of in-
dustrial companies there. A propor-
tion of the casting alloys produced go
towards meeting domestic needs, but
MVS aims to export the remainder. und kippbaren Herdfen mit Schmelzleistung fr MVS
With the current investments MVS is and tilting hearth furnaces with the melting power for MVS
preparing itself for the fact that as the
Russian domestic automobile market expressed as, Nobody builds as stur- company supplies all other equip-
develops into one of the countrys dily as we do. For a recycling furnace ment used in the industry, such as in-
largest purchasers, castings of better to operate for 20 years or even longer got casting lines with stacker, waste
quality will be needed. The plant without problems, for example with- gas scrubbing plants and auxiliary
now supplied makes MVS not only out cracks in the external masonry or equipment.
Russias largest secondary melting the furnace housing, a warp-resistant The business activities comprise
operator, but also puts the company steel structure with correspondingly professional services for erection,
in a position to compete fully with Eu- large wall thickness is needed. That commissioning and plant mainte-
ropean suppliers, says Schmitz. may be somewhat more expensive, nance, including the development of
Important as the Russian market but it is an investment which pays in maintenance systems. One activity is
may be for Alcutec, the USA and the long term, says Schmitz. operational assistance by providing
emerging Asian markets such as In- Alcutec supplies proprietary equip- experts with a detailed service report
dia are also interesting market regions ment consisting of tilting rotary drum in their field. This service enables the
for Alcutecs engineering business. furnaces, hearth furnaces, charging customer to update the methods of
In contrast, it is very difficult to get systems, chip drying systems as well an existing plant or to use the latest
orders for complete new projects in as other tailor-made equipment for technology efficiently.
Germany, where as a rule existing the secondary aluminium industry. The quality requirements of the
but largely superannuated recycling In co-operation with other firms the different aluminium alloys are stead-
plants are being modernised.

Nobody builds as sturdily


as we do Alcutec rstet russische Umschmelzhtte aus
Alcutec Engineering provides profes- Fr die russische MVS in der Republik Der MVS-Recyclingkomplex ist auf eine
sional engineering services for the sec- Mordowien hat Alcutec Engineering aus Jahresleistung von 60.000 Tonnen ausge-
ondary aluminium industry, starting Niederzier einen Komplettauftrag ber legt. Mit der gelieferten Anlage entwickelt
from feasibility studies, through basic zwei kippbare Drehtrommelfen, zwei sich MVS nicht nur zur grten Um-
and detailed engineering, to project kippbare Herdfen mit Schmelzleistung schmelzhtte in Russland, das Unterneh-
management. This also includes the inklusive Nebeneinrichtungen wie Abgas- men wird auch gegenber europischen
supply of technology and process reinigung, Khl-, Elektro- und Hydraulik- Anbietern absolut wettbewerbsfhig,
know-how as well as the development einrichtungen sowie Schredderanlage sagt Alcutec-Geschftsfhrer Christoph
of new processes. As Schmitz points abgewickelt. Schmitz. Der Auftrag hat ein Volumen von
out, Our professional service ensures Die Kapazitt der Recyclingfen betrgt rund zehn Millionen Euro und wurde vor
a conclusive engineering and plan- je 25 Tonnen. Die Herdfen haben eine wenigen Tagen ausgeliefert. Es ist der drit-
ning phase. We strive to avoid critical Kapazitt von ebenfalls je 25 Tonnen bei te russische Komplettauftrag fr Alcutec.
interfaces between equipment and einer Schmelzleistung von drei Tonnen pro Weitere Projekte fr den russischen Markt
plant selections. A particular point of Stunde. sind in Vorbereitung, so Schmitz.
differentiation from the competition is

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 75
MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGY

ily becoming stricter, particularly for an economical evaluation since prices equipment for melting at a refining
the most important customer of the of scrap and metal are readily avail- plant is the rotary drum furnace, to-
secondary aluminium plants the able. However, sometimes confusing day typically designed as a tilting
automotive industry. Quality means information is published on recovery: rotary drum furnace says Schmitz.
minimum deviations from the target for instance, a value of 90% or even This technology permits processing
alloy composition, no or negligible higher, although the scrap processed of almost all kinds of scrap and is
mechanical inclusions and very little may have had a metal content of only particularly suitable for scrap heavily
gaseous contamination. On the other 70%. So the figures given have to be contaminated with organic and inor-
hand, the plant must operate eco- looked at carefully. They may be only ganic matter and for material with a
nomically successfully. Considering valid for a very specific case such as large specific surface area. Selecting
spiralling energy costs and the more a plant that remelts clean scrap un- the proper equipment for the kind of
and more stringent environmental der strictly controlled operating con- plant operation remelting or refin-
regulations, this is becoming increas- ditions. ing is the principle task of the plant
ingly difficult. Melting such material in a rever- owner and his engineers.
However, the most critical factor beratory furnace may result in a metal Low metal loss and also favourable
is the shortage of suitable aluminium loss as high as 70%, 80%, or even more, energy consumption are not the only
scrap. The quantity of this raw mate- unless a special metal pumping system criteria. Safe and reliable operation
rial is limited worldwide and numer- is used. The melting loss may than be is an important factor as well. The
ous countries compete to get their reduced to reasonable values of 2 to equipment must be able to withstand
share, with the result that scrap prices 5% of the metal contained in the feed the sometimes harsh treatment by
are high. The secondary aluminium material. This technology, however, the operators under severe operat-
industry is therefore compelled to entails operation with a metal heel ing condition and must work without
process even scrap of low quality, in in the furnace, and there are difficul- down-time due to equipment failures.
other words scrap that is heavily con- ties in obtaining the requested metal So the traditional methods of equip-
analysis if the ment design may not be sufficient to
metal charged achieve this target and design meth-
is not very well ods used for heavy machinery must be
specified. In fact applied as well, says Schmitz.
this can only Another factor to be considered is
be the case in a compliance with the environmental
closed-loop re- standards of the plant location and
cycling process the industry. Summarising the above
in a downstream facts, the plant owner may be hard
plant. put to select the right equipment and
As is gener- processes for his future plant or plant
ally known, the expansion.
secondary alu-
minium indus- Further Russian projects in
try is divided course of preparation
into refiners and
remelters. While Professional consulting services may
refiners produce assist the plant owner in the deci-
alloys from a sion-making process. Companies that
Kippdrehtrommelofen im Einsatz bei der Firma Oetinger. wide variety of can provide the required consulting
Tilting rotary drum furnace in use at Oetinger in Germany scrap, remelters service should also have proprietary
produce their technologies and a broad product
taminated by organic and inorganic alloys from clean scrap of defined range. This combination assures cli-
contaminants and compound metals. analysis. Consequently the key tech- ents in the secondary aluminium in-
Clean scrap originating from produc- nology for the melting equipment dustry of smooth commissioning and
tion waste or no-go parts is generally is different. Reverberatory furnaces trouble-free operation. Proper train-
not available to refiners in the second- either designed as hearth furnace or ing and production assistance are fur-
ary aluminium industry. twin-chamber furnaces additionally ther steps for obtaining a plant that is
One key question for a production equipped with feeding systems for economically successful. Schmitz is
manager is therefore, how much alu- small particles are used in remelt- convinced that Alcutec provides this
minium is produced from a certain ing plants that process defined clean service as well as supplying propri-
quantity of scrap. This is expressed scrap with only little organic contami- etary equipment and technology. And
by the metal recovery factor, namely nation. he confirms that, Further projects for
the ratio between metal produced and Refiners, in contrast, need dif- the Russian market are in course of
scrap consumed. This is easy to use in ferent melting equipment. The key preparation. N

76 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
MARKT UND TECHNIK

Positive Stimmung in der Branche Positive mood


in the German aluminium industry
Deutsche Aluminium- Prospects for 2007
konjunktur luft derzeit rund are good
Die deutsche Aluminiumindustrie sich die Aluminiumdose mit der neu- The aluminium industry in Ger-
bleibt auf Wachstumskurs. Die en Pfandregelung seit Mai 2006 einen many is still growing. The first
ersten neun Monate des vergan- Marktanteil von rund 50 Prozent er- nine months of last year turned
genen Jahres verliefen fr die obert. Das ist gemessen an frheren out positively for the branch, as
Branchenunternehmen durchweg zehn bis 15 Prozent Marktanteil zwar Gerhard Buddenbaum, President
positiv, wie Gerhard Buddenbaum, ein beachtlicher Erfolg gegenber der of the German trade association
Prsident des Gesamtverbandes Weiblechdose, doch bewegt sich der GDA summarised at a press con-
der Aluminiumindustrie (GDA), Dosenmarkt insgesamt gesehen noch ference in November 2006. Alu-
auf einer Pressekonferenz im weit unter dem Niveau, auf dem er vor minium companies booked many
November 2006 resmierte. Die drei bis vier Jahren war. more orders in 2006. In almost
Aluminiumunternehmen konn- every production and processing
ten 2006 deutlich mehr Auftrge Produktion auf hohem Niveau sector the trend was upwards,
verbuchen. In fast allen Produk- said Buddenbaum. However, the
tions- und Verarbeitungsbereichen Bei der Produktion von Sekundra- considerably higher metal prices
weisen die Tendenzen nach oben, luminium, Aluminiumhalbzeug und on the London Metal Exchange put
so Buddenbaum. Die deutlich ge- Formguss konnten die deutschen pressure on processors margins.
stiegenen Metallpreise an der Lon- Aluminiumunternehmen 2006 leicht
don Metal Exchange bten dabei zulegen, bei der Weiterverarbeitung Generally speaking the aluminium in-
allerdings Druck auf die Margen wurde das gute Vorjahresergebnis dustrys mood is positive. And accord-
der Verarbeiter aus. besttigt. Die deutschen Primralumi- ing to the GDA prospects for 2007 are
niumhtten produzierten wie in den relatively good as well, despite the
Seit geraumer Zeit ist die Stimmung Vorjahren an der Kapazittsgrenze. In value-added tax increase (by 3%) at
der Aluminiumindustrie positiv. Und den ersten neun Monaten 2006 lag die the beginning of this year in Germany
auch fr 2007 bleiben die Perspekti- Erzeugung von Primraluminium mit and the persistently high domestic en-
ven laut GDA aussichtsreich, trotz der 386.700 t jedoch 22 Prozent unter dem ergy prices.
zu Anfang dieses Jahres in Deutsch- Vergleichszeitraum des Vorjahrs. Zu- Over the past several years the im-
land erhhten Mehrwertssteuer um rckzufhren ist dieser Rckgang auf portance of aluminium has increased
drei Prozentpunkte und der weiterhin die Abschaltung der Aluminiumhtte continually. A ten-year comparison
hohen heimischen Energiepreise. in Hamburg. Die Produktion von Se- between 1995 and 2005 shows that
kundraluminium stieg von Januar bis demand for aluminium has increased
Anzeige
September 2006 um 11 Prozent auf by more than 50%, up to 3.1 million
596.100 t. Sorgen bereitet der Branche tonnes. According to GDA Managing
www.inotherm-gmbh.de der anhaltende Rohstoffbedarf boo- Director Christian Wellner, it is again
mender Volkswirtschaften wie China expected to have increased slightly in
und Indien, die die Verfgbarkeit von the full year 2006.
Aluminiumschrotten in Deutschland The most important target market
Die Bedeutung von Aluminium hat in und dem brigen Europa bedrohen. for Germanys aluminium industry is
den vergangenen Jahren stndig zuge- Die 35 deutschen Halbzeugwerke still the transport sector, with a 43%
nommen. Der Aluminiumbedarf ist im produzierten 2006 auf weiterhin ho- market share of total sales. Other ma-
Zehnjahresvergleich zwischen 1995 hem Niveau. Bei den Press- und Zieh- jor markets are the building sector
und 2005 um mehr als 50 Prozent auf
3,1 Mio. Tonnen gestiegen. Der Bedarf
wird laut GDA-Geschftsfhrer Chri-
stian Wellner auch fr das Gesamtjahr
2006 erneut leicht zunehmen.
Wichtigster Zielmarkt fr die
deutsche Aluminiumindustrie bleibt
der Verkehrssektor mit 43 Prozent
Marktanteil am Gesamtabsatz. Wei-
tere wichtige Mrkte sind der Bau-
sektor (15%), die Verpackungsindu- Quelle: GDA
strie (10%) und der Maschinenbau
(9%). Im Getrnkedosenmarkt hat Aluminiummrkte in Deutschland, 2005 Aluminium markets in Germany, 2005

78 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGY

Economic data of the German aluminium industry


produzieren kann, beweist die
Production 2005 2005 / Jan. - Sep. Jan. - Sep. Jan. - Sep. Aluminiumindustrie seit Jahren,
2004 2005 2006 2006 / 05 besonders bei Produkten mit ho-
000 t % 000 t 000 t % her Wertschpfung. Dem Wettbe-
Primary aluminium 647.9 -3.0 495.9 386.7 -22.0 werbsdruck der Niedriglohnlnder
Secondary aluminium 718.3 +2.1 537.2 596.1 +11.0 setzen unsere Unternehmen ein
Rolled products 1780.9 +3.5 1354.5 1318.6 -2.7 hohes Qualittsniveau, absolute
Extruded and drawn products 527.9 +0.8 403.3 441.3 +9.4 Zuverlssigkeit und groe Flexibi-
Shaped castings 727.2 +1.6 557.2 584.0 +4.8 litt entgegen, so Buddenbaum.
Further processing of aluminium: 361.7 -0.3 275.9 287.7 +4.3 Die hohe Wettbewerbsfhigkeit
Foil, tubes, aerosol & beverage cans der Branche zeigt sich vor allem
Sources: GDA, GDM, VAR, Stat. Bundesamt
in ihren Exporterfolgen, rund 41
Prozent der gesamten deutschen
(15%), the packaging industry (10%) produkten legte die Produktion bis Produktion gehen ins Ausland. Die
and mechanical engineering (9%). In September 2006 um 9,4 Prozent zu. Wachstumsraten bei den Exporten
the beverage can market, with the Grund dafr war die erneut hervor- sind in der Tat eindrucksvoll. So
new deposit regulation in force since ragende Exportbilanz des Verarbei- stiegen die Exporte von Aluminium-
May 2006 aluminium cans have cap- tenden Gewerbes in Deutschland. halbzeug in die EU-Staaten von 2000
tured a market share of approximately Bei Walzprodukten stiegen die Auf- bis 2005 um rund 20 Prozent. Die
50%. Compared with the previous 10 tragseingnge bis September um mehr Exporte nach Nordamerika nahmen
to 15%, this is indeed a substantial als zehn Prozent. Zum Jahresende im gleichen Zeitraum, von niedrigem
victory over tinplate cans, although wird die Produktion Wellner zufolge Niveau kommend, um 90 Prozent
the can market viewed as a whole is ber der des Vorjahres liegen (2005: zu; hier waren in besonderem Mae
still far below its level three or four 1,8 Mio. t). Den Branchenumsatz fr Walzspezialitten fr die Luftfahrt
years ago. 2006 veranschlagt der GDA auf 15 gefragt. Auch die Ausfuhren nach
Mrd. Euro (2005: 13,9 Mrd. ), wobei Sdamerika, Osteuropa oder Asien
Production at a high level ein Groteil des Zuwachses auf die entwickelten sich in den letzten sechs
gestiegenen Aluminiumnotierungen Jahren berdurchschnittlich gut.
As in previous years, primary alu- zurckzufhren ist.
minium smelters in Germany have Branche vor groen Heraus-
been producing at the limits of their Verkehr und Maschinenbau forderungen
capacity. In the first nine months of starke Wachstumstrger
2006, however, primary aluminium Doch bei aller positiven Grundstim-
production, at 386,700 tonnes, was Auch in den nchsten Jahren wird mung: Die Branche steht vor groen
22% down on the same period a year der Aluminiumbedarf in Deutschland Herausforderungen und muss weiter-
earlier. This downturn can be at- kontinuierlich wachsen, so Wellner hin mit Standortnachteilen zurecht-
tributed to the closing of the HAW zu den mittelfristigen Perspektiven kommen. Die hohen Energiepreise
smelter in Hamburg. The production der Branche. Strkster Wachstums- sind ein Faktor, ber den immer
by German aluminium companies trger werde weiterhin die Automobil- wieder in dieser Zeitschrift berichtet
of secondary aluminium, semis and industrie sein, zumal hier die spezi- wird. Die strukturellen Nachteile des
castings increased slightly in 2006, fischen Eigenschaften des Leicht- Standorts Deutschland zeigen sich
and in the fields of further processing metalls voll zum Tragen kommen. darber hinaus in vielen weiteren
the good results of the previous year Weitere Absatzchancen bietet die wirtschaftspolitischen Facetten. Der
were repeated. Luftfahrt, besonders fr hochwertige GDA-Prsident dazu: Wir brauchen
Between January and September Platten und Bleche aus Aluminium. weniger Brokratie und eine Moder-
2006 the production of secondary alu- Auch der Maschinenbau weist seit nisierung des Steuer- und Genehmi-
minium increased by 11% to 596,100 einigen Jahren einen kontinuierlichen gungsrechts, um im internationalen
tonnes. There is concern in the branch Mehrbedarf an Aluminiumprodukten Vergleich weiter aufzuholen. Die eu-
regarding the persistent raw materials aus. Neben hochwertigen Profillsun- ropische Aluminiumindustrie, fgte
demands of booming economies such gen, z. B. fr Pneumatik- und Zylinder- er hinzu, werde sich nur durch ihre
as China and India, which threaten systeme, werden vermehrt Platten fr eigene Innovationskraft langfristig an
the availability of aluminium scrap in die Kunststoff-Formgebung geliefert. den Mrkten behaupten. Marktnahe
Germany and throughout Europe. Die Bauindustrie, die seit rund einem Produkte mit hoher Wertschpfung,
Production by the 35 semis plants Jahrzehnt rcklufig war, ist inzwi- viel Know-how und gut ausgebildetes
in Germany was again at a high level schen ebenfalls auf dem Weg der Personal und eine hohe Servicequa-
in 2006. In the first nine months of Besserung, wovon auch die Alumini- litt seien die Erfolgsgaranten, unter
the year the production of extruded umbranche profitieren wird. denen Europa als Produktionsstand-
and drawn products was up by 9.4%. Dass man in Deutschland trotz ort eine Zukunft habe.
This was because of the once more schwieriger Rahmenbedingungen N

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 79
MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGY

outstanding export balance of trade engineering has also been using ever for the aviation industry. Exports to
achieved by processing businesses more aluminium products. Besides South America, Eastern Europe and
in Germany. Order intakes for rolled high-grade section solutions, for ex- Asia also developed at above-average
products were up by over 10%. For ample in pneumatic and cylinder rates over the past six years.
the year taken as a whole, production systems, in that market sector more
is expected to exceed that of last year plates for moulding plastics are being A branch faced
(2005: 1.8 million t). supplied. Even in the building indus- by major challenges
The GDA estimates that branch try, which was recessive for about a
turnover in 2006 will amount to some decade, the aluminium branch can Yet, despite the optimism of the pre-
15 billion euros (2005: 13.9 billion ), look forward to gradual recovery. vailing mood, the branch faces great
most of this increase being attribut- That successful production is still challenges and still has to overcome
able to higher aluminium prices. possible in Germany despite difficult location disadvantages. High energy
boundary conditions has been am- prices are only one factor, which has
Transport and mechanical ply demonstrated by the aluminium frequently been commented upon in
engineering a powerful im- industry for years, especially with this journal. The structural disadvan-
pulse towards growth reference to products with high val- tages of Germany as a location also
ue addition. Our companies are re- emerge in many other aspects of eco-
In the coming years too, demand for sponding to the competition pressure nomic policy. On this, Buddenbaum
aluminium in Germany will continue from countries with low labour costs said, We need less bureaucracy and
growing, commented Wellner con- with high quality standards, absolute an updating of tax and licensing laws
cerning the medium-term perspec- reliability and great flexibility, said if we are to keep up with international
tives of the branch. The strongest im- Buddenbaum. The striking competi- competition.
pulse for growth will still be the auto- tiveness of the branch is apparent in The European aluminium industry,
motive industry, all the more so since particular from its export successes. he adds, will only hold its own in the
it is here that the specific properties Around 41% of total German alumin- markets in the long term by virtue of
of the light metal come fully into their ium production goes abroad. Export its ability to innovate. Market-orien-
own. The commercial vehicle sector growth rates are in fact impressive: tated products with high added value,
could also benefit from this, since for example, exports of aluminium a wealth of know-how, well-trained
light metal superstructures are being semis to the EU states increased by personnel and high-quality services
adopted more and more. around 20% between 2000 and 2005, provide the warranties of success
Further sales opportunities are and during the same period exports to which Europe needs if it is to have a
offered by aviation, in particular for North America grew from a low level future as a production location.
high-grade aluminium plates and by 90%, with demand focused par- N
sheets. For some years mechanical ticularly on special rolled products

GDA participation at UN conference on sustainability


The German aluminium association (UNEP) and the Wuppertal Institute pal tasks. As GDA Managing Director
GDA participated as a co-opera- for Climate, Environment and Ener- Stefan Glimm explained, The inter-
tion partner at the UN international gy, said, Aluminium is precious and national SCP conference was an ex-
conference Creating solutions for should therefore be used efficiently. cellent forum for us to continue our
sustainable consumption and pro- All the more satisfying therefore, dialogue with important stakeholder
duction (SCP), which took place end that the German aluminium indus- groups on aluminium and its contri-
of last year in Wuppertal, Germany. try in particular is playing a leading bution to sustainable development
GDA was one of the few representa- role in the discussion on sustainable as part of our Aluminium for Future
tives of industry at the conference and production and consumption. As the Generations initiative. With its in-
reported on the contribution made by aluminium industry is also aware of volvement of many years in the field of
the branch towards economically suc- its responsibility and strengths during sustainability, the German aluminium
cessful, socially responsible and eco- the utilisation phase, in GDA we have industry has acted as a role model for
logically acceptable development. acquired a competent partner and the aluminium industry in Europe and
The conference was organised by speaker for the conference. the rest of the world. We have de-
the Centre for Sustainable Consump- The newly founded CSCP is the veloped standards for this which have
tion and Production (CSCP). Michael new think tank for socially accept- since become benchmarks for the way
Kuhndt, Managing Director of CSCP, able and sustainable production and the global aluminium industry does
which was established by the United consumption worldwide, so sustain- business, said Stefan Glimm.
Nations Environment Programme able added value is one of its princi- N

80 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGY

EAA launches new sustainable development indicator results


In 2002 the European Aluminium released the 2006 report and the data average, 6.6% per year to 117 kg per
Association (EAA) and its member show further improvements in many vehicle. Between 2002 and 2005 the
companies embarked on a pioneer- different areas such as emissions, nat- average increase per year was 4.1%
ing journey towards measuring ural resource use, recycling and work- to 132 kg per vehicle.
sustainability. Together with the er safety among others. For example, The building indicator provides the
German Wuppertal Institute for health and safety total recordable total quantity of aluminium used for
Climate, Environment & Energy incidents fell 63.9% between 1997 building and construction purposes in
and the Versailles University the and 2005, while the industrys fossil Europe. The increase has continued:
European aluminium industry fuel requirements for metal produc- from 2.11 million tonnes in 2002 to
developed 34 measurable sustain- tion fell 30% and direct climate gas 2.5 million tonnes in 2005.
able development indicators (SDI) emissions reduced 43.5% for metal The average market share of alu-
to scrutinise the aluminium in- production. minium cans in Europe was 56%
dustrys performance during the The primary aluminium sector has in 2005 compared to 50% in 2002.
period 1997 to 2002. reduced its CO2 emissions by 7.7% be- On average, an aluminium can only
tween 2002 and 2005. This reduction needs sixty days to be recycled into a
The SDI cover areas as varied as ener- is partly achieved through PFC emis- new can and be back on the retailers
gy consumption, emissions, resource sions reduction and partly through shelf.
use, product life cycles, employee energy consumption reduction. Dur- The recycling rate for cans was
development and relations, commu- ing this time the semi-fabrication sec- 52% in 2005 according to industry
nity relationships, health and safety, tor reduced its emissions by an aver- statistics collected on a regular basis
management efforts, competitiveness, age of 5.5% per year. from European countries. In the auto-
production and revenues. The first re- The use of aluminium in cars pro- motive sector as well as in buildings
port was issued in 2004 and showed duced in Europe has been steadily the aluminium recycling rate is now
an industry which had significantly increasing. Between 1997 and 2002, 95%.
improved since 1997. Now EAA has aluminium use per car increased, on N

      
   

mi inn iiuumm D
D C
C
fo r A lum
c assttiinngg
Drache
umwelttechnik

    


    
    


ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 81
MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGY

The development of Russias packaging market

Aluminium processing technology at the forefront


With the planned merger of the them account for around 54% of alu- erage cans is growing apace. As late as
two Russian aluminium concerns minium consumption. Third place, 1999 the can market was still rather
Rusal and Sual and the Swiss raw with 9%, is held by the transport sec- insignificant, with an annual demand
material concern Glencore Inter- tor, whereas in the western industr- for about 258 million cans. By the end
national, the worlds largest con- ialised countries it is the largest sales of 2006 the demand has increased
cern in the branch at any rate market for light metal structures and by a factor of 15, and in 2006 can
with a view to the production of components. Lightweight construc- production is estimated at around 4
aluminium and alumina is being tion, however, is not yet a major issue billion units per year. This headlong
created. The downstream activities in Russian automotive engineering. growth will continue in the coming
of this group have until now been Russian cars contain a proportion of years and drive can sales up to over 5
less at the focus of international aluminium slightly above 40 kg, while billion units. The need for aluminium
reporting. Yet here too, in the pro- over 100 kg of the metal are built into can stock will increase to over 90,000
duction of can stock and foils for European and American vehicles. tpy mainly for cans to be filled with
packaging, the group could in the In contrast, consumer packag- beer, alcoholic mixed drinks and car-
long term develop into an inter- ing has for years been a dynamically bonated soft drinks.
national competitor with a strong growing sales market in Russia. This In recent years the two major can
market position. applies particularly to the market for manufacturers Rusal and Rexam have
beverage cans. It is dominated by the made efforts to encourage this mar-
United Company Rusal, created by packaging material aluminium and is ket. A marketing campaign initiated in
the merger of Rusal, Sual and Glen- roughly equally divided between two 2000 and pursued for five years aimed
core, will produce 4 million tonnes producers, Rusal Rostar and Rexam. to provide aluminium cans with a pre-
of aluminium and 11 million tonnes
of alumina per year and will employ
110,000 people in 17 countries on five
continents. The group will account for
12.5% of global aluminium production
and 16% of global alumina produc-
tion. These are impressive figures.
In contrast, the groups processing
sector is still more modest, but for all
that should not be ignored. The more
so since over the past few years Rusal
and Sual have invested not only in
the modernisation of their smelters
but also in that of their processing
Achenbach

capacities. The technological gap be-


tween Russian and Western alumin-
ium plants is gradually beginning to Achenbach caster
close. The combination of demand-
ing product qualities with location- Imports of cans cover less than 5% mium image. And this succeeded: in
related cost advantages will make the of demand. Rostar, a 100%-owned 2003 12% of Russian beer was already
forthcoming United Company Rusal subsidiary of Rusal, built its first can being sold in aluminium cans, com-
an effective supplier on the domestic factory with an annual capacity of 1.3 pared with only 0.4% in 2000. The
Russian market, which international billion units in 1998, in Dmitrov near success in the market for soft drinks
concerns are keeping an eye on, and Moscow. In 2004 a second can factory was similar, with the proportion of
conversely a competitor in the Euro- with annual capacity 1.7 billion units beverage cans increasing by a factor
pean and international markets to be was built in St. Petersburg. There, in of 7 to 700 million units. Rusal itself
taken seriously. St. Petersburg and Moscow, are also has a 30% market share of beer cans
In total around 760,000 tonnes where the most important can fillers (2005). In the first half of 2006 the
of primary aluminium went to the are located. company produced 15,927 t of can
various sales sectors of the Russian and lid stock, an increase of 23.5%
market in 2005. The largest purchas- Demand for beverage cans over the same period of the year be-
ers of aluminium are the building is growing apace fore, attributable to the commission-
and packaging sectors. These two are ing of a second production line at the
about equally important and between In Russia demand for aluminium bev- Rostar works in St. Petersburg.

82 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGY

Trend towards thinner foils

The market for aluminium foils has


also developed. Total Russian produc-
tion in this sector amounted to around
56,600 t in 2005. The most important
sales markets are the foodstuff branch
(33%) and the tobacco industry (29%).
The trend is towards thinner foils of
6 to 9 m. Global food concerns such
as Nestl and Kraft Foods are increas-
ingly turning to the Russian market
and making ever-stricter demands,
for example related to surface quality
and mechanical properties.
Rusal produces a wide range of
foils and foil composites, mainly for
confectionery and dairy products,
tobacco goods and pharmaceuticals,
and technical applications. These are and modernised foil mill at Armenal
made in its two factories Sayanal and
Armenal, which produced just short by higher rolling speeds. According to a capacity increase to 40,000 tpy is al-
of 19,000 t of foils in the first half of information from the company, sales ready being considered. The declared
2006. This corresponds to a growth extend throughout Russia and the CIS aim of Rusal is to build Armenal up
of 2.3% compared with the same pe- states, to Southern Asia, the American to become an international player in
riod in 2005, largely attributed to a continent and Europe. the foil market, as Peter Finnimore, in
productivity boost at Sayanal. There, The Armenal foil rolling plant in charge of the Sales & Marketing sec-
precisely in the sector of strip and foil Armenia was founded in 2000. In Oc- tions at Rusal, explained to this jour-
production, is emerging a new inter- tober 2006 modernisation of the plant nal at the Aluminium Fair in October
national competitor Rusal was completed after 2006. His main objective is the quest
that plans to produce almost two years, for new sales markets mainly with
not only commodities again with Achen- the European and American markets
but also quality prod- bach as the supplier. at the focus and the establishment of
ucts whose manufac- The investment pro- long-term customer relations in Rus-
ture is technically gramme amounted to sia and worldwide.
sophisticated: foil over US$ 70 million In the future, the foil activities of
qualities which need and covered the com- Ural Foil (around 18,000 tpy) will
not fight shy of com- plete modernisation have to be taken into account along
parison with those of six existing foil with the above Rusal capacities. Ural
provided by European mills including acces- Foil belongs to Sual and is the sec-
suppliers. sory and environment ond-largest aluminium foil producer
Sayanal, in the Re- protection equipment. in Russia. The foil works was built
public of Khakassia, Peter Finnimore, in charge of The modernisation in 1984 in Mikhailovsk in the Sver-
started operating in sales and marketing at Rusal programme included dlovsk region and covers the full
1995 and is the largest producer of the installation of supercasters, technical range from melts, through
foils and composite foils in Russia. i.e. continuous casting and rolling the casting of aluminium strip (0.21 to
The plant produces strip material units. Armenal will in future produce 0.40 mm) up to foil production (0.20
6 to 10 mm thick in widths of 1300 25,000 tpy of foil. 18,000 t of this in to 0.006 mm). The modernisation of
to 1650 mm and then rolls them to the thickness range 6 to 9 m. This the plant by ABB in 2004 concerned
foil thicknesses down to 0.006 mm, corresponds to an efficiency boost of among other things the drive and
as used for composite packaging in 150%. The Armenal foil production automation technology of the cold-
Western Europe as well. Some of too need not fear international com- rolling mill, including technological
the material is delivered directly to parison. Around 7,000 tpy of house- control systems for thickness and flat-
packaging manufacturers and some hold foil are produced. ness, which has distinctly improved
then goes for finishing. Already in the foil production both qualitatively
2006 work to modernise the rolling In search of new sales markets and quantitatively.
plant began with the collaboration of N
Achenbach Buschhtten in Germany. Yet, barely has the current modernisa-
A main aim was to boost productivity tion programme been completed and

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 83
MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGY

Audi takes EuroCarBody Award 2006 50 per cent higher than that of its pred-
ecessor; on the Roadster the increase
Award for innovative TT body concept is an incredible 128 per cent.
Extremely resilient cast compo-
Audi is the winner of the EuroCar- mix. Aluminium accounts for 69 per nents have been used in areas sub-
Body Award from the Automotive cent of the total body weight. Steel jected to high local forces and where
Circle International for the innova- components are used at the rear of the multifunctionality is required. A prime
tive body concept of the TT. model floor assembly. The doors and boot lid example is the A-post node this is
The sports coup beat off 13 com- are also made of steel. This provides a high-tech component that connects
petitors from around the world to an optimum distribution of axle loads, the longitudinal member, sill, A-post
take the award. The body of the making for superior handling. and windscreen cross-member.
new TT represents the first appli- The TT body-in-white weighs 206 Audi is profiting from its superior
cation of the Audi Space Frame kg, of which 140 kg is aluminium and wealth of experience when it comes to
(ASF) technology with a hybrid 66 kg is steel; as an all-steel construc- joining together aluminium and steel
construction, featuring an elabo- tion it would be 48 per cent heavier. components. Joining is performed in
rate composition of aluminium The aluminium components of the a variety of ways punch-riveting,
and steel. ASF comprise 63 kg of sheet, 45 kg clinching and bonding. A fourth join-
ing technology has now been added
to the list: self-tapping screws, insert-
ed by robots, melt the surface of the
component as a result of the friction
they cause, thus penetrating fully into
the material, forming a positive con-
nection with it. Another innovative
concept used on the new TT is the
aluminium zero joint that is produced
between the roof and the side section
during laser-welding.
This technique also enhances ride
comfort by reducing vibration. It took
only a few simulation cycles on the
computer to arrive at a structure that
suppresses incipient vibration and
avoids transmission paths.
In terms of crash safety, too, the
of castings and 32 kg of extruded sec- new TT is uncompromising. This is
Audi TT Coup body structure tions. the second time that Audi has received
The new form of ASF developed the coveted award. In 2003 Europes
This prize pays tribute to the work of for the Audi TT has qualities that are most prestigious innovation prize for
Audi developers who have again pre- perfect for a sports car. The static tor- body construction went to the Audi
sented impressive proof, in the form sional stiffness of the Coup is roughly A8. The A8 also has an ASF body.
of the new TT body, of how Audi leads
the way in this field. In ASF technol-
ogy, the bodys supporting structure is Innovatives Karosseriekonzept ausgezeichnet
made of extruded aluminium sections
and die-castings, with the aluminium Der Audi TT ist fr sein innovatives Ka- kg, die sich auf 140 kg Aluminium und 66
sheet panels forming a positive con- rosseriekonzept mit den EuroCarBody kg Stahl verteilen; in reiner Stahlbauweise
nection and performing a load-bear- Award des Automotive Circle International wre sie 48 Prozent schwerer. Der Alu-
ing role within this structure. The ausgezeichnet worden. In der Karosserie miniumanteil des ASF setzt sich aus 63 kg
components of the ASF space frame des neuen TT findet der ASF erstmals in Blechen, 45 kg Gusskomponenten und 32
vary in shape and cross-section de- hybrider Bauweise seine Anwendung. Alu- kg Strangpressprofilen zusammen. Extrem
pending on their function like the minium und Stahl werden hier aufwndig belastbare Gusskomponenten kommen
bones of the human skeleton, they miteinander verbunden. Bei der Karosserie dort zum Einsatz, wo lokal hohe Krfte
are made to fulfil their task as well as macht Aluminium 69 Prozent des Gesamt- eingeleitet werden und Multifunktionalitt
possible, while having the minimum gewichts aus. Stahlkomponenten finden gefragt ist. Ein Musterbeispiel ist der A-
possible weight. sich im Heckbereich der Bodengruppe. Sulen-Knoten er ist ein Hightech-Bau-
In the new TT, Audi has further de- Tren und Heckklappe sind ebenfalls aus teil, das Lngstrger, Schweller, A-Sule und
veloped ASF technology, and added Stahl. Die Rohkarosserie des TT wiegt 206 Scheibenquertrger miteinander verbindet.
high-strength steel to the material

84 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
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alu-bookshop.de
EINSCHLGIGE FACHLITERATUR


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NE-METALLE


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SUCHEN, FINDEN, BESTELLEN

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Fax +49 511 7304-157
www.giesel.de vertrieb@giesel.de
MARKT UND TECHNIK

Kolbenschmidt Pierburg setzt auf AGR-Khler aus Aluminium Kolbenschmidt Pier-


burg successfully mar-
Markterfolg mit Abgasrckfhrung keting its EGR system
Die Kolbenschmidt Pierburg AG erzielt. Das neuartige Khlerkonzept Kolbenschmidt Pierburg has
hat fr ihr neu entwickeltes Modul eignet sich sowohl fr Nieder- als auch booked its first orders for the
zur gekhlten Abgasrckfhrung fr Hochdrucksysteme und kann bei newly developed cooled exhaust
erste Kundenauftrge verbuchen entsprechenden Motorkonzepten ins gas recirculation (EGR) module.
knnen. Aktuell verfgt das welt- Saugrohr integriert werden. Presently, this globally operating
weit ttige Zulieferunternehmen Bisher bestanden Khler meist auto industry supplier has orders
ber Auftrge von drei namhaften aus zusammengeschweiten Edel- on hand from three renowned
europischen Automobilherstel- stahlblechen, was relativ hohe Ferti- European carmakers, representing
lern, die ein Projektvolumen von gungskosten zur Folge hat. Ein wei- a total contract volume of around
insgesamt rund 300 Mio. Euro terer Vorteil von Aluminium liegt 300 million euros.
darstellen. darin, dass dieser Werkstoff eine we-
sentlich hhere Wrmeleitfhigkeit In future, both diesel and turbo-
Sowohl Diesel- als auch aufgeladene als Stahl besitzt. So lsst sich bei rela- charged gas engines will be hardly
Otto-Motoren sind angesichts der ste- tiv kleinem Bauraum eine sehr hohe conceivable without EGR cooling due
tig steigenden Anforderungen der Ab- Khlleistung erzielen. to the ever stricter exhaust gas regu-
gasgesetzgebung ohne AGR-Khlung Die spezielle, patentierte Bauform lations. For diesel engines, whether
knftig kaum mehr denkbar. Beim mit unterbrochener Lamellen-Rippen- in passenger or commercial vehicles,
Dieselmotor - ob im Pkw- oder Nkw- struktur ist optimal, weil die turbu- this is especially true of the further
Bereich - gilt das vor allem fr die lente Durchmischung der Abgasstr- reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx)
weitere Reduzierung der Stickoxide mung durch die Unterbrechungen ge- Of special significance in this context
(NOx). Eine besondere Bedeutung frdert wird. Sie wirkt einer direkten is cooled exhaust gas recirculation
kommt hierbei der gekhlten Abgas- Versottung entgegen, frdert den enabling a drastic reduction of such
rckfhrung zu, die eine deutliche konvektiven Wrmeaustausch und emissions. This exhaust gas recircula-
Reduzierung des NOx-Ausstoes er- ermglicht den Stoff-, Druck- und tion module from Pierburg comprises
mglicht. Wrmeaustausch quer zur Hauptstr- a newly developed cooler made from
Das Gruppenunternehmen Pier- mungsrichtung, was zu einem Selbst- die-cast aluminium - a low-cost and
burg GmbH setzt dabei mit seiner reinigungseffekt fhrt. weight-saving alternative to todays
Entwicklung auf ein Abgasrckfhr- Um den Motor mglichst schnell commonly used stainless steel cool-
Modul mit einem neu entwickelten auf Betriebstemperatur zu bringen, ers, an option which, moreover, uti-
Khler aus Aluminium-Druckguss, verfgt der neue Abgaskhler ber lizes the better heat conductivity of
der eine kostengnstige und gewichts- eine wahlweise elektrisch oder pneu- aluminium.
sparende Alternative zu den heute b- matisch geschaltete Bypassklappe. In lowering exhaust gas tempera-
lichen Edelstahlkhlern darstellt und ber diese werden die Abgase ber ture by over 600 C, depending on the
sich zudem die bessere Wrmeleitung den so genannten Bypasskanal am operating mode, the exhaust gas cool-
von Aluminium zunutze macht. Khler vorbei geleitet, bis die notwen- er therefore helps reduce combustion
Der Abgaskhler senkt die Ab- dige Betriebstemperatur des Motors temperatures and hence nitrogen ox-
gastemperatur je nach Betriebspunkt erreicht ist. ide emissions while also taking some
um ber 600 C und trgt daher nicht Beim betriebswarmen Motor wird of the heat off the downstream en-
nur wesentlich zur Reduzierung der der Bypass geschlossen, so dass der gine components. The long standing
Verbrennungstemperatur und damit Khler seine eigentliche Funktion know-how of this Neuss-based auto
der Stickoxidemissionen bei, sondern aufnehmen kann, nmlich die Tempe- industry vendor in terms of emission
senkt auch die Temperaturbelastung raturabsenkung der zurckgefhrten reduction has enabled the develop-
der nachfolgenden Motorkomponen- Abgase. Durch die hiermit hervorge- ment team, with its aluminium EGR
ten. rufene, gezielte Absenkung der Ver- cooler, to design a product innovation
Auf dem langjhrigen Know-how brennungstemperatur in Kombinat- for diesel engine vehicles, one char-
des Neusser Automobilzulieferers in ion mit der entsprechenden Sauer- acteristic for its excellent long-term
punkto Schadstoffreduzierung auf- stoffreduktion wird die maximale cooling performance. This is achieved
bauend hat das Entwicklungsteam Stickoxidreduzierung erreicht. through innovative exhaust gas recir-
mit dem AGR-Khler aus Aluminium Ein weiterer Vorteil des neuen culation using specially shaped fins.
eine Produktinnovation fr Diesel- AGR-Khlers besteht darin, dass es The new cooler concept is suitable for
fahrzeuge konzipiert, die sich durch sich hier um ein integriertes Bau- both low- and high-pressure systems
eine hervorragende Langzeitkhllei- teil handelt, bei dem die einzelnen and can be integrated into the intake
stung auszeichnet. Dies wird durch Komponenten also der khlwasser- manifold of engines with matching
eine neuartige Abgasfhrung ber durchstrmte AGR-Khler, die By- design features.
speziell geformte Lamellen-Rippen passklappe, die bedarfsgerecht zwi- To date, coolers have mainly con-

86 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGY

sisted of welded stainless steel sheet


metal with its comparably high pro-
duction costs. Another advantage of
aluminium is its much higher heat
conductivity versus steel. Alumini-
ums excellent heat conductivity
makes it possible to achieve a very
high cooling effect even in a relatively
small space.
Moreover, the patented discontinu-
ous fin construction is ideal, since the
turbulent mixing of the exhaust gas
flow is enhanced by these breaks. It

Fotos: Kolbenschmidt Pierburg


counteracts direct fouling, promotes
convective heat exchange and permits
an exchange of substances, pressure
and heat transverse to the mainstream
direction - this having a self-cleaning
effect.
So that the engine reaches its op- EGR-cooler-module AGR-Khler-Modul
erating temperature as quickly as pos-
sible, the new exhaust gas cooler has a for controlling the EGR rate - merge schen Khler- und Bypassbetrieb
bypass valve, actuated electrically or into one EGR module. Moreover, alu- umschaltet, und das AGR-Ventil zur
pneumatically. The exhaust gases are minium makes it possible to combine Steuerung der AGR-Rate sinnvoll
routed through this valve and the so- the EGR module and intake manifold zu einem AGR-Modul zusammenge-
called bypass channel past the cooler, into one individual component. The fasst werden konnten. Zudem erlaubt
until the required engine operating result: an integrated intake manifold der Werkstoff Aluminium, das AGR-
temperature is reached. module with exhaust gas recircula- Modul und das Saugrohr in einem
With the engine at its operating tion and cooling system. einzigen Bauteil zu verbauen. Das
temperature, the bypass is closed, so By fine-tuning a new welding tech- Ergebnis: ein integriertes Saugrohr-
that the cooler can perform its actual nique developed for die-cast alumin- modul mit Abgasrckfhr- und Ab-
task and reduce the temperature of ium parts, it is now possible to weld gaskhlsystem.
the recirculated exhaust gases. The together all the internal interfaces of Durch die gezielte Weiterentwick-
effective lowering of the combus- the module rather than use the type of lung eines neuen Schweiverfahrens
tion temperature achieved through temperature-resistant seals and sup- fr Aluminium-Druckgussteile kn-
this process combined with corre- plementary fasteners employed until nen alle internen Schnittstellen des
sponding oxygen abatement reduces now. Moduls geschweit werden, fr die
nitrogen oxide emissions to a maxi- Additionally to meeting the already bisher temperaturbestndige Dich-
mum degree. Another advantage of mentioned strict criteria there is also tungen und ergnzende Schrauben
the new EGR cooler is that it is an the weight advantage of the new alu- eingesetzt werden mussten.
integrated assembly in which the in- minium cooler. And because of the Zustzlich zur Erfllung der bereits
dividual components - EGR cooler aluminium and its inherent corrosion genannten hohen Anforderungen er-
with its coolant flow, bypass valve al- protection, all requirements in terms gibt sich beim neuen AGR-Khler
ternating on-demand between cooler of durability are likewise met. durch die Wahl von Aluminiumdruck-
and bypass operation, and EGR valve N guss ein Gewichtsvorteil. Zudem wer-
den durch die Werkstoffwahl und den
konstruktiven Korrosionsschutz alle
Anforderungen in Bezug auf Dauer-
haltbarkeit erfllt.
N

Pierburg-Khlereinsatz mit der speziellen


Lamellen-Rippenstruktur

Pierburg-cooling unit with the patented


discontinuous fin construction

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 87
ALUMINIUM IM BAUWESEN

Energieeffizientes Bauen im Fokus von


Politik und Wirtschaft
Energiesparendes und ressourcen- bereits heute einen bis zu 60 Prozent Und die unter energetischen Aspekten
schonendes Bauen sind die zen- geringeren Energieverbrauch. Dies entwickelte Fassade SMC 50.HI mit
tralen Themen der Baubranche. spiegelt sich auch im Wrmedurch- einem hochwrmegedmmten Fen-
Kontinuierlich steigende Energie- gangskoeffizienten fr Fenster- und stersystem hilft Energie einzusparen.
und Rohstoffpreise sowie neue Fassadenelemente wider, die von 3,4
Verordnungen und Gesetze treiben W/m2K in den 1980er Jahren auf in- Corus Bausysteme: Solar-
Architekten und Bauherren dazu zwischen 1,4 W/m2K gesunken sind. architektur mit Profiltafeln
an, Gebude zu bauen, die immer
weniger Energie bentigen. Wie Schco: Energie sparen und Corus Bausysteme zeigte auf der Mes-
eine hhere Energieeffizienz auch gewinnen se, wie mit seinen Profiltafeln Kalzip
von Gebuden erreicht werden AluPlusSolar eine dachintegrierte,
kann, war nicht nur Gegenstand So stellte der europische Markt- regenerative Energiegewinnung mit-
des Energiegipfels der Bundesre- fhrer bei Gebudehllen, Schco tels Photovoltaik mglich wird. Die
gierung im Oktober letzten Jahres, International KG, auf der BAU 2007 Solarmodule und die Aluminium-
auch die EU-Kommission hat anwenderorientierte Programmerwei- Profiltafeln werden dabei zu einer
strengere Energiesparvorgaben auf terungen vor, mit denen sich Energie Einheit verschmolzen. Die Solarzel-
ihrer politischen Agenda. So ber- einsparen und gewinnen lsst: Mit len sind ohne Aufstnderung in die
rascht es nicht, dass die BAU 2007 entsprechenden architektonischen Flche integriert. Die robuste Solar-
im Januar in Mnchen energie- Konzepten lsst sich fast die gesamte folie wird dauerhaft auf die Profilta-
effizientes Bauen zu einem ihrer Gebudehlle zur Energiegewinnung feln laminiert. Da die Folie flexibel ist,
Schwerpunktthemen machte. durch Licht- und Sonneneinstrahlung knnen die Profiltafeln konvex oder
nutzen und hoch wrmegedmmte konkav verformt werden. Mit Kalzip
Von zentraler Bedeutung bei der Pla- Produkte aus Aluminium, Stahl und AluPlusSolar lassen sich Tonnen-,
nung und Realisierung von Gebuden Kunststoff tragen dazu bei Energie Shed- oder Pultdcher ebenso ein-
ist die uere Hlle. Sie beansprucht einzusparen. fach als Energiedach ausfhren wie
zwar nur rund 15 Prozent der Bauko- Ein Beispiel sind die Schco Pro- individuell geschwungene Formen
sten, ist aber verantwortlich fr den sol-Module: Sie leiten die erzeugte bis zu einer maximalen Neigung von
grten Teil des Energieverbrauchs Energie ber ein spezielles Profil fr 60 Grad.
bei Heizung, Khlung, Lftung und eine verdeckte Fhrung elektrischer
Beleuchtung, und dies fr Jahrzehnte. Leitungen in Fassaden direkt zur ge- Alcoa setzt auf Verbundplatten
Optimierte Fassaden erzielen dagegen wnschten Verteilung im Gebude.
Fast mutet es als Positionierung gegen
den Trend an, wenn energieeffizientes
Bauen einmal nicht in das Zentrum
Manahmen des Gesetzgebers der Marktkommunikation gerckt
wird. Alcoa Architectural Products
Neue Energie-Einsparverordnung viel Energie fr Heizung und Warmwas- prsentierte auf der Bau 2007 u. a.
Mit der Neuregelung der Energie-Einspar- serbereitung verbraucht, als gem den seine Marke Reynobond und setzt
verordnung (EnEV) zum 1. Januar 2008 Anforderungen der EnEV fr Neubauten auf die wachsende Nachfrage nach
durch die Bundesregierung mssen vorgeschrieben ist. Aluminium-Verbundplatten. 1,6 mal
Hausbesitzer einen Pass ber den Ener- Die Bundesregierung hat ihr Programm leichter als Vollaluminium sind die
gieverbrauch ihres Gebudes vorlegen. zur CO2-Gebudesanierung fr den Zeit- Sandwichelemente aus Aluminium-
Auch in Brssel sollen die Energievorgaben raum 2006 bis 2009 auf jhrlich rund 1,4 blechen mit Polyethylenkern sehr
der Gebude-Richtlinie ab 2009 verschrft Mrd. Euro aufgestockt. Gefrdert werden biegesteif und stofest. Auerdem
werden. Manahmen zur CO2-Minderung und zur dehnen sich die Paneele bei Tempera-
CO2-Gebudesanierungsprogramm Einsparung von Energie in Wohngebu- turschwankungen zwischen -50 und
Rund drei Viertel des Energiebedarfs im den. Hierunter fallen z. B. die effizientere + 80 C kaum aus. Um die Nachfrage
Privathaushalt wird fr Raumheizung ge- Gestaltung der Gebudehlle durch nach breiteren Verbundplatten bis
nutzt. Ein Gutteil der Raumwrme geht Wrmedmmung von Dach und Auen- 2.000 mm knftig noch besser befrie-
durch Wnde, Fenster, Dach, Tren oder wnden oder die Erneuerung der Fenster. digen zu knnen, hat das Unterneh-
den Fuboden verloren. Es gibt damit ein Auerdem ist eine finanzielle Unterstt- men mit dem Bau einer neuen Band-
groes Potenzial, die Energieeffizienz zu zung mglich, wenn Energiesparhuser beschichtungsanlage begonnen, die
steigern: In den bestehenden Wohngebu- und Passivhuser errichtet oder erstmalig speziell Aluminium in dieser Breite
den wird im Durchschnitt fast dreimal so erworben werden. einbrennlackieren kann.
N

88 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
ALUMINIUM IM BAUWESEN

bergeordnete Trends im Fenster- und Fassadenbau

Umwelt- und Energiefragen geben den Ton an


Vernderungen der Altersstruktur, Der Bausatzgedanke, der Kompo-
Globalisierung und Verknappung nenten wie Rahmen, Beschlge, Glas,
von Materialien, Rohstoffen und Randverbund, Regenschutzschiene
Energie prgen die Zukunft des beinhaltet, wird die alten Konstruk-
Fenster- und Fassadenbaus. So tionsnormen ersetzen. Dies bietet
der Tenor einer Veranstaltung des Chancen fr eine schnelle und ein-
Instituts fr Fenstertechnik (ift) im fache Variation, Differenzierung und
Herbst 2006, in der die Trends der Innovation der Produkte.
Branche beleuchtet wurden. Hier Bei der Wrmedmmung sind die
eine Zusammenfassung: Technologien fr die nchsten fnf
bis zehn Jahre bekannt. Gnzlich
Als zentraler Trend kristallisierte sich neue Techniken fr die Zeit danach
die Notwendigkeit des schonenden sind notwendig, um zu substanziellen
Umgangs mit Rohstoffen und Ener- Verbesserungen zu kommen. Beim
gien heraus. Wrmeschutz und Mate- Isolierglas sind beispielsweise die
rialoptimierungen in der Entwicklung physikalischen Grenzen der vorhan-
von Konstruktionen seien deshalb die denen Entwicklungslinie erreicht.
bestimmenden Themen der Zukunft. Die stndige Verbesserung und

Schco International KG
Deutschland nehme hier weltweit eine Neuentwicklung von Solarzellen in
Spitzenstellung ein. Auch die Fen- Verbindung mit Frderprogrammen
ster- und Fassadenbranche habe mit und einer Preisreduzierung ebnet
der Photovoltaik und mit energetisch den Weg in die Fenster- und Fassa-
optimierten Bauteilen beste Chancen, denbranche. Farbstoffsolarzellen er-
diese Entwicklung erfolgreich zu nut- ffnen neue gestalterische Mglich- Structural-Glazing-Vorhangfassade
zen. Dem ift zufolge bestimmen meh- keiten.
rere bergeordnete Trends die knf- sowie der Kommunikation genutzt
tige Entwicklung der Branche. Gesellschaftstrends werden.

Techniktrends Die Notwendigkeit weiterer Energie- Produktnorm und CE-Kennzeich-


sparmanahmen etabliert sich welt- nung
Die heutigen Konstruktionen werden weit mit jeder neuen Erhhung der
immer vielfltiger und spezialisier- Energiepreise als Megatrend. Deshalb Die europischen Normen der Fen-
ter. Dies erfordert deshalb auch neue sind Bauteile und Verfahren zur Ener- ster-, Fassaden, Tr- und Torbranche
Konzepte fr Entwicklung, Fertigung, gieeinsparung gefragt. sind weitestgehend eingefhrt und in
Qualittssicherung und Wartung. Hier Die Solarindustrie hat hervorra- groen Teilen schon bindend. Die er-
bedarf es einer intensiven Informati- gende Imagewerte in Bezug auf In- sten berarbeitungen, beispielsweise
on der Verarbeiter, Monteure und novation, Design und Akzeptanz und der Fassadennorm DIN EN 13830
Nutzer seitens der Hersteller. Alte kann die Positionierung des moder- werden bereits in Angriff genommen.
Themen wie Wartung und Instand- nen Fensters als Hightechprodukt mit Alte Regeln bleiben dabei erhalten
haltung bekommen dabei eine neue hherem Preisniveau einleiten. und werden przisiert.
Bedeutung. Fr Manahmen zur Energie- und Die Anbieter von Aluminium- und
Neue Konstruktionen werden Ressourceneinsparung gibt es natio- Kunststofffenstern sowie die RAL-
strker als Verbundkonstruktionen nal und weltweit Frdermglichkei- Gtegemeinschaften haben fr ihre
ausgefhrt, die durch eine Speziali- ten, die Investitionen anstoen und Verarbeiter konsistente und regelge-
sierung der jeweiligen Baugruppen erleichtern. rechte Verfahren fr die CE-Kenn-
Leistungseigenschaften wie Wrme- Die Forschungs- und Innovations- zeichnung und die werkseigene Pro-
und Schallschutz oder Einbruchhem- struktur muss sich in Deutschland duktionskontrolle erstellt. Lsungen
mung weiter verbessern. auf allen Ebenen verbessern. Unter- fr handwerklich strukturierte Her-
nehmen, Hochschulen und Institute steller befinden sich in der Entwick-
mssen in Kooperationen und Netz- lung.
Das ift ist ein eingetragener Verein, der werken leistungsfhige Produkte In Deutschland kann fr Nach-
von der Branche der Fenster-, Fassaden-, und Dienstleistungen entwickeln, weise von Fenstern und Auentren
Tr- und Torhersteller sowie ihrer Zu- validieren und global vermarkten. im Rahmen der CE-Kennzeichnung
lieferer getragen wird. Dabei mssen neue moderne Formen das Cascading System (Systeminha-
der Arbeitsteilung, der Finanzierung ber stellt Herstellern die Ergebnisse

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 89
ALUMINIUM IM BAUWESEN

der Erstprfung (ITT) zur Verfgung) Neubau, Verkauf und Neuvermie- moderne Hightechfenster macht das
oder das Share System (mehrere Her- tung obligatorisch zu erstellen ist. Angebot verstndlicher. Hightechfen-
steller nutzen dieselben Ergebnisse Dieser kann wahlweise ber eine Be- ster mit Zusatznutzen sowie hchster
der Erstprfung (ITT)) genutzt wer- darfsrechnung oder eine Verbrauchs- Qualitt und Gebrauchstauglichkeit
den. Beide Systeme sind in der DIN messung erstellt werden. Fr Wohn- erffnen Chancen fr ein Hochpreis-
EN 14351-1 verankert. gebude ndert sich gegenber der segment.
Methodik der EnEV 2004 nichts. Bei Prestigeprojekte und Events wie
Weitere Normen und Fachregeln Nichtwohngebuden mssen die En- die Fuballweltmeisterschaft in
ergieaufwendungen fr knstliches Deutschland oder die Olympiade in
Die EG Richtlinie 2002/91/EG zur Er- Licht und Klimatisierung gem der Peking oder London wirken wie Ka-
mittlung der Gesamtenergieeffizienz DIN V 18599 ermittelt werden, die talysatoren fr innovatives Bauen.
wird in Deutschland durch die No- auch fr die Planung von Wohnge- Leistungsfhige Unternehmen kn-
vellierung der Energieeinsparverord- buden verwendbar ist. nen hier direkt Auftrge generieren.
nung umgesetzt. In diesem Zuge wird Brandschutznachweise knnen zur Kleinere Unternehmen knnen diese
auch ein Energieausweis eingefhrt, Zeit nach nationaler Norm DIN 4102 durch einen Imagetransfer fr den ei-
und europischer Norm EN 13501-1 genen Markt nutzen.
gefhrt werden. Diese sind die Grund- Deutschland und Europa sind in
lage fr die Klassifizierung. Baustoffe vielen kologischen Marktsegmenten
mit bekannter Zusammensetzung und Weltmarktfhrer. Innovativen Her-
bekanntem Brandverhalten werden stellern von Fenster- und Fassaden-
national in DIN 4102-4 und europ- technologien bieten sich so Chancen
isch in CWFT-Listen beschrieben. in interessanten lokalen Wachstums-
mrkten wie London, Kalifornien
Markttrends oder Peking, in denen kologische
Schco International KG

Standards immer strker gefordert


Deutschland nimmt weltweit die werden.
Fhrungsrolle in der Bau- und Woh- Zukunftsstudien bieten wichtige
nungstechnologie ein. Dies bietet be- Hinweise und Instrumente zur Be-
ste Chancen auch fr die Fenster- und stimmung mglicher Entwicklungs-
Fensterprofil mit Einsatzelement Fassadenbranche, aktiv zu werden. linien und bei der Planung von In-
Eine klare Unterscheidung der Pro- novationen. Dies gilt es seitens der
der den Energieverbrauch eines Ge- dukte in einfache Konstruktionen, die Branche zu nutzen.
budes transparent macht und bei Mindestanforderungen erfllen, und N

Gebudehllen in Metall Ideen und Konzepte fr die Zukunft sierung in der industriellen Massenproduk-
tion. Bewertet werden alle Einsendungen
European Kalzip Student Award 2007 nach den Kriterien Kreativitt, Vision, Funk-
tionalitt, Technologie, zukunftsweisende
Die Corus Bausysteme GmbH produziert vorstellungen und innovativen Ideen fr Entwicklungen und Marktreife.
unter der Marke Kalzip Dach- und Fassaden- zuknftige Gebudehllen im Kontext mo- Eine europisch besetzte Architekten-Jury
systeme aus Aluminium. International ttige derner architektonischer Anforderungen zu ermittelt die Sieger. Die ersten beiden Ge-
Architekten nutzen Kalzip-Profiltafeln fr entwickeln. Studenten der Fachrichtungen winner bekommen neben einem Geldbetrag
ihre architektonischen Highlights. So gehrt Architektur und Design knnen ihre Vor- auch die Gelegenheit, ein mehrmonatiges
der neue Barajas Airport in Madrid ebenso schlge zu folgenden Themen einreichen: Praktikum im Wiener Bro von Coop
zu den herausragenden Referenzobjekten Himmelb(l)au zu absolvieren. Die offizielle
wie das BMW-Zentralgebude in Leipzig Fassade Preisvergabe findet am 27. April 2007 im
oder das Imperial War Museum North Dach Deutschen Architektur Zentrum (DAZ) in
Manchester von Daniel Libeskind. Unter Hybridmaterialien Berlin statt. An dem Wochenende werden
dem Motto Wrap a building! schreibt die Optimierung bestehender Systeme. die prmierten Arbeiten zudem im DAZ
Kalzip Business Unit erstmals den European Berlin ausgestellt.
Kalzip Student Award 2007 aus, der sich Die Aufgabe steht im Spannungsfeld ganz Unter www.kalzip-studentaward.com kn-
an Universitten, Fachhochschulen und unterschiedlicher Aspekte wie kologie, nen interessierte Studenten ihre Arbeiten
Design-Schulen aus ganz Europa richtet. (Licht)Durchlssigkeit, Geometrien, Oberfl- bis zum 15. Mrz 2007 anmelden und bis
Der Wettbewerb bietet dem akademischen chenstruktur, Anpassung an die (natrliche) zum 13. April 2007 einreichen.
Nachwuchs die Mglichkeit, ihre Design- Umgebung, Vielseitigkeit oder Standardi-

90 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
ALUMINIUM IM BAUWESEN

Fenstermarkt im Plus
Die Hersteller von Fenstern und Prozent, fr den Nichtwohnbau mit ster- und Fassadenbau steht weiter-
Fassaden gehen fr 2006 erstmals einem Plus von 4,6 Prozent. Der Re- hin die Verbesserung der Wrmedm-
seit langem wieder von einer po- novierungsmarkt legte um fast zehn mung im Zentrum der Aufmerksam-
sitiven Entwicklung fr ihre Bran- Prozent, der Neubau um 5,4 Prozent keit. Denn mit der Novellierung der
che aus, nachdem die seit ber zu. Fr all diese Marktsegmente wa- Energie-Einsparverordnung im Jahr
zehn Jahren anhaltende Talfahrt ren die Vorjahrszahlen noch negativ. 2008 werden die Ansprche an die
der deutschen Bauwirtschaft ge- 2007 wird der Wirtschaftsbau neben Wrmedmmung der Gebudehlle
stoppt ist. Schon im Oktober 2006 der Renovierung die treibende Rolle noch einmal erhht. Und nachdem
auf der Glasstec verkndete Bern- fr die weiterhin positive Branchen- seit Ende 2005 alle vorgehngten
hard Helbing, der Prsident des entwicklung sein. Fassaden das CE-Zeichen fhren
Verbandes der Fenster- und Fassa- Bei den Rahmenmaterialien fr mssen, steht ab Herbst 2007 auch
denhersteller (VFF) in Frankfurt: Fenster lassen sich fr 2006 und dessen Einfhrung fr Fenster und
Wir rechnen mit einem Zuwachs 2007 lediglich Absatztrends erken- Auentren bevor.
von ber fnf Prozent. nen. So nahm Kunststoff 2006 ber-
durchschnittlich zu, Holz lag im
Ende 2006 zeichnete sich fr den Fens- Gesamttrend, whrend Aluminium
termarkt schlielich ein Zuwachs von zurckblieb. Dies drfte sich schon
11,6 auf 12,5 Mio. Fenstereinheiten im laufenden Jahr wieder ndern,
ab. Ein Katalysator dieser Entwick- wenn sich das strkere Wachstum des
lung: die drastisch gestiegenen Ener- Nichtwohnbaus mit seinen hheren
giepreise, die den Einbau moderner, Anteilen von Metallfenstern und -fas-
wrmegedmmter Fenster begnsti- saden auswirkt. 2007 wird deshalb
gen. Fr den Wohnbau rechnet die der Aluminiumanteil voraussichtlich
Branche mit einem Zuwachs von 9,7 berdurchschnittlich steigen. Im Fen- Quelle: VFF

Grtes deutsches Broprojekt mit Wicona-Fassaden


Vom damaligen Klner Oberbr- noch offen, da er als Hochhaus gilt auf der Baustelle erwartet. Dabei han-
germeister Konrad Adenauer 1924 und so besonderen Anforderungen delt es sich um rund 4.300 Element-
eingeweiht, galten die Rheinhallen entsprechen muss. teile mit je 100 Kilogramm Gewicht.
lange Zeit als eine der modernsten Die Hallen spalten sich auf in 14
Messeanlagen Deutschlands. In- Innenhfe mit Attika, Hallen- und
zwischen ist der Abbruch der Hal- Auenfassade. Das Hauptvolumen
len innerhalb der stehen gebliebe- der Aluminiumfassaden, die allein
nen historischen Auenmauer ein Gewicht von 400 bis 450 Tonnen
weitgehend abgeschlossen. ergeben, liegt in den Innenhfen. Die-
se Fassade wird bis zur Erffnung im
Neben dem unregelmigen Recht- Jahre 2008 durch die Metallbaufirma
eck der Fassade von rund 200 x 300 Rupert App aus Leutkirch ausgefhrt,
Metern bleiben der Messeturm, ein die bereits mehrere Projekte dieser
Wahrzeichen der Stadtsilhouette, und Grenordnung, u. a. die NordLB in
das alte Portalbauwerk Atrium am Hannover, umgesetzt hat. Die tech-
Messeplatz bestehen. In die expressi- nischen Voraussetzungen wurden
onistische Fassade von 1924 wird ein durch die Klner Architekten HPP in
komplett neues riesiges Brogebu- Zusammenarbeit mit dem Fassaden-
de integriert. Als einer der knftigen planer AMP aus Bargteheide gesetzt.
Mieter steht bereits der Fernsehsen- Seit Oktober 2005 hat Hydro Buil-
der RTL fest, der ab 2008 aus diesen ding Systems aktiv zur technischen
historischen Hallen senden und hier Umsetzung im Bereich Fassaden bei
die Deutschland-Zentrale einrichten den Planern beigetragen. Die jetzige
Norsk Hydro

wird. Die Broflche betrgt insge- Ausfhrung wird in der Wicona-Ele-


samt rund 160.000 qm, RTL wird mentfassadenkonstruktion Wictec EL
davon rund die Hlfte beanspruchen. umgesetzt. Bereits im Dezember 2006
Eine Nutzung des Turms ist derzeit wurden die ersten Fassadenelemente Klner Messeturm und historische Auenfassade

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 91
RECYCLING

Vorbericht

9. Internationaler Aluminium Recycling Kongress der OEA


Am 26. und 27. Februar 2007 steht forderungen gestellt, die mit einem recycling-Industrie zeigen. Die be-
in Kln das Recyceln von Alumini- weitreichenden Strukturwandel der deutende Rolle des europischen
um auf dem Veranstaltungskalen- mit dem Recycling befassten Indus- Metallhandels fr die Versorgung mit
der. An diesen Tagen ldt die Orga- trie verbunden ist. sekundren Rohstoffen wird ebenso
nisation of European Aluminium Den Einfhrungsvortrag wird Sean diskutiert wie das durch verstrkte
Refiners and Remelters (OEA) zum M. Stack halten, der Europachef von Schrottexporte entstandene Span-
mittlerweile 9. Internationalen Alu- Aleris Europe, einem Unternehmen, nungsfeld.
minium Recycling Kongress ins dass sich erst seit kurzem in Europa Allein fnf Vortrge werden sich
Hotel Maritim ein. auf dem Gebiets des Aluminiumre- mit technischen Neuerungen auf
cyclings engagiert. Roland Scharf- dem Gebiet der Erfassung, der Auf-
Unternehmer und Mitarbeiter der Bergmann, Prsident der OEA, wird bereitung und dem Einschmelzen von
Aluminiumrecycling-Industrie, Me- in seinem Vortrag eine Positionsbe- Schrotten und der Verwertung der
tallhndler, Journalisten, Behrden- stimmung der europischen Alumi- beim Recyclingprozess anfallenden
vertreter, Angehrige von Hochschu- niumrecycling-Industrie vornehmen, Salzschlacke beschftigen. Der Erfolg
len, also alle, die mit dem Recycling die bestehenden Herausforderungen der Recyclingbemhungen in Europa
von Aluminium befasst sind, werden darstellen und Wege zu ihrer Bewlti- hngt wesentlich von den rechtlichen
sich an dem Ort treffen, wo die erfolg- gung aufzeigen. Gnter Kirchner, Ge- Rahmenbedingungen ab. Aktuell ste-
reiche Kongress-Serie vor 17 Jahren neralsekretr der OEA und Vorsitzen- hen weitreichende Reformen der EU-
begonnen wurde. Der Zeitpunkt der der des Global Aluminium Recycling Abfallrahmenrichtlinie an, ber die
Veranstaltung ist gnstig gewhlt. Die Committees (GARC), stellt vor allem berichtet wird. Vortrge ber beste-
Konjunktur, das begrenzte Angebot auf die globale Bedeutung des recy- hende und knftige Preisbildungsme-
an natrlichen Rohstoffen und der celten Aluminiums als Rohstoffquelle chanismen und Herausforderungen
kologische Nutzen des Aluminium- ab. In den letzten Jahren hat vor allem an das Recyceln von Verpackungen
recyclings haben Aluminiumschrott der zunehmende Abfluss von Alumi- runden das Bild der interessanten
zu einem weltweit begehrten Roh- niumschrott nach China fr Unruhe Veranstaltung ab.
stoff werden lassen. Hierdurch sieht gesorgt. Ob zu Recht oder zu Unrecht Nheres zum Kongress direkt bei
sich die europische Aluminiumre- wird der Vortrag eines Reprsentan- der OEA: Tel: +49 (0)211 451 933 oder
cycling-Industrie vor neue Heraus- ten der chinesischen Aluminium- unter www.oea-alurecycling.org. N

Preview of the 9th International Alumin- China has been a cause for concern. Wheth-
er or not this is justified will be examined
ium Recycling Congress of the OEA in a lecture by a representative of Chinas
aluminium recycling industry. The important
On 26 and 27 February 2007 in Cologne, the Europes aluminium recycling industry with part played by the metal trade in relation
recycling of aluminium is on the calendar of new challenges that entail far-reaching to supplies of secondary raw materials will
events. On those dates the Organisation of structural transformations in all aspects of be discussed as well, as also will the stresses
European Aluminium Refiners and Remelters recycling-related industry. The introductory created by rising scrap exports.
(OEA) is inviting interested parties to what lecture will be given by Sean M. Stack, Head No less than 5 lectures will deal with
will then be the 9th International Alumin- of European operations at Aleris Europe, a technical innovations in the fields of the col-
ium Recycling Congress. Companies and em- company that has become engaged in the lection, preparation and melting of scrap and
ployees in the aluminium recycling industry, field of aluminium recycling only relatively the recovery and use of salt slags produced
metal traders, journalists, representatives of recently. Roland Scharf-Bergmann, Presi- during the recycling process. The success
government authorities, in short all who are dent of the OEA, will describe the position of recycling efforts in Europe depends sub-
involved with the recycling of aluminium adopted by the European recycling industry, stantially on the legal boundary conditions
will meet at the place where this series of set out the existing challenges and indicate imposed. At present far-reaching reform of
successful congresses began 17 years ago. ways to overcome them. Gnter Kirchner, the EUs guidelines on waste are due, and
The timing of the event is well chosen. Secretary General of the OEA and Chair of these will be reported. Lectures on existing
The trade position, the limited supply of the Global Aluminium Recycling Committees and future pricing mechanisms and chal-
natural raw materials and the ecological (GARC), will deal mainly with the global im- lenges related to the recycling of packaging
uses of aluminium recycling have promoted portance of recycled aluminium as a source materials will round off the picture of this
aluminium scrap to become a raw material of raw material. In recent years, above all interesting event. More information on the
in demand all over the world. This presents the increased flow of aluminium scrap to congress at www.oea-alurecycling.org.

92 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
RECYCLING

Recycling von Folienschrotten

Hydro vollendet Metallkreislauf in Neuss


Eine Idee, eine Pumpe, ein paar als Metallmasseln teuer zukaufen. Um de Metall erzeugt einen Wirbelstrom
unnachgiebige Ingenieure - so hier zu sparen, suchte ein Team von im Inneren der Pumpe, die daher
vollendet Hydro im Aluminium- Ingenieuren um Projektleiter Micha- Vortex (Wirbel) heit. Kommen die
Cluster Neuss den Metallkreislauf el Jordan, zuletzt Tag und Nacht, eine 40 x 40 Zentimeter groen, aus Folie
und strkt den engen Verbund mit Lsung fr den kostengnstigen, aber zusammengepressten Blcke in den
den Nachbar-Walzwerken in hochwertigen Folienschrott aus dem Schmelzofen, presst die Schwerkraft
Neuss und Grevenbroich. Hydro-Walzwerk in Grevenbroich. den Folienabfall in den Wirbelstrom
Von der bis zu 6 Mikrometer und unter die Oberflche des Metalls,
Die Gieerei im Rheinwerk Neuss von hauchdnnen Folie, die Hydro aus wo Turbulenzstrmungen entstehen.
Hydro schmilzt nun jhrlich 22.000 Grevenbroich fr Getrnkeverbund- Im rotierenden Metallstrom zersetzt
Tonnen Folienschrotte aus dem Werk kartons in viele Lnder liefert, lieen sich der Folienblock und schmilzt
Grevenbroich um. Das macht kolo- sich Prozessberbleibsel bisher kaum perfekt.
gisch Sinn, und es hilft im Kosten- einschmelzen. Denn auf der groen Ein gutes Geschft fr beide Stand-
kampf angesichts der hohen Strom- Oberflche der Folie wirkt eine dnne orte: Frher konnten wir nur dicke
preise, unsere Wettbewerbsfhigkeit Oxidschicht wie eine Isolierung. Au- walzblanke Schrotte umschmelzen,
zu strken, sagt Werkleiter Bernhard erdem hat zusammengepresste Folie und unsere Kunden mussten ihren
Eich. eine Dichte, die wesentlich unter der Folienschrott bei unseren Konkur-
Hydro erzeugt in Deutschlands von flssigem Aluminium liegt. So renten einschmelzen lassen, die
grter deutscher Aluminiumhtte schwamm Folienabfall im Schmelz- zudem altmodische Technologie
in Neuss jhrlich 224.000 Tonnen bad zuoberst auf dem flssigen Me- verwendeten, erklrt Gieereileiter
Flssigmetall. Dagegen liefert die Gie- tall, es entstand viel Krtze und Ulrich Bollmann. Jetzt benutzen wir
erei des Werkes mittlerweile bereits die dnne Folie verbrannte statt zu vorhandene Anlagen auf neue Weise,
320.000 Tonnen Walzbarren an Alu- schmelzen. Die Ingenieure in Neuss knnen so die dnne Folie effektiv
norf nebenan, das dann Aluminum- kamen auf die Idee, eine elektroma- umschmelzen und das lohnt sich
band an das Folienwalzwerk von Hy- gnetische Pumpe zu verwenden, die fr uns und fr unsere Kollegen in
dro in Grevenbroich liefert. Die Gie- flssiges Metall mit hoher Geschwin- Grevenbroich.
erei muss das Restmaterial zumeist digkeit zirkulieren lsst. Das rotieren- N

  

 

 

        



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ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 93
TECHNOLOGY

Recent advances in coil coating technology


N. C. Davies, Banbury

The application of coatings to coaters are always looking to increase focussing on filiform corrosion. These
continuous coils has been in exist- their volume through the line. The surface active layers arise from the
ence as an industrial process for overall line speed is in general limited high level of surface shear induced
more than 50 years. The develop- by the time spent in the paint/lacquer during rolling that transforms the
ments made over that period have curing ovens. Time at temperature is near surface microstructure (Fig. 1).
led to an increase in both scale required to cure the organic film and Deformed surfaces are character-
and speed. Coil coating has thus also extreme care must be taken in ised by an ultra-fine grain size that
become the most efficient method balancing the coating lines fume ex- can be stabilised by magnesium ox-
of coating materials, allowing end haust system with the coatings sol- ide pinning in magnesium-containing
users to displace this important vent emission volume. Advances have alloys [3]. However, it is not the fine
practice from their plants as a been made in waterborne systems and grain size that is responsible for the
fixed cost and into suppliers as a higher solid coatings and these will be enhanced corrosion susceptibility of
variable cost. discussed further, as will alternative the surface layer. This susceptibility is
cure technology processes. It should promoted by the preferential precipi-
The future competitiveness of coil also be stressed that probably in ex- tation of manganese-rich dispersoids
coating within Europe has the follow- cess of 95% of all coated products will during annealing treatments, which is
ing drivers: product quality and dif- be post-formed, so all alloys and coat- related to the manganese solid solu-
ferentiation, cost and line versatility, ings that are specified must be toler- tion level and the temperature and
environmental compliance. Achiev- ant to controlled deformation. time of annealing.
ing these technical, economic and In coil coating for can end stock These deformed surface layers on
legislative challenges is paramount relatively thin lacquers are applied aluminium alloys are produced most
for an industry seeking to maintain to aluminium: utilising advances in readily by hot rolling and, generally,
and expand in a world where global- line design and lacquer formulations, the layer thickness of sheet and plate
isation pressures exist. some lines are now reported to be after hot rolling is of the order of a mi-
Internationally, the coil coating operating at speeds above 250m/min. cron. The deformed layer thickness is
process is the application of thou- This is close to the limit of speed that progressively reduced by cold rolling
sands of tons of chemicals, paints can be achieved by conventional roll so alloys that have been extensively
and lacquers to millions of square coat application technology. Any po- cold rolled have thinner deformed
metres of surface. The fact that most tential speed increases beyond this layers that can more readily be re-
of these coating materials have been limit will require alternative applica- moved by conventional etch cleaning
solvent based immediately highlights tion technologies or processes. operations. This means that resistance
the environmental compliance chal- to corrosion can be improved by in-
lenges facing the industry. Current Cleaning creasing the transfer gauge thickness
and emerging legislation, such as the so that after cold rolling the amount of
Solvent Emission Directive (SED) The bare aluminium strip surface surface to be removed at final gauge is
[1999/13/EC] in Europe, mean that presented to the first process step of 0.2m or less.
coil coaters are continuously seeking cleaning has residual rolling oil from The primary processes for cleaning
cleaner technologies. the cold rolling process, oxide films aluminium are by spray or immersion
Additionally, the End of Life Vehi- generated during the high tempera- in either acid or alkali solutions, al-
cle (ELV) Directive demands that the ture rolling passes (most evident on though acid electrolytic processes are
coatings used in automotive applica- magnesium-containing alloys where also used [4]. A line configuration may
tions are free of heavy metals, which MgO segregates to the
then impacts on the metal pretreat- surface) and deformed or
ment (the chemical layer between surface active layers.
substrate and paint/lacquer) chemi- For painted products,
cals that must be chromium free. corrosion susceptibility, in
Although the primary concerns with most instances, has been
chromium focus on its hexavalent found to be controlled by
form, many packaging end-users are surface active layers. This
also demanding the withdrawal of its has only been studied
trivalent form which has historically in detail during the past
been used as a pretreatment in can- decade [1, 2], initially
ning and other sheet packaging. through an industry-wide
In addition to these challenges coil Brite-Euram programme Fig. 1: 100 nm surface active layer on AA3105 cold rolled sheet

94 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
TECHNOLOGY

also include a mild pre-clean step to architectural products both types of thermal treatment in water or steam.
reduce the lubricant residues or any chromium pretreatments have been Anodising pretreatments have been
surface detritus. used but, with the major carcinogenic used very effectively for many years
Cleaning in alkaline solutions of- concerns surrounding the use of Cr although they are not in widespread
ten produces a non-uniform surface VI compounds, Cr VI is not used for use as coil line treatments. Coil line
in that aluminium and its oxide are packaging products. treatments are based on fast anodising
soluble and magnesium oxide is rela- For rinse applications with Cr VI in either sulphuric acid or phosphoric
tively insoluble, hence a roughened pretreatments the coating is formed acid and these types of pretreatment
surface can result. However, alkali by the reaction of solutions containing have the advantages of speed, control
cleaners are very effective in the re- sodium dichromate and hydrofluoric and uniformity compared to most
moval of organics. On the other hand acid. The HF attacks the residual sur- chemical conversion treatments (Fig.
an acid cleaner will consistently at- face oxides and aluminium, produc- 2); they rely on a balance between
tack both types of oxide, providing a ing electrons which facilitate a redox anodic film formation and chemical
more uniform surface. reaction [5,6] resulting in the reduc- dissolution of the anodic film and are
For historical reasons alkali clean- tion of the hexavalent dichromate much under-utilised as chrome-free
ing was initially the preferred clean- ion (Cr2O7) to a trivalent chromium pretreatments.
ing option but gradually there has oxide (Cr2O3). Importantly excess Fluorotitanic and fluorozirconic
been a move to acid cleaners where Cr VI is retained in such films and, acid based pretreatments [7] are in
proprietary cleaners are based on in downstream product applications fairly widespread use as chrome-free
sulphuric acid and incorporate hy- where these films could be damaged, alternatives. Such pretreatments can
drofluoric acid and surfactants. The the excess hexavalent chromium re- certainly be effective but are more
cleaners work by the sulphuric acid acts with water and the aluminium difficult to monitor in production
removing organics and oxides and the to produce a new conversion coating compared to traditional chrome-
HF attacking both the oxides and the i.e. the pre-treatment system is self- based systems. This is particularly an
aluminium substrate: the degree of at- repairing. The no-rinse roll-coatable issue where polymeric additions are
tack can be controlled by the amount analogue of this system typically con- made to the formulation to improve
of free fluoride in solution. tains CrO3, HF and amorphous SiO2 performance. For such systems good
as a carrier. adhesion is achieved through good
Pretreatment For rinse applications of Cr III surface coverage of a uniform film
pretreatments, the reacting solutions of either zirconium and/or titanium
The key functions of pretreatments contain CrO3, phosphoric acid and oxide. However, adhesion is severely
or conversion treatments after clean- hydrofluoric acid. Similar oxidation/ compromised if the film is too thick
ing is both to provide good adhesion reduction reactions take place to the and this can lead to in-service coat-
and to provide corrosion protection. above, resulting in the deposition of ing failures that are unrelated to cor-
Pretreatment application is either by a trivalent chromium phosphate film. rosion sensitivity.
a dip/spray process followed by rins- The no-rinse roll-coatable analogue of Pretreatment systems based on
ing (rinse pretreatment) or by roll this system contains chromium phos- the use of adhesion promoters such
coating (no-rinse pretreatment). The phate, HF and a polymer, typically as silanes [8], phosphonates and poly-
volume of chemicals used in both polyacrylic acid, which can act both acrylic acids have been extensively
processes differs considerably, with as an adhesion promoter and corro- researched. These pretreatments can
the dip/spray process giving rise to sion inhibitor. certainly be very effective especially
a large volume of contaminated rinse As the market moves away from when applied as monolayers rather
water requiring treatment before dis- chromium pretreatments, the techni- than thick films. They are probably
posal. On the other hand, roll coating cal challenges are greater, not only be- most useful when used in combina-
requires a precise amount of solution cause of the inherent corrosion resist- tion with a thin anodising treatment
to be applied uniformly across the ance demanded from pretreatments (as a post-anodising step) or similar
strip which is then dried in place; the but also because of the less reactive treatment to increase the barrier film
reaction with aluminium consumes nature of the Cr-free systems with thickness and to develop a micro-sur-
all of the chemicals and no products the aluminium strip, thereby placing face roughness to enhance adhesion.
requiring subsequent removal are a greater emphasis on the efficiency
formed, thus avoiding any potential and quality of the precursor cleaning Paints and lacquers
environmental issues. step. Thus there is a greater demand
Historically chromium based pre- on non-Cr pretreatments to act as ad- Architectural: The choice of a paint
treatments have been used based hesion promoters with good uniform system depends on a number of
on chromate (Cr VI) and chrome- barrier properties. key factors including aesthetic ap-
phosphate (Cr III) chemistries. Be- These adhesion and barrier as- pearance (shade, gloss, roughness),
ing highly acidic these pretreatments pects can be achieved by using a mechanical properties (abrasion re-
have often compensated for any inad- treatment to enhance the natural ox- sistance, scratch resistance, impact
equacies in the cleaning process. For ide layer, such as anodising or hydro- resistance, formability), durability

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 95
TECHNOLOGY

ids content of >85% fall into this


category and, since they contain
less solvent, they offer a signifi-
cant reduction in VOC emissions
compared to conventional sys-
tems. As well as reducing emis-
sions, high-solids coatings can
impart thicker application layers
than conventional systems, lead-
Fig. 2: Schematic of electrolytic cleaning and continuous anodising film formation ing to timesaving. The reduction
in solvent however, means that
(colour and gloss retention, weather- and prestige buildings. such coatings are more sensitive to
ing resistance, corrosion resistance), O Acrylics provide high gloss plus inadequate surface preparation of the
environmental impact and cost. yellowing and mar resistance. substrate.
Most aluminium sheet will be roll- O Urethanes combine hardness and Water-borne coatings are systems
coated (Fig. 3) with a thin backing abrasion resistance coupled to good that predominantly utilise water as
coat and a two-coat topcoat, although weathering performance. the solvent to dissolve the binder.
products with up to 4 layers of topcoat Packaging: Coil coating for packaging Typically up to 80% of the total sol-
are available for specific applications. is dominated by the market for easy- vent is water with the remainder
The initial coat is the primer, its dry open ends for beverage cans. Can being organic co-solvents such as
thickness usually in the range of 5 to end lacquers are normally applied glycol ethers. Such systems benefit
15 microns, to provide adhesion to the at around 1-2.5g/m2 on the external from large reductions in VOC emis-
pretreated metal and it may contain surface and 7-10g/m2 on the internal. sions and an associated reduction in
anti-corrosive pigments. The second The internal coating, in particular, both fire risk and worker exposure
coat, or topcoat, is usually in the range must withstand the high speed form- to organic vapours. However, due to
of 10 to 25 microns and it provides ing process of the end (above all the the corrosive nature of the water in
the colour and appearance to the fi- tab rivet) whilst protecting the bev- the formulation, special equipment
nal coated system along with the other erage from the container (and vice can often be required for application.
key properties required to meet the versa). Historically this application Control of humidity is also critical to
products performance specification. was dominated by the highly duc- achieving the desired film formation.
An alternative approach is to produce tile vinyl organosols (vinyl chloride- Most resins have now been incorpo-
a product with a basecoat (colour) vinyl acetate copolymers dispersed rated into water-borne coating for-
with a clear topcoat (gloss). in solvent) but recently a combina- mulations and they are finding wide-
There are two types of resins tion of environmental pressures and spread applications for packaging
used in developing liquid paints for consumer health concerns has led to products. For architectural products
coil coating, thermosetting and ther- replacement of solvent based vinyls the use of water-borne coatings has
moplastic. The thermosets include with variants including: focused more on primers rather than
acrylics, polyurethanes, polyesters O Water based the diverse range of paints used for
and silicon polyesters. The polyesters O Vinyl (chlorine) free topcoat functionality.
are also used in powder spray appli- O Low BADGE (BADGE-free) Powder coating is another alter-
cations. The thermoplastics include O Bisphenol A-free. native, utilising 100% resin in a dry,
PVC-plastisols, PVDFs (polyvinyldif- These developments are based on powdered form and working on the
luoride) and polyamide-nylons. Each epoxy-ester or polyesters with en- principle of attraction by oppositely
resin type can provide a different bal- hanced flexibility. charged species. The powder is de-
ance of properties: livered through a spray gun where it
O Polyesters provide good all round Alternative technologies gains a low amperage, high-voltage
properties including very good colour positive charge.
matching capability and colour reten- In the challenges that face the coil The surface to be coated is electri-
tion combined with good flexibility, coater, he/she is consistently exam- cally grounded so that the positively
hardness, resistance to weathering ining alternative technologies. As part charged powder particles are attract-
and chemicals. of continuous improvement exercises, ed to it. The coated surface is then
O Vinyls provide the best resistance coil coaters have worked closely with reacted in an oven where the powder
to acid, alkalis and many solvents. paint suppliers in the development of melts and fuses into a smooth coat-
The most common building block is both high-solids coatings and water- ing. This has been widely used in the
polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Fluorinated borne coatings. High solids coatings post-painting of individual parts but
versions (PVDF) offer the best protec- as their name implies, have a higher has had less impact, to date, in coil
tion against weathering including UV content of solid components than coating. Within Europe Otefal S.p.a. is
resistance and for this reason they are conventional solvent-borne systems. the market leader for coil coating with
mostly used in critical applications Typically coating systems with a sol- line speeds typically operating at up

96 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
TECHNOLOGY

(e.g. scratch resistance) coatings above


the topcoat.

References
[1] H. Leth-Olsen, Filiform Corrosion of
Painted Aluminium Coil Materials, PhD
thesis, NTNU 1996.
Fig. 3: Schematic of roll [2] K. Nisancioglu, J. H. Nordlien, A. Afseth
coat application of paint and G. M. Scamans, Significance of Ther-
to the strip
momechanical Processing in Determining
Corrosion Behaviour and Surface Quality
of Aluminium Alloys, 7th International
to 20m/min. The speed has been lim- continuous power requirement of Conference on Aluminium Alloys their
ited by the array of electrostatic guns convection ovens. However, as the Physical and Mechanical Properties, 111-
that must be synchronised to achieve solvents will be rapidly driven off, the 125, 2000.
uniform film coverage. However, extraction system has to be extremely [3] G. M. Scamans, A. Afseth, G. E. Thomp-
powder coating has the attraction of efficient such that the LEL (lower ex- son and X. Zhou, Ultra-fine Grain Sized
Mechanically Alloyed Surface Layers on
being solvent-free and can be cured plosion limit) is not exceeded. Aluminium Alloys, 8th International Con-
using infra-red or induction heating Other forms of radiation curing us- ference on Aluminium Alloys, Aluminium
technologies. ing ultraviolet (UV) or electron beam Alloys their Physical and Mechanical
Other application technologies for (EB) have been practised since the Properties, 1461-1466, 2002.
powder include the powder cloud late 1960s. Although the growth rates [4] J. Ball, P. K. F. Limbach, J. D. B. Shar-
man, A New Electrolytic Cleaning Cell. 1st
technique developed by MSC of Illi- of these technologies have been rela- International Symposium on Aluminium
nois and the electro magnetic brush tively slow, they have been continu- Surface Science and Technology (ASST
(EMB) application technique devel- ous. Conceptually radiation curing 1997), Antwerp, Belgium, May 1997,
oped by DSM resins in Europe. The could solve many of the coil coaters pp31-37 (ATB Metallurgie, Brussels, Ed.
powder cloud technology applies problems; they are liquid coatings H. Terryn).
[5] J. A. Treverton, N. C. Davies, An XPS
powder to the coil strip as it passes applied to the substrate surface via study of Chromate Pretreatment of Alu-
through a charged cloud of pow- roll coating and cured at room tem- minium, Metals Technology ,4, 480-489,
der coating. The identically charged perature in seconds without volatile 1977.
powder particles repel each other and materials being lost from the surface. [6] J. S. Crompton, P. R. Andrews and E.
deposit on to the earthed coil strip. However barriers to their use exist, McAlpine, Characteristics of a Conver-
sion Coating on Aluminium, Surface and
The EMB approach is based on tech- including the capital equipment costs Interface Analysis, vol.13, no.2-3, 160-166,
nology that it is used for laser copiers involved and the limited availability November 1988.
and photocopiers. of formulations for particular applica- [7] A. Ruiz Garzon, G. E. Thompson, P.
New developments in the formu- tions. Skeldon, T. Hashimoto, J. Sander, A. de
lation of powder coatings generally Electron beam and ultraviolet Zeeuw and P. Mitchell, Development of
Zirconium-Based Conversion Coatings on
relate to their application in packag- curing have developed in parallel AA3005 Aluminium Alloy, Proceedings
ing products such as cans, where FDA since the 1960s due to their similari- of 4th International Symposium on Alu-
approval is still pending. Significant ties. Companies which produce UV minium Surface Science and Technology
advances have also been made in the curable formulations will generally (ASST 2006), Beaune, France, May 2006.
development of powder coatings for also produce EB curables, the main [8] T. Schmidt-Hansberg, P. Schubach,
A Comparative Study of Innovative Alu-
architectural products that require difference being that UV requires minium Pretreatments, 3rd International
superior long-term durability and a photoinitiator in the formulation Symposium on Aluminium Surface Sci-
also powders that can form thinner whilst EB does not. The absence of a ence and Technology, (ASST 2003), Bonn,
applied films. photoinitiator is EBs main advantage Germany, May 2003, pp9-14 (ATB Metal-
Interesting developments in oven over UV since photoinitiator residues lurgie, Brussels, Ed. H. Terryn).
[9] K. Br, NIR Booster Solutions Pay-
technology have come out of Adphos remain in cured coatings and prompt Back Within 12 Months! ECCA 38th Au-
AG [9] who have developed nir, near worries over health, odour etc. Hence, tumn Congress Brussels, 21-23 Novem-
infra-red ovens to be used as boost- UV coatings have not been used in ber 2004.
ers to conventional ovens or as stand coil coating for packaging applica-
alone systems. These are small foot- tions. There are, however, currently Author
print modules that utilise high inten- initiatives to obtain FDA approval for
sity heat emissions from the near in- the use of radcure coatings in direct Dr. Nigel Davies is currently Managing
fra-red wavelength spectrum and can food contact. Director of Innoval Technology Ltd, an
independent light metals technology con-
cure 20 micron coatings in less than For steel coil lines a UV curing sultancy based in Banbury, UK. Prior to
3 seconds as compared to say 20 sec- system is often incorporated at the this, he had worked for Alcan in a range
onds. Using lamp systems for curing end of galvanising lines whereas, for of functions including having technical
also means that they are only switched aluminium architectural lines, oppor- responsibility for Alcans (now Novelis)
on when needed as compared to the tunities may exist for thin functional European painted sheet division.

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 97
FORSCHUNG

Rhrreibschweien von artungleichen


Aluminiumknet- und -druckgusslegierungen
Sh. Sheikhi, J. F. dos Santos, Geesthacht

Das Rhrreibschweien (Friction Aluminium und Aluminiumlegie- Zum Schweien wird gem Abb.
Stir Welding FSW) ist ein innova- rungen geeignetes Fgeverfahren. 1-b das rotierende Werkzeug lang-
tiver Fertigungsprozess zum Fgen Friction Stir Welding (FSW) wur- sam in den Fgebereich eingebracht.
von Leichtmetallen, besonders de von TWI (The Welding Institute, Infolge der Rotationsbewegung des
von Aluminiumlegierungen. Die Cambridge) entwickelt und 1991 pa- Werkzeugs sowie des aufgebrachten
Herstellung von Aluminiumverbin- tentiert [1]. Druckes wird zwischen Schulter und
dungen mit konventionellen Das Reibrhrschweien erfolgt Blechen Reibungswrme erzeugt,
Schmelzschweiverfahren erfllt bei Temperaturen unterhalb des die zum Plastifizieren des Materials
nicht immer und nicht bei jeder Schmelzpunktes der Fgepartner. Die unter der Schulter fhrt. Nach aus-
Legierung die von der Industrie Werkstoffe schmelzen nicht, sondern reichender Plastifizierung wird das
gestellten Qualittsanforderungen. werden lediglich plastifiziert und im rotierende Werkzeug unter einer be-
Das Rhrreibschweien stellt Nahtbereich regelrecht ineinander stimmten Vorschubgeschwindigkeit
eine Alternative zu den Schmelz- verrhrt. Da kein Schmelzbad ent- (Schweigeschwindigkeit) entlang
schweiverfahren dar. Dies ist steht, ist das Verfahren lageunabhn- des zu schweienden Bereiches ge-
besonders auf die guten mechani- gig. Das Reibrhrschweien zeichnet fhrt.
schen Eigenschaften der Schwei- sich insbesondere durch reprodu- Die Rotationsrichtung und die
nhte, die Reproduzierbarkeit und zierbare und gute Schweinahteigen- Translationsbewegung des Werk-
die Robustheit des Verfahrens schaften aus. Die Vorteile gegenber zeuges berlagern sich. Auf der einen
zurckzufhren. Im Rahmen die- herkmmlichen Schweiverfahren re- Seite der Fgelinie sind die Bewe-
ser Arbeit werden artungleiche sultieren zum einen aus dem geringen gungsvektoren gleichgerichtet und
Stumpfstoe gleicher Blechdicke Wrmeeintrag sowie der einfachen auf der anderen Seite wirken sie ent-
mit den Legierungen AlMg3, Prozesskontrolle und -steuerung. Vor- gegengesetzt zueinander. Die Seite
AlMgSi0,5 und GD ALSi10Mg her- teile gegenber den herkmmlichen mit gleicher Richtung der Rotations-
gestellt. Die Blechdicke der einge- Schmelzschweiverfahren sind wei- und der Translationsbewegung wird
setzten Fgepartner betrgt 2 mm. terhin: ein geringer Verzug, keine mit Advancing-Seite bezeichnet. Die
Es werden die Gefgeausbildung Poren- und Rissbildung und keine Retreating-Seite beschreibt die Seite
als Folge der eingebrachten Entmischung der Legierungsbestand- mit entgegengesetzter Richtung der
Streckenenergie beschrieben und teile. Eine spezielle Behandlung der Rotations- und der Translationsbewe-
die mechanischen Eigenschaften Fgekanten vor dem Schweien ist gung. Das charakteristische Bild einer
der Schweinhte diskutiert. nicht notwendig. Es sind weder Zu- mit FSW produzierten Naht ist in Abb.
satzwerkstoffe noch Schutzgase er- 2 dargestellt.
Beim FSW-Verfahren handelt es sich forderlich, auch muss kein speziell ge- In der Mitte der Naht liegt der
um ein speziell zum Schweien von schultes Personal eingesetzt werden, Nugget oder die Rhrzone mit einer
was zu sehr geringen Betriebskosten zwiebelartigen Struktur. Dieser Be-
fhrt. Beim Reibrhrschweien wird reich entsteht durch den hohen Ver-
ein zylinderfrmiges Werkzeug (Abb. formungsgrad im Bereich des Stiftes
1-a) eingesetzt. Das Werkzeug besteht sowie der Reibungstemperatur. Die
aus einem Stift (Pin), der in der Werk- Form des Nuggets ist abhngig von
zeugschulter befestigt wird und na- den Schweiparametern. Das Gefge
hezu verschleifrei funktioniert. Die in diesem Bereich ist feinkrnig ca.
modulare Ausfhrung des Werkzeugs 2-5 m [2]. Die zwiebelfrmige Struk-
erlaubt die Anpassung. tur entsteht dabei durch die Rotation
a

b
Abb. 1a) Werkzeug fr das Reibrhrschweien; 1b) Prozessablauf beim Schweien

98 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007
FORSCHUNG

Rp0,2, Zugfestigkeit Rm, Bruchdehnung


A der verwendeten Grundwerkstoffe
variiert gem Tabelle 2 sehr. Alle
Schweinhte wurden mit einem
Werkzeug bestehend aus einem
13 mm konkaven Schulter- und einem
5 mm Stiftbereich hergestellt.

Ergebnisse

Abb. 2: Gefge der FSW-Naht Die Entwicklung einer FSW-Verbin-


dung mit abnehmender Streckenener-
und den Vorschub des Werkzeuges. gen Wrmeeintrag und zum anderen gie bei einer Drehzahl von 2000 min-1,
Der thermomechanisch beeinflusste daraus, dass jegliche Aluminiumle- ist am Beispiel AlMg3 - DGAlSi10Mg
Bereich schliet sich am Rand des gierungen mit diesem Verfahren ge- in Abb. 3 dargestellt. Bei dieser Werk-
Nuggets an. Das Material ist in diesem schweit werden knnen. stoffkombination wurde ein sprder
Bereich aufgrund des Rhreffektes Mit dem Rhrreibschweien sind Aluminiumdruckguss mit einer nicht
und des Temperaturfeldes thermisch smtliche artgleiche und artunglei- aushrtbaren, gewalzten Alumini-
beeinflusst und plastisch verformt che Aluminiumlegierungen schwei- umlegierungen gefgt. Bei kleinen
[2]. Die Wrmeeinflusszone schliet bar. Diese knnen in verschiedenen Vorschben und dementsprechend
an diesem Bereich an. Dieser Bereich Nahtkonfigurationen (wie Stumpf- groer Wrmeeinbringung zeigt sich
ist nicht deformiert, erfhrt jedoch sto, Stumpfsto/Parallelsto, ber- deutlich die Struktur des Nugget. Mit
aufgrund der Temperatureinwirkung lappsto, Parallelsto, T-Ste und abnehmender Streckenenergie ver-
eine Vernderung des Gefges infol- Kehlnaht) hergestellt werden [3]. schlechtert sich optisch die Durch-
ge von Ausscheidungen. Infolge der mischung des Kernbereiches und
unterschiedlichen Bereiche in der Material fhrt zu Fehlern in der Schweinaht.
Schweinaht variieren die mecha- Typischer Weise sind diese Fehler
nischen Kennwerte quer zur Naht. Im folgenden sind Beispiele fr artun- auf der Advancing-Seite der Rhrzo-
So ist die Festigkeit im Bereich des gleiche Rhrreibschweinhte darge- ne zu finden. Die Streckenenergie qs
Nuggets innerhalb der Schweinaht stellt. Die Schweiversuche wurden [J/mm] wird als Quotient des theore-
am hchsten, in Einzelfllen (5xxx- mit den folgenden Werkstoffen gem tischen Energiestroms q [W] und der
Legierungen, die nicht kalt verfestigt Tabelle 1 durchgefhrt. Dabei wur- Schweigeschwindigkeit vsch [mm/s]
sind) kann eine hhere Festigkeit als den artungleiche Stumpfste glei- ermittelt [4].
im Grundwerkstoff erreicht werden. cher Blechdicke mit den Legierungen qs = (4/3 x S x Px Fz x N x rsch) / vsch
FSW zeichnet sich durch reprodu- AlMg3, AlMgSi0,5/6060-T4 und GD [J/mm] (Gleichung 1)
zierbare und gute Schweinahteigen- ALSi10Mg hergestellt. Die Blechdi- Der Energiestrom q [W] ergibt
schaften aus. Die Vorteile gegenber cke der eingesetzten Fgepartner sich aus dem Reibungskoeffizienten
herkmmlichen Schweiverfahren betrgt 2 mm. Die mechanischen P = 0,2, der Schweikraft Fz [N], der
resultieren zum einen aus dem gerin- Eigenschaften wie z. B. Dehngrenze Drehzahl N [s-1] und dem Schulterra-
dius rsch [m]. Der Reibungskoeffizient
verndert sich mit dem Plastifizie-
Legierung
Mechanische rungsgrad bzw. mit der Erhhung der
Eigenschaften AlMg/5754-O AlMgSi0.5/6060-T4 GD AlSi10Mg Temperatur [5]. Die Erhhung der
Rp0,2 [MPa] 120 90 150 Schweiparameter (Kraft und Dreh-
zahl) fhrt zu einer Erhhung des En-
Rm [MPa] 220 185 288
ergiestroms. Langsamere Schweige-
A [%] 26 27 6 schwindigkeiten fhren zu einer Er-
Vikershrte HV0,2 59 62 88 hhung der Streckenenergie und um-
Biegewinkel [] 160 160 30 gekehrt. Es muss betont werden, dass
die Gleichung 1 die Streckenenergie
Tabelle 2: Mechanische Eigenschaften der verwendeten Werkstoffe

Zusammensetzung in Gewichts-%
Legierung Si Fe Cu Mn Mg Cr Ni Zn Ti Al
AlMg3/5754-O 0,189 0,301 0,053 0,251 2,66 0,056 --- 0,033 0,033 Rest
AlMgSi0.5/6060-T4 0,3-0,6 0,1-0,3 0,1 0,1 0,35-0,6 0,05 --- 0,15 0,1 Rest
GD AlSi10Mg 9,0-11,0 1,0 1,0 0,001-0,4 0,00-0,5 --- 0,1 0,15 --- Rest

Tab. 1: Chemische Zusammensetzung der verwendeten Werkstoffe

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 99
FORSCHUNG

seren Mischung bewegen sie sich zwischen dem spr-


der Fgepartner den Druckguss und dem duktilen
in der Rhrzone Walzblech.
fhrt. Im Zugversuch versagten die Pro-
Der Verlauf ben parallel zur Schweinaht im Be-
des Spannungs- reich des Fgepartners mit der gerin-
Dehnungs-Dia- geren Festigkeit. Die Lage des Bruches
grammes der ist in Abb. 8 abgebildet.
AlMg3/GDAl- Die Bruchdehnung A bezieht sich
Si10Mg-Verbin- auf die Anfangslnge L0 der Proben.
dung ist, stell- Bei einer FSW-Verbindung setzt sich
vertretend fr nun diese Lnge nicht aus einem ho-
die weiteren mogen Stck, sondern aus verschie-
Verbindungen, denen Zonen mit unterschiedlichen
in Abb. 7 dar- Legierungen und Eigenschaften zu-
gelegt. Die Ver- sammen. Daher konzentriert sich die
Abb. 3: Entstehung von Bindefehler in Abhngigkeit von der Streckenenergie bindungen er- Dehnung hauptschlich auf einem
reichen somit Bereich innerhalb der Probe und fhrt
nicht richtig beschreiben kann, da die eine Zugfestigkeit von Rm = 225 MPa, zu einer relativ niedrigen Bruchdeh-
Wrmeentwicklung durch die Verfor- welche dem Wert des Grundwerk- nung. Die in Tabelle 3 angegebenen
mung des Gefges nicht bercksich- stoffes AlMg3 in etwa entspricht. Werte fr RP0,2, Rm, der Bruchdehnung
tigt wird. Die verbleibenden Proben erreichen A und des Biegewinkels stellen den
Mit optimierten Schweiparame- beide eine Bruchdehnung von A = 12 Durchschnitt aus mindestens drei art-
tern knnen fehlerfreie Schweinh- %. Mit ihren Materialeigenschaften, gleichen Proben dar.
te produziert werden. Der Querschliff
in Abb. 4 stellt eine Stumpfstover-
bindung der Legierungen AlMg3 und
AlMgSi0,5 (von links nach rechts) dar.
Durch die unterschiedliche tzung
der Werkstoffe ist der Materialver-
bund in der Rhrzone zu erkennen.
Die Schweinaht einer rhrreib-
geschweiten Druckgusslegierung
GD AlSi10Mg mit der Legierung
AlMgSi0,5 ist in Abb. 5 und mit der
Legierung AlMg3 in Abb. 6 dargestellt.
Es ist deutlich zu sehen, dass die Ma-
terialpaarung in Abb. 6 zu einer bes-

Abb. 7: Spannungs-Dehnungskurven

Abb. 4: Makroschliff FSW-Schweiverbindung


AlMg3/AlMgSi0,5

Abb. 5: Makroschliff FSW-Schweiverbindung b


GD AlSi10Mg/AlMgSi0,5

Abb. 6: Makroschliff FSW-Schweiverbindung c


GD AlSi10Mg/AlMg3 Abb. 8: Bruchlage von geschweiten Zugproben

100 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007


FORSCHUNG

Die Zugfestigkeit der geschweiten schiedlichen Aluminiumlegierungen


Proben erreicht im Verhltnis zum besteht nicht. Im Rahmen dieser Ar-
jeweils schwcheren Fgepartner beit wurde der Einsatz des Verfah-
gem Tabelle 3 97 % fr die erste rens am Beispiel von artungleichen
Verbindung, 94 % fr die zweite Ver- Mischverbindungen demonstriert
bindung und 100% fr die dritte Ver- und bewertet.
bindung. Die Duktilitt der Schwei- Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass der
nhte kann durch den Biegewinkel Materialfluss in der Rhrzone sich
ausgedruckt werden. Bei der Werk- abhngig von der Streckenenergie
stoffkombination 1 wird der gleiche verhlt. Die Abnahme der Strecken-
Biegewinkel erreicht wie bei den energie resultierte aus der Bildung
eingesetzten Grundwerkstoffen. Die von Fehlstellen im Materialverbund a
Werkstoffkombinationen 2 und 3 zei- der Rhrzone ein Hinweis auf die
gen einen deutlichen hheren Biege- falsche Parameterkombination.
winkel im Vergleich zum Druckguss. Mit der richtigen Parameterkom-
Dies ist zum einen auf die gute Ver- bination wurden fehlerfreie artunglei-
mischung der Grundwerkstoffe und che Stumpfste mit den Legierungen
zum anderen auf die Reduzierung der AlMg3, AlMgSi0,5 / 6060-T4 und GD
Korngre in der Rhrzone zurck- ALSi10Mg hergestellt. Die Zugproben
zufhren. Die Erhhung der Duktilitt versagten im jeweils schwcheren
durch ein feinkrniges Gefge infolge Grundwerkstoff weit entfernt von
des Rhrreibschweiens wird in der der Naht. Aufgrund der feinen Mi-
Literatur [6, 7] mit unterschiedlichen krostruktur in den Schweinhten
Versuchen bewertet. konnte eine Verbesserung der Dukti- b
Aufgrund des Schweivorganges litt gegenber der des Druckgusses Abb. 9: Gefge der Druckgusslegierung im
entsteht eine sehr feinkrnige Struk- festgestellt werden. Grundwerkstoff (a) und in der Rhrzone (b)

tur im Bereich der Rhrzone der Nh- Die Betrachtung des Gefges
burg-Harburg; 2000.
te, dies kann am besten aus dem Ver- verdeutlicht, dass eine Kornfeinung
3. P. L. Threadgill: Friction stir welding
gleich der Mikrostruktur des Druck- insbesondere des Gusswerkstoffes the state of the art ; TWI Research Re-
gusses im Grundwerkstoff und im stattgefunden hat. Somit besteht die port; 1999.
Nugget verdeutlicht werden (Abb. 9). Mglichkeit, den Rhrreibprozess 4. O. T. Midling, G. Rorvik: Effect of tool
Die Korngre im unbeeinflussten zur gezielten lokalen nderung des shoulder material on heat input during
friction stir welding; 1st International
Grundwerkstoff betrgt 20 bis 30 m. Gefges und als Reparaturverfahren
Symposium on Friction Stir Welding 14-
Aufgrund des Schweiverfahrens ent- fr typische Unregelmigkeiten in 16 June 1999; California, USA; 1999.
steht ein rekristallisiertes Gefge mit Gussbauteilen (wie oberflchennahe 5. C. M. Chen, R. Kovacevic: Finite ele-
einer Korngre von etwa 5 m. Dies Risse etc.) einzusetzen. ment modeling of friction stir welding
fhrt zu einer Verbesserung der Dukti- - thermal and thermmechanical analysis;
International Journal of Machine Tools
litt der Druckgusslegierung. Darber Danksagung & Manufacture; 2003; Vol. 43, p. 1319-
hinaus knnen Fehler im Druckguss 1326.
wie z. B. Poren oder Risse im Bereich Die Autoren bedanken sich bei C. 6. W. M. Thomas, D. G. Staines, I. M. Nor-
der Rhrzone behoben werden [6]. Schilling und M. Nchtern fr die ris, and E. R. Watts: Friction Stir Welding
Somit bietet das Rhrreibschweien Durchfhrung der Versuche ganz Process Developments; 12th Interna-
tional Conference on the Joining of Mate-
die Mglichkeiten, das Gefge des herzlich.
rials (JOM-12); Helsingor, Denmark; 20-23
Werkstoffes lokal, der Belastung ent- March 2005.
sprechend, zu verndern. Literatur 7. S. Sheikhi, J. F. dos Santos: Eigenschaften
von rhrreibgeschweiten Aluminium-
1. W. M. Thomas, D. E. Nicholas, C. J. Mischverbindungen; Schlsseltechnolo-
Zusammenfassung gie Leichtmetallguss im Automobilbau,
Needham: Improvements relating to fric-
tion welding; Patent No. EP 0 615 480 B1; 17./18. November 2005 - Bad Nauheim.
Das Schweien von Aluminiumlegie- 1994.
rungen kann fehlerfrei realisiert wer- 2. I. Ballerstein: Feasibility study of fric-
den. Eine Einschrnkung hinsichtlich tion stir welding of ship components; Di- Autoren
der Werkstoffkombination aus unter- ploma thesis; Technical University Ham-
Dr. Jorge F. dos Santos leitet die Gruppe
Werkstoffkombinationen RP0,2 [MPa] Rm [MPa] A [%] Biegewinkel [] Fgetechnologie am Institut fr Werkstoff-
forschung des GKSS Forschungszentrums
AlMg3 / AlMgSi0.5 100 180 12 160 Geesthacht GmbH.
AlMgSi0.5 / GD AlSi10Mg 90 175 10 75
Dr.-Ing. Sharam Sheikhi ist Projektinge-
AlMg3 / GD AlSi10Mg 110 225 12 75
nieur am Institut fr Werkstoffforschung
Tab. 3: Mechanische Eigenschaften der FSW-Proben
des GKSS.

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 101


V E R A N S TA LT U N G E N

22nd ASK Metal Forming: Forming the Future

Presenter: Institute of Metal Form- shares by material development, ucts and services. In the afternoon of
ing (IBF) and Institute of Ferrous process simulations and process the second day, the participants will
Metallurgy (IEHK), RWTH Aachen monitoring. Moreover, it is possi- get the facility to attend demonstra-
University, 8 and 9 March 2007. ble to overcome the past limitations tions at the constructions of the IBF of
of forming technology by applying the RWTH Aachen. There is also the
New materials, forming procedures, modern developments. For example, opportunity to visit the IEHK and the
machines and comprehensive simu- new flexible forming procedures like Centre of Metal Construction.
lation and optimisation methods are strip profile rolling, incremental sheet The Colloquium is addressed to all
the basis for rapid improvements in forming or flexible ring profile rolling responsible persons in the steel- and
the development of the forming tech- enable the cost-effective production non-ferrous metal industry dealing
nology. In many cases this leads to in- of small lot sizes and bad optimised with the production, design, plant
creasingly powerful, customised end- lightweight products. Miniaturisation construction, manufacturing, inspec-
products and cost-effective process opens up new markets for micro-parts tion and applications of innovative
chains. The 22nd ASK Metal Forming made of metal. Modern simulation products. All presentations will be
will include contributions from the techniques and material models sup- translated simultaneously into Eng-
scientific and industrial communi- port the process planning by predic- lish.
ties, encompassing a broad spectrum tions of grain structure, part quality Further information:
of topics from the seemingly classic to and process capability. Dipl.-lng. Marcus Urban
state-of-the-art future technologies. Simultaneously to the lectures, Tel: +49 (0)241 8095927
Forging and rolling can open up there will be an exhibition, where in- ask@ ibf.rwth-aachen.de
new markets and ensure market terested companies will present prod- www. ibf. rwth-aachen .de

The Coatings Summit Bauen und Energie gical processing. SME will celebrate its
5 to 6 February 2007, Vienna, Austria 15. bis 18. Februar 2007, Wien 50 year anniversary.
Top-level speakers from Asia, Amer- Die internationale Messe fr alle, die Further information:
ica and Europe, from global groups beim Bauen, Renovieren, Modernisie- Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Ex-
and medium-sized power players, will ren, und Energie sparen auf Kostenef- ploration
share their insight into vital and emerg- fizienz und Qualitt achten. Tel: +1(303) 973-9550
ing issues of the coatings industry. Weitere Infos: meetings@smenet.org
They will identify trends and discuss Reed Exhibitions Messe Wien www.smenet.org
key drivers, be it the changing nature Tel: +43 (0)1 727 20-0
of sourcing and manufacturing, mar- info@messe.at TMS 2007 Annual Meeting Exhibition
ket entry strategies or new regions to www.messe.at 25 Feb. to 1 March 2007, Orlando, U.S.
source creativity and innovation. More than 140 exhibitors from some
Further information: 3. Landshuter Leichtbau-Colloquium 20 countries will present solutions to
European Coatings Conference 22. und 23. Februar 2007, Landshut technical challenges in a vast array of
Tel: +49 (0)511 9910-270 Das Colloquium zum Thema Leicht- areas: e.g. cast shop technology, emerg-
esther.schwencke@coatings.de bau - von der Idee zum Produkt bietet ing materials, environmental manage-
www.coatings.de ein Forum, um ausgesuchte Leichtbau- ment, industrial process control and
lsungen zu prsentieren. Der Leicht- automation, primary production equi-
R+T 2007 bau soll dabei ber den gesamten Pro- ment and services, technology resourc-
10. bis 14. Februar 2007, Stuttgart duktlebenszyklus von der Idee bis zum es, surface processes.
Themenschwerpunkte der internatio- fertigen Produkt und dessen Wieder- Further information:
nalen Fachmesse in Stuttgart sind der verwertung diskutiert werden. The Minerals, Metals & Materials
Rolladen-, Jalousie- und Markisenbau Weitere Infos: Society
sowie der Sonnenschutz, Tor- und Fachhochschule Landshut Tel: +1(724) 776 9000
Fensterbau. Das Fachpublikum er- Tel: +49 (0)871 506 134 mtgserv@tms.org
streckt sich auch auf Architekten und info@leichtbau-cluster.de www.tms.org
Fachplaner. www.leichtbau-cluster.de
Weitere Infos: 7. KBU-Kolloquium: Bergbauliche Ab-
Messe Stuttgart 2007 SME Annual Meeting Exhibit flle und Emissionshandel
Tel: +49 (0)711 2589-0 25 to 28 February 2007, Denver, U.S. 1. und 2. Mrz 2007, Aachen
info@messe-stuttgart.de The meeting covers a broad range of Eine gemeinsame Tagung des Lehr-
www.messe-stuttgart.de topics regarding mineral and metallur- und Forschungsgebietes Berg- und

102 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007


EVENTS

Umweltrecht der RWTH Aachen und Fortbildung


der GDMB Gesellschaft fr Bergbau,
Metallurgie, Rohstoff- und Umwelt- Einfhrung in die Technologie des Aluminiums, 12.-14.02.2007, Aachen
technik. Die Themen sind unter an- DGM Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Materialkunde, Tel.: 069 75306 757,
derem: Die Anforderungen an die E-Mail: np@dgm.de, www.dgm.de
Verwertung mineralischer Abflle,
die Verordnung mineralische Abflle, Die neue Gefahrstoffverordnung in der Praxis, 13.-14.02.2007, Stuttgart
Einsatzmglichkeiten bergbaulicher VDI Wissensforum, Tel.: 0211 6214 201,
Abflle fr Baustoffe, Emissionshan- E-Mail: wissensforum@vdi.de, www.vdi-wissensforum.de
delsrecht, NAP II.
Weitere Infos: Neue Werkstoffnormung und neue Werkstoffbezeichnungen fr
GDMB metallische Werkstoffe in Europa, 15.02.2007, Essen
Tel: +49 (0)5323 937 90 Haus der Technik, Tel.: 0201 1803 344,
gdmb@dgmb.de E-Mail: information@hdt-essen.de, www.hdt-essen.de
www.gdmb.de
Betriebswirtschaftliche Grundlagen fr technische Fhrungskrfte
EFB-Kolloquium Blechverarbeitung 22.-23.02.2007, Mainz
06. und 07. Mrz 2007, Fellbach Ostbayer. Technologie-Transfer-Institut (Otti), Tel.: 0941 29688 21,
Das Kolloquium steht unter dem Leit- E-Mail: margit.zierl@otti.de, www.otti.de
thema Neue Wege zum wirtschaft-
lichen Leichtbau Innovative Lsun- Der Sicherheitsbeauftragte, 26.-27. Februar 2007, Hannover
gen zur Blechumformung und mecha- TV Nord Akademie, Tel: 0511 986 1910,
nischen Fgetechnik. In den einzelnen E-Mail: bcramer@tuev-nord.de, www.tuevnordakademie.de
Sektionen werden die aktuellen Frage-
stellungen zu hchstfesten Sthlen und Systematische Beurteilung technischer Schadensflle
anderen Werkstoffen sowie zu Verfah- 11.-16.03.2007, Ermatingen, CH
ren in der Fgetechnik und Simulation DGM Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Materialkunde, Tel.: 069 75306 757,
im Leichtbau aufgegriffen. E-Mail: np@dgm.de, www.dgm.de
Weitere Infos:
Europische Forschungsgesellschaft Einfhrung in die Metallkunde fr Ingenieure und Techniker,
fr Blechverarbeitung 13.-16.03.2007, Darmstadt
Tel: +49 (0)511 97175-0 DGM Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Materialkunde, Tel.: 069 75306 757,
info@efb.de E-Mail: np@dgm.de, www.dgm.de
www.efb.de
Trends in der Nutzfahrzeugindustrie, 20.-21.03.2007, Mnchen
metall Mnchen Euroforum, Tel.: 0211 9686 3611,
07 to 10 March 2007, Munich, Germany E-Mail: theresia.strehler@euroforum.com, www.euroforum.de
European specialist trade fair for metal-
working in industry and trade. The fair
will present solutions for areas such as Further information: service@dfo-online.de
tool machines, precision tools, com- Tel: +7 (495) 956-48-22 www.dfo-online.de
ponents, component modules and ac- metalbuild@m-expo.ru
cessories, manufacturing and process www.metal-build.ru Russia Aluminium Casting Conference
automation, measuring technology and 27 to 29 March 2007, Moscow, Russia
quality assurance. DFO-Leichtmetall-Tagung The conference is organised by Alusil-
Further information: 20. und 21. Mrz 2007, Neuss MVT under the assistance of Russian
Gesellschaft fr Handwerksmessen Thema der Tagung: Die Oberflchen- Association of Foundrymen and Alu-
Tel: +49 (0)89 949 55-0 behandlung von Leichtmetallen. Im minium Extruders Association. Sub-
messe@ghm.de Vordergrund stehen die Vorbehand- jects are: markets, applications and
www.ghm.de lung, anodische Oxidation und PVD- research, melt preparation, ingot and
/Plasmabeschichtung von Aluminium. continuous casting, manufacture of
Metal Build 2007 Es werden moderne Korrosions- und castings, environment and safety. The
12 to 15 March 2007, Moscow, Russia Verschleischutzsysteme vorgestellt. conference will be supplemented by
Metal Build 2007 is the fifth anniver- Weitere Tagungsthemen betreffen den the exhibition of state-of-the-art cast-
sary exhibition of metal in construc- Werkstoff Magnesium. ing equipment and technologies.
tion and architecture, covering all Weitere Infos: Further information:
questions from materials for metal Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft fr Tel: +7 (495) 785-2005
constructions to their processings up Oberflchenbehandlung e. V. (DFO) main@alusil.ru
to finished products. Tel: +49 (0)2131 40 811 10 www.alusil.net

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 103


U M W E LT P R E I S

BDI-Umweltpreiswettbewerb 2007/08

Umweltfreundlichkeit siegt
Der Bundesverband der deutschen end-of-pipe-Lsungen sowie von forderungen sowie der vorhan-
Industrie (BDI) hat den Umwelt- Verfahren und Technologien mit denen Ressourcen und Fhig-
preiswettbewerb fr die Industrie grerer Anwendungsbreite. keiten in diesen Lndern.
2007/08 erneut ausgeschrieben. Eignung zur weiteren Verbreitung
Der Wettbewerb ist Teil des euro- Umweltvertrgliche Produkte und knftigen Weiterentwicklung.
pischen Umweltpreises der EU-
Kommission. Die Sieger der natio- Umweltentlastung durch inno- Kreislaufwirtschaft, Recycling
nalen Wettbewerbe nehmen damit vative, koeffiziente Produkte und Abfallmanagement
auch auf europischer Ebene teil. und Dienstleistungen.
Einbeziehung von Ressourcen- Entwicklung von hochwertigen-
Insgesamt benennt der BDI-Umwelt- schonung, Energieeffizienz, Recyc- Recyclingmanahmen (produkti-
wettbewerb fnf Preiskategorien. ling- und Entsorgungsfreundlich- onsintegrierte Verfahren werden
keit bei der Produktentwicklung unter der Kategorie Umwelt-
Preiskategorien und -gestaltung. freundliche Technologien erfasst).
Besondere Bercksichtigung neu- Innovative und effiziente Systeme
Umweltfreundliche Technologien er Produkte, die bereits am Markt zur Sammlung, Verwertung und
Umweltfreundliche Produkte vorhandene Gter verbessern zum Wiedereinsatz von Material,
Umweltorientierte Unternehmens- bzw. ersetzen und zumindest als Komponenten und Produkten.
fhrung Prototyp vorliegen. Vermarktung und Wiederverwen-
Umweltschutz-Technologietrans- dung der rezyklierten Materialien
fer in Entwicklungs- und Schwel- Umweltorientierte und Produkte.
lenlnder und Staaten Osteuropas Unternehmensfhrung Ressourcenschonendes und kosten-
Kreislaufwirtschaft, Recycling und effizientes Abfallmanagement.
Abfallmanagement. Entwicklung einer integrierten
umweltorientierten Unternehmens- Teilnahmebedingungen
ber die nationalen Preistrger und politik, z. B. in Form ganzheitlicher
die Benennungen zum europischen Umweltschutzkonzepte oder Um- Am BDI-Wettbewerb knnen Unter-
Wettbewerb entscheidet eine Jury weltleitlinien. nehmen und Organisationen aus der
aus namhaften Persnlichkeiten aus Art und Grad der Einbeziehung der Industrie teilnehmen. Institutionen,
Wirtschaft, Wissenschaft, Politik und Belegschaft in das Unternehmens- die nicht dem industriellen Bereich
Umweltorganisationen. Vorgeschal- konzept, beispielsweise durch Aus- angehren, sind teilnahmeberechtigt,
tet ist eine fachliche Prfung durch und Weiterbildung in Umweltfra- wenn ihr Projekt in Zusammenarbeit
das Fraunhofer-Institut fr System- gen. mit der Industrie entwickelt wurde
und Innovationsforschung (ISI) in Kommunikation mit externen und bereits industrielle Anwendung
Karlsruhe. Der Beurteilung der einge- Zielgruppen. gefunden hat. Ferner sollten die Pro-
henden Bewerbungen liegen neben bernahme von Produktverant- jekte die Ausrichtung auf eine nach-
den allgemeinen Kriterien Umweltent- wortung, z. B. durch Rcknahme- haltige Entwicklung erkennen lassen,
lastung, Ressourcenschonung, wirt- und Recyclinggarantien. ber gesetzliche Vorschriften und
schaftlicher sowie gesellschaftlicher Auflagen hinausgehen und sich ent-
Nutzen (Nachhaltigkeit) und Inno- Umweltschutz-Technologie- weder in operationaler Phase oder
vationsleistung folgende spezifische transfer praktizierter Anwendung befinden.
Anforderungen in den einzelnen Preis- Die Bewerbungsunterlagen zur Teil-
kategorien zugrunde: Diese Kategorie bezieht Technologien nahme am BDI-Umweltpreiswett-
und Produkte wie auch das Umwelt- bewerb fr die deutsche Industrie
Umweltfreundliche Technologien schutzmanagement ein. Dabei sind 2005/06 sind bis sptestens 15. Juni
folgende Kriterien wichtig: 2007 einzureichen. Die Bekanntgabe
Entwicklung innovativer Verfah- der nationalen Preistrger und die
ren zur Verringerung von Umwelt Beispielhafte Zusammenarbeit mit Verleihung der ideellen Auszeichnun-
belastungen an der Quelle ihres einem privaten Partner oder einer gen erfolgen im Rahmen der BDI-
Entstehens sowie zur Schonung ffentlichen Einrichtung im Sinne Jahrestagung voraussichtlich im Juni
von Ressourcen. einer langfristig tragfhigen Ent- 2008 in Berlin mit einer begleitenden
Erfllung von Umweltstandards wicklung. Ausstellung fr die Preistrger. Die
und Umweltentlastungen ber Lsung eines spezifischen regio- detaillierten Bewerbungsformalitten
gesetzliche Vorgaben hinaus. nalen Umweltproblems unter Be- sind auf der Homepage des BDI abruf-
Vorrang integrierter Prozesse vor rcksichtigung der speziellen An- bar. N

104 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007


NEW BOOKS

Virtual Fabrication of Aluminium Products


This book contains the results of a ma- velopment quality for process and
jor project of the European aluminium product optimization
industries and their academic part- Design of microstructural states
ners on virtual fabrication. Its three and resulting specific material prop-
chapters give an overview over: erties
1. The production, processing and Design most effective and efficient
quality details of semi-finished prod- fabrication and processing routes
ucts (sheet and extrusions) of some Reduce significantly the number
typical conventional wrought alu- of expensive test runs in productive
minium alloys and products. plants
2. The fundamental physical process- Reduce cost and time to market of
es and recent modelling approaches new products and processes
of casting, deformation and annealing Standardize aluminium alloys for
processes and microstructures. application and to enhance recycla-
3. Their integration and application bility.
in through process simulations of The targeted audience groups are:
plant production. industrial production engineers
Virtual fabrication defines a new working on fabrication and process-
tool to simulate industrial processes ing sites Virtual Fabrication of Aluminium
with integrated models that can pre- engineers dealing with product Products, Jrgen Hirsch (Editor)
dict related properties and applied to development and aluminium appli- Hardcover, 406 pages,
many purposes, such as: cations October 2006
Improvement of industrial produc- scientists and students working 85.00 / 127.50
tion processes and product quality in academic and industrial research ISBN: 3-527-31363-X
Improvement of research and de- laboratories.

Umschlsselung DIN zu EN
Bei zerstrungsfreien Prfungen (ZfP)
Europische Aluminiumwerkstoffe wird verstrkt auf die Kombination ver-
schiedener Verfahren gesetzt, um die
Der europische Binnenmarkt be- das Dickicht und ermglicht einen Sicherheit unserer technischen Umgebung
ntigt gemeinsame Normen, die die schnellen Zugriff auf oft mhsam zu- zu erhhen. Sowohl fr kombinierte
Einschrnkungen fr den freien Wa- sammengesuchte Fakten: Das Nach- Methoden wie auch fr Einzelprfungen
renverkehr abbauen helfen. Diese schlagewerk bringt Transparenz in stellen zwei DIN-Taschenbcher (TB) das
europische Normung hat auch mit die Flle der Norm-Dokumente. Es normentechnische Knowhow zur Verf-
Blick auf den Werkstoff Aluminium klrt die Bedeutung von Krzeln und gung. DIN-TB 56 Materialprfnormen
zu groen Vernderungen gefhrt. In Kennzeichen, vermittelt wichtige In- fr metallische Werkstoffe 2 enthlt die
relativ kurzer Zeit mussten die nati- formationen fr den betrieblichen Normen und Norm-Entwrfe fr die Vo-
onalen Normen durch europische Alltag und verweist nicht zuletzt auf lumenverfahren der ZfP. Ergnzend dazu
Normen ersetzt werden, in denen Be- die gngigen Normen. ist DIN-TB 370 Materialprfnormen fr
zeichnungssysteme und Zustandsbe- Herausgekommen ist das Beuth metallische Werkstoffe 4 erschienen, das
zeichnungen fr Werkstoff gendert Pocket Europische Aluminium- die Normen zu Oberflchenverfahren und
wurden. werkstoffe, das in 1. Auflage 2006 zu anderen ZfP-Verfahren umfasst.
Um dem Anwender die Umschls- zweisprachig deutsch/englisch er-
selung alt/neu fr Aluminium und schienen ist. DIN-TB 56, Materialprfnormen fr me-
seine Legierungen zu erleichtern, tallische Werkstoffe 2. 7. Aufl. 2006. 640
sollte ein einfach zu handhabendes Beuth Pocket S. A5. Brosch. 125,30 Euro. ISBN 978-3-
Hilfsmittel erarbeitet werden. Damit H.-W. Wenglorz, Europische Alu- 410-16300-8. Beuth-Verlag GmbH
war der Startschuss fr das Beuth-Po- miniumwerkstoffe / European Alu-
cket gefallen. minium Materials DIN-TB 370, Materialprfnormen fr
Die lange Zeit der Erstellung ver- 1. Aufl. 2006. 294 S. 21 x 10,5 cm. metallische Werkstoffe 4. 2006. 560 S.
deutlicht, wie viel Arbeit in dem Brosch. 29,80 Euro. A5. Brosch. 106,90 Euro. ISBN 978-3-410-
handlichen, kleinformatigen Nach- ISBN 978-3-410-16287-2 16313-8., Beuth Verlag GmbH
schlagewerk steckt. Es durchdringt Beuth Verlag GmbH

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 105


FIRMENSCHRIFTEN

SECO/Warwick

Aluminium Annealing Furnaces

SECO/Warwick provides custom- O Mass flow design to protect load


engineered aluminium coil and foil surfaces that are vulnerable to dam-
annealing furnaces with capacities age during high atmosphere flow.
ranging from single coil modular fur- O Vortex flow jet heating that re-
naces to multi-zone furnaces with duces cycle time by taking advantage
tight zone control. The company of the high heat transfer produced
continues to develop technologies to through convection heating.
improve equipment performance and The updated brochure is available
efficiency. Two significant improve- online at www.secowarwick.com or
ments for coil and foil processing via e-mail (info@secowarwick.com)
include: for a print copy.

Messerfabrik Neuenkamp

Neuer Schneidtechnik-Katalog

Die Messerfabrik Neuenkamp GmbH, rierwerkzeuge, komplette Schneide-


ein Mitglied der internationalen einheiten bis hin zu Messertrger-
Dienes-Gruppe, bietet eine breite Pa- systemen und zur Poliermaschine.
lette von Serviceleistungen rund um Die abgebildeten Modelle stehen
die Schneidtechnik. Zielgruppe ist die beispielhaft fr eine Vielzahl indivi-
verarbeitende Industrie von Stahl und dueller Konfigurationen, die auf spe-
NE-Metallen. zielle Kundenanforderungen entwi-
Ein neuer Produktkatalog gibt ei- ckelt werden.
nen berblick ber das Produkt- und Der Katalog ist in deutscher und
Serviceprogramm, angefangen bei englischer Sprache erhltlich und
Rollscherenmessern ber Distanz- kann unter info@neuenkamp.de ange-
und Druckverteilungsringe, Sepa- fordert werden.

Schco International

Nachhaltigkeitsbericht SustainIng

Effiziente Lsungen und nachhaltige ber, wie sich Gebudehllen an die


Produkte, die hchste Ansprche hin- weltweit unterschiedlichen Klima-
sichtlich Komfort und Design erfllen, verhltnisse anpassen lassen. Auer-
mssen kein Widerspruch sein. In der dem prsentiert der Bericht berra-
Natur gibt es zahlreiche Beispiele fr schende Analogien aus der Welt der
den perfekten Umgang mit Energie Bionik. SustainIng beschreibt nicht
und Material. Vor diesem Hintergrund allein mgliche Zukunftsszenarien,
beschftigt sich der aktuelle Schco- sondern zeigt auch vorhandene L-
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mit natrlichen Anstzen fr die zu- Wissenschaftler wie Ernst Ullrich von
kunftsorientierte Gebudehlle. Die Weizscker kommen zu Wort.
68-seitige Broschre richtet sich vor Die Broschre liegt in deutscher
allem an Investoren und Architekten. und englischer Sprache vor und kann
Sie informiert ber den nachhaltigen unter www.schueco.de/architekten
Umgang mit der Umwelt sowie dar- angefordert werden.

106 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007


LITERATURE SERVICE

Schuitema, H. transformed more than most by global forces: by the rise of


Heavy duty Magnesium. Entwicklung und Druckguss-Pro- market economies in China and the former Soviet republics,
duktion eines 6-Zylinder Magnesium Bedplate and by rising energy costs. In the next twenty years, even with
Druckgusspraxis 6/2006, S. 243-246 practically inexhaustible ores, primary aluminium capacity will
be overtaken by recycled aluminium due to energy costs. 6 im-
Nach den neuen EU-Vorschriften, die ab 2008 die Grenzwerte ages, 2 Tab.
fr Schadstoffe weiter reduzieren, drfen Pkw nicht mehr als
140 g/km CO2 ausstoen. Dies erfordert weitere Anstrengungen ALUMINIUM 1/2 (2007) Aluminium-Industrie
zur Gewichtsminderung: durch verbesserte Effizienz der Ver-
brennung (innermotorische Manahmen), Reduzierung der
Antriebsverluste im Antriebsstrang, aerodynamische Feinar-
beit und Gewichtsoptimierung durch die Verwendung leichter B. Rieth
Werkstoffe. Ein sddeutscher OEM hat sich fr die Verwendung Coil Coating weltweit ein Wachstumsmarkt
von mehr Magnesium entschieden, um das Gewicht des Motors ALUMINIUM 82 (2006) 12, p. 1170 pp.
zu reduzieren. Ein weiterer Aspekt ist die Verbesserung der
Gewichtsverteilung (geringere Belastung der Vorderachse), was Finish first fabricate later unter diesem Slogan wird das
zum dynamischeren Fahrverhalten beitrgt. Die Verwendung Coil Coating zunehmend als eine kostengnstige Alternative
von Magnesium in einer Grenordnung von 20 kg gilt bis jetzt zur konventionellen Stcklackierung eingesetzt. Organische
als einzigartig im modernen Motorenbau. In der Vergangenheit Beschichtungslinien vereinen chemische, thermische und
gab es keine geeigneten Legierungen, die die geforderten Werte mechanische Prozesse und bieten den Anwendern ein breites
fr mechanische Festigkeit und Kriechverhalten bei hoher ther- Spektrum an Funktions-, Farb- und Dekorvarianten. Nachfol-
mischer und dynamischer Belastung aufweisen. 3 Bild. gend soll losgelst von den technischen Details ein ber-
blick ber Mrkte, Anlagentechnik und die Akteure gegeben
ALUMINIUM 1/2 (2007) Werkstoffeigenschaften werden. 11 Bild.

ALUMINIUM 1/2 (2007) Oberflchenbehandlung

Sequeria, W., Kind, R., Andersen, S., Greeless, G.


Voraussage und Validierung von Verformungen und Eigen-
spannungen in einem Aluminiumdruckgussteil mit Betrach- Anon.
tung der fr den Druckgieproze relevanten Parameter Die deutsche Gieereiindustrie eine Branche mit Perspek-
Druckgusspraxis 6/2006, S. 235-242 tiven
ALUMINIUM 82 (2006) 12, p. 1163 pp.
Das Druckgieverfahren bietet eine exzellente Dimensions-
genauigkeit bei der Herstellung dnnwandiger NE-Gussteile. Deutschland zhlt heute weltweit zu den fhrenden Gieerei-
Trotzdem treten whrend der Produktion an manchen Guss- nationen. Hinter den bevlkerungsreichen Lndern China, USA,
teilen Mahaltigkeitsprobleme auf. Die Tatsache, dass der Form- Russland und Japan steht Deutschland an fnfter Stelle in der
hohlraum innerhalb der notwendigen Toleranzen liegt, und das Welt. In Europa ist die deutsche Gieereibranche seit Jahren mit
unregelmige Auftreten der Fehler machen die Suche nach Abstand fhrend. Wie lsst sich dieser Erfolg angesichts der all-
der Ursache des Problems schwierig. Es ist nicht sinnvoll, die gemein beklagten Standortnachteile in Deutschland erklren?
Belastungsanalyse eines Teils durchzufhren, wenn die sich Dieser Frage geht der Bericht nach. Fr 2006 ist die Gieerei-
whrend des Gieprozesses entwickelnden Eigenspannungen branche optimistisch, das hohe Rekordniveau aus dem Vorjahr
unbekannt sind. Schwankende Temperaturverteilungen im zumindest halten zu knnen. Diese Zuversicht wird durch den
Gussteil sind beim Druckgieen hauptschlich durch Wand- Verlauf des ersten Halbjahres 2006 besttigt. 4 Bild.
strkenbergnge sowie durch die Anordnung von Khlele-
menten und durch die Formsprheinrichtung begrndet. Nach ALUMINIUM 1/2 (2007) Formguss
der Entnahme aus der Form erfhrt das Teil eine thermische
Behandlung, die von der Abkhlung auf Raumtemperatur an
ruhender Luft bis zur Abschreckung in einem Khlmedium rei- Kraynik, A. M.
chen kann. Die Abkhlung fhrt zu Verformungen und Eigen- The Structure of Random Foam
spannungen im Gussteil eine der Hauptursachen fr Dimen- Advanced Engineering Materials 2006, 8, No. 9, S. 900-906
sionsabweichungen im Druckgussteil. Der Artikel diskutiert
die Verformung eines Sicherheitsbauteiles aus Aluminium, die Surface Evolver models of soap foam with a wide range of
mittels computergesttzter Verifizierung ermittelt wurde. Die cell-size distributions are used to investigate random cellular
Ergebnisse werden mit den Resultaten verglichen, die aus der morphology. Geometric properties of foams and foam cells are
Anwendung eines Prozessoptimierungstools fr die Abkhlung analyzed. A simple accurate theory relates the total surface area
von Druckgussteilen von der Formentnahme auf Raumtempera- of foam to the cell-size distribution. The total surface area is
tur erhalten wurden. Die Ausbildung von Eigenspannungen und approximately equal to the total edge length when both quanti-
ihre praktische Bedeutung werden diskutiert. 13 Bild., 9 Que. ties are scaled by average cell volume. Voronoi structures are
significantly different from foams, which raises questions over
ALUMINIUM 1/2 (2007) Formguss their use for predicting structure-property relationships. 22 im-
ages, 13 sources.

ALUMINIUM 1/2 (2007) Werkstoffe, Metallkunde


R. P. Pawlek
Dramatic changes in primary aluminium smelting between
1984 and 2005
ALUMINIUM 82 (2006) 12, p. 1206 pp. McElwain, D.L.S., Roberts, A.P., Wilkins, A. H.
Yield Functions for Porous Materials with Cubic Symmetry
Although still using basically century-old technology, the pri- Using Different Definitions of Yield
mary aluminium industry has again doubled in capacity dur- Advanced Engineering Materials, 2006, 8, No. 9, S. 870-876
ing the last twenty years. This is a dramatic increase, even if
the 1984 figures for several of then communist economies are Plastic yield criteria for porous ductile materials are explored
uncertain. On a macro-economic scale, this industry has been numerically using the finite-element technique. The cases of

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 107


LITERATURSERVICE

spherical voids arranged in simple cubic, body-centred cubic Nogowizin, B.


and face-centred cubic arrays are investigated with void volume Geometrische Gestaltung der Gielufe fr Druckgussstcke
fractions ranging from 2 % through to the percolation limit (over Druckgusspraxis 6/2006, S. 247-253
90%). Arbitrary triaxial macroscopic stress states and two defi-
nitions of yield are explored. The numerical data demonstrates Die Ausschnitttechnik erstreckt sich nicht nur auf den Anschnitt,
that the yield criteria depend linearly on the determinant of sondern auch auf die Gestaltung und die Anordnung der Gie-
the macroscopic stress tensor for the case of simple-cubic and lufe, der berlufe und der Entlftung. Der Artikel thematisiert
body-centred cubic arrays in contrast to the famous Gurson- die Darstellung der geometrischen Gestaltung der Elemente und
Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) formula while there is no such ihre Berechnungen fr die Gielauf-Anschnittsysteme, die zur
dependence for face-centred cubic arrays within the accuracy Entwicklung der erforderlichen computergesttzten Entwurfs-
of the finite-element discretisation. The data are well fit by a programme angewandt werden knnen. Es ist nicht das Ziel,
simple extension of the GTN formula which is valid for all void wie ein Gielaufanschnittsystem fr ein bestimmtes Gussstck
volume fractions, with yield-function convexity constraining zu konstruieren sei, vielmehr wird die Aufmerksamkeit auf die
the form of the extension in terms of parameters in the original verschiedenen Einflussgren bei der Gestaltung von Gielu-
formula. Simple cubic structures are more resistant to shear, fen gelenkt. 7 Bild., 5 Que.
while body-centred and face-centred structures are more resist-
ant to hydrostatic pressure. The two yield surfaces correspond- ALUMINIUM 1/2 (2007) Formguss
ing to the two definitions of yield are not related by a simple
scaling.10 images, 21 sources.

ALUMINIUM 1/2 (2007) Werkstoffe, Metallkunde Pidvysotskyy, V., Matuszyk, P.J., Bloching, H.
Analysis of the Influence of the Specimen Shape on the
Zone of Homogeneous Stress in Tensile Test / Untersuchung
des Einflusses der Probenform im Bereich homogener Span-
Shashikala, A.R., Rani, R.U., Sharma, A.. K., Mayanna, S.M., nungen beim Zugversuch (Beitrag in engl. Sprache)
Untersuchungen zur selektiven Schwarzverchromung auf MP Materialprfung 2006, 10, S. 498-503
Aluminiumlegierungen fr Solaranwendungen / Studies on
solar selective black chrome plating on aluminium alloys Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden die Ergebnisse aus Unter-
Galvanotechnik 10/2006, S. 2387-2400 suchungen zum Einfluss der Probengeometrie und der Eins-
pannlnge auf die homogene Dehnung in der Originalprflnge
Selektive Solarbeschichtungen absorbieren die Sonneneinstrah- vorgestellt. Alle Versuche wurden mit einem austenitischen
lung und wandeln sie in Wrmeenergie fr den Hausgebrauch Stahl 316 L und bei verschiedenen Querschnitten der Flach-
und industrielle Anwendungen um. Die Schwarzverchromung proben durchgefhrt. Die Berechnungen des Verformungsproz-
wird hufig aufgrund ihrer haltbaren, nicht reflektierenden esses wurden mittels der Finite-Elemente-Methode unter Nut-
Oberflche und ihrer bestndigen optischen Eigenschaften zung des Programms Abaqus/Explicit ausgefhrt. Es werden die
fr Automobile, Phototechnik, Solarkollektoren und optische Korrelation zwischen der Dehnungsverteilung in den Proben
Gerte verwendet. Schwarzchromschichten werden auf ver- und verschiedenen Parametern, wie zum Beispiel dem ber-
schiedene Werkstoffe wie Kupfer oder Stahl abgeschieden. gangsradius und der Einspannlnge, beleuchtet. 9 Bild., 9 Que.
Trotz neuer Entwicklungen werden zur Herstellung dnner
Schichten Chrom(VI)elektrolyte eingesetzt. In der vorliegenden ALUMINIUM 1/2 (2007) Werkstoffeigenschaften
Studie wird die Auswirkung verschiedener Unterschichten
(cyanidisches/nicht cyanidisches Kupfer, galvanisches und
stromloses Nickel) auf die Stabilitt und solare Selektivitt von
Schwarzchromschichten auf Aluminiumlegierungen unter-
sucht. 8 Bild., 23 Que. Beitrag in dt. u. engl. Sprache). Haberkorn, G., Blmcke, E.W., Thoma, K.
Durchgngige Betrachtung einer Stanznietverbindung mit
ALUMINIUM 1/2 (2007) Oberflchenbehandlung Fokus auf dynamische Belastungen
MP Materialprfung 2006, 10, S. 486-492

Stratemeier, S., Senk, D., Grosse, A., Kurth, B. Im Zuge des Leichtbaus von Fahrzeugkarosserien kommen
Eigenschaften von mechanisch hergestelltem Desoxidations- neben einer Vielzahl von Materialien auch zahlreiche unter-
aluminium schiedliche Fgetechniken zur Anwendung. Um diese in der nu-
stahl und eisen 126 (2006) Nr. 11, S. 45-55 merischen Berechnung zu bercksichtigen, sind umfangreiche
Kenntnisse der Phnomenologie der Verbindung einschlielich
Im Jahr 2004 wurden in der deutschen Stahlindustrie rund 76.000 des Versagens notwendig. Es wird eine Mglichkeit der Un-
t Aluminium verbraucht. Dieses sog. Desoxidationsaluminium tersuchung von mechanischen Verbindungen am Beispiel der
wird in der Stahlmetallurgie als Granalien und Einteilern ein- Stanznietverbindung aufgezeigt. Dies umfasst die Kombination
gesetzt, die aus Aluminiumschrotten umgeschmolzen werden. von Versuchen und der numerischen Simulation, welche bei
Eine mgliche Alternative zu thermisch hergestelltem Desoxida- der Prozesssimulation beginnt und ber ein Detailmodell hin
tionsaluminium ist die Verwendung von sauberem granulierten zum abstrahierten Simulationsmodell fr die Gesamtfahrzeug-
Al-Schrott. Der Beitrag untersucht die Eignung von mechanisch berechnung fhrt. Erste Ergebnisse werden vorgestellt und auf
hergestelltem Desoxidationsaluminium aus Schrotten fr den ihre Relevanz im Kontext einer Gesamtfahrzeug-Crashsimula-
Einsatz in der Stahlmetallurgie. 10 Bild, 5 Que. tion hin bewertet. 11 Bild., 8 Que.

ALUMINIUM 1/2 (2007) Gewinnung ALUMINIUM 1/2 (2007) Verbinden

Fr Schrifttum zum Thema Aluminium ist der Gesamtverband der Aluminiumindustrie e.V. (GDA)
der kompetente Ansprechpartner. Die hier referierten Beitrge reprsentieren lediglich einen Aus-
schnitt aus dem umfassenden aktuellen Bestand der GDA-Bibliothek.
Die von der Aluminium-Zentrale seit den dreiiger Jahren kontinuierlich aufgebaute Fach-Bibliothek
wird duch den GDA weitergefhrt, ausgebaut und auf die neuen Medien umgestellt. Sie steht allen
Interessenten offen.
Ansprechpartner ist Dr. Karsten Hein, E-Mail: karsten.hein@aluinfo.de

108 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007


PAT E N T E

Patentblatt November 2006 Tube aus Metall, insbesondere Alumi- Works, Ltd., Kariya, Aichi, JP. (C22C
nium. Karl Hll GmbH & Co KG, 40764 21/02, OS 102 32 159, AT 16.07.2002)
Langenfeld, DE. (B65D 35/16, GM 203 16
Al-Legierung fr lithographisches Blech. 148, AT 18.10.2003) Verfahren zum Herstellen einer hoch-
Alcan International Ltd., Montreal, Que- schadenstoleranten Aluminiumlegie-
bec, CA. (C22C 21/00, OS 102 42 018, Vorrichtung zur Sicherung von als Paket rung. Corus Aluminium Walzprodukte
AT 11.09.2002) gelagerten Aluminium-Stranggusspro- GmbH, 56070 Koblenz, DE. (C22F 1/04,
dukten, so genannten Masseln, zu Trans- WO 2005 049878, WO-AT 29.10.2004)
Al-Cu-Mg-Ag-Mn-Legierung fr Bauan- portzwecken. Signode System GmbH,
wendungen, die hohe Festigkeit und 46535 Dinslaken, DE. (B65D 85/20, GM Einrichtung zur Herstellung gegossener
hohe Duktilitt erfordern. Alcan Rolled 20 2006 012 782, AT 21.08.2006) Halbfabrikate aus Leichtmetall. Stolfig,
Products Ravenswood LLC, Ravens- Peter, 85290 Geisenfeld, DE. (B22D 21/04,
wood, W.Va., US; Alcan Rhenalu, Paris, Verfahren zur Herstellung von Sinter- OS 10 2005 024 025, AT 21.05.2005)
FR. (C22C 21/12, EPA 1 641 952, EP-AT krpern aus Yttrium-Aluminium-Granat
26.05.2004) und ein Formkrper. NGK Insulators, Verfahren zum Leichtmetall-Legierungs-
Ltd., Nagoya, Aichi, JP. (C04B 35/44, EP Sintern. Schwbische Httenwerke
Verfahren zur Herstellung von Al-Mg- 1 433 764, EP-AT 22.12.2003) GmbH, 73433 Aalen, DE. (C22C 1/04,
Si-Legierung mit hervorragender Bake- EPA 1 709 209, EP-AT 26.11.2004)
Hardenability und Falzbarkeit. Nippon Behandeln von Abstandhaltern in gesta-
Light Metal Co. Ltd., Tokio/Tokyo, JP. pelten Aluminium-Blcken. Alcoa Inc., Sinterkrper auf Eisenbasis mit hervor-
(C22F 1/05, EPA 1 702 995, EP-AT Pittsburgh, Pa., US. (C21D 1/70, EP 1 215 ragenden Eigenschaften zum Einbetten
13.12.2004) 289, EP-AT 11.12.2001) durch Eingieen in Leichtmetall-Legie-
rung und Verfahren zu seiner Herstel-
Zn-Al-Eutektoid-Feuerverzinkung von Reinigung von Aluminium-Gusslegie- lung. NIPPON PISTON RING CO., LTD.,
nicht rostendem Stahl. University of Cin- rungen mittels Zugabe von Bor. Baye- Saitama, JP; Fuji Jukogyo K.K., Tokio/To-
cinnati, Cincinatti, Ohio, US. (C23C 2/06, rische Motoren Werke AG, 80809 Mn- kyo, JP. (C22C 33/02, PS 103 60 824, AT
1 709 21, EP-AT 21.01.2005) chen, DE. (C22B 21/06, EP 1 264 903, 23.12.2003)
EP-AT 03.05.2003)
Kupfer enthaltender, mehrfdiger Maschinenteil aus einer Leichtmetall-
Nb3Al-Supraleitungsdraht und Ver- Verstellbare Aluminium-Dachhaken mit Gusslegierung, insbesondere Pleuel
fahren zu dessen Herstellung. Japan, Einrastfunktion zur Befestigung von fr Hubkolbenmaschinen. Bayerische
vertreten durch den Generaldirektor des Solarmodulen und Solarthermieanlagen Motoren Werke AG, 80809 Mnchen,
Nationalen Metallforschungsinstitutes, auf Dchern und Schrgdchern. Citak, DE. (F16C 7/02, PS 43 32 444, AT
Tsukuba, Ibaraki, JP. (H01B 12/10, PS Fatma, 33689 Bielefeld, DE. (E04D 13/18, 23.09.1993)
100 55 628, AT 09.11.2000) OS 10 2005 058 065, AT 06.12.2005)
Sammelbehlter fr Magnesium o. dgl.
Herstellungsverfahren fr einen ultrafei- Mehrschichtiges Gleitteil aus einer auf Thielemann, Frank, 63776 Mmbris, DE.
nen Multifilament-Supraleiterdraht aus Aluminium basierenden Legierung. (F16L 3/14, GM 20 2005 008 220, AT
Nb3(Al, Ge) oder Nb3(Al, Si). JAPAN as Daido Metal Co. Ltd., Nagoya, Aichi, JP. 25.05.2005)
represented by NATIONAL RESEARCH (F16C 33/12, PS 10 2004 025 557, AT
INSTITUTE FOR METALS, Tsukuba, 25.05.2004) Druckgussbauteil, aus Magnesium, vor-
JP. (H01L 39/24, EP 1 058 321, EP-AT nehmlich zur Verwendung in Kraftfahr-
05.06.2000) Isolierverbund fr Aluminium-Profile. zeugen. Volkswagen AG, 38440 Wolfs-
Henkenjohann, Johann, 33415 Verl, burg, DE. (F16S 5/00, OS 100 02 262, AT
Zeolithkatalysator, Trger auf Basis von DE. (F16S 3/02, GM 298 21 183, AT 19.01.2000)
Silizium-Aluminium-Matrix und Zeolith 26.11.1998)
und Verfahren zum Hydrocracken von Verfahren zu Herstellung elektrisch
Kohlenwasserstoffchargen. Institut Fran- Aluminium Strahlungsplatte fr eine
ais du Ptrole, Rueil-Malmaison, Hauts- Unterdecke. Riello, Franco, Milano, IT;
de-Seine, FR. (B01J 29/08, EPA 1 711 260, Riello, Andrea, Milano, IT; Donati, Giu- ALUMINIUM verffentlicht unter
EP-AT 16.12.2004) seppe, Cenate Sopra, Bergamo, IT; Do- dieser Rubrik regelmig einen ber-
nati, Francesco, Cenate Sopra, Bergamo, blick ber wichtige, den Werkstoff
Kontinuierlich graviertes, laminiertes IT. (F24D 3/16, EPA 1 703 215, EP-AT Aluminium betreffende Patente. Die
Aluminium und dessen Benutzung in 22.02.2005) ausfhrlichen Patentbltter und auch
Paneelen. Lloveras Calvo, Juan, San Feliu weiterfhrende Informationen dazu
de Codinas, ES. (B21B 15/00, EPA 1 710 Detektorbnder enthaltend Aluminium, stehen der Redaktion nicht zur Ver-
026, EP-AT 06.04.2005) Silizium, Titan und Zirkonium. Oeste, fgung. Interessenten knnen diese
Franz Dietrich, 35274 Kirchhain, DE. beziehen oder einsehen bei der
Verfahren zur Herstellung von Alumini- (G01N 27/26, OS 10 2005 021 625, AT
um-Kokillenguss mit dem Zweck eine Ge- 05.05.2005) Mitteldeutschen Informations-, Pa-
fgeverbesserung bei den gegossenen tent-, Online-Service GmbH (mipo),
Teilen zu erreichen. Fuchs, Hermann, Aluminiumlegierung zur Herstellung Julius-Ebeling-Str. 6,
57520 Steinebach, DE. (B22D 21/04, OS von Gussformteilen. Alcoa Inc., Pitts- D-06112 Halle an der Saale,
10 2005 001 243, AT 11.01.2005) burgh, Pa., US. (C22C 21/00, EPA 1 709 Tel. 0345/29398-0
210, EP-AT 31.01.2005) Fax 0345/29398-40,
Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Bauteils www.mipo.de
durch Fgen mit Aluminium. Rolls-Roy- Verschleifester gestreckter Krper aus
ce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, 15827 Dah- Aluminiumlegierung, Herstellungsver- Die Gesellschaft bietet darber hin-
lewitz, DE. (B23K 1/19, OS 102 38 551, fahren dafr und Kolben fr Auto-Kli- aus weitere Patent-Dienstleistungen
AT 22.08.2002) maanlage. Sumitomo Electric Industries, an.
Ltd., Osaka, JP; Toyoda Automatic Loom

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 109


PAT E N T E

leitfhiger und optimal haftfhiger Gieform zum Gieen von Metallschmel- schine und Verfahren zur Herstellung
Oberflchenbereiche auf chemisch und/ ze. Hydro Aluminium Alucast GmbH, eines Zylinderblocks. KS Aluminium-
oder galvanisch beschichteten und/oder 66763 Dillingen, DE. (B22C 1/20, OS 10 Technologie AG, 74172 Neckarsulm,
lackierten Spritzgussteilen aus Magne- 2005 023 051, AT 13.05.2005) DE. (F02F 1/00, PS 10 2004 005 458, AT
siumlegierungen. Fa. Alfred R. Franz, 04.02.2004)
82538 Geretsried, DE. (C25D 5/00, PS Dauergieform und Gieformeinsatz.
198 51 278, AT 06.11.1998) Hydro Aluminium Mandl&Berger GmbH, Profilanordnung und Einfassprofil fr
Linz, AT. (B22C 9/06, PS 10 2005 054 eine Profilanordnung. MayTec Alumini-
Schutzschicht fr eine aluminiumhaltige 616, AT 16.11.2005) um Systemtechnik GmbH, 85221 Dach-
Legierung fr den Einsatz bei hohen au, DE. (F16B 5/06, GM 203 21 258, AT
Temperaturen, sowie Verfahren zur Verfahren und Vorrichtungen zum F- 24.04.2003)
Herstellung einer solchen Schutzschicht. gen von mindestens zwei Bauteilen aus
Forschungszentrum Jlich GmbH, 52428 artverschiedenen Werkstoffen. Hydro Beschichtung fr einen Solarabsor-
Jlich, DE.(C23C 8/02, EPA 1 706 518, Aluminium Deutschland GmbH, 51149 ber. ALANOD Aluminium-Veredlung
EP-AT 20.11.2004) Kln, DE. (B23K 20/12, OS 10 2005 019 GmbH & Co. KG, 58256 Ennepetal, DE.
758, AT 28.04.2005) (F24J 2/48, PS 10 2004 060 982, AT
Verfahren zum Umformen eines Aus- 17.12.2004)
gangsprofils od. dgl. Werkstckes so- Fassade oder Glasdach in Brandschutz-
wie Profil dafr. Alcan Technology & ausfhrung mit einer aus vertikalen Zarge fr ein Fenster oder eine Tr in
Management AG, Neuhausen am Rhein- und horizontalen Profilen bestehenden wrmegedmmter Ausfhrung. Her-
fall, CH. (B21D 26/02, PS 199 55 506, AT Tragkonstruktion. Norsk Hydro ASA, mann Gutmann Werke GmbH, 91781
18.11.1999) Oslo, NO. (E04B 1/94, EP 1 120 504, EP- Weienburg, DE. (E06B 1/32, PS 100 40
AT 20.01.2001) 497, AT 18.08.2000)
Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Verpa-
ckungsmaterials. Alcan Technology & Verbinder fr Rahmen von Fenstern, Halteprofil sowie Fenster- oder Trkon-
Management Ltd., Neuhausen am Rhein- Tren, Fassaden und dergleichen Kon- struktion. Hermann Gutmann Werke
fall, CH. (B32B 37/12, EPA 1 621 333, EP- struktionen. Norsk Hydro ASA, Oslo, AG, 91781 Weienburg, DE. (E06B 3/58,
AT 01.07.2004) NO. (E04B 2/96, EP 1 249 550, EP-AT OS 10 2005 023 257, AT 20.05.2005)
10.04.2002)
Verbundplatte mit zwei Deckschichten Deckleiste fr Fenster. Norsk Hydro
und einem Kern sowie deren Verwen- ASA, Oslo, NO. (E06B 3/30, EPA 1 712 Patentblatt Dezember 2006
dung und Herstellung. Alcan Technolo- 719, EP-AT 04.04.2006)
gy & Management AG, Neuhausen am Verfahren zur Herstellung einer auf
Rheinfall, CH. (B32B 5/16, PS 43 17 315, Einbausystem fr den Einbau eines Pa- Al-Mg-Si basierenden Aluminiumlegie-
AT 25.05.1993) neelrandes in einen Pfosten. Norsk Hy- rungsplatte mit hervorragender Bake-
dro ASA, Oslo, NO. (E06B 3/54, EPA 1 Hardenability. Nippon Light Metal Co.
Stossfngersystem. Alcan Technology & 710 386, EP-AT 04.04.2006) Ltd., Tokio/Tokyo, JP. (C22C 1/05, EPA
Management AG, Neuhausen am Rhein- 1 715 067, EP-AT 22.12.2004)
fall, CH. (B60R 19/26, GM 20 2005 016 Tr, Fenster oder hnliches mit einer
564, AT 20.10.2005) drehenden Abdichtung zwischen Flgel Cr-Al-Stahl fr Hochtemperaturanwen-
und Rahmen. Norsk Hydro ASA, Oslo, dungen. Sandvik Intellectual Property
Stostange mit Halterungen. Alcan NO. (E06B 7/22, EPA 1 712 723, EP-AT AB, Sandviken, SE. (C22C 38/06, EPA 1
Technology & Management AG, Neuhau- 04.04.2006) 721 023, EP-AT 21.12.2005)
sen am Rheinfall, CH. (B60R 19/34, OS 10
2006 019 653, AT 25.04.2006) Lagervorrichtung fr einen Sandbehl- Aluminium-Zirkonium-Antiperspiran-
ter, der in einer Formvorrichtung fr tien mit verbesserter Wirksamkeit.
Flexibler Trger mit elektrisch leitfhiger verlorenen Guss vibriert wird. Fata Alu- Reheis, Inc., Berkeley Heights, N.J., US.
Struktur. Alcan Technology & Manage- minium S.p.A., Rivoli, IT. (B22C 15/10, (A61K 8/00, EPA 1 715 831, EP-AT
ment Ltd., Neuhausen am Rheinfall, EP 1 153 679, EP-AT 09.05.2000) 19.01.2005)
CH. (H01B 7/08, EPA 1 704 572, EP-AT
17.12.2004) Metallschmelzentransportbehlter. Nip- Aluminium-Fahrzeugfelge und Verfah-
pon Crucible Co., Ltd., Tokio/Tokyo, JP; ren zum Herstellen einer solchen. bd-
Verfahren zum Verschlieen eines Be- Daiki Aluminium Industry Co., Ltd., Yao- breyton-design GmbH, 78333 Stockach,
hlters sowie Schraubverschluss hierfr. shi, Osaka, JP. (B22D 35/00, EPA 1 702 DE. (B22D 17/14, OS 10 2005 026 829,
Alcoa Deutschland GmbH Verpackungs- 700, EP-AT 23.07.2004 AT 09.06.2005)
werke, 67547 Worms, DE. (B67C 7/00,
OS 199 42 507, AT 07.09.1999) Gelndeanpassbarer Zaun. ALTEC Alu- Fortsetzung der Dezember-Auswertung in
minium Technik Hans-J. Gebauer GmbH, der nchsten Ausgabe der ALUMINIUM.
Halterungselemente fr Bauplatten. Co- 56727 Mayen, DE. (E04H 17/14, GM 298
rus Bausysteme GmbH, 56070 Koblenz, 10 603, AT 12.06.1998)
DE. (E04D 3/36, EP 1 147 270, EP-AT
04.01.2000) Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Fenster-
Fr
Verkleidungsblech. Corus Bausysteme
bankabschlusses. RBB Aluminium Profil-
technik AG, 54531 Wallscheid, DE. (E06B
Abonnenten
GmbH, 56070 Koblenz, DE. (E04F 13/12, 1/70, PS 102 50748, AT 31.10.2002)
GM 200 16 964, AT 27.09.2000)
Fenster- oder Trpfosten. Reynaers Alu- www.alu-archiv.de
Bandkanten-Planheitssteuerung. Hydro minium, N.V., Duffel, BE. (E06B 3/263,
Aluminium Deutschland GmbH, 53117 EPA 1 705 334, EP-AT 13.02.2006)
Bonn, DE. (B21B 37/32, PS 102 06 758, Wissen auf Abruf
AT 19.02.2002) Zylinderblock fr eine Brennkraftma-

110 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007


Lieferverzeichnis

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ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 111


Lieferverzeichnis

Smelting technology
1 Httentechnik
1.1 Raw materials 1.1 Rohstoffe
1.2 Storage facilities for smelting 1.2 Lagermglichkeiten in der Htte
1.3 Anode production 1.3 Anodenherstellung
1.4 Anode rodding 1.4 Anodenschlgerei
1.5 Casthouse (foundry) 1.5 Gieerei
1.6 Casting machines 1.6 Giemaschinen
1.7 Current supply 1.7 Stromversorgung
1.8 Electrolysis cell (pot) 1.8 Elektrolyseofen
1.9 Potroom 1.9 Elektrolysehalle
1.10 Laboratory 1.10 Labor
1.11 Emptying the cathode shell 1.11 Ofenwannenentleeren
1.12 Cathode repair shop 1.12 Kathodenreparaturwerkstatt
1.13 Second-hand plant 1.13 Gebrauchtanlagen
1.14 Aluminium alloys 1.14 Aluminiumlegierungen

1.2 Storage facilities Auto firing systems 1.4 Anode rodding


Automatische Feuerungssysteme
for smelting Anodenanschlgerei
Lagermglichkeiten
in der Htte
OUTOKUMPU Technology GmbH
Mller Materials Handling GmbH Tel.: +49 (0) 2203 / 9921-0
Haderslebener Strae 7 www.outokumputechnology.com
D-25421 Pinneberg
RIEDHAMMER GmbH
Telefon: 04101 788-0
D-90332 Nrnberg
Telefax: 04101 788-115
E-Mail: info@moeller-mh.com
E-Mail: goede.frank@riedhammer.de Removal of bath residues from
Internet: www.moeller-mh.com
Internet: www.riedhammer.de the surface of spent anodes
Kontakt: Herr Dipl.-Ing. Timo Letz Entfernen der Badreste von der Ober-
flche der verbrauchten Anoden
Exhaust gas treatment
Abgasbehandlung
OUTOKUMPU Technology GmbH
Tel.: +49 (0) 2203 / 9921-0 ALSTOM Norway AS
www.outokumputechnology.com Tel. +47 22 12 70 00
GLAMA Maschinenbau GmbH
Internet: www.environment.power.alstom.com
Hornstrae 19
D-45964 Gladbeck
Hydraulic presses for Telefon 02043 / 9738-0
prebaked anodes Telefax 02043 / 9738-50
Conveying systems
bulk materials Hydraulische Pressen zur
Frderanlagen fr Schttgter Herstellung von Anoden
(Httenaluminiumherstellung) Transport of finished anode
elements to the pot room
Mller Materials Handling GmbH Transport der fertigen Anoden-
Internet: www.moeller-mh.com elemente in Elektrolysehalle
see Storage facilities for smelting 1.2 LAEIS GmbH
Am Scheerleck 7, L-6868 Wecker, Luxembourg
Phone:+352 27612 0
Fax: +352 27612 109 Vollert GmbH + Co. KG
E-Mail: info@laeis-gmbh.com Anlagenbau
Unloading/Loading equipment Internet: www.laeis-gmbh.com Stadtseestrae 12
Entlade-/Beladeeinrichtungen Contact: Dr. Alfred Kaiser D-74189 Weinsberg
Tel. +49 (0) 7134 / 52-228
Fax +49 (0) 7134 / 52-203
Mller Materials Handling GmbH Open top and closed E-Mail vertrieb@vollert.de
Internet: www.moeller-mh.com type baking furnaces Internet www.vollert.de
see Storage facilities for smelting 1.2 Offene und geschlossene Ringfen

1.3 Anode production


Anodenherstellung
Hovestr. 10 . D-48431 Rheine
RIEDHAMMER GmbH Telefon + 49 (0) 59 71 58-0
OUTOKUMPU Technology GmbH D-90332 Nrnberg Fax + 49 (0) 59 71 58-209
Tel.: +49 (0) 2203 / 9921-0 E-Mail: goede.frank@riedhammer.de E-Mail info@windhoff.de
www.outokumputechnology.com Internet: www.riedhammer.de Internet www.windhoff.de

112 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007


Lieferverzeichnis

1.5 Casthouse (foundry) Measurement & Testing Bone ash


Temperaturmessung Knochenasche
Gieerei

INOTHERM INDUSTRIEOFEN- IMPERIAL-OEL-IMPORT


UND WRMETECHNIK GMBH Bergstrae 11, D 20095 Hamburg
Konstantinstrae 1a Tel. 040/338533-0, Fax: 040/338533-85
D 41238 Mnchengladbach Gieereiprodukte Foundry Products E-Mail: info@imperial-oel-import.de
Telefon +49 (02166) 987990 Balthasar Floriszstraat 34-36/oh
Telefax +49 (02166) 987996 NL-1071 VD AMSTERDAM
E-Mail: info@inotherm-gmbh.de Tel.: +31 20 693-5209, Fax -5762 Furnace charging with
Internet: www.inotherm-gmbh.de Internet: www.srsamsterdam.com molten metal
Ofenbeschickung mit Flssigmetall
Metal treatment in the
holding furnace GLAMA Maschinenbau GmbH
Metallbehandlung in Haltefen see Anode rodding 1.4
THERMCON OVENS BV
see Extrusion 2 maerz-gautschi
Industrieofenanlagen GmbH
see Casting Equipment 3.1 1.6 Casting machines
SIGNODE SYSTEM GMBH Giemaschinen
Packaging Equipment
Non-Ferrous Specialist Team DSWE Transfer to the
Magnusstr. 18, 46535 Dinslaken/Germany casting furnace
Telefon: +49 (0) 2064 / 69-210 berfhrung in Gieofen
Telefax: +49 (0) 2064 / 69-489
E-Mail: g.laks@signode-europe.com
Internet: www.signode.com GLAMA Maschinenbau GmbH THERMCON OVENS BV
see Anode rodding 1.4 see Extrusion 2
Contact: Mr. Gerard Laks
Drache Umwelttechnik
Stopinc AG GmbH
Bsch 83 a Werner-v.-Siemens-Strae 9/24-26 Pig casting machines
CH-6331 Hnenberg D 65582 Diez/Lahn (sow casters)
Tel. +41/41-785 75 00 Telefon 06432/607-0 Masselgiemaschine (Sowcaster)
Fax +41/41-785 75 01 Telefax 06432/607-52
E-Mail: interstop@stopinc.ch Internet: www.drache-gmbh.de
Internet: www.stopinc.ch
maerz-gautschi
maerz-gautschi Industrieofenanlagen GmbH
Transport of liquid metal Industrieofenanlagen GmbH see Casting Equipment 3.1
to the casthouse see Casting Equipment 3.1
Transport von Flssigmetall
in Gieereien Vollert GmbH + Co. KG
Anlagenbau
GLAMA Maschinenbau GmbH
see Transport of finished anode elements
see Anode rodding 1.4
to the pot room 1.4
MARX GmbH & Co. KG
Windhoff Bahn- und HERTWICH ENGINEERING GmbH
www.marx-gmbh.de
Anlagentechnik GmbH Maschinen und Industrieanlagen
see Melt operations 4.13
see Anode rodding 1.4 Weinbergerstrae 6, A-5280 Braunau am Inn
Vollert GmbH + Co. KG Phone +437722/806-0
Anlagenbau Fax +437722/806-122
Treatment of casthouse E-Mail: info@hertwich.com
see Transport of finished anode elements off gases
to the pot room 1.4 Internet: www.hertwich.com
Behandlung der Gieereiabgase

Windhoff Bahn- und maerz-gautschi


Anlagentechnik GmbH Industrieofenanlagen GmbH
see Anode rodding 1.4 see Casting Equipment 3.1

see Equipment and accessories 2.11


Dross skimming of Degassing, filtration and
liquid metal grain refinement
Abkrtzen des Flssigmetalls Entgasung, Filtern, Kornfeinung Rolling and extrusion ingot
Drache Umwelttechnik and T-bars
GLAMA Maschinenbau GmbH GmbH Formatgieerei (Walzbarren oder
see Anode rodding 1.4 Werner-v.-Siemens-Strae 9/24-26 Pressbolzen oder T-Barren)
D 65582 Diez/Lahn
Melting/holding/casting Telefon 06432/607-0 Cast-Tec GmbH & Co. KG
furnaces Telefax 06432/607-52 Fertigungstechnik & Service
Schmelz-/Halte- und Giessfen Internet: www.drache-gmbh.de D-44536 Lnen, Brunnenstrae 138
Telefon: 02306/20310-0
maerz-gautschi maerz-gautschi Telefax: 02306/20310-11
Industrieofenanlagen GmbH Industrieofenanlagen GmbH E-Mail: Info@cast-tec.de
see Casting Equipment 3.1 see Casting Equipment 3.1 Internet: www.cast-tec.de

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 113


Lieferverzeichnis

Sawing Pot feeding systems


Sgen Beschickungseinrichtungen
fr Elektrolysezellen

Mller Materials Handling GmbH


Internet: www.moeller-mh.com
see Storage facilities for smelting 1.2
HERTWICH ENGINEERING GmbH
Maschinen und Industrieanlagen
Weinbergerstrae 6, A-5280 Braunau am Inn Slurries and parting agents
Phone +437722/806-0 HERTWICH ENGINEERING GmbH
Schlichten und Trennmittel
Fax +437722/806-122 Maschinen und Industrieanlagen
E-Mail: info@hertwich.com Weinbergerstrae 6, A-5280 Braunau am Inn ESK Ceramics GmbH & Co. KG
Internet: www.hertwich.com Phone +437722/806-0 Max-Schaidhauf-Strae 25
Fax +437722/806-122 87437 Kempten, Germany
E-Mail: info@hertwich.com Tel.: +49 831 5618-0, Fax: -345
maerz-gautschi
Internet: www.hertwich.com Internet: www.esk.com
Industrieofenanlagen GmbH
see Casting Equipment 3.1
maerz-gautschi
Vertical semi-continuous Industrieofenanlagen GmbH 1.9 Potroom
DC casting see Casting Equipment 3.1
Elektrolysehalle
Vertikales Stranggieen
maerz-gautschi Heat treatment of extrusion
ingot (homogenisation) T.T. Tomorrow Technology S.p.A.
Industrieofenanlagen GmbH Via dellArtigianato 18
see Casting Equipment 3.1 Formatebehandlung
(homogenisieren) Due Carrare, Padova 35020, Italy
Telefon +39 049 912 8800
Telefax +39 049 912 8888
E-Mail: gmagarotto@tomorrowtechnology.it
Contact: Giovanni Magarotto

see Equipment and accessories 2.11


Anode changing machine
Anodenwechselmaschine
Horizontal continuous casting HERTWICH ENGINEERING GmbH
Horizontales Stranggieen Maschinen und Industrieanlagen GLAMA Maschinenbau GmbH
Weinbergerstrae 6, A-5280 Braunau am Inn see Anode rodding 1.4
Phone +437722/806-0
Fax +437722/806-122 Tapping vehicles
E-Mail: info@hertwich.com Schpffahrzeuge
Internet: www.hertwich.com
GLAMA Maschinenbau GmbH
HERTWICH ENGINEERING GmbH maerz-gautschi see Anode rodding 1.4
Industrieofenanlagen GmbH
Maschinen und Industrieanlagen
see Casting Equipment 3.1
Weinbergerstrae 6, A-5280 Braunau am Inn Crustbreakers
Phone +437722/806-0 Krustenbrecher
Fax +437722/806-122 Casthouse machines
E-Mail: info@hertwich.com Gieereimaschinen
GLAMA Maschinenbau GmbH
Internet: www.hertwich.com see Anode rodding 1.4
Cast-Tec GmbH & Co. KG
maerz-gautschi
Fertigungstechnik & Service
see Casting machines 1.6 Dry absorption units for
Industrieofenanlagen GmbH
see Casting Equipment 3.1
electrolysis exhaust gases
1.7 Current supply Trockenabsorptionsanlage fr
Elektrolyseofenabgase
Scales Stromversorgung
Waagen ALSTOM Norway AS
Busbars
Stromschienen Tel. +47 22 12 70 00
Internet: www.environment.power.alstom.com
Cast-Tec GmbH & Co. KG
Fertigungstechnik & Service Anode transport equipment
see Casting machines 1.6 Anoden Transporteinrichtungen

HERTWICH ENGINEERING GmbH 1.8 Electrolysis cell GLAMA Maschinenbau GmbH


Maschinen und Industrieanlagen see Anode rodding 1.4
Weinbergerstrae 6, A-5280 Braunau am Inn
(pot)
Phone +437722/806-0 Elektrolyseofen
HF Measurementtechnology
Fax +437722/806-122
E-Mail: info@hertwich.com Insulating bricks HF Messtechnik
Internet: www.hertwich.com Isoliersteine
OPSIS AB
Promat GmbH Techn. Wrmedmmung Box 244, S-24402 Furulund, Schweden
maerz-gautschi Scheifenkamp 16, D-40878 Ratingen Tel. +46 (0) 46-72 25 00, Fax -72 25 01
Industrieofenanlagen GmbH Tel. +49 (0) 2102 / 493-0, Fax -493 115 E-Mail: info@opsis.se
see Casting Equipment 3.1 verkauf3@promat.de, www.promat.de Internet: www.opsis.se

114 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007


Lieferverzeichnis

Extrusion
2
2.1
Strangpressen
Extrusion billet preparation 2.1 Pressbolzenbereitstellung
2.2 Extrusion equipment 2.2 Strangpresseinrichtungen
2.3 Section handling 2.3 Profilhandling
2.4 Heat treatment 2.4 Wrmebehandlung
2.5 Measurement and control equipment 2.5 Mess- und Regeleinrichtungen
2.6 Die preparation and care 2.6 Werkzeugbereitstellung und -pflege
2.7 Second-hand extrusion plant 2.7 Gebrauchte Strangpressanlagen
2.8 Consultancy, expert opinion 2.8 Beratung, Gutachten
2.9 Surface finishing of sections 2.9 Oberflchenveredlung von Profilen
2.10 Machining of sections 2.10 Profilbearbeitung
2.11 Equipment and accessories 2.11 Ausrstungen und Hilfsmittel
2.12 Services 2.12 Dienstleistungen

2.1 Extrusion billet Billet heating units


Anlagen zur Bolzenerwrmung
preparation
Pressbolzenbereitstellung
www.otto-junker-group.com
SIGNODE SYSTEM GMBH
Packaging Equipment OTTO JUNKER GmbH
Non-Ferrous Specialist Team DSWE ELHAUS INDUSTRIEANLAGEN GmbH
Magnusstr. 18, 46535 Dinslaken/Germany OTTO JUNKER (UK) LTD.
Telefon: +49 (0) 2064 / 69-210 see Extrusion 2
Telefax: +49 (0) 2064 / 69-489
Jgerhausstr. 22 E-Mail: g.laks@signode-europe.com
D 52152 Simmerath Internet: www.signode.com
Telefon: +49 2473 601 0 Contact: Mr. Gerard Laks
Telefax: +49 2473 601 600
E-Mail: info@otto-junker.de Billet transport and
Kontakt: Herr Teichert storage equipment
Billet heating furnaces Bolzen-Transport- und
Lagereinrichtungen
fen zur Bolzenerwrmung

OTTO JUNKER GmbH


Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 1-3 ELHAUS INDUSTRIEANLAGEN GmbH
D 78239 Rielasingen-Worblingen Am groen Teich 16+27 see Extrusion 2
Telefon +49 7731 5998-0 D-58640 Iserlohn
Telefax +49 7731 5998-90 Tel. +49 (0) 2371 / 4346-0
E-Mail info@elhaus.de Fax +49 (0) 2371 / 4346-43
Kontakt: Herr Dr. Menzler E-Mail: verkauf@ias-gmbh.de
Internet: www.ias-gmbh.de Hot shears
Warmscheren

OTTO JUNKER GmbH


De Chamotte 4 ELHAUS INDUSTRIEANLAGEN GmbH
NL 4191 GT GELDERMALSEN MARX GmbH & Co. KG THERMCON OVENS BV
Telefon: +31 345 574141 www.marx-gmbh.de see Extrusion 2
Telefax: +31 345 576322 see Melt operations 4.13
E-Mail: info@thermcon.com
Kontakt: Herr Schmidt

2.2 Extrusion equipment


Strangpresseinrichtungen
Kingsbury Road
Oilgear Towler GmbH
Curdworth
Im Gotthelf 8
UK - SUTTON COLDFIELD B76 9EE
Sistem Teknik Ltd. Sti. D 65795 Hattersheim
Telefon: +44 1675 470551
DES San. Sit. 102 SOK No: 6/8 Tel. +49 (0) 6145 3770
Telefax: +44 1675 470645
Y.Dudullu, TR-34775 Istanbul/Turkey Fax +49 (0) 6145 30770
E-Mail: info@otto-junker.co.uk
Tel.: +90 216 420 86 24 E-Mail: info@oilgear.de
Kontakt: Mr. Beard
Fax: +90 216 420 23 22 Internet: www.oilgear.de

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Press control systems Packaging equipment


Pressensteuersysteme Verpackungseinrichtungen
H+H HERRMANN + HIEBER GMBH
Frdersysteme fr Paletten
Oilgear Towler GmbH und schwere Lasten
see Extrusion Equipment 2.2 Rechbergstrae 46
D-73770 Denkendorf/Stuttgart
SMS Eumuco GmbH
Tel. +49 (0) 711 / 9 34 67-0
Josefstrae 10
Fax +49 (0) 711 / 3 46 0911
D-51377 Leverkusen
E-Mail: info@herrmannhieber.de
Tel. 0214 / 734-01
Internet: www.herrmannhieber.de
Fax 0214 / 734-1000
E-Mail: info@sms-eumuco.de
Internet: www.sms-eumuco.com Vollert GmbH + Co. KG
Anlagenbau
SMS Eumuco GmbH
see Extrusion equipment 2.2
see Transport of finished anode elements
Containers to the pot room 1.4
Rezipienten
Temperature measurement
Temperaturmessung

KIND & CO., EDELSTAHLWERK, KG


Bielsteiner Strae 128-130
Hinterbergstrasse 26
D-51674 Wiehl
CH-6330 Cham, Switzerland
Telefon: +49 (0) 2262 / 84 0
Tel.: +41 41 741 5741
Telefax: +49 (0) 2262 / 84 175
Fax: +41 41 741 5760
E-Mail: info@kind-co.de SMS Eumuco GmbH E-mail: bold.ch@fromm-pack.com
Internet: www.kind-co.de see Extrusion equipment 2.2 Internet: www.fromm-pack.com
Sales Contact: Benno Arnet

Heating and control


equipment for intelligent Puller equipment
billet containers Ausziehvorrichtungen/Puller
Heizungs- und Kontrollausrstung
fr intelligente Blockaufnehmer

OTTO JUNKER GmbH


ELHAUS INDUSTRIEANLAGEN GmbH
THERMCON OVENS BV
S+C MRKER GmbH see Extrusion 2
Steel Technologies
D-51779 Lindlar-Kaiserau
Postfach 11 40 MARX GmbH & Co. KG
Tel.: +49 (0) 2266 / 92 211 www.marx-gmbh.de
Fax: +49 (0) 2266 / 92 509 see Melt operations 4.13
E-Mail: extrusion@schmidt-clemens.de
Internet: www.sc-maerker.de
2.3 Section handling
Profilhandling SMS Eumuco GmbH
see Extrusion equipment 2.2

SIGNODE SYSTEM GMBH


Packaging Equipment Section cooling
Non-Ferrous Specialist Team DSWE Profilkhlung
Magnusstr. 18, 46535 Dinslaken/Germany
SMS Eumuco GmbH Telefon: +49 (0) 2064 / 69-210
see Extrusion equipment 2.2 Telefax: +49 (0) 2064 / 69-489
E-Mail: g.laks@signode-europe.com
Internet: www.signode.com OTTO JUNKER GmbH
Contact: Mr. Gerard Laks ELHAUS INDUSTRIEANLAGEN GmbH
see Extrusion 2
Extrusion
Strangpressen
Homogenising furnaces
Homogenisierfen

OTTO JUNKER GmbH


ELHAUS INDUSTRIEANLAGEN GmbH
OTTO JUNKER (UK) LTD. OTTO JUNKER GmbH SMS Eumuco GmbH
see Extrusion 2 see Extrusion 2 see Extrusion equipment 2.2

116 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007


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Section saws Stackers / Destackers Vollert GmbH + Co. KG


Profilsgen Stapler / Entstapler Anlagenbau

see Transport of finished anode elements


to the pot room 1.4

OTTO JUNKER GmbH OTTO JUNKER GmbH


ELHAUS INDUSTRIEANLAGEN GmbH ELHAUS INDUSTRIEANLAGEN GmbH
see Extrusion 2 see Extrusion 2
2.4 Heat treatment
Wrmebehandlung

Extrusion
Strangpressen

SMS Eumuco GmbH SMS Eumuco GmbH


see Extrusion equipment 2.2 see Extrusion equipment 2.2
OTTO JUNKER GmbH
ELHAUS INDUSTRIEANLAGEN GmbH
OTTO JUNKER (UK) LTD.
Stretching equipment see Extrusion 2
Section store equipment Reckeinrichtungen
Profil-Lagereinrichtungen

H+H HERRMANN + HIEBER GMBH


Heat treatment furnaces
Frdersysteme fr Paletten OTTO JUNKER GmbH Wrmebehandlungsfen
und schwere Lasten ELHAUS INDUSTRIEANLAGEN GmbH
Rechbergstrae 46 see Extrusion 2 INOTHERM INDUSTRIEOFEN-
D-73770 Denkendorf/Stuttgart UND WRMETECHNIK GMBH
Tel. +49 (0) 711 / 9 34 67-0 see Casthouse (foundry) 1.5
Fax +49 (0) 711 / 3 46 0911
E-Mail: info@herrmannhieber.de
Internet: www.herrmannhieber.de Sistem Teknik Ltd. Sti.
see Billet Heating Furnaces 2.1

SMS Eumuco GmbH


KASTO Maschinenbau GmbH & Co. KG see Extrusion equipment 2.2
Industriestr. 14, D-77855 Achern
Tel.: +49 (0) 7841 61-0 / Fax: +49 (0) 7841 61 300 IUT Industriell Ugnsteknik AB
kasto@kasto.de / www.kasto.de Industrivgen 2, 43892 Hrryda, Sweden
Hersteller von Band- und Kreissgemaschinen Tel. +46 (0) 301 31510
sowie Langgut- und Blechlagersystemen Transport equipment for Fax +46 (0) 301 30479
extruded sections E-Mail: office@iut.se
Transporteinrichtungen Internet: www.iut.se
Vollert GmbH + Co. KG fr Profilabschnitte
Anlagenbau
H+H HERRMANN + HIEBER GMBH
see Transport of finished anode elements Frdersysteme fr Paletten Custom designed heat
to the pot room 1.4 und schwere Lasten processing equipment
Rechbergstrae 46 Kundenspezifische
D-73770 Denkendorf/Stuttgart Wrmebehandlungsanlagen
Tel. +49 (0) 711 / 9 34 67-0
Fax +49 (0) 711 / 3 46 0911
Section transport equipment E-Mail: info@herrmannhieber.de Sistem Teknik Ltd. Sti.
Profiltransporteinrichtungen Internet: www.herrmannhieber.de see Billet Heating Furnaces 2.1

OTTO JUNKER GmbH


ELHAUS INDUSTRIEANLAGEN GmbH ELHAUS INDUSTRIEANLAGEN GmbH Do you need
see Extrusion 2 see Extrusion 2
more
information?
E-Mail:
SMS Eumuco GmbH SMS Eumuco GmbH Schwichtenberg@giesel.de
see Extrusion equipment 2.2 see Extrusion equipment 2.2

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 117


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Homogenising furnaces 2.6 Die preparation and care 2.10 Machining of sections
Homogenisierfen
Werkzeugbereitstellung Profilbearbeitung
und -pflege
Processing of Profiles
Castool Tooling Solutions Profilbearbeitung
(North America)
21 State Crown Bvld
Scarborough Ontario Canada MIV 4B1
Tel.: +1 416 297 1521
HERTWICH ENGINEERING GmbH Fax: +1 416 297 1915
Maschinen und Industrieanlagen E-Mail: sales@castool.com Tensai (International) AG
Weinbergerstrae 6, A-5280 Braunau am Inn Internet: www.castool.com Extal Division
Phone +437722/806-0 Sales Contact: Danny Dann Steinengraben 40
Fax +437722/806-122 CH-4051 Basel
E-Mail: info@hertwich.com Telefon +41 (0) 61 284 98 10
Internet: www.hertwich.com
Telefax +41 (0) 61 284 98 20
E-Mail: tensai@tensai.com

IUT Industriell Ugnsteknik AB SMS Eumuco GmbH 2.11 Equipment and


see Heat treatment 2.4 see Extrusion equipment 2.2 accessories
Ausrstungen und
Die heating furnaces Hilfsmittel
Werkzeuganwrmfen
Inductiv heating equipment
IUT Industriell Ugnsteknik AB Induktiv beheizte
see Heat treatment 2.4 Erwrmungseinrichtungen

MARX GmbH & Co. KG


www.marx-gmbh.de
Sistem Teknik Ltd. Sti. see Melt operations 4.13
see Billet Heating Furnaces 2.1

Sistem Teknik Ltd. Sti. Am groen Teich 16+27


2.5 Measurement and see Billet Heating Furnaces 2.1
D-58640 Iserlohn
control equipment Tel. +49 (0) 2371 / 4346-0
Mess- und Regeleinrichtungen Extrusion dies Fax +49 (0) 2371 / 4346-43
Strangpresswerkzeuge E-Mail: verkauf@ias-gmbh.de
Internet: www.ias-gmbh.de
Extrusion plant control systems
Presswerkssteuerungen

Ageing furnace for extrusions


Haarmann Holding GmbH Auslagerungsfen fr
Ludwigsallee 57 Strangpressprofile
D-52052 Aachen
Telefon: 02 41 / 9 18 - 500
Telefax: 02 41 / 9 18 - 5010
SMS Eumuco GmbH
E-Mail: info.holding@haarmann-gruppe.de
see Extrusion equipment 2.2 Internet: www.haarmann-gruppe.de
LOI Thermprocess GmbH
Am Lichtbogen 29
Hardness measuring Hardening technology D-45141 Essen
instuments, portable Hrtetechnik Germany
Telefon +49 (0) 201 / 18 91-3 10
Hrtemessgert, tragbar
Telefax +49 (0) 201 / 18 91-53 10
Form+Test Seidner & Co. GmbH
Haarmann Holding GmbH E-Mail: info@loi.de
Internet: www.loi.de
see Die preparation and care 2.6
D-88491 Riedlingen
Telefax 07371/9302-98
E-Mail: linke@formtest.de Sistem Teknik Ltd. Sti.
see Billet Heating Furnaces 2.1
Temperatur measurement 2.7 Second-hand
Temperaturmessung extrusion plant
Gebr. Strangpressanlagen
2.12 Services
Dienstleistungen
Qualiteam International/ExtruPreX
ELHAUS INDUSTRIEANLAGEN GmbH Champs Elysesweg 17, NL-6213 AA Maastricht
THERMCON OVENS BV Tel. +31-43-3 25 67 77 Haarmann Holding GmbH
see Extrusion 2 Internet: www.extruprex.com see Die preparation and care 2.6

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Rolling mill technology


3
3.1
Walzwerktechnik
Casting equipment 3.1 Gieanlagen
3.2 Rolling bar machining 3.2 Walzbarrenbearbeitung
3.3 Rolling bar furnaces 3.3 Walzbarrenvorbereitung
3.4 Hot rolling equipment 3.4 Warmwalzanlagen
3.5 Strip casting units and accessories 3.5 Bandgieanlagen und Zubehr
3.6 Cold rolling equipment 3.6 Kaltwalzanlagen
3.7 Thin strip / foil rolling plant 3.7 Feinband-/Folienwalzwerke
3.8 Auxiliary equipment 3.8 Nebeneinrichtungen
3.9 Adjustment devices 3.9 Adjustageeinrichtungen
3.10 Process technology / Automation technology 3.10 Prozesstechnik / Automatisierungstechnik
3.11 Coolant / lubricant preparation 3.11 Khl-/Schmiermittel-Aufbereitung
3.12 Air extraction systems 3.12 Abluftsysteme
3.13 Fire extinguishing units 3.13 Feuerlschanlagen
3.14 Storage and dispatch 3.14 Lagerung und Versand
3.15 Second-hand rolling equipment 3.15 Gebrauchtanlagen
3.16 Coil storage systems 3.16 Coil storage systems
3.17 Strip Processing Lines 3.17 Bandprozesslinien

3.1 Casting equipment Filling level indicators


Gieanlagen and controls
Fllstandsanzeiger und -regler

maerz-gautschi
Industrieofenanlagen GmbH
see Casting equipment 3.1
OTTO JUNKER GmbH
SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft
THERMCON OVENS BV Eduard-Schloemann-Strae 4
see Extrusion 2 Melt purification units D-40237 Dsseldorf
Schmelzereinigungsanlagen Telefon: (0211) 8 81-0
Telefax: (0211) 8 81-49 02
Melting and holding furnaces Internet: www.sms-demag.com
maerz-gautschi
Schmelz- und Warmhaltefen E-Mail: communications@sms-demag.com
Industrieofenanlagen GmbH
see Casting equipment 3.1 Geschftsbereiche:
Warmflach- und Kaltwalzwerke
Wiesenstrae 30
D-57271 Hilchenbach-Dahlbruch
Telefon: (02733) 29-0
Telefax: (02733) 29-28 52
Bandanlagen
HERTWICH ENGINEERING GmbH Walderstrae 51/53
D-40724 Hilden
Maschinen und Industrieanlagen
HERTWICH ENGINEERING GmbH Telefon: (0211) 8 81-5100
Weinbergerstrae 6, A-5280 Braunau am Inn Telefax: (0211) 8 81-5200
Phone +437722/806-0 Maschinen und Industrieanlagen
Weinbergerstrae 6, A-5280 Braunau am Inn
Fax +437722/806-122
E-Mail: info@hertwich.com
Phone +437722/806-0 Bar scalping
Fax +437722/806-122 Barrenfrsen
Internet: www.hertwich.com E-Mail: info@hertwich.com
Internet: www.hertwich.com

3.2 Rolling bar machining


see Equipment and accessories 2.11 Walzbarrenbearbeitung
maerz-gautschi Band saws / Bandsgen
Industrieofenanlagen GmbH SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft
Geschftsbereich Aluminium see Rolling bar machining 3.2
Konstanzer Strae 37
Postfach 170 Slab milling machines
CH 8274 Tgerwilen Barrenfrsmaschinen
Telefon +41/71/6666666
Telefax +41/71/6666688
E-Mail: aluminium@maerz-gautschi.ch
Kontakt: Stefan Blum, Tel. +41/71/6666621
SMS Meer GmbH
Metal filters Ohlerkirchweg 66
Metallfilter D-41069 Mnchengladbach
Tel. +49 (0) 2161 / 35 00
maerz-gautschi Fax +49 (0) 2161 / 35 06 67
Industrieofenanlagen GmbH E-Mail: info@sms-meer.com SMS Meer GmbH
see Casting equipment 3.1 Internet: www.sms-meer.com see Rolling bar machining 3.2

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3.3 Rolling bar furnaces Bar heating furnaces Hot rolling units /
Walzbarrenvorbereitung Barrenanwrmanlagen complete plants
Warmwalzanlagen/Komplettanlagen
Homogenising furnaces
Homogenisierfen EBNER Industrieofenbau Ges.m.b.H.
see Annealing furnaces 3.3
IUT Industriell Ugnsteknik AB
see Heat treatment 2.4 maerz-gautschi
Industrieofenanlagen GmbH
see Casting equipment 3.1
SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft
Eduard-Schloemann-Strae 4
D-40237 Dsseldorf
Telefon: (0211) 8 81-0
Telefax: (0211) 8 81-49 02
OTTO JUNKER GmbH Internet: http://www.sms-demag.com
THERMCON OVENS BV E-Mail: communications@sms-demag.com
HERTWICH ENGINEERING GmbH see Extrusion 2
Maschinen und Industrieanlagen Geschftsbereiche:
Weinbergerstrae 6, A-5280 Braunau am Inn Warmflach- und Kaltwalzwerke
Phone +437722/806-0 Wiesenstrae 30
Fax +437722/806-122 Roller tracks D-57271 Hilchenbach-Dahlbruch
E-Mail: info@hertwich.com Rollengnge Telefon: (02733) 29-0
Internet: www.hertwich.com Telefax: (02733) 29-28 52
Bandanlagen
maerz-gautschi
Walderstrae 51/53
Industrieofenanlagen GmbH D-40724 Hilden
see Casting equipment 3.1 Telefon: (0211) 8 81-5100
Telefax: (0211) 8 81-5200
OTTO JUNKER GmbH
see Extrusion 2 3.4 Hot rolling equipment
Warmwalzanlagen Rolling mill modernisation
Walzwerksmodernisierung
maerz-gautschi
Industrieofenanlagen GmbH
see Casting equipment 3.1

Achenbach Buschhtten GmbH


Siegener Str. 152, D-57223 Kreuztal
Tel. +49 (0) 2732/7990, info@achenbach.de
Internet: www.achenbach.de
SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft
see Hot rolling equipment 3.4

SIEMAG GmbH Spools / Haspel


Obere Industriestrae 8
D-57250 Netphen
Tel.: +49 (0) 2738 / 21-0
Annealing furnaces Fax: +49 (0) 2738 / 21-503
E-Mail: metals@siemag.com
Glhfen
Internet: www.siemag.com

Coil transport systems SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft


EBNER Industrieofenbau Ges.m.b.H. see Hot rolling equipment 3.4
Ruflinger Str. 111, A-4060 Leonding Bundtransportsysteme
Tel. +43 / 732 / 68 68
Fax +43 / 732 / 68 68-1000
Vollert GmbH + Co. KG Toolings / Werkzeuge
Anlagenbau
Internet: www.ebner.cc
E-Mail: sales@ebner.cc see Transport of finished anode elements
to the pot room 1.4
IUT Industriell Ugnsteknik AB see Extrusion equipment 2.2
see Heat treatment 2.4 Windhoff Bahn- und
Anlagentechnik GmbH
see Anode rodding 1.4
Do you need
Drive systems / Antriebe
OTTO JUNKER GmbH
see Extrusion 2
more
maerz-gautschi
information?
Industrieofenanlagen GmbH
see Casting equipment 3.1
E-Mail:
schwartz GmbH SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft Schwichtenberg@giesel.de
see Heat treatment 2.4 see Hot rolling equipment 3.4

120 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007


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3.5 Strip casting units SIGNODE SYSTEM GMBH


and accessories Packaging Equipment
Non-Ferrous Specialist Team DSWE
Bandgieanlagen und Magnusstr. 18, 46535 Dinslaken/Germany
Zubehr Telefon: +49 (0) 2064 / 69-210
Telefax: +49 (0) 2064 / 69-489
Cores & shells for continuous E-Mail: g.laks@signode-europe.com
Internet: www.signode.com SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft
casting lines Eduard-Schloemann-Strae 4
Contact: Mr. Gerard Laks
Cores & shells for continuous D-40237 Dsseldorf
casting lines Telefon: (0211) 8 81-0
Telefax: (0211) 8 81-49 02
Bruno Presezzi, Officine Meccaniche Coil transport systems Internet: http://www.sms-demag.com
Via per Ornago 8 Bundtransportsysteme E-Mail: communications@sms-demag.com
I-20040 Burago Molgora (Mi) Italy Geschftsbereiche:
Tel. +39 039 63502 229 Vollert GmbH + Co. KG Warmflach- und Kaltwalzwerke
Fax +39 039 6081373 Anlagenbau Wiesenstrae 30
E-Mail: aluminium.dept@brunopresezzi.com D-57271 Hilchenbach-Dahlbruch
Internet: www.presezzicaster.com see Transport of finished anode elements Telefon: (02733) 29-0
Contact: Franco Gramaglia to the pot room 1.4 Telefax: (02733) 29-28 52
Bandanlagen
Walderstrae 51/53
Windhoff Bahn- und D-40724 Hilden
Revamps, equipments & spare parts Anlagentechnik GmbH Telefon: (0211) 8 81-5100
for continuous casting lines see Anode rodding 1.4 Telefax: (0211) 8 81-5200
Revamps, equipments & spare parts
for continuous casting lines Drive systems
Coil annealing furnaces Antriebe
Bruno Presezzi, Officine Meccaniche Bundglhfen
Via per Ornago 8
I-20040 Burago Molgora (Mi) Italy IUT Industriell Ugnsteknik AB
Tel. +39 039 63502 229 see Heat treatment 2.4
Fax +39 039 6081373
E-Mail: aluminium.dept@brunopresezzi.com
Internet: www.presezzicaster.com
Contact: Franco Gramaglia
SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft
see Hot rolling equipment 3.4
OTTO JUNKER GmbH
Twin-roll continuous casting see Extrusion 2
Heating furnaces
lines (complete lines) Anwrmfen
Twin-roll continuous casting lines
(complete lines)

Bruno Presezzi, Officine Meccaniche


Via per Ornago 8 see Equipment and accessories 2.11 OTTO JUNKER GmbH
I-20040 Burago Molgora (Mi) Italy see Extrusion 2
Tel. +39 039 63502 229 maerz-gautschi
Fax +39 039 6081373 Industrieofenanlagen GmbH maerz-gautschi
E-Mail: aluminium.dept@brunopresezzi.com see Casting equipment 3.1 Industrieofenanlagen GmbH
Internet: www.presezzicaster.com see Casting equipment 3.1
Contact: Franco Gramaglia
schwartz GmbH
see Cold colling equipment 3.6
3.6 Cold rolling equipment
Kaltwalzanlagen

www.vits.com
see Cold rolling equipment 3.6

Achenbach Buschhtten GmbH


Siegener Str. 152, D-57223 Kreuztal
Tel. +49 (0) 2732/7990, info@achenbach.de Cold rolling units / Vits Systems GmbH
Internet: www.achenbach.de complete plants Winkelsweg 172
Kaltwalzanlagen/Komplettanlagen D-40764 Langenfeld
Tel.: +49 (0) 2173 / 798-0
Fax: +49 (0) 2173 / 798-244
Danieli Frhling E-Mail: mt@vits.de, Internet: www.vits.com
Finkenstrasse 19
SIEMAG GmbH D-57462 Olpe
Obere Industriestrae 8 Germany Process optimisation systems
D-57250 Netphen Tel.: +49 (0) 27 61 / 894-0 Prozessoptimierungssysteme
Tel.: +49 (0) 2738 / 21-0 Fax: +49 (0) 27 61 / 894-200
Fax: +49 (0) 2738 / 21-503 E-Mail: d.neumann@danieli-froehling.de maerz-gautschi
E-Mail: metals@siemag.com Internet: www.danieli-froehling.de Industrieofenanlagen GmbH
Internet: www.siemag.com Sales Contact: Detlef Neumann see Casting equipment 3.1

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Process simulation Strip shears Coil annealing furnaces


Prozesssimulation Bandscheren Bundglhfen

maerz-gautschi Danieli Frhling


Industrieofenanlagen GmbH Finkenstrasse 19
see Casting equipment 3.1 D-57462 Olpe
Germany OTTO JUNKER GmbH
Tel.: +49 (0) 27 61 / 894-0 see Extrusion 2
Fax: +49 (0) 27 61 / 894-200
E-Mail: d.neumann@danieli-froehling.de
Internet: www.danieli-froehling.de
Sales Contact: Detlef Neumann

see Equipment and accessories 2.11


SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft
see Cold colling equipment 3.6
maerz-gautschi
Industrieofenanlagen GmbH
Revamps, equipments & spare parts see Casting equipment 3.1
Revamps, equipments & spare parts
schwartz GmbH
Bruno Presezzi, Officine Meccaniche see Cold colling equipment 3.6
SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft
Via per Ornago 8
I-20040 Burago Molgora (Mi) Italy see Hot rolling equipment 3.4
Tel. +39 039 63502 229
Fax +39 039 6081373
E-Mail: aluminium.dept@brunopresezzi.com www.vits.com
Internet: www.presezzicaster.com Trimming equipment see Thin strip / foil rolling plant 3.7
Contact: Franco Gramaglia Besumeinrichtungen
Danieli Frhling Heating furnaces
Roll exchange equipment Finkenstrasse 19 Anwrmfen
Walzenwechseleinrichtungen D-57462 Olpe
Germany INOTHERM INDUSTRIEOFEN-
Tel.: +49 (0) 27 61 / 894-0 UND WRMETECHNIK GMBH
Fax: +49 (0) 27 61 / 894-200 see Casthouse (foundry) 1.5
E-Mail: d.neumann@danieli-froehling.de
Internet: www.danieli-froehling.de
Sales Contact: Detlef Neumann

OTTO JUNKER GmbH


SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft see Extrusion 2
see Hot rolling equipment 3.4
Vollert GmbH + Co. KG maerz-gautschi
Anlagenbau Industrieofenanlagen GmbH
see Casting equipment 3.1
see Transport of finished anode elements
to the pot room 1.4
SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft
see Hot rolling equipment 3.4
Windhoff Bahn- und
Anlagentechnik GmbH
see Anode rodding 1.4

Rolling mill modernization 3.7 Thin strip /


Walzwerkmodernisierung foil rolling plant
Feinband-/Folienwalzwerke

Vits Systems GmbH


Winkelsweg 172
Achenbach Buschhtten GmbH D-40764 Langenfeld
Siegener Str. 152, D-57223 Kreuztal Tel.: +49 (0) 2173 / 798-0
Tel. +49 (0) 2732/7990, info@achenbach.de Achenbach Buschhtten GmbH Fax: +49 (0) 2173 / 798-244
Internet: www.achenbach.de Siegener Str. 152, D-57223 Kreuztal E-Mail: mt@vits.de, Internet: www.vits.com
Tel. +49 (0) 2732/7990, info@achenbach.de
Strip rolling mills Internet: www.achenbach.de
Bandwalzwerke Revamps, equipments & spare parts
Revamps, equipments & spare parts
Danieli Frhling SIGNODE SYSTEM GMBH
Finkenstrasse 19 Packaging Equipment Bruno Presezzi, Officine Meccaniche
D-57462 Olpe Non-Ferrous Specialist Team DSWE Via per Ornago 8
Germany Magnusstr. 18, 46535 Dinslaken/Germany I-20040 Burago Molgora (Mi) Italy
Tel.: +49 (0) 27 61 / 894-0 Telefon: +49 (0) 2064 / 69-210 Tel. +39 039 63502 229
Fax: +49 (0) 27 61 / 894-200 Telefax: +49 (0) 2064 / 69-489 Fax +39 039 6081373
E-Mail: d.neumann@danieli-froehling.de E-Mail: g.laks@signode-europe.com E-Mail: aluminium.dept@brunopresezzi.com
Internet: www.danieli-froehling.de Internet: www.signode.com Internet: www.presezzicaster.com
Sales Contact: Detlef Neumann Contact: Mr. Gerard Laks Contact: Franco Gramaglia

122 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007


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Rolling mill modernization Sheet and plate stretchers Strip thickness measurement
Walzwerkmodernisierung Blech- und Plattenstrecker and control equipment
Banddickenmess- und
-regeleinrichtungen

Achenbach Buschhtten GmbH


Siegener Str. 152, D-57223 Kreuztal
Tel. +49 (0) 2732/7990, info@achenbach.de Achenbach Buschhtten GmbH
Siegener Str. 152, D-57223 Kreuztal
Internet: www.achenbach.de
SMS Meer GmbH Tel. +49 (0) 2732/7990, info@achenbach.de
see Rolling bar machining 3.2 Internet: www.achenbach.de
Thin strip / foil rolling mills / Cable sheathing presses
complete plant Kabelummantelungspressen
Feinband- / Folienwalzwerke /
Komplettanlagen

ABB Automation Technologies AB


Force Measurement
S-72159 Vsteras, Sweden
Phone: +46 21 342000
Fax: +46 21 340005
SMS Meer GmbH
see Rolling bar machining 3.2
E-Mail: pressductor@se.abb.com
Internet: www.abb.com/pressductor
SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft
Eduard-Schloemann-Strae 4
Cable undulating machines
Kabelwellmaschinen
D-40237 Dsseldorf
Telefon: (0211) 8 81-0
Telefax: (0211) 8 81-49 02
Internet: http://www.sms-demag.com
E-Mail: communications@sms-demag.com
Geschftsbereiche:
Warmflach- und Kaltwalzwerke SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft
Wiesenstrae 30 see Process technology/
D-57271 Hilchenbach-Dahlbruch
Telefon: (02733) 29-0 SMS Meer GmbH
see Rolling bar machining 3.2
Automation technology 3.10
Telefax: (02733) 29-28 52
Bandanlagen
Strip flatness measurement
Walderstrae 51/53 3.10 Process technology / and control equipment
D-40724 Hilden Bandplanheitsmess- und
Telefon: (0211) 8 81-5100
Automation technology -regeleinrichtungen
Telefax: (0211) 8 81-5200 Prozesstechnik /
Automatisierungstechnik
4Production AG
Produktionsoptimierende Lsungen
3.9 Adjustment devices / Adenauerstrae 20, D-52146 Wrselen Achenbach Buschhtten GmbH
Adjustageeinrichtungen Tel.: +49 (0) 2405 / 4135-0 Siegener Str. 152, D-57223 Kreuztal
info@4production.de, www.4production.de Tel. +49 (0) 2732/7990, info@achenbach.de
Internet: www.achenbach.de
Transverse cutting units
Querteilanlagen

Danieli Frhling SIEMAG GmbH


Finkenstrasse 19 Obere Industriestrae 8
D-57462 Olpe D-57250 Netphen
Germany Tel.: +49 (0) 2738 / 21-0
Tel.: +49 (0) 27 61 / 894-0 Fax: +49 (0) 2738 / 21-503
Fax: +49 (0) 27 61 / 894-200 E-Mail: metals@siemag.com
E-Mail: d.neumann@danieli-froehling.de SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft
Internet: www.siemag.com
Internet: www.danieli-froehling.de Eduard-Schloemann-Strae 4
Sales Contact: Detlef Neumann Process control technology D-40237 Dsseldorf
Prozessleittechnik Telefon: (0211) 8 81-0
Telefax: (0211) 8 81-49 02
Internet: http://www.sms-demag.com
Longitudinal splitting units E-Mail: communications@sms-demag.com
Lngsteilanlagen Geschftsbereiche:
Warmflach- und Kaltwalzwerke
Danieli Frhling Wiesenstrae 30
Finkenstrasse 19 D-57271 Hilchenbach-Dahlbruch
D-57462 Olpe Telefon: (02733) 29-0
Germany SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft Telefax: (02733) 29-28 52
Tel.: +49 (0) 27 61 / 894-0 see Process technology/ Bandanlagen
Fax: +49 (0) 27 61 / 894-200 Automation technology 3.10 Walderstrae 51/53
E-Mail: d.neumann@danieli-froehling.de D-40724 Hilden
Internet: www.danieli-froehling.de Unitechnik Cieplik & Poppek AG Telefon: (0211) 8 81-5100
Sales Contact: Detlef Neumann D-51674 Wiehl, www.unitechnik.com Telefax: (0211) 8 81-5200

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 123


Lieferverzeichnis

3.16 Coil storage systems


Bundlagersysteme

ABB Automation Technologies AB


Force Measurement SIEMAG GmbH
S-72159 Vsteras, Sweden SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft Obere Industriestrae 8
Phone: +46 21 342000 see Coolant / lubricant preparation 3.11 D-57250 Netphen
Fax: +46 21 340005 Tel.: +49 (0) 2738 / 21-0
E-Mail: pressductor@se.abb.com 3.12 Air extraction systems Fax: +49 (0) 2738 / 21-503
Internet: www.abb.com/pressductor
Abluft-Systeme E-Mail: metals@siemag.com
Internet: www.siemag.com
Exhaust air purification
3.11 Coolant / lubricant systems (active) Vollert GmbH + Co. KG
Abluft-Reinigungssysteme (aktiv)
preparation Anlagenbau
Khl-/Schmiermittel- see Transport of finished anode elements
Aufbereitung to the pot room 1.4

Rolling oil recovery and Achenbach Buschhtten GmbH


treatment units Siegener Str. 152, D-57223 Kreuztal 3.17 Strip Processing Lines
Walzl-Wiederaufbereitungsanlagen Tel. +49 (0) 2732/7990, info@achenbach.de Bandprozesslinien
Internet: www.achenbach.de

Strip Processing Lines


Bandprozesslinen

Bergwerk- und Walzwerk-


SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft Maschinenbau GmbH
SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft Eduard-Schloemann-Strae 4 Mercatorstrae 74 78
Eduard-Schloemann-Strae 4 D-40237 Dsseldorf D-47051 Duisburg
D-40237 Dsseldorf Telefon: (0211) 8 81-0 Tel.: +49 (0) 203-9929-0
Telefon: (0211) 8 81-0 Telefax: (0211) 8 81-49 02 Fax: +49 (0) 203-9929-400
Telefax: (0211) 8 81-49 02 Internet: http://www.sms-demag.com E-Mail: bwg@bwg-online.de
Internet: http://www.sms-demag.com E-Mail: communications@sms-demag.com Internet: www.bwg-online.com
E-Mail: communications@sms-demag.com Geschftsbereiche:
Geschftsbereiche: Warmflach- und Kaltwalzwerke
Warmflach- und Kaltwalzwerke Wiesenstrae 30
Wiesenstrae 30 D-57271 Hilchenbach-Dahlbruch Colour Coating Lines
D-57271 Hilchenbach-Dahlbruch Telefon: (02733) 29-0 Bandlackierlinien
Telefon: (02733) 29-0 Telefax: (02733) 29-28 52
Telefax: (02733) 29-28 52 Bandanlagen
Bandanlagen Walderstrae 51/53
Walderstrae 51/53 D-40724 Hilden www.bwg-online.com
Telefon: (0211) 8 81-5100 see Strip Processing Lines 3.17
D-40724 Hilden
Telefax: (0211) 8 81-5200
Telefon: (0211) 8 81-5100
Telefax: (0211) 8 81-5200
Filtering plants and systems Strip Annealing Lines
Filteranlagen und Systeme
Bandglhlinien
Filter for rolling oils and
emulsions
Filter fr Walzle und Emulsionen
www.bwg-online.com
see Strip Processing Lines 3.17
Dantherm Filtration GmbH
Industriestr. 9, D-77948 Friesenheim
Achenbach Buschhtten GmbH Tel.: +49 (0) 7821 / 966-0, Fax: - 966-245 Stretch Levelling Lines
Siegener Str. 152, D-57223 Kreuztal E-Mail: info.de@danthermfiltration.com Streckrichtanlagen
Tel. +49 (0) 2732/7990, info@achenbach.de Internet: www.danthermfiltration.com
Internet: www.achenbach.de
3.14 Storage and dispatch www.bwg-online.com
Rolling oil rectification units Lagerung und Versand see Strip Processing Lines 3.17
Walzlrektifikationsanlagen

Lithographic Sheet Lines


SIEMAG GmbH Lithografielinien
Obere Industriestrae 8
D-57250 Netphen
Achenbach Buschhtten GmbH Tel.: +49 (0) 2738 / 21-0
Siegener Str. 152, D-57223 Kreuztal Fax: +49 (0) 2738 / 21-503
Tel. +49 (0) 2732/7990, info@achenbach.de E-Mail: metals@siemag.com www.bwg-online.com
Internet: www.achenbach.de Internet: www.siemag.com see Strip Processing Lines 3.17

124 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007


Lieferverzeichnis

Foundry
4
4.1
Gieerei
Work protection and ergonomics 4.1 Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie
4.2 Heat-resistant technology 4.2 Feuerfesttechnik
4.3 Conveyor and storage technology 4.3 Frder- und Lagertechnik
4.4 Mould and core production 4.4 Form- und Kernherstellung
4.5 Mould accessories and accessory materials 4.5 Formzubehr, Hilfsmittel
4.6 Foundry equipment 4.6 Gieereianlagen
4.7 Casting machines and equipment 4.7 Giemaschinen und Gieeinrichtungen
4.8 Handling technology 4.8 Handhabungstechnik
4.9 Construction and design 4.9 Konstruktion und Design
4.10 Measurement technology and materials testing 4.10 Messtechnik und Materialprfung
4.11 Metallic charge materials 4.11 Metallische Einsatzstoffe
4.12 Finshing of raw castings 4.12 Rohgussnachbehandlung
4.13 Melt operations 4.13 Schmelzbetrieb
4.14 Melt preparation 4.14 Schmelzvorbereitung
4.15 Melt treatment devices 4.15 Schmelzebehandlungseinrichtungen
4.16 Control and regulation technology 4.16 Steuerungs- und Regelungstechnik
4.17 Environment protection and disposal 4.17 Umweltschutz und Entsorgung
4.18 Dross recovery 4.18 Schlackenrckgewinnung

4.2 Heat-resistent technology 4.6 Foundry equipment Tolls for the foundry
Gieerei-Werkzeuge
Feuerfesttechnik Gieereianlagen
Refractories Cast-Tec GmbH & Co. KG Albert Turk GmbH & Co. KG
Feuerfeststoffe Fertigungstechnik & Service D-58540 Meinerzhagen,
D-44536 Lnen, Brunnenstrae 138 Tel. 02358/2727-0, Fax 02358/2727-27
Silca Service- und Vertriebsgesellschaft Telefon: 02306/20310-0
fr Dmmstoffe mbH Telefax: 02306/20310-11
Auf dem Hls 6, D-40822 Mettmann E-Mail: Info@cast-tec.de Casting machines
Tel. 02104/97270, Fax 02104/76902 Internet: www.cast-tec.de Giemaschinen
E-Mail: info@silca-online.de
Internet: www.silca-online.de

Promat GmbH Techn. Wrmedmmung


Scheifenkamp 16, D-40878 Ratingen THERMCON OVENS BV
Tel. +49 (0) 2102 / 493-0, Fax -493 115 see Extrusion 2
verkauf3@promat.de, www.promat.de

Casting launder linings Planning HERTWICH ENGINEERING GmbH


Gierinnenauskleidungen Projektierung Maschinen und Industrieanlagen
Weinbergerstrae 6, A-5280 Braunau am Inn
Silca Service- und Vertriebsgesellschaft Phone +437722/806-0
fr Dmmstoffe mbH Fax +437722/806-122
Auf dem Hls 6, D-40822 Mettmann E-Mail: info@hertwich.com
Tel. 02104/97270, Fax 02104/76902 Internet: www.hertwich.com
E-Mail: info@silca-online.de
Internet: www.silca-online.de
HERTWICH ENGINEERING GmbH
4.3 Conveyor and storage Maschinen und Industrieanlagen
technology Weinbergerstrae 6, A-5280 Braunau am Inn
see Equipment and accessories 2.11
Phone +437722/806-0
Frder- und Lagertechnik Fax +437722/806-122
E-Mail: info@hertwich.com
Vollert GmbH + Co. KG Internet: www.hertwich.com Solution annealing furnaces/plant
Anlagenbau Lsungsglhfen/anlagen
see Transport of finished anode elements Construction
to the pot room 1.4
Bau

4.5 Mold accessories and ERNST REINHARDT GMBH


accessory materials Postfach 1880, D-78008 VS-Villingen
Formzubehr, Hilfmittel Tel. 07721/8441-0, Fax 8441-44
E-Mail: info@ernstreinhardt.de
Fluxes Internet: www.Ernst-Reinhardt.com
Flussmittel
HERTWICH ENGINEERING GmbH Heat treatment furnaces
Solvay Fluor GmbH Maschinen und Industrieanlagen
Hans-Bckler-Allee 20 Weinbergerstrae 6, A-5280 Braunau am Inn Wrmebehandlungsfen
D-30173 Hannover Phone +437722/806-0
Telefon +49 (0) 511 / 857-0 Fax +437722/806-122
Telefax +49 (0) 511 / 857-2146 E-Mail: info@hertwich.com
Internet: www.solvay-fluor.de Internet: www.hertwich.com see Foundry equipment 4.6

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 125


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4.7 Casting machines 4.11 Metallic charge 4.13 Melt operations


and equipment materials Schmelzbetrieb
Gieereimaschinen Metallische Einsatzstoffe
und Gieeinrichtungen

OTTO JUNKER GmbH


THERMCON OVENS BV
see Extrusion 2
OTTO JUNKER GmbH
THERMCON OVENS BV
see Extrusion 2 Scholz AG Melting furnaces
Am Bahnhof Schmelzfen
D-73457 Essingen
Tel. +49 (0) 7365-84-0
Molten Metall Level Control Fax +49 (0) 7365-1481
Ostra Hamnen 7 E-Mail: infoscholz@scholz-ag.de Bttgenbachstrae 14
SE-430 91 Hono / Schweden Internet: www.scholz-ag.de D-40549 Dsseldorf/Germany
Tel.: +46 31 764 5520 Tel.: +49 (0) 211 / 5 00 91-43
Fax: +46 31 764 5529 Fax: +49 (0) 211 / 50 13 97
E-mail: sales@precimeter.se Aluminium alloys E-Mail: info@bloomeng.de
Internet: www.precimeter.se Aluminiumlegierungen Internet: www.bloomeng.com
Sales Contact: Rolf Backberg Sales Contact: Klaus Rixen

Mould parting agents


Kokillentrennmittel
Schrder KG
Schmierstofftechnik
Postfach 1170
D-57251 HERTWICH ENGINEERING GmbH
Freudenberg METALLHTTENWERKE BRUCH GMBH
Maschinen und Industrieanlagen
Postfach 10 06 29
Tel. 02734/7071 Weinbergerstrae 6, A-5280 Braunau am Inn
D-44006 Dortmund
Fax 02734/20784 Phone +437722/806-0
Telefon +49 (0) 231 / 8 59 81-121
www.schroeder-schmierstoffe.de Fax +437722/806-122
Telefax +49 (0) 231 / 8 59 81-124
E-Mail: info@hertwich.com
E-Mail: al-vertrieb@bruch.de
Internet: www.hertwich.com
Internet: www.bruch.de
4.8 Handling technology
Handhabungstechnik
METALLHANDELSGESELLSCHAFT
SCHOOF & HASLACHER MBH & CO. KG
Postfach 600714, D 81207 Mnchen
see Equipment and accessories 2.11
Telefon 089/829133-0
Telefax 089/8201154
THERMCON OVENS BV E-Mail: info@metallhandelsgesellschaft.de
see Extrusion 2 Internet: www.metallhandelsgesellschaft.de
Vollert GmbH + Co. KG
Anlagenbau

see Transport of finished anode elements MARX GmbH & Co. KG


to the pot room 1.4 Lilienthalstr. 6-18
D-58638 Iserhohn
4.9 Construction and Tel.: +49 (0) 2371 / 2105-0, Fax: -11
Design E-Mail: info@marx-gmbh.de
ALERIS Recycling (German Works) GmbH Internet: www.marx-gmbh.de
Konstruktion und Design
Aluminiumstrae 3
D-41515 Grevenbroich
Telefon +49 (0) 2181/16 45 0 maerz-gautschi
Telefax +49 (0) 2181/16 45 100 Industrieofenanlagen GmbH
see Casting Equipment 3.1
E-Mail: recycling@aleris.com
THERMCON OVENS BV Internet: www.aleris-recycling.com
see Extrusion 2 Holding furnaces
Warmhaltefen
4.10 Measurement Pre alloys
technology and Vorlegierungen
materials testing
Messtechnik und METALLHANDELSGESELLSCHAFT Bttgenbachstrae 14
SCHOOF & HASLACHER MBH & CO. KG D-40549 Dsseldorf/Germany
Materialprfung Postfach 600714, D 81207 Mnchen Tel.: +49 (0) 211 / 5 00 91-43
Telefon 089/829133-0 Fax: +49 (0) 211 / 50 13 97
SRS Amsterdam BV Telefax 089/8201154 E-Mail: info@bloomeng.de
www.srsamsterdam.com E-Mail: info@metallhandelsgesellschaft.de Internet: www.bloomeng.com
see Casthouse (foundry) 1.5 Internet: www.metallhandelsgesellschaft.de Sales Contact: Klaus Rixen

126 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007


Lieferverzeichnis

4.14 Melt preparation 4.16 Control and


Schmelzvorbereitung regulation technology
Steuerungs- und
see Equipment and accessories 2.11 Regelungstechnik

maerz-gautschi HCL measurements


Industrieofenanlagen GmbH OTTO JUNKER GmbH HCL Messungen
see Casting Equipment 3.1 THERMCON OVENS BV
see Extrusion 2
OPSIS AB
Box 244, S-24402 Furulund, Schweden
Heat treatment furnaces Tel. +46 (0) 46-72 25 00, Fax -72 25 01
Wrmebehandlungsanlagen Degassing, filtration E-Mail: info@opsis.se
Entgasung, Filtration Internet: www.opsis.se

maerz-gautschi
Industrieofenanlagen GmbH
see Casting Equipment 3.1 4.17 Environment protec
tion and disposal
Drache Umwelttechnik Umweltschutz und
HERTWICH ENGINEERING GmbH GmbH Entsorgung
Maschinen und Industrieanlagen Werner-v.-Siemens-Strae 9/24-26
Weinbergerstrae 6, A-5280 Braunau am Inn D 65582 Diez/Lahn
Phone +437722/806-0 Telefon 06432/607-0
Fax +437722/806-122 Telefax 06432/607-52 Dust removal / Entstaubung
E-Mail: info@hertwich.com Internet: http://www.drache-gmbh.de
Internet: www.hertwich.com
NEOTECHNIK GmbH
Entstaubungsanlagen
Postfach 110261, D-33662 Bielefeld
Tel. 05205/7503-0, Fax 05205/7503-77
info@neotechnik.com, www.neotechnik.com

IUT Industriell Ugnsteknik AB HERTWICH ENGINEERING GmbH


Industrivgen 2, 43892 Hrryda, Sweden Flue gas cleaning
Maschinen und Industrieanlagen Rauchgasreinigung
Tel. +46 (0) 301 31510 Weinbergerstrae 6, A-5280 Braunau am Inn
Fax +46 (0) 301 30479 Phone +437722/806-0
E-Mail: office@iut.se Fax +437722/806-122
Internet: www.iut.se E-Mail: info@hertwich.com
Internet: www.hertwich.com

Dantherm Filtration GmbH


Melt treatment agents Industriestr. 9, D-77948 Friesenheim
see Equipment and accessories 2.11 Schmelzebehandlungsmittel Tel.: +49 (0) 7821 / 966-0, Fax: - 966-245
E-Mail: info.de@danthermfiltration.com
maerz-gautschi Internet: www.danthermfiltration.com
maerz-gautschi Industrieofenanlagen GmbH
Industrieofenanlagen GmbH see Casting Equipment 3.1
see Casting Equipment 3.1
4.18 Dross recovery
Schlackenrckgewinnung
4.15 Melt treatment devices
Schmelzbehandlungs-
Heat treatment technologies einrichtungen
Wrmebehandlungsverfahren
Wrmebehandlungstechnologien
OTTO JUNKER GmbH
THERMCON OVENS BV
see Extrusion 2

OTTO JUNKER GmbH


THERMCON OVENS BV
see Extrusion 2
Do you need
ALUTEC-BELTE AG, ALUMINIUMTECHNOLOGIE Metaullics Systems Europe B.V.
Lindenweg 5 P.O.Box 748 more information?
D-33129 Delbrck NL-2920 CA Krimpen a/d Yssel
Tel.: +49 (0 ) 52 50 / 98 79-0 Tel. +31-180/590890
Fax: +49 (0 ) 52 50 / 98 79-149 Fax +31-180/551040 E-Mail:
E-Mail: info@alutec-belte.com E-Mail: info@metaullics.nl Schwichtenberg@giesel.de
Web: www.alutec-belte.com Internet: www.metaullics.com

ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 127


Lieferverzeichnis

Materials and Recycling Thermal coating

5 Werkstoffe und Recycling


Aluminium foam Granulated aluminium
Thermische Beschichtung
Berolina Metallspritztechnik
Wesnigk GmbH
Pappelhain 30
D-15378 Hennickendorf
Aluminiumschaum Aluminiumgranulate
Tel.: +49 (0) 33434 / 46060
Fax: +49 (0) 33434 / 46701
E-Mail: info@metallspritztechnik.de
Internet: www.metallspritztechnik.de

6.2 Semi products


Halbzeuge
Alulight International GmbH ECKA Granulate Austria GmbH
Lach 22 Brmooser Landesstrae 19 Wires / Drhte
A-5282 Ranshofen A-5113 St. Georgen/Salzburg
Telefon ++43 / 7722 / 62216-26 Telefon +43 7722 62216-41 DRAHTWERK ELISENTAL
Telefax ++43 / 7722 / 62216-11 Telefax +43 7722 62216-44 W. Erdmann GmbH & Co.
E-Mail: office@alulight.com Kontakt: Walter Rajner Werdohler Str. 40, D-58809 Neuenrade
Internet: www.alulight.com E-Mail: w.rajner@ecka-granules.com Postfach 12 60, D-58804 Neuenrade
Tel. +49(0)2392/697-0, Fax 49(0)2392/62044
E-Mail: info@elisental.de
Internet: www.elisental.de

Machining and Application


6 Bearbeitung und Anwendung
Machining of aluminium Paint stripping / Entlackung
6.3 Equipment for forging
and impact extrusion
Ausrstung fr Schmiede-
und Fliepresstechnik
Aluminiumbearbeitung Hydraulic Presses
Henkel KGaA Hydraulische Pressen
Haarmann Holding GmbH see Prozesse fr die Oberflchentechnik 6.1
see Die preparation and care 2.6
Pretreatment before coating
Vorbehandlung vor der Beschichtung
LASCO Umformtechnik GmbH
6.1 Surface treatment Hahnweg 139, D-96450 Coburg
processes Henkel KGaA Tel. +49 (0) 9561 642-0
see Prozesse fr die Oberflchentechnik 6.1 Fax +49 (0) 9561 642-333
Prozesse fr die E-Mail: lasco@lasco.de
Oberflchenbehandlung Joining of light metals Internet: www.lasco.com
Fgen von Leichtmetallen
Literature
Henkel KGaA
8 Literatur
Technikcal literature
Fachliteratur
D-40191 Dsseldorf
Tel. +49 (0) 211 / 797-30 00 Henkel KGaA Taschenbuch des Metallhandels
Fax +49 (0) 211 / 798-36 36 Standort Heidelberg
Hans-Bunte-Strae 4 Fundamentals of Extrusion Technology
Internet: www.henkel-technologies.com Giesel Verlag GmbH
D-69123 Heidelberg
Tel. +49 (0) 6221 / 704-204 Verlag fr Fachmedien
Adhesive bonding / Verkleben Fax +49 (0) 6221 / 704-515 Ein Unternehmen der Klett-Gruppe
Rehkamp 3 30916 Isernhagen
Pretreatment before Tel. 0511 / 73 04-122 Fax 0511 / 73 04-157
Henkel KGaA adhesive bonding
see Prozesse fr die Oberflchentechnik 6.1
Vorbehandlung vor dem Verkleben Technical journals
Fachzeitschriften
Anodising / Anodisation
Henkel KGaA
see Prozesse fr die Oberflchentechnik 6.1
Henkel KGaA International Journal for Industry, Research and Application
see Prozesse fr die Oberflchentechnik 6.1
Spectrocolor Interferencecolouring
Spectrocolor Interferenzfrben
Cleaning / Reinigung

Henkel KGaA Henkel KGaA


see Prozesse fr die Oberflchentechnik 6.1
see Prozesse fr die Oberflchentechnik 6.1
Waste water treatment
Joining / Fgen Abwasseraufbereitung
Giesel Verlag GmbH
Ein Unternehmen der Klett-Gruppe
Henkel KGaA Henkel KGaA Rehkamp 3 30916 Isernhagen
see Prozesse fr die Oberflchentechnik 6.1 see Prozesse fr die Oberflchentechnik 6.1 Tel. 0511 / 73 04-122 Fax 0511 / 73 04-157

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ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007 129


VORSCHAU / PREVIEW

Im nchsten Heft

Special: Aluminium-Recycling
berblick ber die Sekundraluminiumindustrie
weltweit
Schmelz- und Gietechnik: Innovative Anlagen
von Ausrstern, konstruktive Anforderungen an
die Anlagenmodernisierung, Schmelzebehandlung
Unterschiedliche Recyclinganstze in Umwelt-
analysen und ihre Konsequenzen Forschung:
Entwicklung neuer Duktilittskriterien von Leicht-
Aluminium im Automobil
bauwerkstoffen in der Fahrzeugentwicklung
Gietechnik im Motorenbau
Marktentwicklung der Automobilindustrie und des Weitere Themen
Leichtmetalls Aluminium Aktuelles aus der Branche - Httentechnik - An-
wendungen
Economics
Wertanalyse im Downstreamgeschft der Alu-
miniumindustrie Erscheinungstermin: 5. Mrz 2007
Anzeigenschluss: 16. Februar 2007
Redaktionsschluss: 2. Februar 2007

In the next issue Research


Potentials of new ductility criterions in car devel-
Special: Aluminium recycling opment with lightweight materials
Overview of the global secondary aluminium
Other topics
industry
Latest news from the industry
Melting and casting technology: innovative plants
from suppliers, design requirements for plant mod- Smelting technology
ernisation, melt treatment Applications
Different recycling approaches in environment
analyses and their consequences

Automotive
Casting technology for engines
Market development in the car industry and of the
lightweight metal

Economics
The value engineering in downstream sectors of
modern aluminium industry Day of publication: 5 March 2007
Advertisement deadline: 16 February 2007
Editorial deadline: 12 February 2007

130 ALUMINIUM 1-2/2007


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