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# 5 Polyphase induction machine

## 5.2 Construction and principle of operation

Machine construction
Magnetic part
Stator and rotor windings
Electrical degrees
=pairs of poles Mechanical degree
Induced Emf:
d d
eas = = {( k w1T1 ) m sin( 2 fs t )} = 2 fs k w1T1 m cos(2 fs )
dt dt
The rotating magnetic field
A simple three-phase stator
Assume that the currents in three coils
iaa = IMsint
ibb = IMsin(t - 120)
icc = IMsin(t - 240)
Their magnetic field intensity
Haa = HMsint0
Hbb = HMsin(t - 120)120
Hcc = HMsin(t - 240)240
Their magnetic flux densities
Baa = BMsint0
Bbb = BMsin(t - 120)120
Bcc = BMsin(t - 240)240
Note that B = H.
At time t = 0
Baa = 0
Bbb = BMsin(-120)120
Bcc = BMsin(-240)240
At time t = 90
Baa = BMsin900
Bbb = BMsin(-30)120
Bcc = BMsin(-150)240
Proof ...
The net magnetic flux density
Bnet(t)= Baa + Bbb + Bcc = BMsint0+
BMsin(t-120)120+BMsin(t-240)240
= BMsint
-(1/2)BMsin(t-120)+j(3/2)BMsin(t-120)
-(1/2)BMsin(t-240)-j(3/2)BMsin(t-240)
Bnet(t) = 1.5BMsint - j1.5BMsint
Proof
Therefore
Bnet = 1.5BM
1 cos t
Bnet = tan = t 90
sin t
Principle of operation
Synchronous speed
If m is the mechanical rotor speed, slip
speed is
s1 = s, - r = s - pm/2, rad/sec
The differential speed between the stator
magnetic field and rotor windings is slip
speed which is defined as

s = s1
s
The rotating magnetic field
A simple three-phase stator
The rotor electrical speed is
r = s(1 - s), rad/sec
The rotor speed in rpm, denoted by nr is
nr = ns(1 - s), (rpm)
where ns = 120fs
p
5.3 Induction-motor equivalent circuit

## Fig. 5.1 Elementary equivalent circuit.

The relationship between the induced emfs is
E2 T s
= s 2e =
E1 T1e a
where T1e and T2e are the effective stator
and rotor turns per phase, and a is the turns
ratio.
The rotor current Irr, then, is
E2 E2
I rr = =
R rr + js1L1rr R rr + jss L1rr
The rotor current is also (from stator)
E1 E1 / a
I rr = =
aR rr R rr
+ jsaL1rr + js L1rr
s s
The rotor current reflected into the stator is
denoted as Ir as I = E1
=
E1
I r
I r = rr (a 2 R rr ) Rr
+ js L1r
+ js (a 2 L rr ) s
a s
Fig. 5.2 is equivalent circuit of the induction
motor.
Fig. 5.3 Equivalent circuit with the rotor at
stator frequency.
Io = Im + Ic
The core-loss component of the stator
current is
E1
Ic =
Rc

## The rotor phase current is

E1
Ir =
Rr
+ jX1r
s
The stator current then is
Ias = Ir + Io
Fig. 5.4 Simplified phasor diagram of the
induction motor.
The applied stator input voltage
Vas = E1 + (Rs + jX1s)Ias
5.4 Steady-state performance equations of the
induction motor
The air-gap power is
Pa = Pi 3Is2 R s

## Neglecting the core losses, the air-gap power

is equal to the total power dissipated in Rr/s
Rr (1 s)
Pa = 3I 2r = 3I 2r R r + 3I 2r R r
s s
The mechanical power output is
(1 s)
Pm = 3I 2r R r
s
Alternately, the mechanical power output
Pm = Tem
Hence,
3I 2r R r (1 s)
Te =
sm
Let the rotor speed be in terms of the slip
and stator frequency
r (1 s)
m = = s
P/2 P/2
The electromagnetic or air gap torque is
P I 2r R r
Te = 3( )
2 ss
The shaft output power of the machine is
Ps = Pm - Pfw
Fig. 5.6 (a) Induction motor speed-torque
characteristic.
Fig. 5.6 (b) Generation and braking
characteristic of the induction motor.
Fig 5.7 Performance characteristic of an
induction motor.
Starting torque: (s = 1)
2
3 P Vas Rr
Te
s 2 ( R s + R r )2 + ( X1s + X1r )2

## 5.6 Measurement of motor parameters

Stator resistance
P1
cos 0 =
Vas I0
Fig. 5.10 Equivalent circuit of the induction

## The magnetizing current

Im = Iosino
The core-loss current
Ic = Iocoso
The magnetizing inductance
Vas
Lm =
2 f s I m
The core-loss resistance
Vas
Rc =
Ic
Locked-rotor test
Fig. 5.11 equivalent circuit of the induction
motor at standstill.
The short-circuit power factor
Psc
cos sc =
Vsc Isc
The short-circuit impedance
V
Zsc = sc
Isc
The rotor resistance and total leakage reactance
R r = Zsc cos sc R s X eq = Zsc sin sc

## The total leakage reactance (the sum of the

stator and referred-rotor leakage reactance)
X eq = X1s + X1r
5.7 Dynamic modeling of induction machine
Fig. 5.12 Dynamic modeling of the three-
phase induction motor.
5.7.1 Real-time model of a two-
phase induction machine
Assumptions:
(i) uniform air gap;
(ii) balanced rotor and stator windings, with
sinusoidally distributed mmf;
(iii) inductance vs. rotor position is sinusoidal;
(iv) saturation and parameter changes are
neglected.
Fig. 5.13 is a two-phase induction machine
with stator and rotor windings.
The terminal voltage of the stator and rotor
windings:
vqs=Rqiqs+p(Lqqiqs)+p(Lqdids)+p(Lqi)+p(Lqi)
vds= p(Ldqiqs)+Rdids+p(Lddids)+p(Ldi)+p(Ldi)
v=p(Lqiqs)+p(Ldids)+Ri+p(Li)+p(Li)
v=p(Lqiqs)+p(Ldids)+p(Li)+ Ri+p(Li)
The self-inductances are independent of angular
positions, hence
L = L = Lrr; Ldd = Lqq = Ls.
The mutual inductances
Ld = Ld = Lsrcosr; Ld = Ld = Lsrsinr;
Lq = Lq = Lsrsinr; Lq = Lq = -Lsrcosr;
The resulting terminal voltage
vqs = (Rs+Lsp)iqs+Lsrp(isinr)-Lsrp(icosr)
vds = (Rs+Lsp)iqs+Lsrp(icosr)-Lsrp(isinr)
v = Lsrp(iqssinr)+ Lsrp(idscosr)+(Rrr+Lrr p)i
v = -Lsrp(iqscosr)+ Lsrp(idssinr)+(Rrr+Lrr p)i
where Rs=Rq=Rd; Rrr=R=R.
5.7.2 Transformation to obtain constant matrix
The relationship between the actual currents
and the fictitious rotor currents
idrr cos r sin r i
i =
qrr sin r cos r i

## The above eq. can be written compactly as

idqrr = [Tab]i
where idqrr = [idrr iqrr]t, i = [i i]t, and
cos r sin r
T =
sin r cos r
Fig. 5.14 shows transformation of actual to
fictitious variables
The transformation is valid for voltages,
currents, and flux-linkage in a machine.
The transformation matrix is both
orthogonal and symmetric, and satisfies
1
T = T
We thus have
v qs R s + Ls p 0 Lsr p 0 iqs
v 0 R + L p 0 L p i
ds = s s sr ds
v qrr Lsr p Lsr & r R rr + L rr p L rr & r iqrr
&
v drr Lsr r Lsr p L rr & r R rr + L rr p idrr
Let
k w1T1
a=
k w 2T2
Then
Rr = a2Rrr; Lr = a2Lrr;
iqr = iqrr/a; idr = idrr/a;
vqr = avqrr; vdr = avdrr.
The magnetizing inductance of the stator
Lm = aLsr
The machine equation referred to the stator
v qs R s + Ls p 0 Lm p 0 iqs
v 0 R s + Ls p 0 L m p ids
=
ds
v qr L m p & &
L m r R r + L r p L r r iqr
& &
dr m r
v L L m p L
r r R r + L r idr
p

## 5.7.3 Three-phase to two-phase transformation

The relationship between dqo and abc current
2 2
cos c cos(c ) cos(c + )
iqs 3 3 ias
i = 2 sin 2 2
sin(c ) sin(c + ) i bs iqdo = [Tabc ]iabc
ds 3 c
3 3
i o 1 1 1 ics
2 2 2
The zero-sequence current, io, does not
produce a resultant magnetic field.
The transformation from two-phase currents
to three-phase currents can be obtained as
iabc = [Tabc]-1iqdo
where

cos c sin c 1
1 2 2
[Tabc ] = cos(c ) sin(c ) 1
3 3
2 2
cos(c + ) sin(c + ) 1
3 3
Fig 5.15 Two- and three-phase stator windings
Under unbalanced condition, two more
system equations are
vos = Rs + L1spios
vor = Rr + L1rpior
Stanleys model (the stator reference frames
model): in that case c = 0, the transformation
from abc to dqo variables is
1 1
1
2 2
s 2 3 3
Tabc = 0
3 2 2
1 1 1
2 2 2

5.7.4 Power equivalent
The three-phase instantaneous power input
t
Pi = v abc iabc = v asias + v bsi bs + v csics
t
= v qdo ([Tabc ]1 )[Tabc ]1 iqdo
3
= (( v qsiqs + v dsids ) + 2 v oi o )
2
5.7.5 Generalized model in arbitrary reference
frames
Arbitrary reference frame: reference frame
rotating at an arbitrary speed.
The relationships between the currents of
reference frame and the arbitrary reference
frame are written as
iqds = [T c ]icqds
where iqds = [iqs ids]t c cos c sin c
T =
sin c cos c
icqds = [icqs icdc ]t
Fig. 5.16 shows stationary and arbitrary
reference frames.
The speed of the arbitrary reference frames is
& c = c
Similarly, the fictitious rotor currents
transformed into arbitrary frames are
iqdr = [T c ]icqdr

## Likewise, the voltage relationships are

v qds = [T c ]v cqds
v qdr = [T c ]v cqdr
The induction-motor model in arbitrary
reference frames is obtained as
v cqs R s + Ls p c Ls Lm p c L m iqs
c
c c
v ds c Ls R s + Ls p c L m
ids
Lm p
vc =
Lm p ( c r ) L m R r + Lr p ( c r ) L r icqr
qr c
v cdr ( c r ) L m Lm p ( c r ) L r R r + L r p i
dr

## The qdo currents in the arbitrary reference

frames are obtained as
c 1
c [ T ] 0 s
iqdo = [Tabc ][iabc ] = [Tabc ][iabc ]
0 1
5.7.6 Electromagnetic torque
The voltage equation can be written as
V = [R]i + [L]pi + [G]ri + [F]ci
The instantaneous input power is
pi = itV = it[R]i + it[L]pi + it[G]ri + it[F]ci
The air-gap power is derived as
mTe = Pa = it[G]ir
Substituting for r in terms of m leads as
Te = it[G]iP/2
The electromagnetic torque is obtained as
3P
Te = L m (icqsicdr icdsicqr )
22
5.7.7 Derivation of commonly used
induction-motor models
Stator reference frames model (c = 0)
v qs R s + Ls p 0 Lm p 0 iqs
v 0 R + L p 0 L p i
ds = s s m ds
v qr L m p r L m R r + L r p r L r iqr

dr r m
v L L m p L
r r R r + L r idr
p
The torque equation is
3P
Te = L m (iqsidr idsiqr )
22
For a balanced polyphase supply input, the
stator q and d axes voltage are
vqs = vas
( v cs v bs )
v ds =
3
Rotor reference frames model (c=r; c=r)
v qs
r
R s + Ls p r Ls Lm p r L m iqs r
r r
v ds r Ls R s + Ls p r L m L m p ids

v r = L p 0 R + L p 0 i r
qr m r r
qr
v dr
r 0 Lm p 0 R r + L r p i r
dr
The electromagnetic torque is
3P r r r r
Te = L m (iqs idr ids iqr )
22
The transformation from abc to dqo variables
2 2
cos r cos(r
3
) cos(r + )
3
r 2 2 2
[Tabc ] = sin r sin(r ) sin(r + )
3 3 3
1 1 1
2 2 2

## Synchronously rotating reference frames

model (c = s; c = s = st)
The model
v eqs R s + Ls p iqs
e
c Ls Lm p c L m
e
c Ls R s + Ls p c L m e
v ds ids
Lmp
=
ve Lmp ( s r ) L m R r + Lr p ( s r ) L r ieqr
qr e
v edr ( s r ) L m Lm p (s r ) L r R r + L r p i
dr

## The electromagnetic torque

3P
Te = L m (ieqsiedr iedsieqr )
22
The transformation from abc to dqo variables
2 2
cos r cos(r
3
) cos(r + )
3
r 2 2 2
[Tabc ] = sin r sin(r ) sin(r + )
3 3 3
1 1 1
2 2 2
The stator and rotor flux linkage in the
arbitrary reference frames
cqs = Lsicqs + L micqr
c c c

ds = Lsids + L midr
c c c
qr = L r iqr + L miqs
cdr = L r icdr + L micds

## The zero-sequence flux linkage are

os = L1si os

or = L1r i or
The q axis stator voltage in the arbitrary
reference frame is
v cqs = R sicqs + c ( Lsicds + L micdr ) + L m picqr + Ls picqs

## v cqs = R sicqs + ccds + pcqs

Similarly,
v cds = R sicds ccqs + pcds

v cos = R si os + p os

## v cdr = R r icdr ( c r )cqr + pcdr

v cor = R r i or + p or
For normalization of the variables, a
modified flux linkage is defined as
cqs = bcqs = b ( Lsicqs + L micqr ) = X sicqs + X micqr

## The other modified flux linkage are

cqs = X sicds + X micdr
cqr = X r icqs + X micqs
cdr = X r icdr + X micds
os = X1sios
or = X1r ior

## The flux linkage in modified terms

c cqs c cds c cos c cqr c c c
qs = , ds = , os = , qr = , dr = dr , cor = or ,
b b b b b b
The resulting equations in modified flux linkage
c c p c
v cqs= R sicqs+ ds + qs
b b
c c c c p c
v ds = R sids qs + ds
b b
p
v os = R sios + os
b
c c ( c r ) c p c
v qr = R r iqr + dr + qr
b b
c c ( c r ) c p c
v dr = R r idr qr + dr
b b
p
v or = R r i or + or
b
The electromagnetic torque in flux linkage
and currents is
3P c c c c 3P c
Te = L m (iqsidr idsiqr ) = (iqs ( L micdr ) icds ( L micqr ))
22 22
3P c c 3P c c
= (iqs ( ds Lsicds ) icds (cqs Lsicqs )) = (iqs ds icdscqs )
22 22
Alternatively, the electromagnetic torque in
terms of modified flux linkage and currents
3P 1 c c
Te = (iqsds icdscqs )
2 2 b
5.7.9 Per-Unit model
Base Power = Pb =3Vb3Ib3
The base quantities in dq frames
Vb = 2 Vb3 I b = 2 I b3

## Hence, the base power is defined as

V I 3
Pb = 3Vb3I b3 = 3 b b = Vb I b
2 2 2
The normalized voltage (Let Vb = IbZb)
c v cqs R s c Xs X X m c c X m c
v qsn = = iqs + picqs + c s icds + iqr + idr
Vb Vb b Vb b Vb b Vb b Vb
c c c
R s iqs 1 Xs iqs c Xs icds 1 X m iqr c X m icdr
= + p( ) + + p( ) +
Zb I b b Z b Ib b Z b I b b Z b Ib b Z b I b
Similarly, we can get
Xsn X mn
R sn + p cn Xsn p cn X mn
b
v cqsn b
Xsn L mn
i c
c cn Xsn R sn + p cn X mn p qsn
v dsn b b icdsn
vc = X mn X rn c
qrn p ( cn rn ) X mn R rn + p ( cn rn ) X r iqrn
v cdrn b b ic
X mn X rn drn
( cn rn ) X mn b
p (cn rn )X rn R rn +
b
p

The normalized electromagnetic torque
3P 1
T 2 2 b c c
Ten = e = (iqsds icdscqs ) = (icqsncdsn icdsn cqsn ) p.u.
Tb P Pb
2 b

## Ten = 2 Hprn + T1n + Bn rn p.u. 1 J2b B2b

H= Bn =
2 Pb ( P / 2)2 Pb ( P / 2)2
5.8 Dynamic simulation
The equations of the induction machine in
p.u. are cast in the state-space form as
P1pX1 + Q1X1 = u1
where X1 = [icqsn icdsn icqrn icdrn ]t u1 = [vcqsn v cdsn v cqrn v cdrn ]t
Xsn X mn
0 0
b
b
0 Xsn X mn R sn cn X mn 0 cn X mn
0
b b cn Xsn R sn cn Xsn 0
P1 = Q1 =
X mn X rn
0 0 0 ( cn rn ) X mn R rn ( cn rn ) X rn
b b
( cn rn ) X mn 0 ( cn rn ) X rn R rn
X mn X rn
o b
0
b

The above eq. Can be arranged in the state-
space form as follows:
pX1 = P-1(u1 - Q1X1)
This can be written as
pX1 = A1X1 + B1u1
where A1 = P11Q1 and B1 = P11
The electromechanical torque is
Ten = 2Hpwrn + Tln +Bnrn
c c c c 1 J2b
where Ten = (iqsndrn idsnqsn ) H = 2 Pb ( P / 2)2
A convenient form of the electromechanical
equation
Ten = X mn (icqsn icdrn icdsn icqsn )
Hence, the electromechanical equation
X mn c c c c Tln Bn
prn = (iqsn idrn idsn iqrn ) rn
2H 2H 2H
5.9 Small-signal equations of
Linearizing the nonlinear dynamic equation
around an operating point by using
perturbation techniques.
The variables in SI units after perturbation
v eqs = v eqso + v eqs
v eds = v edso + v eds
ieqs = ieqso + ieqs
The state-space form
pX = AX + B1U
where X = [ieqs ieds ieqr iedr r ]t
U = [v eqs v eds v eqr v edr s T1 ]t

A = P11Q1 B1 = P11R1

Ls 0 Lm 0 0
0 Ls 0 Lm 0

P1 = L m 0 Lr 0 0

0 Lm 0 Lr 0
0 0 0 0 J
(Continued)
Rs so Ls 0 so L m 0
so Ls Rs so L m 0 0

e e
Q1 = 0 ( so ro ) L m Rr ( so ro ) L r L midso + L r idro

( so ro ) L m 0 ( so ro ) L r Rr ( L mieqso + L r ieqro )
k i e
k 2ieqro k 2iedso k 2ieqso B
2 dro

3 P 2
k 2 = ( ) Lm
2 2
1 0 0 0 Lsiedso + L miedro 0

0 1 0 0 Lsieqso + L mieqro 0
0 1 0 L miedso + L r iedro 0
R1 = 0
0 0 0 1 Lsieqso + L mieqro 0
P
0 0 0 0 0
2
5.10 Evaluation of control characteristics ...

## Assumption of zero initial conditions

sX(s) = AX(s) + B1u(s)
y(s) = CX(s) + Du(s)
The output can be expressed as
y(s) = (C(sI - A)-1B1 + D)u(s)
5.11 Space-phasor model
The currents in terms of the flux linkage
c 1
iqs = ( L r cqs L mcqr )
1

1
icds = ( L r cds L mcdr )
1
1
icqr = ( L mcqs + Lscqr )
1
c 1 c c
idr = ( L m ds + Ls dr )
1
2
where 1 = ( Ls L r L m )
The model in arbitrary reference frames in
normalized units is derived as
1 kr
cn
s
0
cqsn s 1
c 1
k r qsn 0
c cn 1 v cqsn
0
d dsn s s cdsn 0
= c + 0
d qm
c kr

1
cn qm 0 v dsn
c
0

cdrn s s c 0 0
kr drn
0 cn
s
Fig. 5.20 Signal-flow graph.
Fig. 5.21 Root loci (in stator reference
frames with rotor speed varying 0 ~ 0.5 p.u.
Fig. 5.22 Root loci (in arbitrary reference
frames with velocity of 0.5 p.u. and rotor
speed varying from 0 to 0.5 p.u.)
5.11.4 Space-Phasor model derivation
Let the space phasor of the stator flux
linkage in arbitrary reference frames be
csn = cqsn jcdsn

## A complex phasor form

jcn t 2
csn =e { ( asn + e j2 / 2 bsn + e j4 / 3 csn )} = e jcn t ( qsn j dsn )
3
Applying the space-phasor definition to the
expression
c
given in (5.265)
dsn 1 k
+ ( + jcn )csn = r crn + v sn
c
d s s
c
d rn 1 k
+ [ + j( cn rn )]crn = r csn
d r r
Fig. 5.23 Signal-flow graph of the space-
phasor-mpdeled induction machine.
Fig. 5.24 Root loci (in stator reference frames
with the rotor speed varied 0~0.5 p.u.
5.12 Control principle of the induction motor

## The stator current and flux-linkage are

defined in q and d axes, respectively
is = ieqs jieds
s = eqs jeds
The input power for balanced supply
3 e e e e
= ( v i +
voltage is given by i 2 qs qs dsids )
p v
3
pi = ( R s [(ieqs )2 + (ieds )2 ] + s L m [ieqsiedr iedsieqr ]
2
+ ieqs [ Ls pieqs + L m pieqr ] + ieds [ Ls pieds + L m piedr ])
The electromagnetic torque
3P e e e e 3P
Te = L m ( dsiqs qsids ) = L m (ieqsiedr iedsieqr )
22 22
where eqs = Lsieqs + L mieqr

## eds = Lsieds + L miedr

The power input in term of the torque and
3 2 3 e e
pi = R s [( iqs ) + (ids ) ] + sTe + [iqs p qs ieds peds ]
e 2 e 2
2 P 2
3 2 3
pi = R si 2 + s Im[is es ] + Re[is p es ]
2 P 2
There are three distinct components of the
input power:
First: the stator resistance losses;
Second: the sum of the slip and mechanical
power; the shaft power and friction and
windage losses.
Third: the rate of change of magnetic energy.