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{Mumer 41 ugust 1995

Rptoplex Kgy, designed 6y -mzce Martin

. . Morsum Magnicat, 9 Wetherby Close,

a1 teat
Broadstone, Dorset BH18 818, England.
Phone/FAX: Broadstone (01202) 658474;
ISSN 095345425 International +44 1202 658474

MORSUM MAGNIFICAT was rst published as a quarterly magazine in Holland, in 1983. by

the late Rinus Hellemons PAOBFN. Now published six times a year in Britain, it aims to provide
international coverage of all aspects of Morse telegraphy, past present and future. MORS UM
MAGNIFICATisfor all Morse enthusiasts, amateur or professional, active or retired. It brings
together material which would otherwise be lost to posterity, providing an invaluable source of
interest, reference and record relating to the traditions and practice of Morse.
EDITOR Geoff Arnold G3GSR
(l3 Morley Road, Sheringham. Norfolk NR26 81E, England. Phone: 01263 821936)
G C Arnold Partners 1995 Printed by Hertfordshire Display plc, Ware, Herts

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Rotoplex key from WWI]. Designed by Horace Martin after leaving Vibroplex.
Made by Clark Electric Co., Townsville, Kentucky.
Ball-bearing races in pivot support. Smoothest handling bug".
Photo/Collection: Dave Pennes WA3LKN

S YOU WILL KNOW from this page in the last issue 2 News
of MM, I do not have a great regard for the methods
6 Readers ABS
of modemday singleissue pressure groups, as
epitomised by the New Zealand antiMorse organi- 8 NZ No-code Controversy
sation ORACLE. My opinion of that particular group was not Continues
improved when I read ORACLEs response to Gary Bolds 12 Learning the Other Code
views as published in MM4O (see page 8 ofthis issue).
In this, they try to hide behind the Privacy Act in New 19 A New Look at Morse
Zealand as an excuse for not revealing just how insignicant in Communication
numerical terms their support must obviously be. I nd the
sheer arrogance of their statement .., ORACLE wishes to 22 MARS to
have the image of placing quality policy discussion before Discontinue CW
amateurs and politicians rather than debating support bases 23 Bookshelf
totally breathtaking! Those behind ORACLE should perhaps
be reminded that they live in a democracy, where (in theory at 24 Showcase
least) it is still the views of the majority which count. 26 The Morseman of
A couple of days ago, I came across a review in the
UK newspaper Daily Mail, talking in that case about a
documentary TV programme of the previous evening, which 34 Info Please!
expresses far better than I can the true nature of groups such 36 Your Letters
These groups are characterised by their success
44 MM Back Issues
in bullying elected politicians, their carelessness 45 Index to Issues 35-40
with statistics, their disregard for any views
contrary to their own, and their childlike
determination to get their own way.
In any case, it could be that this movement to brand doerts
competence in Morse an irrelevancy is, to say the least,
premature. We understand that Morse is still being taught in
the British Army, while in the RAF, an indepth review of 44 FISTS CW Club
the benets of retaining a Morse capability is under way. And,
7 The QRP Component Co.
of course, for visual (ashing light) communications, Morse
is still in use between warships of the NATO navies. 44 G-QRP Club
In a late news feature on page 22 of this issue, there is 33 G4ZPY Paddle Keys
an announcement that the US MARS organisation is to discon
tinue Morse from October next year. I dont doubt that the International
military can afford some very sophisticated Morse-decoding
programs, but can they really read the sort of mangled Morse
that a skilled human can cope with, as Assistant Secretary of
Defense Emmett Paige claims?

MOVING HOME? Please let us know promptly ifyou change your address, including details of
the old address so that we can be sure we are updating the right subscription record. Also, tell us if
you have been one ofthose aected by the programme ofchanging postal and zip codes which seems to
be going on in various parts of the world. Remember, too, to let your bank and credit card companies
know of the change, as they may refuse to authorise payments of subscription renewals, etc., if the
address and/or post code information on their les is out of date.

MM41 ugust 1995

ARRL Statistics Regular operating or listening on the
The W5YI Report of August 1 carries amateur bands is listed in descending
some interesting statistics which help to order of usage: 2m 84%, 40m 67%, 20m
put the present usage of CW on the ama- 65%, 10m 59%, 80m 55%, 15m 53%,
teur bands into perspective relative to 450MHz 36%, 17m 29%.
other modes. These gures were recent-
ly obtained from a sample of American N2 No-code Controversy
Radio Relay League members by a There is a separate report on the current
survey company, Readex, on behalf of position of the NZ no-code controversy
ARRL. The company has calculated a on page 8 of this issue.
i3.4% margin of error in this survey at
95% condence level. Sir Oliver Lodge Honoured
Included in a long list of information A plaque was unveiled at the University
prepared for the benet of QST adver- of Oxford Museum, on 23 June 1995,
tisers are the following responses: to commemorate the rst demonstration
Q. Do you own a personal computer? of a spark gap transmission by Sir
A. Yes: 81% No: 19% Oliver Lodge given at a meeting of
Amateur radio software currently the British Association in Oxford on 14
owned is listed as: Digipeater/packet August 1894. Lodge used standard tele
46%; License study 29%; Callsign graph equipment, and it was the rst
database 30%; Logging 26%. recorded instance of the transmission and
From this information, it appears reception of a Morse signal by radio
that while a large proportion of radio waves. In a later link with amateur ra
amateurs have computers (including dio, in 1925, Sir Oliver became the fth
many CW operators) they do not neces- President of the Radio Society of Great
sarily use them for direct radio commu

nication, but rather as aids to efcient An account of the 1894 demonstra
operating. tion was given in an article The First
The actual modes used on the air are Radio-telegraph Transmission, by
listed as: FM 79%; SSE 79%; CW 54%; Rowland Pocock in MM14, p. 1.
Packet 40%.
If over 50% of radio amateurs still Morse Tests on Demand
use Morse on the air, it follows that Amateur Morse tests are available on

CW is not yet ready to be declared a demand when the Radio Society of Great
minority mode! Britains HQ is open on a Saturday. At

2 MM41 ugust 1995

present this is on the third Saturday of l

for use on United Nations Day, 24 Octo-

each month, from 10 am. to 4 p.m. ber 1995, to celebrate 50 years of the

No booking is necessary, but candi- UN. He hopes to use the call on both
dates must take with them the test fee of CW and SSB.
18.00 for the 12 wpm test, or 13.00 Last year he made 2000 contacts on
for the 5 wpm test, also two passport- CW with the special call 9I3OZIN, cele-
type photos. brating 30 years of Zambian independ-
The Milton Keynes & District ence. If any MM readers contact 9JSOUN
Amateur Radio Society, which has two on the key, please mention the magazine
RSGB Morse examiners amongst its if the opportunity arises.
members, also runs tests on demand
sessions once every two months. Morsecodians at Alice 1995
MM would be interested to know if As mentioned on the back cover of
other radio clubs offer the same facility? MM40, the Morsecodians Fraternity
Please send details to the MM editorial operated their annual telegraph land
ofce. line from the National Science &
Technology Centre, Canberra, to the
Grants for Morse 2000 Outreach historic Overland Telegraph Station at
The Morse 2000 Outreach reported in Alice Springs for nine days in April.
MM40, p.5, has received a $7000 grant The line was also linked to the Killer
from the American Radio Relay League Whale Museum at Eden, New South
Foundation, and a $1000 grant from .
Wales, where whaling was the main
the Dean of Human Sciences and industry at the turn of the century. Eden
Services at the University of Wisconsin is near the NSW/Victoria border, on
Eau Claire. the shores of Twofold Bay, one of the
These grants, plus additional funds deepest harbours in the world. The Eden
hoped to be raised, will help cover costs circuit commemorated the 125th anni-
of communication, mailings, and devel versary of the Eden to Gabo Island Light-
opment of the outreach and the 1997 house telegraph line, also the arrival in
world conference, which will be con- Twofold Bay of the replica sailing ship
cerned with Morse code applications in the Endeavour. The Endeavour was the
rehabilitation. ship in which Captain Cook reached
Requests to be placed on the Morse Australia in 1770.
2000 mailing list should be made to Dr Each year the trafc on the Canberra
Thomas W. King WF9I, Department of Alice Springs circuit increases so

Communication Disorders, University Morsecodian Fred Ryan (VKlRY) came

of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Eau Claire, up with a couple of relay sets which
WI 547024004, USA.

enabled the simplex circuit to be con

verted to duplex working. This worked
9J50UN on United Nations Day extremely well and made a huge differ-
MM reader Brian Otter, 9J2BO, has been ence to the amount of trafc shifted.
granted the special event call 9J50UN i
The nal trafc gures (messages
MM41 ugust 1995 .3
sent on behalf of the general public) were Morse Ephemera Wanted

(from) Canberra, 768; Alice Springs, We would welcome examples of Morse

1031; Eden, 370. ephemera for an occasional series in MM.
(Report from John Houlder. We are We are thinking of printed items that are
delighted to learn that, after much push , usually thrown away after use, but which
ing from Fred Ryan, John has taken, have some reference to Morse on them,
and passed the Australian amateur perhaps in the form of an entertaining,
Novice examination and hopes to get eyecatching, or instructive illustration.
on the air with a fair bit of mobile An example sent recently by Alan
CW. John is, of course, an expert Williams G3KSU was a sugar packet
telegraphist and we all lookforward to from Belgium with the Morse symbols
hearing his signal on the DX bands in for SOS printed on the back. We had a
due course. Ed.) Morse phone card from Henri Jacob


Notice of some of the amateur radio- Radio & Computer Rally will be
related events being held in the UK held at the Aberconwy Conference
over the next few months. Although Centre, Llandudno
keys (other than the various WT * On
Sunday, December 3, the
8AMP and NATO models) and oth National Vintage Communications
er telegraph bits and pieces are be- Fair Christmas Special will be
coming scarcer all the time, theres staged at the National Exhibition
always a chance you may make a Centre, Bimiingham. In response to
worthwhile nd, but be there early! . demand from traders and visitors
* On
Sunday, September 3 the Tel- alike, organiser Jonathan Hill has
ford Amateur Radio Rally will be agreed to stage this extra show for
held at the Exhibition Centre, Tel- the rst time in 1995. As well as the
ford, Shropshire, doors open at usual range of vintage radio, TV, tel-
10.30am. ephones, gramophones and classic
Also on September 3, the Bris- audio and hi, this Christmas show
tol Radio Rally will take place in will be extended to include scientic
the Brunel Centre, Temple Meads instruments, sewing machines, type-
Station, Bristol, from 10.30am to writers and other electrical and me
4pm. chanical antiques and collectables.
* The Leicester Amateur Radio At past shows, there have been a
Exhibition will take place at the number of telegraphyrelated items
Granby Halls, Leicester, on Friday on sale.
and Saturday, October 20/21. The MM/RB team will be in at
* On Saturday and Sunday, tendance at each of the above shows
November 4/5, the North Wales marked with an *.

MM41 5411th 1995

F6GTC in MM32, p47, and there was a class, description of rig used, calcula-
1946 advertisement for Sharps Toffee tion of points, and declaration that rules
entirely in Morse in MM18, p.37. have been observed (including use of
Other examples could include hand key only). SWL logs to include
leaets, postcards, bus tickets, magazine both callsigns heard and at least one com
covers, cigarette cards, greetings cards, plete report for each QSO logged.
posters, and so on anything, in fact, Logs to be sent to F.W. Fabri
designed for a non-Morse purpose but DFlOY, Wolkerweg 11, D81375
which has some form of Morse illustra Munchen, Germany, by 30 September
tion on it. 1995. Send a self-addressed envelope +
The trivia of today or yesterday be- IRC for results, if required.
comes the social history of tomorrow, (Information from AGCW-DL)
and is well worth recording to show the
extent to which an awareness of Morse Europe for QRP Weekend 1995
code has impinged on everyday life. The rules for this internationally recog-
Readers are asked to send any ephemer- nised QRP event, organised by the OK
al items they discover to Tony Smith and G-QRP Clubs, are as follows.
(address inside front cover). If you dont Dates and times: From 1600 GMT, Sep-
want to part with something, please try tember 29 to 2359 GMT, October 1.
to send a photocopy which we can re Mode and frequencies: CW only, on
produce. 3.560, 7.030, 14.060, 21.060 and
28.060MHz, all iIOkHZ.

AGCW-DL Straight Key Party Power: Not to exceed 5 watts RF out-

All licensed amateurs are invited to take put. Stations unable to measure output,
part in the AGCW Straight Key Party on take half of their DC input power (e.g.,
Saturday 2 September 1995, on 7.010 10W input = 5W output).
7.040MHz, from 13001600 UTC. Stations eligible: Any licensed radio
Classes: A Maximum 5 watts output amateur.
(or 10W input) Call: CQ EU QRP. Contest exchanges:
B Maximum 50 watts output RST, power output, and name of opera-
(or 100W input) tor.
C Maximum 150 watts output Scoring: Only QRP/QRP QSOs count.
(or 300W input) Contacts with own country, no score;
D Shortwave Listeners EU stations score 1 point for each EU

contact and 3 points for each contact

Serial Number/Class/Name/Age (XYL outside Europe. Stations outside Europe
= XX). score 5 points for each contact with
Points for QSOs: A with A = 9, Europe. The nal score is the sum of
A with B = 7, A with C = 5, B with the points obtained on each band used.
B=4,BwithC:3,CwithC=2. Logs: Send separate log sheets for each
Logs: To include time (UTC), band, call, band, showing for each contact, date,
RST + serial number given and received, time, call, exchanges (RST, power,
MM41 ugust 1995 5
name) sent and received. Send logs to
P. Doudera OKICZ, U 1. baterie 1, Readers 719).;
16200 Praha 6, Czech Republic, by 12
November 1995.
Awards: The leading three stations in FOR SALE
each continent will receive a certicate. 16-PAGE ILLUSTRATED LIST of tel-
In the case of any dispute, the decision egraph items/paper/parts, and related
of the organisers shall be nal. items, $3.00 (refundable). Dr Joseph
(Information from Gerald Stancey Jacobs, 60 Seaview Terrace, Northport,
G3MCK, Communications Manager, NY 11768, USA, phone 516-261-1576,
GQRP Club.) fax 516754-4616.


MM reader and correspondth John MORSE KEYS, type M.T. with pot
Francis, G3LWI, from the Isle of metal covers for sale in quantity. All
Wight, recently visited the Smithso need restoration because of corrosion
nian Institution in Washington DC. caused by longterm storage. POSSIBLY
At a hands-on display of Morse keys USED: $25 including surface shipping.
he was happily sending Morse to him FRESHLY UNPACKED from factory-
self when he was approached by an- produced crate in original wrapping
other visitor who commented on his paper: $75 including airmail shipping.
sending. May consider good quality straight
A discussion on Morse matters key or iambic paddle trades. Write: Bruce
followed and the stranger suddenly Prior AA3DK, 400 Detwiller Lane,
said Do you know Wyn Davies? Bellevue, WA 98004, USA.
John did indeed know fellowkey col~
lector and MM contributor Wyn, who WANTED
lives in faroff Wales. John s new ac- SPECIAL TELEGRAPH EQUIPMENT,
quaintance turned out to be a friend Single needle telegraph; Baudot;
of Wyns, Dave Pennes, WA3LKN, Hughes. Also Marconi multiple tuner.
another MM contributor (and key col- Can be collected in the UK. Exchange
lector), from Indianapolis, IN. items (telegraphy, telephony, radio) also
This chance MM meeting en- available. Fons Vanden Berghen,
hanced their Smithsonian visit and Lenniksesteenweg 462/22, B-1500 Halle,
forged yet another link in the world- Belgium. Tel: Office +
wide chain of collectors and Morse Late evening: +32.2.356.05.56.
devotees originally brought together
through their enthusiastic support of
the magazine. In turn, Wyn Davies is
thrilled at having been named in the

MM41 ugust 1995


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PO Box 88, Haslemere, Surrey GU27 2RF

Tel: 0 1428 64 177 1 Fax: 01428 661794

MM41 lugust 1995

Morse test for radio amateurs
NZ No-code
continues despite the decision of
the International Amateur Radio Union Controversy
(reported in MM38, p.14) to neither
propose nor support a change in the
requirement at this time. by Tony Smith
In MM40 (p.8), Gary Bold ZLlAN
reported on the decision of the New
Zealand government, against the wishes
of its national radio society, NZART,
to propose the abolition of the interna-
tional regulation requiring a Morse test
(RR2735) at the World Radio Confer-
ence (WRC-95) in October/November
this year.
This proposal has sparked further Radio Society of Great Britain
debate in IARU member societies around The Council of the Radio Society
the world, and some of the reactions of Great Britain has also endorsed the
noted by MM are as follows. position taken by the IARU, and has
recommended that the IARU paper, The
Morse code and Amateur Radio a
Radio Amateurs of Canada Summary from the work of the IARU
Canadas national radio society, CW Ad Hoc Committee, be given the
RAC, has informed its licensing author- i
widest possible distribution.
ity, Industry Canada, that it opposes any A letter signed by the President of
change to RR2735, and it has endorsed the RSGB has been sent to the Radio
the position of the International Ama communications Agency (the UK licens-
teur Radio Union taken at its meeting in ing authority) informing the RA of the
Singapore in September 1994. Societys position in this matter.
The Canadian Amateur, J uly/August (Information from Peter Kirby
1995, comments, It should be noted that GOTWW, General Manager, RSGB)
RAC is bound by its IARU commitments
for WRC-95 but this important issue VERON
is being further investigated with an From Holland, C.H. Murre
open mind by the RAC Board and PAZCHM, VERONs IARU Liaison
Executive. Ofcer has conrmed that VERON

8 MM41 lugust 1995

adheres to the recommendation adopted Report, an internationally read twice-
at the IARU Region 1 conference in 1993 monthly Ham Radio Newsletter edited
which maintained the status quo by Fred Maia WSYI, contains a two-
concerning the necessity of a Morse test page report quoting extensively from
as part of the licence requirements for Gary Bolds article in MM. This report
amateur operation under 3OMHz. includes a response from ORACLE to
He points out that while national Garys comments that ORACLEs rep-
societies like VERON can put their resentations to the New Zealand gov-
views to their administrations to try to ernment could have no validity since It
inuence their voting at World Radio is quite possible that membership is less
conferences, it is the administrations than 100 (MM40, p.13).
themselves that decide how to vote. It is ORACLE has responded that Garys
not known at present how the Dutch speculative estimate... is incorrect It
administration (HDTP/OZ) will vote on says The Privacy Act in New Zealand
this particular matter. protects the personal information of
(Thanks to Monika Pouw-Arnold, members, and in any case ORACLE
PA3FBF, for obtaining this information wishes to have the image of placing
for MM) quality policy discussion before ama-
teurs and politicians rather than debat
N0 Support for Test in Zambia ing support bases.
At the Annual General Meeting of

It goes on to claim The announce

the Radio Society of Zambia, on May ment of new policy was made following
27, Brian Otter 9J2BO, IARU Liaison a series of joint meetings between the
Ofcer, put forward a motion proposing Ministry, ORACLE and NZART. . and
that in accordance with the policy of says ORACLE won the debate in New
the IARU (of which R82 is a member), Zealand fair and square.
the Society should ask the Zambian
licensing authority to support the reten- G-QRP Club Writes to Minister
tion of the Morse test. Following the suggestion made in
This motion was overwhelmingly MM40, p.15, that readers might write
defeated by the members present at the to the Hon Maurice Williamson, the
meeting. However, no counter motion New Zealand Minister of Commerce, the
was proposed asking the licensing au- G-QRP Communications and Contests
thority to support the deletion of RR Manager, Gerald Stancey G3MCK, has
2735. It is believed the licensing written to the Minister on behalf of the
authority supports the retention of GQRP club, pointing out that the over
RR2735. whelming view of licensed amateurs
(Thanks to Brian Otter, 9JZBO, for throughout the world, i.e., the people
this report) who have actual experience of operating
on the HF amateur bands, supports the
ORACLE Response in W5 YI Report retention of the Morse test. He asks
The July 15 issue of the W5YI the Minister to agree that the Morse
MM41 ugust 1995 9
requirement for the HF amateur licence Do Something Positive!
should continue. It is too easy to think Im not inter
He also sent the Minister a copy of :
ested in all these politics. Ijust want to
the G-QRP Clubs 1993 submission to enjoy my amateur radio. So do we all,
the Radio Society of Great Britain, when but there are times when we just have to
the no-code issue was the subject of a , take an interest in what is going on out
nationwide consultation exercise and side the shack, and do something posi-
when a 67.5 per cent majority voted tive so that the voice of the normally
no to a codefree licence. silent majority can be heard.
The conclusion of this paper was that If you have any views on the New
the effects of ANY lowering in amateur Zealand proposal, its not too late to write
licence qualications at the present time to the Minister to support the views al-
would be incalculable, and could present l
ready expressed to him by others around
real dangers to the future of the hobby. the world. (Write to: The Hon. Maurice
In support of its position to argue Williamson, Parliament Buildings,
such a case, the paper records that the
Wellington, New Zealand.)
G-QRP Club has some 5000 members. Australias Spectrum Management
About 3500 of these hold UK amateur Agency recently backed off from a
licences, and overseas membership cov- proposed 92 percent increase in amateur
ers some 50 countries. licence fees after receiving a barrage of
MM will welcome news of any other protest from amateurs across Australia,
clubs that have written to the Minister. demonstrating that politicians do take
notice when sufcient objections are
As Seen by Others received to their ill-advised actions.
Another American publication,
World Radio July 1995, reports on the Keep MM Informed!
decision of the New Zealand govem- 1

Readers are requested to let MM

ment to seek to overturn RR2735. When know immediately of any developments
ORACLE began lobbying the New Zea in this matter that come to their notice in
land government to take a leadership their own countries. Dont worry that
role in abolishing Morse code testing, others may have already told us. We
says the report: would rather have several reports of the
Few people gave (it) any chance same thing than no reports at all!
of success. Ham radio political leaders Let us know, if you can nd out,
in New Zealand and around the world what the view of your national society
discounted ORACLE as being a minor is, and if you or your Morse organisa
league player trying to gain a political tion have written to the Minister in
foothold in the ham radio major leagues. New Zealand.
The report in World Radio describes Remember, MM is the only publi-
the decision of the New Zealand cation for Morse enthusiasts which
government as a major victory for specialises in Morse news, good or bad,
ORACLE. keeping its readers informed about
10 MM41 ugust 1995
Minister Still Firm wishing to operate the apparatus of an
As we prepare to go to press with amateur station. This is provided for
this issue of MM, the following letter already in N0. 2736 of the Radio
has been received by Tony Smith from Regulations. I share the view of my
New Zealands Minister of Commu- ofcials.
nications: I am advised that the proposals will
be sent to the International Telecom-
27th July 1995 munication Union shortly, where they
Dear Mr Smith, will be published and distributed to all
Thank you for your letter of 25 other administrations.
June about New Zealand preparations If there is little, or no support, for
and proposals for the work of the the New Zealand proposals, then so
World Radiocommunication Confer- be it. The Conference itself will de
ence WRC-95 to be held in Geneva in cide whether there is merit in the New
October and November of this year. Zealand position.
The appropriateness of the mandat- I note your comments about the
ory requirement that Morse procien numbers of active amateur radio
cy, for access to frequency bands in operators who still practice Morse
the amateur service below 30MHz, telegraphy and the part that Morse
being part of an international treaty, plays in the amateur service. Accept-
has been under consideration for some ing that, I would not expect this situa-
time in New Zealand. tion to change because of the proposal
However, this is merely one ele- to suppress No. 2735 of the Radio
ment in the overall process of Simpli- Regulations.
cation of those Regulations, in which Should you wish to raise this, or
New Zealand has played quite a major any other matter again, please contact
part. It is the view of the ofcials with- my ofcials in Communications Divi-
in my Ministry that much more exi- sion of the Ministry of Commerce in
bility for the regulatory regime Wellington, where radiocommunica
surrounding amateur radio would be tion matters, and WRC95 work, is
achieved if administrations could being coordinated.
take such measures as they judge nec- Yours sincerely
essary to verify the operational and Maurice Williamson
technical qualications of any person Minister of Communications

matters that affect them world-wide. news about the no-code controversy or
To do this, we rely on you to tell us what any other Morse matter. Our addresses
is happening in your country. Please are inside the front cover of every issue
write to Geoff or me with your Morse of MM.
MM41 ugust 1995 11
N THIS ARTICLE, we shall con-
sider how to go about learning the Learning the Other
other code. Since most of us know
the International (formerly called Con-
tinental) code, how do we go about by Wm. G. Pierpont NOHFF
learning the old (American) Morse
landline code?
Do not use the following compara-
tive lists in any way to learn the Ameri-
can code. Their purpose is solely to show
the differences between the two codes,
and particularly the effects on the struc-
ture of certain characters due to the
Morse internal spaces and the special
lengthened dahs. They affect rhythms.
First, the old Morse differs from In-
ternational in four aspects: 0 (zero) = a still longer dah
1. The following characters are THE (see below).
SAME in both codes: A B D E G H I K The following numbers are different
M N S T U V W 4 (2/3 of alphabet in old Morse from any International
letters) English character sound: 2 3 6.
2. A number of International characters This does not include other punctua
represent DIFFERENT letters or num- tion, which differs and in old Morse
bers or signs in old Morse: landline circuits was used extensively.
MORSE: FJQPX15789 . ? It must be heard to learn it.
3. Certain old Morse letters contain IN Timing
TERNAL SPACES which make them There seem to have been no stand-
subject to possible misinterpretation as ard timing relationships in American
two letters, i.e.: Morse as compared with International
C O R Y Z Morse. That is, the duration of a normal
might appear to be: .
dah is stated variously as being two times
IE EE EI II SE or three times the duration of a dit. (My
4. Certain letters in old Morse are DIF- own impression is that it tended to be
FERENT from any International char- somewhat shorter than the correspond
acter for English: ing dah in International code. This might
L = a longer dah I
have been done to save time and yet to

12 MEM41 lugust 1995

keep the careful distinctions between a of having adequate spacing, which is
dit and the denitely longer dah for L, I more acute in American Morse than in
which nominally was considered to be International code.)
twice as long as the normal dah.)
The important thing was to clearly No Need for Confusion
distinguish between E and L and T. Three general features distinguish old
Zero (0) would be intentionally longer Morse from International Morse code:
than L when there would be a risk of 1. Most obvious is the difference in ba-
its being misread, but otherwise would sic rhythm: International has a distinctly
be about the same. (Some have described regular sort of rhythm, while old Morse
L as being as short as 4 or as long as 7 has a catchy sort of apocopated rhythm
units, and zero as short as 5 or as long as it marches in
a striking sort of go and
10 units. There seems to have been bet- halt way, that when sent by a skilled
ter agreement on the spaces.) operator is unmistakable.
The important thing was This is 2. Along with this is a rather obvious
communication. Things should have to ditty characteristic of old Morse by
be sent only once. Having to repeat contrast with International.
wastes time and money. Are the words 3. Not quite so obvious is that old Morse
and numbers being clearly understood is about 10% faster than International
by the receiving operator? when the same lengths of dashes and
In the same way, the space in the
spaces are used in both codes (that is, it
internally spaced characters (3 above) is will take about 10% less time to send
usually stated to be the duration of two the same text).
dits, but tended to be shortened just Interestingly, old Morse also requires
enough to be clear, so the receiving about 15% less effort to send. It tends
operator would not be confused. to be more of an art form, with consider-
The spacing between letters in a word ably more variation in sts, or sending
nominally appears to have been the styles.
duration of 34 dits, and between words At rst sight, with some characters
about the length of 46 dits. Before and/ the same and others different, confusion
or after the internally spaced characters between the codes might seem consid
a slightly longer than normal letter space erable in learning the other. Take heart!
was often felt necessary, depending on In 1942, Mr. R]. Miller, a skilled
the code environment. teacher with the old Teleplex Co., wrote:
Again, these values would tend to One who is expert in only one code,
vary according to the skill of both oper- e. g. American Morse, can master Conti-
ators. The object was, as always, perfect nental Morse in ten days to two weeks
copy with minimum time to transmit, and be as expert at the new code as he
leaving considerable exibility to the was in the old code. This is because his
individual operators. (A person who mind is trained to recognize the quick
sent the word telegraph so that it was l
sounds. This theory has been proved
copied as j graph shows the importance l
many a time.
MM41 ugust 1995
Notice his words carefully: expert dont have to relearn their sounds.
and his mind is trained to recognize Listen to get the swing of it, then
the quick sounds. These are not trivial practise with your key, imitating the ex-
words. It is the operator who already perts. This will help reinforce the sounds.
can handle the one code like an expert, Consider the following suggestions:
because his mind has been well trained 1. Just ignore the idea of possible confu-
to recognise the letter sounds instantly sion: over the years many operators with
when they are sent at a good speed, who various degrees of skill, from quite mod-
is going to learn so fast and well. est to expert, have managed to use both
Just how Mr. Miller dened expert codes with no difculty. In early wire-
is not pinned down, but we can assume less days a commercial operator was
that such an expert was better than the generally required to do this, and many
minimum requirement for a commercial of them were not very fast operators.
radio operator of those early days. 2. You already know twothirds of the
It is probably safe to say that a alphabet and one of ten digits: so you
person who can easily handle the code dont have to give these any special
somewhere in the 2535 wpm range will thought at all.
find Mr. Millers words to be true, if he 3. Think separate for all the characters
puts himself to it. that are different these are the ones
From this we may assume that those that distinguish the two codes. Keep each
of us who are less skilled and want to code separate and distinct from the
learn old Morse may expect to take some- other: dont mix or compare them. (For
what longer to get there. (Perhaps in example, dont under any conditions let
learning the second code in the proper yourself think: thats C so it is 1.)
way we may actually improve our skill There must be nothing standing in
in the code we already know, since between the signal you hear and its
immediate character recognition is the immediate recognition as being the let
key point). ter. (A person who knows German as
well as English knows that the letters ch
Learning It are pronounced differently in German
How should we go about learning than in English there is no confusion
old Morse? First of all, we have to hear at all. We need to think the same way
it properly sent, because its rhythms are here.)
different. We should have little trouble 4. Remember that learning old Morse
with recognising it on the air: its pecu- is going to be much easier and faster
liar rhythms and dittiness will quickly than learning lntemational code because
identify it. we already know how to go about it and
But also we will nd we can easily that many, many others have succeeded
read many common words because well. This ought to give us great encour
they sound the same in both codes ( e. g. agement and condence.
and, the, it, but, these, thing, and many
continued on page 16
others) thats an encouragement: we
MM41 ugust 1995
Learning American Morse THE MILL


demonstrations, and in some cases use

American Morse, Jim Farrior W4FOK has the code on-the-air via amateur radio
written an excellent computer program (see also MM28, p.35).
called THE MILL. This teaches both Everything is provided in a user-
American and International Morse using friendly menu environment containing
Farnsworth speeds (i.e., with extra spac- many helpful features. The program can
ing between letters and words during the l

be run from the 3.5-inch disk provided,

learning process, progressively lessen- or will self install onto a hard disk, where

ing as ability improves). file handling is much faster.

With American Morse, output from l An added bonus for those who have
the computer can be used to drive a been enjoying extracts from Bill Pier-
sounder (a suitable circuit is provided ponts book The Art and Skill of Radio-
with the program), or the computers
Telegraphy, currently appearing in MM,
speaker can be selected to provide a is the inclusion on the disk of the entire
simulated sounder output. book (27 chapters and 9 appendices)
The Mill is intended both for learners courtesy of the author.
and for experienced operators wishing Please note: The MILL is written in
to improve their skill in either code. It has compiled QBasic and runs satisfactorily
two modes, Keyboard mode and Code only from the true DOS prompt. Running
Practice mode. Keyboard mode provides from Windows, or a shell program or
a Keyboard screen with an overprinting from the DOS prompt presented by such
buen programs can result in unsatisfactory
Code Practice mode provides access operation.
to the program's teaching features, in- Jim Farrior originally created his pro-
cluding Random letters; Random groups; .

gram for the benefit of members of the

Sending (and repetition) of any ASCII Morse Telegraph Club. It is now availa-
text file in the MILL directory; Farnsworth ble to readers of MM, and Jim will greatly
sending; Incremental speed increase; appreciate feedback from users.
and Incremental speed increase with THE MILL is obtainable from: James
Farnsworth sending, the last two being S. Farrior W4FOK, 1232 Harrison Point
particularly powerful learning methods. Trail, Fernandina Beach, FL 32034, USA,
For those wishing to try out their new- price $10.00 post paid to US addresses
Iy acquired American Morse, the and $13.00 post paid to non-US address-
tional notes include information about the es. Ftegretfully, payment can ONLY be
Morse Telegraph Club whose members accepted in US dollars. Payment from
keep the mother tongue alive. They ex- outside the USA should therefore be
change audio tapes, communicate direct

made in cash (US dollars) or by interna-

via dial-up telegraph modems (using tional cheque (obtainable from a bank)

sounders for reception), give public . made out in US currency.

.MM41 ugust 1995

Some excellent suggestions come with it. Some experienced operators see
from those who have long known and no benet from it. So there need be no
used both codes. One of these is to use confusion at all. We can simply go ahead
a sounder instead of audio tones to and condently learn the old, but new
provide a completely different sound tous Morse code and enjoy it, using the

environment to help distinguish Morse principles already set forth here.

from International. (If this is done, one Perhaps some of the old timers, who

needs to get familiar with receiving by 1

learned both codes long ago, may be
sounder. See later.) pleased to give us some additional
advice from their experience also.

If one does not intend to use a

sounder, there is no point in practising l

(Expertly-sent Old Morse tapes are

American Morse Alphabet



Punctuation (examples there

are many more)

Period (-) ------

Comma (,) --
Exclamation (i) -

Interrogation (1) -


16 MM41 ugust 1995
available from: Cecil Langdoc, 201 operation over wires, where static and
Homan Ave., Elkhart, IN 46516, USA. other interference are absent or mini-
They make for great listening.) mal. Although the International form
A Railroad telegraphers story: a of the code was developed and adopted
beginning operator was sending as fast in Europe only 5 years later, in America
as he could with a bug when the other the earlier code was at rst used for
operator cut in with what he copied as wireless.
REND STOW IMA GIRT. He asked Two factors probably acted to effect
for a repeat and got the same copy. He the change-over to International: the
turned to his supervisor and asked: predominantly ditty character of Amer
Whats wrong with that operator? The ican Morse sounded more like static than
reply: Nothing, shesjust saying Send the International form, and the world
slow Im a girl. Youve gotta learn the wide nature of shipboard wireless oper-
difference between R and S and T and ation urged a common code. This would
L. Didnt they teach you anything in have become more demanding as
that school?

international commercial and amateur

Example of an all-dot sentence: Her operation became commonplace.
Insh eyes cry cos she is so sorry.
American Morse An Art

Learning to Read by Sounder American Morse telegraphy is

Learning to read by sounder is no considered by many of its practitioners
more difcult than by tone or buzz. It as a thing of beauty, a work of art. The
is just different. The sounder makes tune sung out by a local sounder out-
two different kinds of clicks which ranks the most precisely tuned aircraft
correspond to movements of the key. engine in terms of sheer beauty accord-
The downstroke produces a sharp ing to one old timer.
(high pitched) click to denote the begin-
ning of the on signal. The up-stroke Some Further Comparisons
is a duller sound, indicating the end of If the identical duration of the basic
signal (off). unit of time (the dit and unit space) is
The length of the intervening silence used for both codes while sending the
between them corresponds to the dura same message, the skilled American
tion of the toned signal (in CW recep- Morse operators will have completed the
tion) to form a dit or dah. message while the International opera-
Practise rst with a string of dits and
tors are still sending and receiving.
then of dahs, and then with some com- The message will in fact actually have
mon words until you get familiar with been handled at a rate about 45% faster
this method of hearing the code signals. on the Morse line than on the Intema-
(Use letters which are common to both tional channel. Here the skilled old
codes (see 1 above.) You will probably Morse operators will normally be using
nd it interesting and a challenge at rst. shorter dashes and spaces (as noted
American Morse was designed for above) than their International peers.
MM41 ugust 1995 17
This, combined with the 73% latter easier to interpret under adverse
shorter average letter and 65% shorter conditions.
number in old Morse accounts for the I suspect that Old Morse operators
apparent discrepancy between the previ- under radio conditions tend to lengthen

ously cited 10% faster. Therefore, when (or exaggerate) their time intervals (sig-
we read of the speeds achieved under nal on and spaces) to aid in copying. If
American Morse operations we need to they do so, then the time gain is less.
recognise that the sending operator is
having an easier time than the corres- Some Practice Materials for Learning
ponding International operator, but the Words which contain only letters
receiving operator is under the same bur- common to both codes: (a e i u b d g h k
den, and needs a more acute ability to m n s t v w) the and end man men view
discriminate small differences than his stew must mist missed kid king thing
corresponding International operator. dig dumb sing sting stub hide side vast

In addition, when both have com waste waist medium wide stab tug aim
pleted sending the message, the Morse bug tame name magnet tube gust huge
operator will have used only about 91% India ink sink had mad made human
as many keystrokes and about 85% of

magnitude dean heat hum ham him sad

the total work or energy expended by dash dish shade gush bush hush mash
the International operator. smash biggest mug hug bag sag wag
These gains are achievable at a cost. stage wages vague stag that tug heed
First, the American Morse operator must head hasten skate hate date night might
learn to make some ner distinctions in kite ght invite begin began behave
sound than the International operator. behead aghast mane tame inane game
He must readily recognise the internally wane hank bank stink wink
spaced letters (C O R Y Z) and the Words containing only the letters
lengthened dah characters (L and zero) unique to American Morse: color copy
as distinguished from what might be their zoo off for Roy clop joy y crop cry lop

equivalents, and he must generally live clop plop roll jolly

with closer spacing between characters Words containing only the letters
and words. unique to American Morse plus the rest
There is also the problem of the of the vowels: collar fall clay year zeal
difference between reading by sounder leap peel play quail zero ooze ail are
in the telegraph ofce and reading jello queer clique zzle clear lily cruel
signals over the air where static and clear opera quiz aloe oil explore
interference can cause loss of signal expire jury jail jeer clap clip pear peer
components. reaper repair rill ll fall full rope rap
Ambiguities introduced by the spaced ripe career clip clap place rice cliff all
letters and the shorter dahs in American 2

quip equip creep

Morse under radio operation stand in (Reprinted and specially edited for
sharp contrast to the standardised
MM from Bill Pierponts book The Art
durations in International, making the and Skill of RadioTelegraphy).
{MEM41 ugust 1995
TOPIC today since the mandatory Look at
A New
SOOkHz maritime transmitter for
emergency communications is in proc- Morse
ess of replacement by more advanced
communication systems. Communication
However, as a Morse code (CW) fan (A re-examination of
I have been very interested in trying two basic concepts)
to improve keys, and believe I have
improved one particular aspect of the by Hideo Arisaka
physical design of the vertical action
(straight) hand key.
I have also been interested in i
establishing the optimum receiving
audio frequency of the code which, in ence, and immediately led me to
my opinion, should depend on the conduct some experiments.
speed of the code sent. When I use the straight key my right
shoulder and arm tend to rise up gradu-
Improving the Straight Hand Key ally. This led to the thought: Human
In a discussion with Mr H. Ogawa arms are not made to swing vertically.
who spent his working life with CW as a i

We should not have to adjust our pos-

professional operator, he told me: When ture to suit the key but the key should
I got tired after using the key for a long be adjusted to suit the direction of the
period, I used to put a pencil under the natural movement of the junctions of
left side of the key base. (Fig. 1). This the shoulder, arm and wrist.
statement impressed me greatly because I accordingly made an experimental
it was based solely on his own experi- key to collect data with the help of many
experienced key users. (Photo 1). The
adjustable baseboard allows the key to
be inclined at your favourite angle.
Simultaneously I studied the shape of
the knob which evolved into the strange
shape shown in the picture.
In practice, an inclination of 5 to
10 is generally well accepted for the
rst few minutes of operation. However,
Fig. 1. Pencil under left-hand side of base i as time passes, and probably because we
MM41 ugust 1995 19

feel our arms getting heavier, the opti-

mum angle is found to be about 4. On
this basis the pencil under the key base

of Mr Ogawa is found to be reasonable.

Based on the results obtained, I made a
4 inclined-key and named it La Torre
di Pisa. (Photo 2).
Incidentally, on the same basis, a
horizontal action paddle key, can be
improved by raising its right hand side.
I discovered the optimum angle to be
again about 4 and designed combined
keys of both types. (Photo 3).
Photo 1. Experimental key with
adjustable angle base Optimum Receiving Frequency
Next, I studied the range of optimum
audio frequencies (pitch) for receiving

e -

Morse signals.
Some decades ago, the so-called
400 000 theory was popular in the
audio eld. This theory says that the
frequency range of audio reproduction
is best balanced when the product of the
high and low end frequencies equates
to 400 000 (e.g., 50Hz8kHz or 25Hz
Although there are some objections

to this theory, suppose we adopt it and
Photo 2. La Torre di Pisa. narrow the bandwidth to 1/3 octave, i.e.,
Final 4 inclined-key a range between 560Hz and 710Hz, with
a centre frequency of 632Hz,
which is the square root of
400 000. This would be an
appropriate frequency range
for receiving CW continu-
ously for a prolonged peri-
od. Figure 2 shows an

Photo 3. Combined keys,

with paddle key raised 4
on the right hand side
MM41 ugust 1995
7W8} C2 -___L2

L. ['4
c. c3 c4 (6

0: 63 2H2
Zin =Zout=5009
L2=6 OmH
Cx=C6=4 uF
Fig. 2. Audio band-pass filter with

3 ,
um sun
3. .r

sun um
IJ passband between 560Hz and
710Hz, with a centre frequency
of 632Hz
mu} NJ 96.!

example of an audio bandpass lter depends on the speed of the Morse sig-
which has this passband. nal (see Fig. 3). We can estimate a
In my opinion, however, the opti- reasonable formula for this but it can
mum frequency is not constant, but only be used to determine the modulat
l2 ing frequency of an A2 transmission.
My suggestion is a formula with the
square root of a Baud rate dened as the
- 90

\lm CC)
inverse of a dot length multiplied by a
coefcient of 200. the coefcient can
vary with individuals: the dependency
of the coefcient is found to be surpris-
ingly small.

f = 200 \/B
.2. 0
B = k x P/60

f = frequency (Hz)
0 B = Baud rate
600 700 800 P = numbers of letters per minute
k = 8.0 for English code
Fig. 3. Comparison of English and 13.2 for Japanese code
Japanese code relating to
audio frequency v. speed continued on page 48
MM41 ugust 1995
he Military Afliate Radio System
(MARS) operates numerous commu
nications networks on US military
frequencies and thousands of radio Discontinue CW
amateurs participate in it.
Its main mission is to provide a backup
to military communications and to support
worldwide civil emergency and disaster
communications. It also handles health,
morale and welfare oriented trafc.
In July, the following message was
transmitted from Air Force MARS at Scott As an Assistant Secretary of Defense
Air Force Base in Illinois. This was only

specialising in communications, Mr Emmett

intended for MARS members but it also Paige, W2IPG, a retired 3star General, has
appeared on the Internet. overall authority over all US military com
Subject: MARS Broadcast No 21 Contacted by Fred Maia WSYI, editor
Dated: 19 July 1995 Broadcast stations do of the W5YI Report, General Paige said,
not release prior to 18002 19 July 1995 That... memo was sent to the services and
Item: 043:ASD/C3I Memo the defense agencies... Each service has their
own MARS program. You will not nd CW
Thefollowing memo, dated 28 June 1995 was anywhere else today but in MARS
released by the Assistant Secretary of De- He explained that Morse code had been
fensefor Command Control Communications automated, You dont need a human now to
and Intelligence. copy and translate Morse code. The only
Subject: MARS Continuous Wave Morse Code possible use of CW today was for intercept
Quote. Eective October I, 1996, it is direct operations since some third world countries
ed that the CW mode ofcommunications will still use Morse code but that these transmis
no longer be used on any Dept. of Defense sions could be easily read automatically by
MARS circuits, networks or frequencies. code readers.
MARS has been steadfastly evolving to newer Maia explained that the WSYI Group
technologies to improve service. Technology was one of the original VEC (amateur radio
such as single sideband replaced amplitude volunteer examiner coordinator) groups and
modulation to provide greater frequency that many if not most new applicants do
efciency. Likewise packet radio, AMTOR, not wish to learn the Morse code in order to
PACTOR, GTOR and CLOVER modes of access the HF frequencies.
operation have replaced radio teletype. CW I understand and I believe that the
use and need in MARS communications has hobby will benet... Although we have a
diminished over the years. It is recognized noMorse code license today, I think once
that CW can no longer compete with the we eliminate it [i.e. Morse code] altogether,
rapid advancement in radio technology. it will be better for the hobby overall...
Therefore, CW is to be retired from use General Paige replied.
within the DOD MARS. (Extracted and adapted for MM from the
Signed: Emmett Paige, Jr. Unquote W5YI Report, August 15, I995)

22 MM41 ugust 1995








Manhattan Electrical Specialty Co. (MES). Contacts replaced with coins (i. e., dimes,
hence dime key). A telegraph key modified for use as a spark key by hams in the
early days of wireless



Flameproof J-7A key, dated 1921, Order 141092. Made by LS. Brach Mfg. 00.,
Newark, NJ. Said to be as used on USN Blimps

24 MM41 ugust 1995






Svenska Hadioaktiebo/aget, Stockholm - Swedish Radio 00. Typ Bug 140



swam Manirorae

French Dyna Manitone key, used on Caravelles

Featuring keys and other collectors items of telegraphic interest.

If anyone can add to the information given please contact
Tony Smith, 13 Morley Road. Sheringham, Norfolk NR26 8JE

MM41 ugust 1995

The Morse Code and Amateur Radio
A Summary from the work of the

IAHU CW Ad Hoc Committee (summarised

in MM38, see p.16) commented that some
national societies have a regular column in
their monthly journals devoted to Morse
operating and that These are known to be by Dr Gary Bold ZL1AN
very popular and are widely read.
One of these is Gary Bolds superb The
Morseman column in Break-In, journal of
New Zealands national radio society NZART,
and MM often prints extracts (features in
their own right) from that column. On this
occasion we are printing a selection of My solution has always been to re
up the TS520, limber up the Brown

shorter items which have appeared in recent

years, to give MM readers a taste of what it Brothers paddle, put on the cans and
is like to read an entire Morseman column. exchange CW for a while with someone
you are a radio amateur, why not help on 20 metres. After a while the Morse
raise the profile of amateur Morse round the begins to decode itself automatically, and
world by suggesting to your own national little ASCII strings march quietly and
society that its monthly journal should have effortlessly through my head.
a regular Morse column like The Morseman My pulserate slows, and the network
as recommended by the IARU CW Ad Hoc theorems and Fourier transforms of my
Committee! professional life go away. I have almost
become one with the radio, a bionic
postprocessor tacked on the end of the
audio chain.
Morse Therapy CW is the purest form of communi-
Many times, over the years, Ive cation I know, a mind-tomind link-
age. The words appear right inside my

nished writing a lecture late at night.

The house is asleep, but my mind is head, words that were never spoken;
wide awake. I know that if I go to bed uncorrupted by accents, verbal peculi
now, Ill just lie awake and the ideas I arities, oddities of vocal intonation.
have to propound in the morning will They leave no room for other
rush madly about, echoing and mutter thoughts. Almost like a form of medita

ing in my brain. tion. Very therapeutic. After thirty

26 MM41 14:15th 1995

minutes of that, my metabolism has counselled me: Always send a 3 by 3
been slowed right down and Im relaxed. CO. The other guy KNOWS youre call-
I can go to bed and sleep comes.
ing CQ its YOUR CALL he wants to
All of us who have been hams for a hear. Does anyone else get exasperated
long time go through phases. Thats one by this?
of the nice things about our hobby, there
are so many outlets for our nuttiness. Operating in the USA
Ive been an antenna nut, DX hunter,
(Written during a visit to the USA I)
a transmatch experimenter, a keyer Im now operating on HF. As I
builder, a phasing SSB enthusiast, a found in Australia, hams everywhere are
CW keyboard freak. incredibly generous! Jesse, W8MCP, lent
All these phases have passed, but me his spare rig, a SWAN IOOMXA,
my rst love is still CW. Its the mode circa 1978, together with matching power
I go back to whenever I need to wind supply and transmatch. I have a very
down and recharge the batteries. Theres small backyard lled with large trees,
something about the essential simplicity the airspace crisscrossed with power,
and purity of Morse that, for me, all the phone, cable TV wires. A proper anten-
other modes lack. na system or beam is out of the question,
so Ive just run an end-fed random
Send Morse To Your Dog wire out of the upper storey bedroom
A Northland farmer and engineer, window.
Darcy Gilberd, who travelled away a lot This gets me all over the USA on 40
and had other people moving his stock and 80 metres CW. But the SWAN is
solved the problem of multiple dog really designed for SSB, and has no
control by training his dogs to obey CW lter. With the level of CW activity
Morse code signals blown on a referees common in the USA, that means that
whistle. its unusual to nd only one signal in
T was to call attention, I to bark the passband, and often there are 4 or
or speak up, K for steady, or when more! Ive been thinking about lashing
repeated, to sit. M meant go away, up a passive audio lter, but havent got
and N come in behind. around to it.
(From New Zealand National Geo For any lover of CW, operating 40
graphic, 0ct0berDecember 1991). metres in the USA is pure delight! Its
2145 local time, and Im writing this
Send Your Call! column on the MITAC notebook com-
The other night I came across a nice puter alongside the SWAN, listening
juicy CQ on 20m and sat back waiting with one ear. Ive just tuned over the 40
for the callsign. But CQ CQ CQ went metre band, and in the bottom 25kHz
on and on, and after 15 seconds I lost there are 15 CW conversations going
patience and went away. on, at speeds ranging from 6 to 45 wpm.
Its surprising how many stations There is no commercial interference, and
do this. A venerable sage, years no QRN! This is armchair operating. If
MM41 Jztugust 1995
I just sit on one frequency, sooner or Fat Operators. CFOs Cluck in Morse at
later a nice CQ comes along which I can ,
the end of a QSO. They meet for Cluck-
answer. Everybody wants to come back ins at Hamfests and Conventions. They
to a callsign like ZLlAN/W 8, although have mysterious, yet simple acoustical
sometimes it takes a couple of tries to !

mechanical devices for producing audi

get it correctly. Working local DX is ble chicken clucks, invented by Kirby.
a novelty! They send lots and lots of beautiful CW

to each other. Look for them around

The CF 0 Lives! 7.033MHZ during the hours of US
(From the USA 2) darkness, and in the weekends.

About a decade ago, I became a

member of the CFO, which started out Sinister Symbols from the Past
as a loosely-knit bunch of US keyboard .
(From the USA 3)
enthusiasts.The entry requirements were, About a year ago, somebody (my les
roughly, a deep love of CW, and a habit are 8500 miles away) asked me about

of participating in extended ragchews at two legendary symbols of US Ham

40 wpm plus. You had to be nominated Radio, the Wouff Hong and the
by a couple of members who deemed Rettysnitch.
I queried David Sumner, KlZZ, the
you worthy.
The sunspots came and went, and ARRL Executive Vice President, about
I got busier. I lost contact with the these objects. David kindly sent me
CFO. Unofcial word came that they some background material, from which
I extracted the following. In 1917, sto-

were extinct. Great was my surprise

when Jesse told me that not only did

ries by an anonymous writer with the

they yet live, but he was a member! pseudonym The Old Man, or T.O.M.
Immediately, he drew me to the Ten- began to appear in QST. Called the Rot-

Tec, spun up the CFO frequency of l

ten Radio series, they pitilessly assailed

7.033MHZ, and behold! There we were and exposed the poor operating practic-
in QSO with two others! es of the day in satire and humour.
Next day, with the SWAN, Ijoined In one of these stories, Rotten
the local CFO SSB net on 80, and met QRM, T.O.M. castigated the gibberish
Kirby, WS9D, the net controller. After 3
hed overheard in one particular QSO,
welcoming me, he asked Gary, can you citing as an example the words Wouff
operate SSB as well?" After a short

Hong, which, apparently, was a thing

pause, somebody said Hes talking being used by somebody on somebody
to you on SSB! Ah said Kirby, So else.
he is! Although T.O.M. admitted at the time
Moral: Morse is so much second na-

that he didnt know what a Wouff Hong

ture to some people that they have to was, he subsequently adopted it as a dis-
think carefully about what mode theyre ciplinary object with which to both ail

transmitting on. bad operating practices and scourge the

What does CFO stand for? Chicken perpetrators. It is said that in the follow-

28 MM41 ugust 1995

ing era he proposed its use as an instru- appears like a poker having a zig-zag,
ment of torture and discipline, to main- sharpened tip. The handle is curiously
tain decency and order in Hamdom. worked, perhaps brass-bound, and a
World WarI came and went. In ear- strange round protuberance adorns the
ly 1919, T.O.M. contributed an article shaft.
to QST called Rotten Starting, assail- Even resting quietly on a bench, it
ing the tardiness of the US Government radiates an air of ruthless savagery.
in allowing Hams to operate again. Unhappy, indeed, the Ham condemned
It nished with I am sending you a to be disciplined by such an object.
specimen of a real live Wouff Hong
which came to light when we started to .

Audio or IF Filters?
get our junk out of cold storage. Keep it (From the USA 4)
in the editorial sanctum where you can I was asked recently why is it
lay your hands on it quickly in an emer~ considered better to have a built-in, IF
gency. We will soon be allowed to CW lter, rather than simply tacking an
transmit, and then you will need it. audio lter between the receiver and
Accompanying this was a weird, mis- the phones? Surely they just achieve
shapen, wooden, wire-bound two the same result?
pronged tuning fork-like object. The Well, they may not do QUITE the
Wouff Hong. Theres one displayed in same thing IN PRACTICE. The SWAN
ARRL Headquarters to this day. rig Ive borrowed from Jesse, W8MCP,
After his death, it was revealed that has no built-in lter, so Ive also bor
T.O.M. had been Hiram Percy Maxim, rowed an excellent MFJ audio lter
the rst President of the ARRL. It is said from him. The problem arises when
that he took the secret of the origin of theres a very strong signal close by the
the rst Wouff Hong to his grave. But I weak one youre trying to copy. Even
have also heard it rumoured darkly that though the beat-note from the strong
some still alive know what it really was. signal cant be heard in the ltered au-
One day, I will make a pilgrimage to dio, it DID come through to the product
Connecticut and View it for myself. detector, and may cause blocking a
A photograph of a prominent ZL decrease in sensitivity whenever its
Ham reverently handling a Wouff Hong present.
actually appeared some time ago in It helps (as always when receiving
Break-In. Again, my back copies are far CW) to turn the AGC OFF, and back off
away Ill tell you which one when I the RF gain control until the desired sig-
get back to Godzone country. nal is just causing the S-meter to rise
An even more sinister disciplinary slightly. Even this may not get rid of
device was the Rettysnitch. David passed rather disconcerting staccato level vari-
me no information on it save a photo, ations on it.
bearing the unnerving legend A formi An IF lter, on the other hand, blocks
dable substitute when the Wouff Hong out the strong adjacent signal BEFORE
was engaged elsewhere. The Rettysnitch it gets to the detector, and usually

MM41 ugust 1995
around this problem. I say usually, be- Ham band. Choose any character, and
cause many CW lters are not narrow get the sound of it, as a WHOLE, xed
enough for my taste when the bands are in your mind.
crowded. Each time you hear this character,
I prefer lters which are 100Hz or 1
write it down. Pretty soon, youll pick
less wide when the going gets tough. it out every time its sent. Then add
These are more difcult to implement another character. Write them BOTH
at IF frequencies, since, for the same down whenever you hear them. Contin-
absolute bandwidth, the Q has to be ue until you can pick them both out.
higher. Back in ZL, Ive found that a Keep adding characters. After a while

supplementary audio lter on the TSSZOS youll know Morse.

is useful even though I do have the Well, that makes sense to me, al
builtin 500Hz IF lter as well. though you have to have a receiver, and
Another tip. When QRN is high youd have to wait for a long time to
particularly when static occurs in loud hear some of the less common charac
bursts narrowing the lter down doesnt ters. But many oldtime telegraphers
help as much as you might think. This is (like Ted McElroy) learnt just like this
because the burst static causes the lter I
in days past. Any comments?
to ring more, giving a continuous hol

low background tone in the passband. Sending Problems.

I visit and watch learners wheneverI
Where Did They Come From? can, and they visit me. Usually we end
The endofmessage signal, AH? up pounding some code for my 386
comes from the American Morse letters computer to read, and Im often con-
FN, meaning nish. S!K, from the cerned to see incorrect technique which
American Morse K), meaning halfpast will be hard to correct.
the hour, the end of an operators shift. I cant emphasise this enough: If at
ES, for and from the American all possible, get an active CW operator
Morse symbol for &, used extensively .

to demonstrate how to hold and operate

in written English in earlier times. And the key. I say active, because I regret
when oldtimers send a long dash for that some well-meaning tutors who
zero, they are actually sending the cor passed the test 20 years ago and have
rect American Morse symbol. History rarely used CW since are not good send
casts a long shadow. ing role models.
I nd two common faults:
Another Learning Method
What if you dont have a computer 1
Fault one: The most common, nger
or tape recorder? Wayne Green, Editor sending. If youve only seen Holly-
of 73 magazine, a while back, gave his wood Morse sent in the movies, youll
method of learning Morse, which, some almost certainly start wrong, by press-
what simplied, goes like this. Listen to ing the key down with stiff ngers, and
Morse, any Morse, at any speed, on any a tense, almost stationary arm.
EMM41 lugust 1995
If you recognise yourself here, ee, sending, sometimes by a key spring
tonight, to the shack of some CW doctor tension that is too large. The length of
for emergency treatment. If in the the dits and the space between them
Auckland area, come to me. It may not should be the same. Almost invariably,
be too late. You must send with the wrist. when you move the wrist freely, this
Dont even use a key to start off! problem corrects itself.
Rest your ngers on the edge of a If youve got my Morse software,
table, elbow parallel to the oor. Relax examine your sending with the program
the arm! Relax the ngers! Start to pump DK.BAS. Youll see whether you have
the wrist up and down. It should move this problem. Its much easier to demon-
down about 3 cm for each mark, with strate than to explain. Maybe some ex-
the ngers and elbow stationary. Once perts out there have further sage advice?
you get that action embedded in the
brain, youre 90 percent there. Taking Down Code
Now, when you lightly grasp the key Don, ZL2ASK writes I would like
knob, youll be pumping characters to warn others of a trap I fell into. By
properly, and only now will the rhythm profession I am a draughtsman, and so
come right. Like correctly ngering tend to write in block capitals as I would
piano keys, rhythmical, even sending on a drawing. This gives clear lettering
technique must be burned into your which is easy to read.
brain. Naturally, when learning Morse I
If youve listened to plenty of good also copied in this way and after a year
Morse, the right rhythm will come managed to pass 12 wpm. From there
quickly. Often, during the day (but fur- the sky should have been the limit. But I
tively, so that those around you dont did not seem able to increase my copy
think youre losing your marbles) play ing speed, until I realised what the prob-
this exercise on whatever table youre lem was. The fastest I could copy in
sitting at: wrist-pump out a continuous block capitals was 13 wpm. Since most
sequence of 4 dits and 2 dahs, di di di di people seem to send at 15 to 18 wpm
dah dah di di di di dah dah. Tap your at least the ones I listen to, there was no
foot regularly on the accented elements, way I could copy at that speed. I am
about beat per second. The 4 dits and
now relearning to scribble Morse copy
two dahs should take exactly the same in normal writing.
time (the element lengths are 1:3, but Please warn your readers of this
theres a dit-space between each one, so problem! Up to 13 wpm block capitals
the total durations are 2:4). This gets the are OK, but I recommend always copy-
relative lengths of the elements right. ing in normal handwriting, right from
the start.
Fault two: A weighting problem. Stac Dons point is an interesting one. I
cato, choppy elements that are too short taught myself to take down code using
in comparison to the spacing between only upper-case letters, forming them
them. Again, caused often by nger i with the approved military strokes
MM41 lugust 1995 31
given in the old ARRL booklet Learn
ing the Radio-telegraph Code and can The 1st Class PMG Certicatefor
still make hard copy that way up to about seagoing operators (1 see my own is
18 wpm. about to celebrate its 45th birthday!)
Service operators were trained this records that the holder has passed in
way to ensure uniformity of letter for- Sending, and receiving by ear, in the
mation, and aid deciphering copy made Morse Code, messages in plain lan
by a variety of excited people under dif guage at a speed of not less than 25
cult conditions. Above this speed, I words per minute, and in code groups
have to write longhand but I had to at a speed ofnot less than 20 groups a
learn that afterwards, and it was surpris minute.

ingly difcult to make the transition. Although it doesnt say so, the re-
Because I ve never practised the skill, ception test is based on the accuracy
I can only hard-copy reliably up to about of written copy, and the 5letter code
25 wpm, though I can read and compre- groups have to be transcribed in block
hend, without writing, much faster than capitals. The only real problem letter
this. But experienced old-timers like is the shortest in Morse terms E,
Bruce, ZLlADF, and Bill, ZLZBO, have which also happens to be one of the
copied me verbatim at 3540 wpm in most involved to draw. The option of-
longhand, although they say that the pen- fered by our Morse lecturer to any
cil nearly catches re. student with particular diiculty, was
However, an equally important skill to make the E with a curved stroke,
is to learn to read in the head, without encompassing the top, side and bot-
writing everything down. Most experi tom strokes in one movement (like a
enced CW operators only note details rather shallow letter C), followed by
for the log, and points they wish to re- a short horizontal dash in the centre. I
member or comment on later. Again, personally found this no easier than a
this ability has to be acquired. conventional block letter E, and
Our test requires hard copy, and thats what I always stuck to.
we get used to automatically making it, For handwriting, I can manage up
without bothering too much about the to around 30 wpm, as conrmed by
sense of what we have written. For head my greatly cherished RNARS Morse
copy, we have to simultaneously read Receiving Prociency Certicate.
and comprehend, and many of us have When I tried for the 35 wpm endorse-
forgotten how hard this initially seemed. ment, however, although I could read
What have other learners found? the Morse 0K, my hand seized up with
cramp after three or four words. Ive
always promised myselfId have a go
(Extracted and adaptedfor MM
using a typewriter, but the opportuni-
from Gary Bolds The Morseman
ty has never arisen. GCA
column in BreakIn, journal of
NZART various issues, 19881995)

32 MM41 ugust 1995


TEL/FAX (01704) 894299
We thought we should remind you that, despite
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EMM41 ugust 1995 33

Info 11am!





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RAF 1 0F/ 127 key.

Information on use

34 MM41 ugust 1995



Buzza Products key, made in Australia. The base looks like it was made to wedge into
specially shaped bracket. information requested by Lynn Burlingame N7CFO






Unknown Unit with 8-H Cotel key(?). Base marked SCOBA UNIMOHS AEL 2712. Inside
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details of what should be connected where to get it going, whatever it does"

Readers require further information on the keys, etc., featured here.

Please write to Tony Smith, 13 Morley Road, Sheringham, Norfolk NR26 81E
ifyou can help.
All useful information received will be published in MM in a later issue

MM41 ugust 1995 35

{Your Letters
Readers letters on any Morse subjectare always welcome, but may be edited when space is limited.
When more than one subject is covered, letters may be divided into single subjects in order to bring
comments on various matters together for easy reference

NZ No-code Controversy 2. Without a test, personalised CW will

After reading Gary Bolds comments become an encrypted mode/language
on ORACLE in MM40, p.13, I think for future Morse-less generations. Cou-
there is more than just a coincidence pled with QSD, QRM and QSB, it would
between MOC and ORACLES (ZLZCA) be unreadable by governmental moni
thinking. Gary and NZART would do toring decoders and could be prohibited
well to watch the activities of ZL2CA from the amateur bands. This would be
who has carried all before him so far. less costly than training monitoring staff
I think its frightening what he has to read Morse by ear (who could teach
achieved. Lets hope all the national so- them anyway?), especially if the target
cieties stand rm and present a consoli 'was a relatively small group of leisure
dated front to prevent him winning the time Morse users. It may be thought,
Morse test battle. this could never happen, but one can-
I have nailed my ag rmly to the not be sure of such an assertion. In re-
CW mast, but I live in the real world. cent years many former assertions, and
Geoff Arnold sums it up beautifully in laws, have been subject to questionable
MM40, p.1, when he says any changes change for one purpose only, nancial
should be evolutionary not revolution- saving.
ary. 3. With maritime CW on the way out,
On that basis, I hope to remain an Morse will become even less known in
old fuddy-duddy for many years to come! society than it is now. If future new ra-
George Ford, GoMH C dio hams still have to take the test and
Hartlepool, Cleveland 3

learn something about CW-culture, at

least some will still go on to take up and
In my opinion: If the Morse test were
1. use Morse properly as happens at present.
to be abolished the future standard of Monika Pouw-Arnold PA3FBF
Morse operating would decline due to Mijdrecht, Holland
the absence of test preparation courses (The latest news about the NZ No-
for beginners. Personal styles of send- code controversy is on page 8 # Ed.)
ing would develop, difcult to read by
others, and the result could be CW used Farnsworth Method
by small groups able to read only each I have come across yet another early
others style of sending. reference to what is now known as the

36 MM41 ugust 1995

Farnsworth method of code timing, al- Morse for some reason), made a major
though it is dated later than the 1902 discovery.
example from Telegraphy Self-Taught Carson was 12 at the time, and as I
by Theo A. Edison, quoted by Tony was working on the receive side of the
Smith in Why Farnsworth? (MM24, (Morse demonstration) desk, I noticed
p.36). him spending a great deal of time study-
The August 1972 issue of QST con- ing the huge display of Morses port
tains an article entitled LearningMorse, rule. This port rule was Morses rst
by Vincent OKeefe WAIFKF. It is one transmitting machine and is a 6feet long
of the best studies of code learning tech~ wooden monster, under glass.
niques I have ever seen. In this OKeefe The principle of the port rule is based
states: on the typesetters stick, which con-
Experiments in psychology main- tains moveable type. Morses rst idea
tain that if a stimulus can be grasped as for transmitting signals was to set up
a single unit, learning will take place at moveable type, jagged pieces of metal,
a rapid rate. The rst suggestion, send- in a typesetters stick, and have a metal
ing each character quickly with rather contact wipe over the jagged surface and
lengthy pauses, initially appeared in two complete an electrical circuit.
bulletins published in 1917 and 1918 by After an hour studying the port rule,
the Federal Board of Education in which Carson came over and handed me a piece
a sending rate of 20 wpm was recom- of paper. Dad, he said, I think I have
mended. found a message set up in the port rule.
Pete Carron W3DK V When I went over and heard his ex
Bethlehem, PA, USA planation of the mechanics of the ma-
(MM is still trying to identify the chine, I found that he was indeed right!
original Farnsworth after whom this He had gured out how to translate the
method of code learning is named. In- moveable point type into dots and dash-
quiries about the packet message refer- es, and seen that the jagged points were
ring to Wes Farnsworth KEONH set up forming the message,
mentioned in MM38 (p.41) have pro- ATTENTION ALL THE UNIVERSE!
duced no response. Can any reader sug- No one at the Morse estate had any
gest further lines of inquiry on this inkling that the port rule was set up with
subject? Have you ever seen articles de- any kind of message, and no one knows
scribing this method which refer to how many years the message had been
Farnsworth himself? Did anyone actu- stored there. Great kid he is, and getting
ally know him? Please contact MM if rather good at copying Morse, too.
you can help. Ed.) Abram Burnett
New Cumberland, PA, USA
A Message from Morse? (This letter originally appeared in
While at Samuel Morses Locust Grove Dots and Dashes, journal of the Morse
home last Memorial Day, my youngest Telegraph Club, Jan-Feb-Mar 1995.)
son, Carson (whose middle name is The message Carson found set up in

MM41 ugust 1995 37

Carson Burnett (operator sine CA), now 14, beside the replica portrule sending machine
at Locust Grove. The type set up with the message which Carson deciphered can be
clearly seen. The label on the portrule reads WESTERN UNION MUSEUM/ REPLICA

American Morse is a corruption of a house and to the basement. We use only

message said to have been sent by Sam- American Morse and regularly commu-
uel F.B. Morse to General Thomas S. nicate on this system.
Cummings at a demonstration on 24 Jan- He always opens the key beside his
uary 1838, which read ATTENTION bed as soon as he opens his eyes in the
THE UNIVERSE! BY KINGDOMS morning, and sends GM CD (CD being
RIGHT WHEEL! his oice call). On 19th July, he went
Abram Burnett tells MM that Carson through this ritual. I grabbed the key in
has been tapping the key since before he the dining room and immediatelyreplied
could talk. We practise in our base HAPPY BDA SIG DAD, to which he
ment telegraph oice every night. Car- responded 0K TNX DAD. GM.
son has a set of instruments beside his So I was privileged to wish my son
bed (key, relay, main line sounder, reso- a happy 14th birthday right on a Morse
nator with local sounder, and jack box) circuit! Something most people cant do
which are wired to other rooms in the these days.

38 Mill/[41 ugust 1995

Western Electric Key American Telephone and Telegraph
Regarding the Western Electric key Company.
on page 35 of MM39, what Mr Pears Western Electric was one of their
has is a quite typical example of a leg- major suppliers of all sorts of equip-
less key made by Western Electric for ment, chiey telephones. I understand

Regarding the origin of the name the WFSRA around 1937, before I

TOPS, I remember asking Phil had a full radiating licence. Both

GW8WJ what TOPS actually meant, these fellows were great and devoted
but I dont remember just what the thousands of hours fostering the

answer was! I believe it was some friendship aspect of amateur radio.


thing like this: In the real telegraph I enclose a copy of a letter which

ofce the Chief Operator was shows the way Phil ran TOPS. I was

CHOPS, but the best operator was just another member of the club but

known as TOPS. the tone and nature of the letter would


Im pretty sure that Arthur Bird lead one to think I was long-time
G6AQ, who founded and ran the

personal friend.
WFSRA, was a minister (The Rev Bob Eldridge VE7BS
Arthur H. Bird) and I think I joined Pemberton, BC, Canada

(rors TL? 87
Membership N"b"1w.r.s.R.A.

W. F.S.R.A.
mung (Muir. W.F.S.R.A.

For reasons of all-round First Class operating,

WE CERTIFY that Station ~ G5 RC1 Q ~

3} Mason (mailman. ,

operated by
Cecelia) seal.
on C.W. is elected a Member of the above Club.

Signed :;c(2;\;ccnw5
athleculcry 4' Tcpl " lubi
. CW5WJ.
" Wulrm " Helidrn Faad, rtrtnlyn, Ilalrh V/nlex.

Datedrv-St' nan. \QLtq. C 9 it er 5'

d1:/, '("z/m
,p ?
igne la". Serleruly
, "l/ ,
5 {Uh
z, , '/ 7
{er cue: sun". and Ireland
w} S P.
A )5 Bellwaad Road, Waverley Park, Nunhecd, Landrn, 5.5. Is

Bob Eldridges TOPS Club membership certificate, dated 1949

MM41 lugust 1995 39

that the squared H stands for the 77 is a salute used by the German
Hawthorne manufacturing facility of D.I.G. (awards interest group); 51 is
Western Electric. widely used in Latin America; 66 means
The shape of the stamped metal God Bless You", and 72 is used by
conductor between the anvil and the rear QRP operators.
binding post indicates it was made to Does anyone know the origins of
accommodate the wedge from a bug, these signals?
which places the key in the earlier part Martin Zurn IKZRMZ/DLIGBZ
of the 20th century. Ispra, Italy
Dave Pennes, MD, WA3LKN (72 was proposed by the UQRP Club
Indianapolis, IN, USA (USSR) in 1991 to mean wishing you
good QRP, and the GQRP Club re-
Media CW ceived unanimous support from major
In MM31 (p.43) I reported the demise QRP clubs round the world for this new
of the CW signal QAM which had operating signal to be used in contacts
identied weather bulletins on German between low power stations. Does any-
TV for more than a quarter of a century. one know of any other amateur number
It may interest MM readers to know signals? Ed.)
that QAM is back on WDR (3rd DL-
TVpublic channel) albeit in recordings Unmarked Bug
of the news of 20 years ago. Every night . The unmarked bug on page 35 of
there is a 20-year old news broadcast MM39 looks like a generic Vibroplex
(Tagesschau vor 20 Jahren) which #6 (Lightning bug) without the name
includes the weather report of that plate, thats been repainted, and with a
time, including good old QAM. Lionel thumbpiece.
Meanwhile, in Holland, Nederland Vibroplex hardware, including the
3 on channel 30 or 44 broadcasts contact posts, was thinner and more
Jeugdjournaal (News for Kids). This gracile than the comparable parts on
commences with synthesiser-CW, at Lionel J-36 bugs. In addition, the knurl
around 15 wpm, sending radi. Items ing was a bit different, being atter on
during the 15minute program are Lionel and more convex on Vibroplex
separated by ra. I assume that these instruments.
signals represent the word radio cut If Mr McGintys bug is nickel plat-
off and wonder why they dont send ed, the style would place it c.1930s, and
TV instead. if its chrome then it is c. 1940s. The use
Monika Pouw-Arnold PA3FBF of slotted screws in favour of Phillips
Mijdrecht, Holland screws ended in the midtolate 1940s.
Some bugs from the transitional periods
Amateur Number Signals have both nickel and chrome parts, and
Apart from the well-known amateur both slotted and Phillips screws.
number signals (55, 73, 88), there are Dave Pennes, MD, WA3LKN
several other interesting number signals: Indianapolis, IN, USA

40 MM41 ugust 1995

Indian Telegraph Service Key? (Whatever its use in the Indian
At least one version of the key referred Telegraph Service, the reference on this
to in your response to a query from Dr key indicates its original use with a
Joseph Jacobs (MM39, p.47) has indeed . British Army Wireless Remote Control
been used in the Indian Telegraph Serv Unit. The ZAZ9007 was designed for use
ice. While on a trip to India, my wife with the Wireless Set No. 62, a
and I picked up a number of these keys low-power mobile CW/RT transceiver
from a surplus dealer who told us that covering 1.610MHz, introduced in
they had been used in the Indian Tele- 1945. The companion Local Control Unit
graph Service. He had purchased them was the 2429006.

from an Indian government agency as a Johns reference to Morse telegra-

surplus lot. phy continuing to be used on the Indian
I have one such key enclosed in an railways is intriguing. Are there any
olive green painted box which has two railway bus among our readers who
webbing straps for use probably as a leg can provide Arther details? Ed.)
strap. The markings on the front of the
box are not completely legible, but they New Exclamation Mark?
are approximately: The missing exclamation mark
W.REM CONT.UNIT L N02 (MM39, p.45 & MM40, p.39) is a pity
ZA29007 PC. No. (?) 2181 indeed! But -
-- cannot be used
- -

Inside the box, which measures since this signal is already used for
52mm W x 117mm D x 44mm H, are a understood or understanding, at least
capacitor and a 3.3kQ resistor. The left in Continental Europe. Incorrectly

side has a fourpin square male connec- transmitted, as S N, it is an abbreviation

tor, with a similar female connector on for soon.
the right hand side. In addition, there is Based on an idea from Scandinavia,
a pair of screw on binding posts on the AGCW-DL proposes the use of a mod
left hand side.
It should not be surprising that the
ied double comma: ---------- !

Of course the signal is a bit longer; how-

key was used in India since, at the time ever it clearly marks our exclamation
of its use, India was a British colony. and so fulls the demand for a new
Also, they have an extensive railroad exclamation mark.
system built by the British, with equally Otto A. Wiesner DJSQK
extensive telegraph lines for control of Radio Communications Manager,
the trains as well as for other communi- AGCW-DL
cations. In fact, in some places in India, (Comments are invited on this
Morse telegraphy continues to be used suggestion from AGCWDL. Ed.)
on the Indian railways.
This key was certainly not used only RAF Operators
in the British radio spy service.

Further to the correspondence from

John H. Klobuchar WIBZT Bob Eldridge (MM39, p.44) and others
Lincoln, MA, USA (MM37/8), my own experiences during
MM41 ugust 1995 41
Wes Tylers conventional contact Golden Section Key
Photo: VK2WES

Golden Section Conventional Contact Key

Since making Dr. Jim Lycetts nding no Golden rule dimension that

Golden Section key (see MM40, looked fair, 1 reduced the length
p.45), I have constructed a conven- and width by 13.5 percent (a Golden
tional contact key following the same Rule gure). I think the result is quite
principles, to demonstrate its versa l

pleasing. It keys very well and has a

tility. Using Jims basic parameter snappy action compared to the canti-
that all adjustments are from a xed lever style. It is noisier, but a pleas
platform, you will see my interpreta ure to use.
tion in the photo. Wes Tyler VK2 WES
This key does not require the New South Wales
same base length as the original so, Australia

six years in RAF Signals might be inter- l

craftily hidden my spectacles in my
esting and even cause a wry smile

pocket, however, I innocently enquired

among fellow old-timers! What board? I couldnt even see the
In 1939, like many others, I volun- end of the room!
teered for aircrew duties, being young,
As ying was out of the question,
foolish, and absolutely mad on ying... but I could touch-type, I became a Tele-
Called up in early 1940, I passed the printer Operator (Group 4). I was posted
aircrew medical with ying colours, un- l
to Sutton Bridge in South Lincolnshire
til it came to the eyesight test, which where a pair of exGPO operators taught
required me to read the letters on a board me Morse up to 18 wpm. I then took a
at the other end of the room. Having trade test and passed this to become a

42 MM41 ugust 1995

Wireless Operator (Group II) without time sharing a at with other instructors
even going on a W/OPs course. in Albert Court. Such luxury indeed, in
There was plenty of time in the spite of the nightly air raids.
Signals Section of Station HQ to polish What has been missed in this list of
up my Morse, and when this reached RAF Signals personnel?
25 wpm I was rewarded with my tapes. Wireless Electrical Mechanics
Fortunately this was the maximum speed (WEMs) were pre-war regular boy en
required in the RAF as Im left-handed :

trants, servicing the electrical as well as

and cannot write any faster. At that time 1

the wireless equipment on aircraft.

we had to write all messages, there were W/OP/AGs were, as the name states,
no typewriters, as in the Royal Navy. I
wireless operator/air gunners on aircraft.
wonder if they have to use a pencil these Radio Operators were telephony
days? operators only not CW operators.
I then spent a bitterly cold Christmas Finally, Radio Mechanics (Group I)
at Compton Bassett in Wiltshire on a were actually RADAR mechanics, but
Direction Finding Course. I wonder if 1

this was kept very hush hush during the

anyone remembers those little D/F huts, war years.
each with its own receiver and gonio The memory grows dim after half a
meter? We have one of these, still in

century and I may be quite wrong with

working order, in our wireless museum these designations. If so, I will doubt-
at Puckpool Park on the Isle of Wight. less be corrected by other readers. As
I became a W/OP/DF, but wasnt long as Im not put on a charge I
satised. I volunteered for a course to 1

really do not mind in the least...

convert to Wireless Operator/Mechanic Douglas Byrne G3KPO/GB3 WM
at No.1 Wireless School, Cranwell, in Isle of Wight
Lincolnshire. This was said to be the
coldest place in England, even colder MM Chat Frequency
than Compton Bassett, so I was shat- The information in MM40 (page 6)
tered when on nishing the course I was 1 about 3.553MHz and the MM signal
told I was certainly NOT being posted seems to have been of interest to new
out to the Far East (where it was hot!), readers who did not know previously
but was staying on at the school. about either. The evening of the day I
What, I queried angrily, Do I have received MM40 I heard 3.553 busy
to go through that rotten course again? '
up until 2100 hours with non-Dutch
Luckily not, for I stayed as an instructor, .
MM readers referring to the magazine
and being on the permanent staff was and the information given.
billeted out with a charming widow who Perhaps stations out of range from
had two pretty daughters. How to be so European transmissions on 3.553 could

lucky... look for each other (using the MM sig-

Not for long though A new RAF nal! Ed.) on the higher bands on fre
school was openedin the Science Muse quencies ending with 53, e. g, 14. 053,
um and I was posted to London this 1

21.053, 28.053, 28. 153MHz. This idea

MM41 ugust 1995 43
was originally suggested by Rinus a reconstructed key by Dennis Goacher
Hellemons, PAOBFN, in the early days which is obviously from the same source.
of MM. H.E. (Smudge) Smith G3IVF
Monika Pouw-Arnold PA3FBF Kirk Langley, Derbyshire
Mijdrecht, Holland
Reading Visual Signalling
Elbow Key Regarding Bill Lords letter (MM40,
Lynn Burlingames elbow key p.46), only two of my books on light
sketched by W7LOG on page 33 of venture a gure for persistence of vi-
MM40 interested me. I have a key ex sion, as relevant factors vary from eye
actly the same as this, bought in 1946 to eye and according to circumstances
from a chap who had been a Warrant general light level and contrast of inten-
Ofcer in REME during WWII. He said sity of light with background.
it was from a WWI Trench Set. As the editor noted, different parts
In MM9, p.5, there is a similar key, of the retina have different sensitivities
but with a different back contact assem- as well. The gures given for persist-
bly, on a British Army Power Buzzer ence are IM and 1/12 of a second, so Bill
(copied from the French Parleur), Lord is pretty accurate.
dated 1917, as used in the forward Rev. Duncan Leak GORJT
trenches. Also, in MM37, p.20, there is Tittensor, Staffs.

FlSTS CW Club The International Morse Preservation Society

FISTS exists to promote amateur CW activity. It welcomes members with
C alllevels of Morse proficiency, and especially newcomers to the key.
\ll: I
/ 1
The club has awards, nets (including a beginners' net), dial-a-sked lor
beginners, straight key activities, QSL bureau, newsletter, and discounts
I, 7/ from traders.
\ CLL B Further information can be obtained from Geo. Longden G3ZQS, 119
Cemetery Road, Darwen, Lancs BBS 2L2. Send an s.a.e. or two IRCs.

G-QRP Club
The G-QRP Club promotes and encourages low-power operating
on the amateur bands with activity periods, awards and trophies. Facilities
include a quarterly magazine, Morse training tapes, kits, traders' discounts and
a QSL bureau. Novices and SWLs welcome.
Enquiries to Rev. George Dobbs G3RJV, St Aidans Vicarage,
498 Manchester Fload, Rochdale, Lancs OL11 3HE. Send a
large s.a.e. or two lFtCs

\czg. ll/[0mm BACK ISSUES Limited stocks of Issues Nos. 26, 27 31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
, Morse
36, 37, 38,39 & 40 ONLY now available, price 2.20 each to UK addresses;
Halli-fill E240 to Europe or 2. 75 elsewhere by airmail (less 20% for 3 or more)

44 MM41 ugust 1995

Morsum Magnicat Wales/AustraliaAnniversary
World Amateur Radio Day 1995
Dragon ARC

World QRP Day 1995 lARU 39
Index to issues Nos 35 40
August 1994 to June 1995 RAF Operators (Itr) G. Armstrong 37 47
RAF Operators (Itr) J. Worthington 38 46
SUBJECT/TITLE AUTHOR/ORIGIN RAF Operators (Itr) B. Eldridge 39
(BC = back cover. C = inside back cover) Sorry Grace! (Itr) J. Barker 40 41
W/Ops or Signallers? (Itr) D. Byme 35 43
ABBREVIATIONS & PROCEDURES W/Ops or Signallers? (ltr) R. Prosser 36 43
Distinctive Tone (Itr) B. Eldridge
Distinctive Tone (Itr) J. Worthington AMATEUR RADIO
Distinctive Tone (ltr) M. Pouw-Amold EA-QRP Club tojoin EUCW EUCW N
Don't Understand! (ltr) R.Q. Marris Future of Amateur & Commercial Radiotelegraphy
Dont Understand (ltr) D. Leak F. Maia
Erasure Signal (Itr) R. Prosser I-QRP Club formed l-QRP Club
Erasure Signal (Itr) Various Joe Kelly Memorial Award Dundee ARC NOSQCDCD

Erasure Signal (Itr) G, Wonnald Krenkel, E.T., 90th Anniv Radio Magazine .1.

Erasure Signal (ltr) J. Worthington MEGS Proficiency Award MEGS

Erasure Signal (Itr) J.N. Elwood Morse Code and Amateur Radio
KN barred (Itr) B. Eldridge lARU
McElroy Chart of Codes and Signals (review) So You Want to be a Morse Examiner? - 2
G. Arnold 33 R. Clayton
Neglected Exclam, Mark (Itr) J.B. Prior 45 NZART Statement re Morse Code
Neglected Exclam. Mark (Itr) Various NZART
Those Tones (Itr) M. Pouw-Amold 43 NZ Govt Seeks Change to No-code
Understand (ltr) O. Weisner 44 NZ DOC
Understand (Itrs) Various 4o NZ Seeks to Abolish Morse Test Rule
33, Use of A'Radio, WIA 39 Gary Bold
55 (ltr) M. Zum 42 OH-TelegraphyClub Formed OHTC
55 (Itrs) Van'ous 42 ORACLE F. Maia
55 (Itrs) Various 42 QRP ARCI - Club Profile QRP ARCI
UFT AGM La Pioche
Activity Week AGCW-DL 39 UK Morse Test Fees Increased RSGB
Belgian/CanadianCommemoration Use of 33, The A'Radio, WIA
OSBNF 36 VK Morse Beacon NE Radio Club
VKSRCW Morse Beacon WIA W.Austraila
EUCW CW 050 Party 1994 EUCW 36 What Happened to TOPS? T. Smith
Europe for QRP Weekend 1994 Worked EUCW Award EUCW
G-QRP Club 35
GBZIWM on VE & VJ Day Duxford RS 39 NMMCJ
GBZIWM on VJ Day Duxford RS 40 Fingerstar Keying Ring Elect Times 37
HST Championships 1995 lARU Region 1 38 GRA-71 High Speed Sender (ltr)
HST, First World Championships |.G. Mant 36 46
IARU Region 1 39 Key WT 8 Amp, Further Info T. Smith 37
HST World Championships-Update Military Morse Training USA we. Pierpont 39 10
Tony Smith 40 M Royal Sigs. Training Moving T. Timme 35
Marconi Memorial Month 1995 AGCWDL 4O Vintage Military Manuals |. Mant 36
MEGS Morse Celebration

MEGS 38 W/Ops or Signallers? (ltr) R. Prosser 36 43

NMN Closing Ceremony USCG 40
Morse Memorial Day in Holland BEGINNERS CORNER
M. Pouw-Amold 40 Breeding Better Brasspounders
Operation Maquis 1994 DARTS 35 Gary Bold 32 37
QRP/QRP Party 1995 AGCWDL 39 Missing Out W.G. Pierpont 36
QRP Summer Contest 1995

AGCW-DL 4O New Morse Software G. Bold 38 27

QRP Winter Contest 1995 AGCWDL 37
Semi-Auto Key Evening 1995 AGCW-DL 37 CIRCUITS
Surrender AnnouncementRebroadcast to Australia CW Filter, Low Cost E. Wetherhold 35 11
G. Cochrane 40 \l Morse Filter/Digital Decoder G. Bold 39 26

MM41 ugust 1995 45

CLUBS Help Available (Keys 8 Amp WT)
EA-QRP Club tojoin EUCW EUCW 38 R. Ray 39 32
l-QRP Club formed i-QRP Club 38 Hobbies Magazine Key (Itr) J. Power 40 40
OH-TelegraphyClub Formed OHTC 39 How Many Keys? (Itr) L.A. Burlingame 37 4B
QRP ARCI, Club Protile QRP ARCI 37 J-Series - Booklet L. Nutting 35
TOPS (Itrs) Various 40 Junker Keys (Itr) G. Uisamer 37 47
TOPS, What Happened to? T. Smith 39 Junker Keys (Itr) G. Uisamer 38 43
UFI' AGM La Pioche 36 Junkers or Junker? (Itr) T. Timme 36 4B
UPI", News from La Pioche 40 Key Adjustment C.F. Rockey 40 36
Keyer Design T.Berg 36 1 B

COMPUTERS Key with Spark Gap (Itr) D. Thompson 36 43

New Morse Software G. Bold 38 27 Key WfT (AUST) No.1 (Itr) Peter Lord 45 40
Key WT 8 Amp, Further Info T. Smith 37
EARLY WIRELESS Knob Trap (Itr) J. Black 36 44
Distinctive Tone (Itr) B. Eldridge 37 47 Knob Types (Itr) G. Stancey 35 44
Early Radio (by PR. Jensen), book review Korean Key (Itr) Various 38 42
G. Arnold 38 34 Korean Key Japanese (Itr) H. v.d. Berg 37 44
L.S. Brach Type 262 Key (Itr) J. Elwood 39 48
HELIOGRAPH Marconi or Ericsson Key? (Itr) Various 45 4o
Arizona Territory Heliograph R.L. Thomas 38 26 NATO Keys, Info wanted (Itr) M. Willer 40 39
New Home for WSWRE Collection
First HST World Championships Peter Jones Single Paddle QRP Comp. Co. 35
IARU Region 1 39 PO. key as Cigarette Lighter Anon 38 36
HST Championships 1995 IARU Region 1 38 PS 213A Key (Itr) Various 35 42
HST World Championships-Update RAF Type 51 Key (Itr) V. Reynolds 36 45
Tony Smith 40 22 RAF Type 51 Key (Itr) D. Rycrott 37 44
Speed Contests W.G. Pierpont 40 17 RAF Type 51 Key (Itr) J, Lycett 38 45
Samson ETM-SQ Twin Paddle (review)
American Key & Sounder Smoother Speed Control for Keyers
Handbook of Practical Telegraphy 1878 38 BC G. Stancey 36
Avoiding Trees Telegraphy 1895 39 Story of the Key (Best of MM-1), book review
Economic Electric Ltd, Keys & Buzzers (1922) G. Arnold 38 32
E.E Catalogue 37 BC Tinsiey instrument (Itr) Various 38 46
Marconi 556 SIR Magnetic Relay Two-lever Key (Itr) D. Goacher 37 45
Hdbk of Tech Instr for Wireless Telegraphists 36 BC Unknown Miniature Key (Itr) C. Forrester 37 45
Western Electric Key (Itr) J. Jacobs 47 40
MM2934,Aug 1993 Jun 1994 35 45 LEARNING MORSE
Breeding Better Brasspounders
British Key Makers - Survey T. Smith 39 32 Code in the Head J.F. Davidson 39
G4ZPY paddle Keys Special Offer Commander Meades Method (Itr)
G4ZPY P/Keys 40 5-5
J. Barker 39
New Owner of Vibroplex Vibroplex 38 Farnsworth Method (Itr) Wm. G. Pierpont 8
MEGS Proficiency Award MEGS 37
KEYS & KEYERS Military Morse Training USA W.G. Pierpont 39
AOP Key, French (Itr) H. Jacob 38 47 Missing Out W.G. Pierpont 36
AP 691 Key (Itr) Wyn Davies 40 41 Morse Examiner R. Clayton 35
Bunnell Invitation (Itr) M. Jacobs 36 48 New Morse Software G. Bold 38
Bunnell Special Offer J.H. Bunnell 35 VK Morse Beacon NE Radio Club 35
Calibrating Keyer Speed Control VK6RCW Morse Beacon WIA W.Austrai|a 38
Anon 39
Camel-back Key (Itr) L. Grant 35 42 LIGHT SIGNALLING
Clandestine Key (Itr) J. Jacobs 39 47 Reading Visual Signalling J. Elwood 39
F17 Key (Itr) J.N. Elwood 37 45 Reading Visual Signalling (Itr) Bill Lord 46
Golden Section Key (Itr) Wes Tyler 45 40
GRA-71 High Speed Sender (Itr) LINE TELEGRAPHY
LG. Mant 36 46 Australian 140th Anniversary Morsecodians 35
GRA-71 High Speed Sender - More Information (ltr) Did Money Change Hands? R.L. Thomas 37
J. Mathisrud 38 46 Early Telegraphs on the Line T. Jones 37
Electric Telegraph Message Morsecodians 40

46 MM41 ugust 1995

First Message Commemoration(Itr) Future of Amateur & Commercial Radiotelegraphy
C. Blunn 36 F.Maia
How to Work with Brutal Morsemen IARU No Change Decision IARU 37
T.J. Smith 37 Morse Code and Amateur Radio
Inventions of Dr Dujardin M. Charbon 35 38 14
Married by Telegraph 1876 36 NZART Statement re Morse Code
Measuring Wheatstone Tape G. Lizee 36 NZART 38 22
The American Telegrapher (book review) NZ Govt Seeks Change to No-code
Jim Haynes 40 NZ 39
NZ Seeks to Abolish Morse Test Rule
MARITIME Gary Bold 40
Deep in the Heart of Texas - 1 J. Sykes 35 ORACLE F. Maia 3B
Deep in the Heart of Texas - 2 J. Sykes 36 ORACLES View ORACLE 40
Deep Sea Sparks (by Olive J. Carroll) book review
Future of Amateur & Commercial Radiotelegraphy Tom Mansfield GSESH MM 38
F.Maia Louise Moreau W3WRE MM 35
GMDSS Problems

W5Y| Report 36 Harry A. TumerW9YZE MM 38

Happy Birthday PCH (Itr) R. Clayton 36 J>
Harry A. Turner, Correction MM 39
Maritime CW Far from Dead! World W/Beacon 35 meemwmkm

PCH, A 90 Year-old Celebrity G. v.d. Wert 37 OPERATING, GENERAL

Plea to Keep Morse Shipping 35 Bolds Morse Theorems Gary Bold 36 22
Portishead Radio - 75 years L..Bennett Dit Dit E. McFarland 36 31
Remember the Batory? (Itr) R. James 35 A Key Adjustment C.F. Rockey 40 36
Scheveningenradio/PCH90 Years
Search for Yachtswoman The Times 38 Oars
CW World Recordman (Itr) B. Rennison 39 4B
Secrecy Notice PMG 35 CD

UK MF W/T Wx Broadcasts Ceased POEMS

B. Morris 35 That Station Wireless Age 36
USCG Abandons HF CW Service M-h-


USCG Morse Broadcasts to Cease Australian Operating, 1963/65 A. Moore 36
Ocean Voice 35 Krenkel, E.T., 90th Anniv Radio Magazine 39 16
USCG NMN Closedown G. Williams 39 36 Norge & the ltalia, The (Itr) H.M. Solomon 35 40
Wireless Aids Man-hunt R. Redwood 36 40
MISCELLANEOUS Wireless Aids Man-hunt R. Redwood 36 40
Auxiliary Callsigns (Itr) J.W. Martin 44 40
Creed Coding? (Itr) A. Hobden 36 47 RAILWAYS
Creed Coding (Itr) A. Hobden 37 46 Did Money Change Hands? R.L. Thomas 37 35
Definitive Publication J.H. Smith 46
Dramatic Morse (Itr) R. Presser 36 44 READERS' LETTERS
ENIGMA (Itr) T. Timme 35 43 Abbreviations & Procedures (KN)
London Calling (leaflet) BBC 36 32 B. Eldridge 37
London Calling (Itr) M. Pouw-Amold 35 44 Amateur Morse Test Various 39 45
Morse at the Movies (Itr) M. Pouw-Amold 35 42 AP 691 Key Wyn Davies 40 41
Auxiliary Callsigns J.W. Martin
MORSE FOR THE DISABLED Bunnell Invitation M. Jacobs 36 48
Morse 2000 Outreach U/Wisconsin 40 BreedingAdage R. Clayton 38 42
Camel-back Key L. Grant 42
MORSUM MAGNIFICAT Clandestine Key J. Jacobs 39 47
The Best of MM-1 Published G. Arnold 38 32 Commander Meades Method (Itr)
J. Barker 39
MUSEUMS Creed Coding? A. Hobden 36 47
Museum of Comm, Boness C. Gill 35 26 Creed Coding A. Hobden 37 46
CW World Recordman B. Rennison 39 4B
NAW Distinctive Tone B. Eldridge 37 47
RN Morse Training Ceases RNARS 36 Distinctive Tone J. Worthington 43
Distinctive Tone M. Pouw-Amold 39 46
NO-CODE CONTROVERSY Dont Understand! R.Q. Marris 37 46
Amateur Morse Test (ltrs) Various 39 45 Don't Understand D. Leak 38
Dramatic Morse R. Prosser 36 44

MEM41 5414th 1995 47

ENIGMA T. Timme 35 43 RAF Operators G. Armstrong 37 47
Erasure Signal R. Prosser 35 40 RAF Operators J. Worthington 38 46
Erasure Signal Various 36 43 RAF Operators B. Eldridge 39 43
Erasure Signal G. Wormaid 37 46 RAF Type 51 Key V. Reynolds 36 45
Erasure Signal J. Worthington 38 41 RAF Type 51 Key D. Rycroit 37 44
Erasure Signal J.N. Elwood 40 41 RAF Type 51 Key J. Lycett 38 45
F17 Key J.N. Elwood 37 45 Reading Visual Signalling J. Elwood 39 44
Farnsworth Method Wm. G. Pierpont 38 41 Reading Visual Signalling Bill Lord 46 40
First Message Commemoration Remember the Batory? R. James 35 42
C. Blunn 36 47 Sorry Gracei J. Barker 40 41
French AOP Key H. Jacob 38 47 Sound of Spark, The J. Iza 36 48
Golden Section Key Wes Tyler 45 40 Those Tones M. Pouw-Arnold 35 43
GRA<71 High Speed Sender |.G. Mant 36 46 Tinsiey instrument Various 38 46
GRA-71 High Speed Sender - More information TOPS Various 4O 43
J. Mathisrud 38 46 Two-leverKey D. Goacher 37 45
Happy Birthday PCH R, Clayton 36 46 Unknown Miniature Key C. Forrester 37 45
Hobbies Magazine Key J. Power 40 40 Western Electric Key J. Jacobs 47 40
How Many Keys? L.A. Burlingame 37 48 W/Ops or Signaiiers? D. Byme 35 43
Junker Keys G. Ulsamer 37 47 W/Ops or Signaiiers? R. Prosser 36 43
Junker Keys G. Ulsamer 38 43 55 M. Zurn 38 42
Junkers or Junker? T. Timme 36 48 55 Various 39 42
Key with Spark Gap D. Thompson 36 43 55 Various 40 42
Key W/T (AUST) No.1 Peter Lord 45 4O
Knob Types G. Stancey 35 44 20 - Very Proud B. van Es 36 20
Korean Key Various 38 42 21 - Yellow Fever? B. van Es 37 36
Korean Key Japanese H. v.d, Berg 37 44 22 - Working at PCH B. van Es 39 6
London Calling M. Pouw-Arnoid 35 44
L.S. Brach Type 262 Key J. Elwood 39 48 REVIEWS, BOOKS
Marconi or Ericsson Key? Various 45 40 Deep Sea Sparks (by Olive J. Carroll)
MM Readers - a Pleasure to Deal With G. Arnold 37 22
H. Whitbread 38 44 Early Radio (by PR. Jensen) G. Arnold 38 34
Morse at the Movies M. Pouw-Arnold 35 42 McElroy Chart of Codes and Signals
NATO Keys M. Willer 40 39 G. Arnold 38 33
Neglected Exclamation Mark! J.B. Prior 39 45 1 Story of the Key (Best of MM-1)
Neglected Exclamation Mark Various 40 39 l
G. Arnold 38 32
Norge 8 the itaiia, The H.M. Solomon 35 40 I

The American Telegrapher Jim Haynes 40 26

Understand O. Weisner 38 44 I


Various 40 40
P.S. 213A Key Various 35 42 Samson ETM-SQ Twin Paddle T. Smith 38 67

A New LOOK at (This article originally appeared in

Morse Communication the January 1995 issue of the journal
COHlInued from page 27 of the Antique Wireless Club of Japan,
and is reprinted with permission. Our
In fact, I suggest this subject should appreciation to the author for translat-
have been examined half a century ago! ing it into English for MM. If readers
The author would like to express his experiment with either inclined keys or
sincere thanks to those who operated the variable audio frequencies v. speed as
strange inclined keys for such a long described in this article, MM would like
period of time and contributed to the to know their results and conclusions
collection of data for this project. for publication later. Ed.)
If you enjoy reading MM, please tell your friends and
encourage them to take out a subscription too!
48 MM41 lugust 1995
us, New
" z

Morse Q15
V .

A series of reproductions of OSL cards with a Morse theme

Alton Morse
ICG Club

W.K. Dunbar
1101 Maplewood Drive Normal. IL 61761
McLean County U.S.A.

EAST Bauusmcx, N.J. 08816
I .IsInnce
F lEluerreit. Current~

\uLl'SCuilx hlIllInnIpcres
Ohms. Milliuinprcs Mini- Maxi-
lntllll tnutn

W heatslone A B C (magneto): Must work well on short

Communicator . . 8001 circuit, and also through
Indicator . , , . 350 J an cxIerIIII resistance of
Bell . . 2 50 7000
Single Needle (Induced Coils) . 3'06 IS 20
Needle to
deflect-to stop
Bright5 Bell.'
l\Cly . . . 200 3.2 15 20
Sounders (20 clcctro magnet 19'2 73 -

uuh 500hunt COIl see p 160

Standard A . . . . 400 -5 l4 l7
B 200 -5 14 I7
,, C
. . . .
1200 ~08; 14 I7
,, . . .

Non-polarlsed B . . . 400

Siemens . . . . . 400 H3 15 20
Sounder (20 shunted with 500.
Used for local circuits only) . lg'z 93 60 80
DiICIt Inkcr (including galvuno-
meter, 30 ) 330 4'9 15 20
[Spch of slip between 6
7 feet per minute.]
Local Inker (40m with 500 shunt) 37 (,9
Automatic lxeceivers . 200 I0 - --

[Speed ofslip to range from 8 to (LI-3)

60 feet per minute. ] 17-5 20 25
(400 words
Multiplex: l "")
Distributor . 50 233 _
[\\ orking current is lixed] liyex-
pericnce, see p 2I3.
(Lower Bell
Induction l'llitlllly Coil . . '5 _.-
Induction Secondary Coil . 250 m ~~
Receiver Coils . . . 200
Post Ofce :
Induction Primary (oil . . '5 -

Induction Secondary (foil . 150 -_ -

lxcceivermncd in Inultiple)ea 120 _- ~

lIelny . . . . loo 6 t6 -

Bell, Tremblcr . . . 100 13-5 20 -

Table of Working Currents of Post Office Instruments. Figure of Merit' is the minimum
current with which the instrument is expected to work when tested before issue from Stores.
The working currents give figures to be used when calculating for battery power.
From Telegraphy by WH. Fresco and J. Sivewright, published by Longmans, Green a Co, 1895