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SECTION 2 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

Group 1 Pump Device ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2-1


Group 2 Main Control Valve --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2-21
Group 3 Swing Device ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2-48
Group 4 Travel Motor -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2-59
Group 5 RCV Lever ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2-66
Group 6 Accelerator Pedal ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2-73
Group 7 Brake Pedal -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2-74
Group 8 Transmission ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2-76
Group 9 Travel Control Valve -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2-83
Group 10 Steering Valve ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2-85
SECTION 2 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
GROUP 1 PUMP DEVICE

1. STRUCTURE
The pump device consists of main pump, regulator and gear pump.

Di

Dr2 a3

A3

Pi2 A2 B3
a4

Psv
A1

Pi1

Dr1

Qmax adjusting screw


Regulator Psv a4 Regulator
Qmin adjusting screw
Pi1,Pi2 Gear pump

Di

Dr1
a3
Dr1
Dr2

B3
a1 B1
a2
Do B1

20W92MP01

A1 Psv a4 A2
Port Port name Port size

a1 a2
A1,A2 Delivery port SAE6000psi 3/4"
B1 Suction port SAE2500psi 2 1/2"
Dr1 Drain port PF 3/4 - 20
Pi1,Pi2 Pilot port PF 1/4 - 15
Psv Servo assist port PF 1/4 - 15
a1,2,4 Gauge port PF 1/4 - 15
Pi1 Pi2
a3 Gauge port PF 1/4 - 14
(Pp1,MCV) (Pp2,MCV)
Di A3 Gear pump delivery port PF 3/8 - 15
Do Dr1 B3 Gear pump suction port PF 3/4 - 20.5
B1 Dr2 Gear pump drain port PF 3/8 - 15
Di Oil filling port PF 3/4 - 20
B3 A3 a3 Dr2 Do Outlet port PF 3/4 - 20

2-1
1) MAIN PUMP (1/2)
The main pump consists of two piston pumps(front & rear) and valve block.

536 490 793 548 901 732 807 412 080


406 703 532 531 789 953
806 534 214 535 410
408 954 492 885

X X

A A

543 545
888 406 469 725 981 409 316 735 541
251 157 211 728 141 467 983
212 156 152 153 151 410 709 724
726

828 123 724 469 129 826 271 491 314 490
728 491
171 490 124 04
127
SECTION X-X
824
113
192
709
827
774

111
261
825
126
191 122 823 752 124 886 312
828 887 751 490 128 726 313

SECTION A-A
20W92MP02A

2-2
04 Gear pump 271 Pump casing 724 O-ring
080 Proportional reducing 312 Valve cover 725 O-ring
valve assy 313 Valve plate (R) 726 O-ring
111 Drive shaft 314 Valve plate (L) 728 O-ring
113 Driven shaft 316 Cover 732 O-ring
122 Roller bearing 406 Hexagon socket screw 735 O-ring
123 Roller bearing 408 Hexagon socket screw 751 Packing
124 Needle bearing 409 Hexagon socket screw 752 Seat packing
126 Bearing spacer 410 Hexagon socket screw 774 Oil seal
127 Bearing spacer 412 Hexagon socket screw 789 Back up ring
128 Bearing spacer 467 Plug 793 Back up ring
129 Bearing spacer 469 Plug 806 Nut
141 Cylinder block 490 Plug 807 Nut
151 Piston 491 Plug 823 Snap ring
152 Shoe 492 Restrictor 824 Snap ring
153 Set plate 531 Tilting pin 825 Snap ring
156 Bushing 532 Servo piston 826 Snap ring
157 Cylinder spring 534 Stopper (L) 827 Snap ring
171 Front casing 535 Stopper (S) 828 Snap ring
191 Drive gear 536 Servo cover 885 Valve plate pin
192 Driven gear 541 Seat 886 Spring pin
211 Shoe plate 543 Stopper 887 Spring pin
212 Swash plate 545 Steel ball 888 Pin
214 Tilting bushing 548 Feed back pin 901 Eye bolt
251 Swash plate support 703 O-ring 953 Set screw
261 Front cover 709 O-ring 954 Set screw

2-3
MAIN PUMP (2/2)

490

Psv a

490 724 407 467,725

P2 Pi
Psv a
A1

724

079 325

20W7A2MP03

079 Proportional reducing valve 467 Plug 725 O-ring


325 Valve casing 490 Plug
407 Hexagon socket screw 724 O-ring

2-4
2) REGULATOR (1/2)

412 897 876 874 A


B 755 A
612 KR3G-9P19
858
615 P2
614 Pf

613 Pi
611
875
A B

Hydraulic circuit
B

Pi

438
C
801

924

730 643 708 644 645 646 728

SECTION B-B 20W92MP04

735 413 496 438 413 Port Port name Port size
Pi
A Delivery port 3/4"
438
B Suction port 2 1/2"
Pi Pilot port PF 1/4-15
Pf Power shift pressure -
P2 Companion delivery pressure -
656

722 724 725 436

VIEW C

2-5
REGULATOR (2/2)
734 653 654 836 651 652 601 624 629 630
655
641
814
733 628

732 802

898
627
631
753

756

622 621 623 625 626 887 763

SECTION A-A 20W92MP05

412 Hexagon socket screw 630 Lock nut 733 O-ring


413 Hexagon socket screw 631 Sleeve, pf 734 O-ring
436 Hexagon socket screw 641 Pilot cover 735 O-ring
438 Hexagon socket screw 643 Pilot piston 753 O-ring
496 Plug 644 Spring seat (Q) 755 O-ring
601 Casing 645 Adjust stem (Q) 756 O-ring
611 Feed back lever 646 Pilot spring 763 O-ring
612 Lever (1) 651 Sleeve 801 Nut
613 Lever (2) 652 Spool 802 Nut
614 Center plug 653 Spring seat 814 Snap ring
615 Adjust plug 654 Return spring 836 Snap ring
621 Compensator piston 655 Set spring 858 Snap ring
622 Piston case 656 Block cover 874 Pin
623 Compensator rod 708 O-ring 875 Pin
624 Spring seat (C) 722 O-ring 876 Pin
625 Outer spring 724 O-ring 887 Pin
626 Inner spring 725 O-ring 897 Pin
627 Adjust stem (C) 728 O-ring 898 Pin
628 Adjust screw (C) 730 O-ring 924 Set screw
629 Cover (C) 732 O-ring

2-6
3) GEAR PUMP

435
887 433
700 353 351 434

B3
354

311

A3
312 850
732 355
Dr3 Dr3
709 361 a3

307 310 308 309 434 466,725

14W7A2MP06

307 Poppet 353 Drive gear 466 Plug


308 Seat 354 Driven gear 700 Ring
309 Spring seat 355 Filter 709 O-ring
310 Spring 361 Front case 725 O-ring
311 Screw 433 Flange socket 732 O-ring
312 Nut 434 Flange socket 850 Snap ring
351 Gear case 435 Flange socket 887 Pin

2-7
2. FUNCTION
1) MAIN PUMP
The pumps may classified roughly into the rotary group performing a rotary motion and working as
the major part of the whole pump function: the swash plate group that varies the delivery rates: and
the valve cover group that changes over oil suction and discharge.

(1) Rotary group


The rotary group consists of drive shaft
(F) (111), cylinder block (141), piston
shoes (151,152), set plate (153),
spherical bushing (156) and cylinder
spring (157). 156
The drive shaft is supported by bearing 151
(122,124) at its both ends. 313 152
141 124
The shoe is caulked to the piston to from 157 111
a spherical coupling. It has a pocket to 153
122
relieve thrust force generated by loading
pressure and the take hydraulic balance 211
so that it slides lightly over the shoe plate
(211). The sub group composed by a
piston and a shoe is pressed against the 210N72MP04

shoe plate by the action of the cylinder


spring via a retainer and a spherical
bush.
Similarly, the cylinder block is pressed
against valve plate (313) by the action of
531
the cylinder spring.
214
(2) Swash plate group
The swash plate group consists of swash
plate (212), shoe plate (211), swash plate
532
support (251), tilting bush (214), tilting pin 211
(531) and servo piston (532).
212
The swash plate is a cylindrical part
formed on the opposite side of the sliding 251
210N72MP05
surface of the shoe and is supported by
the swash support.
If the servo piston moves to the right and
left as hydraulic force controlled by the
regulator is admitted to hydraulic
chamber located on both sides of the
servo piston, the swash plate slides over
the swash plate support via the spherical
part of the tilting pin to change the tilting
angle () 2-7 (210-7)

2-8
(3) Valve block group
The valve block group consists of valve
cover (312), valve plates (313, 314) and
valve plate pin (885).
The valve plate having two melon-
shaped ports is fixed to the valve block
and feeds and collects oil to and from the
cylinder block.
The oil changed over by the valve plate is
885
connected to an external pipeline by way
of the valve block.
Now, if the drive shaft is driven by a
prime mover (electric motor, engine, etc),
it rotates the cylinder block via a spline 313
312
linkage at the same time. If the swash
314
plate is tilted as in Fig (previous page)
the pistons arranged in the cylinder block
make a reciprocating motion with respect
to the cylinder block, while they revolve
with the cylinder block. 210N72MP06
If you pay attention to a single piston, it
performs a motion away from the valve
plate (oil sucking process) within 180
degrees, and makes a motion towards
the valve plate (or oil discharging
process) in the rest of 180 degrees.
When the swash plate has a tilting angle
of zero, the piston makes no stroke and
discharges no oil.

2-9
2) REGULATOR
Regulator consists of the positive flow control, constant horse power control and variable horse
power control function.

(1) Positive flow contro


control
By changing the pilot pressure Pi, the
pump tilting angle (delivery flow) is
regulated arbitrarily, as shown in the
figure.

Delivery flow, Q
This regulator is of the positive flow
control in which the delivery flow Q
increases as the pilot pressure Pi rises.
With this mechanism, when the pilot
pressure corresponding to the flow
required for the work is commanded, the
Pilot pressure, Pi
pump discharges the required flow only,
and so it does not consume the power 21092MP10

uselessly.

2-10
Flow reducing function

643 654 651 652 613 646

P1 CL

874
897
G
C
A

875
Pi
611

548
Large diameter Servo piston Small diameter
chamber D 531 chamber

21092MP12

As the pilot pressure Pi decreases, the pilot piston (643) moves to the left by the action of the
pilot spring (646) and causes lever 2 (613) to rotate around the fulcrum of point G. Since the pin
(897) is pressed against the large hole section (C) of lever 2 by the action of the return spring
(654) via the spool (652), pin (874), and feedback lever (611), the feedback lever rotates around
the fulcrum of point D as lever 2 rotates, and shifts the spool to the right.
The movement of the spool causes the delivery pressure P1 to connect to port CL through the
spool and to be admitted to the large diameter section of the servo piston. The delivery pressure
P1 that is constantly admitted to the small diameter section of the servo piston moves the servo
piston to the right due to the area difference, resulting in decrease of the tilting angle.
When the servo piston moves to the right, point D also moves to the right. The spool is fitted
with the return spring (654) and is tensioned to the left at all times, and so the pin (897) is
pressed against the large hole section (C) of lever 2.
Therefore, as point D moves, the feedback lever rotates around the fulcrum of point C, and the
spool is shifted to the left. This causes the opening between the sleeve (651) and spool (652) to
close slowly, and the servo piston comes to a complete stop when it closes completely.

2-11
Flow increasing function

643 654 651 652 613 646

P1 CL

874
897
G
C
A

PiPi(from MCV) 875

611

548
Large diameter Servo piston Small diameter
chamber D 531 chamber

21092MP13

As the pilot pressure Pi rises, the pilot piston (643) moves to the right to a position where the
force of the pilot spring (646) balances with the hydraulic force.
The groove (A) in the pilot piston is fitted with the pin (875) that is fixed to lever 2 (613).
Therefore, when the pilot piston moves, lever 2 rotates around the fulcrum of point G [fixed by the
fulcrum plug (614) and pin (875)]. Since the large hole section (C) of lever 2 contains a
protruding pin (897) fixed to the feedback lever (611), the pin (897) moves to the left as lever 2
rotates.
Port CL opens a way to the tank port as the spool moves. This deprives the large diameter
section of the servo piston of pressure, and shifts the servo piston to the left by the discharge
pressure P1 in the small diameter section, resulting in an increase in the flow rate.
As the servo piston moves, point D also moves to the left, the feedback lever rotates around the
fulcrum of point C, and the spool moves to the right till the opening between the spool and sleeve
is closed.

2-12
Adjustment of flow control characteristic
The flow control characteristic can be
adjusted with the adjusting screw.
Adjust it by loosening the hexagon nut 801
(801) and by tightening (or loosening) 924
the hexagonal socket head screw (924).
Tightening the screw shifts the control
chart to the right as shown in the figure.
Adjusting value
Adjustment of flow control
Speed characteristic 2-12 (140-7)

Tightening Flow control Flow change


amount of starting amount
adjusting pressure
screw (924) change
amount

Delivery flow, Q
(min -1) (Turn) (kgf/cm2) (/min)

1900 +1/4 +1.0 -17.6

Pilot pressure, Pi

21092MP11

2-13
(2) Constant horsepower control

The regulator decreases the pump tilting


angle (delivery flow) automatically to limit
the input torque within a certain value with

Delivery flow, Q
a rise in the delivery pressure P1 of the
self pump.
(The input horsepower is constant when
the speed is constant.)
Since the regulator is of the simultaneous
constant horsepower type that operates
by the sum of load pressures of the two Delivery pressure, P1
pumps in the tandem double-pump
system, the prime mover is automatically 21092MP19

prevented from being overloaded,


irrespective of the load condition of the
two pumps, when horsepower control is
under way.
Since this regulator is of the simultaneous
constant horsepower type, it controls the
tilting angles (displacement volumes) of
the two pumps to the same value as
represented by the following equation :
Tin = P1q/2 + P2q/2
= (P1+P2)q/2
The horsepower control function is the
same as the flow control function and is
summarized in the following. (for detailed
behaviors of respective parts, refer to the
section of flow control).

2-14
Overload preventive function

621 651 652 623 612 E(876) 601 625 626

P1 CL

897

875
P2 P1

611

Large diameter Servo piston Small diameter


chamber chamber
D

21092MP15

When the self pump delivery pressure P1 rises, it acts on the stepped part of the compensating
piston (621). It presses the compensating rod (623) to the right till the force of the outer spring
(625) and inner spring (626) balances with the hydraulic force. The movement of the
compensating rod is transmitted to lever 1 (612) via pin (875).
Lever 1 rotates around the pin (876) (E) fixed to the casing (601).
Since the large hole section (F) of lever 1 contains a protruding pin (897) fixed to the feedback
lever (611), the feedback lever rotates around the fulcrum of point D as lever 1 rotates, and then
the spool (652) is shifted to the right. As the spool moves, the delivery pressure P1 is admitted
to the large diameter section of the servo piston via port CL, causes the servo piston move to the
right, reduces the pump delivery, flow rate, and prevents the prime mover from being overloaded.
The movement of the servo piston is transmitted to the feedback lever via point D. Then the
feedback lever rotates around the fulcrum of point F and the spool is shifted to the left. The
spool moves till the opening between the spool (652) and sleeve (651) is closed.

2-15
Flow reset function

621 651 652 623 612 E(876) 601 625 626

P1 CL

897

P2 P1
875

611

Large diameter Servo piston Small diameter


chamber chamber
D

21092MP16

As the self pump delivery pressure P1, the compensating rod (623) is pushed back by the action
of the springs (625 & 626) to rotate lever 1 (612) around point E. Rotating of lever 1 causes the
feedback lever (611) to rotate around the fulcrum of point D and then the spool (652) to move to
the left. As a result, port CL opens a way to the tank port.
This causes the servo piston to move to the left and the pump's delivery rate to increase.
The movement of the servo piston is transmitted to the spool by the action of the feedback
mechanism to move it till the opening between the spool and sleeve is closed.

2-16
Low tilting angle (low flow) command preferential function
As mentioned above, flow control and horsepower control tilting angle commands are
transmitted to the feedback lever and spool via the large-hole sections (C & F) of levers 1 and 2.
However, since sections C and F have the pins (4) protruding from the large hole (8), only
the lever lessening the tilting angle contacts the pin (897) ; the hole (8) in the lever of a larger
tilting angle command is freed without contacting the pin (897). Such a mechanical selection
method permits preference of the lower tilting angle command of the flow control and horsepower
control.
Adjustment of input horsepower
a. Adjustment of outer spring
Adjust it by loosening the hexagon nut 625 626 630 628
(630) and by tightening (or loosening)
the adjusting screw C (628).
Tightening the screw shifts the control
chart to the right and increases the
input horsepower as shown in the
figure. Since turning the adjusting
screw C by N turns changes the setting
of the inner spring (626), return the
adjusting stem C (627) by NA turns 802 627
at first.(A=1.78)
2107A2MP07

Adjusting value

Adjustment of input
horsepower
Speed
Tightening Compensating Input
Delivery flow, Q

amount of control torque


starting
adjusting change
pressure
screw(627) change amount
amount

(min -1) (Turn) (kgf/cm2) (/min)


1900 +1/4 +15.9 +4.0 Delivery pressure, P1

21092MP17

2-17
b. Adjustment of inner spring
625 626 630 628
Adjust it by loosening the hexagon nut
(802) and by tightening (or loosening)
the adjusting stem C (627).
Tightening the screw increases the flow
and then the input horsepower as
shown in the figure.
Adjusting valve
Adjustment of input
horsepower
802 627
Speed
Tightening Flow Input 2107A2MP08
amount of change torque
adjusting amount change
stem (C) amount
(627)

Delivery flow, Q
(min -1) (Turn) (kgf/cm2) (kgfm)
1900 +1/4 +11.3 +4.7

Delivery pressure, P1

21092MP18

2-18
(3) Variable horsepower control
Variable horsepower control can be obtained by supplying pilot pressure.

621 651 652 623 612 601 625 626

P1 CL

897

Pf
875
P2 P1

611

Large diameter Servo piston Small diameter


chamber chamber
D

21092MP14

The set horsepower valve is shifted by varying


the command current level of the proportional
pressure reducing valve attached to the pump.
Delivery flow, Q

Only one proportional pressure reducing valve is


provided. Pf =
However, the secondary pressure Pf (power shift MIN
Pf =
pressure) is admitted to the horsepower control MAX
section of each pump regulator through the
pump's internal path to shift it to the same set
Delivery pressure, P1
horsepower level. 21092MP20

This function permits arbitrary setting of the pump output power, thereby providing the optimum
power level according to the operating condition.
The power shift pressure Pf controls the set horsepower of the pump to a desired level, as shown
in the figure.
As the power shift pressure Pf rises, the compensating rod (623) moves to the right via the pin
(898) and compensating piston (621).
This decreases the pump tilting angle and then the set horsepower in the same way as explained
in the overload preventive function of the horsepower control. On the contrary, the set horsepower
rises as the power shift pressure Pf falls.

2-19
(4) Adjustment of maximum and minimum flows
The regulator can adjust the maximum
and minimum flows with the adjusting
screws.
Adjustment of maximum flow
Adjust it by loosening the hexagon nut
(806) and by tightening (or loosening)
20W92MP08
the set screw (954).
The maximum flow only is adjusted
without changing other control

Delivery flow, Q
characteristics.
Speed Adjustment of max flow
Tightening Flow change
amount of amount
adjusting screw
(954)
Delivery pressure, Pi
(min -1) (Turn) (/min)

1900 +1/4 -5.5

Adjustment of minimum flow


Adjust it by loosening the hexagon nut
(807) and by tightening (or loosening)
the hexagonal socket head set screw
(953). Similarly to the adjustment of the
maximum flow, other characteristics are
not changed.
20W92MP09
However, remember that, if tightened too
much, the required horsepower during
the maximum delivery pressure (or
during relieving) may increase.
Delivery flow, Q

Speed Adjustment of min flow


Tightening Flow change
amount of amount
adjusting screw
(953)

(min -1) (Turn) (/min)


Delivery pressure, Pi
1900 +1/4 +4.4

2-20
GROUP 2 MAIN CONTROL VALVE

1. STRUCTURE Mark Port name Port size Tightening torque

R2 Make up port for swing PF 1 20~25 kgfm


(115~180 lbfft)
XAtr Travel forward pilot port
XBtr Travel reverse pilot port
(XAo) Optional pilot port
(XBo) Optional pilot port
XBa2 XAk Bucket in pilot port
XBk Bucket out pilot port
(XBp2) Pp XAb1 Boom up pilot port
XBtr Dr9 Pss XBb1 Boom down pilot port
Dr3 XAa2 Arm out confluence pilot port 7~8 kgfm
CP1
XBa2 Arm in confluence pilot port PF 3/8 (50.6~57.8 lbfft)
XAtr
XAtL Dozer down pilot port
XBtr Btr Atr
XBtL Dozer up pilot port
P1 XAs Swing right pilot port
LCs
XAs XBs
XBs Swing left pilot port
Bs As
SWING XAa1 Arm out pilot port
(P3) PRIORITY XBa1 Arm in pilot port
P2
Psp
Xb2 CCb
XAb2
CCo (P5) PnA2 Dr7
PH Pilot pressure port
Dr1
Dr6 Pns
(P4)
Dr1 Drain port
LCo
Dr9 Drain port
R1 (XBo)
(XAo) (Bo) (Ao) Pw Pressure port for auto idle signal
(Pd) CCk Dr8 Drain port
LCa Pis
Pz Main relief set pressure up pilot pressure port
XAa1 Ba Dr3 XBa1 PG Pilot pressure port
(Head) Dr2 Drain port
Pc1 N1 N2 Pc2 Dr3 Drain port
BYPASS XBp1 (XBp2) BYPASS Dr6 Drain port
CUT P1 PCV1 PCV2 CUT P2
XAa2 Dr7 Drain port
XAtr
XBk Pns Swing logic valve pilot port
(Pd) PaL Lock valve pilot port (arm rod side)
PCk PbL Lock valve pilot port (boom head side)
XBp1
VIEW A VIEW B XAb2 Boom up confluence pilot port 3.5~3.9 kgfm
Psp Swing priority pilot port PF 1/4 (25.3~28.2 lbfft)
XBp1 Bypass cut spool pilot port (P1 side)
(XBp2) Bypass cut spool pilot port (P2 side)
(Pd) Opt P/relief set pressure up pilot pressure port
(P0) PG
Pc1 Posi-nega pressure port (P1 side)
Px
Pc2 Posi-nega pressure port (P2 side)
MR Pz
Dr9 XBtr PCk Bucket in stroke limiter pilot port
TRAVEL AtrR Dr9 Pis Arm regeneration cut pilot port
XAtr
CMR1 CMR2 BtrR (N1) Nega-con pressure port (P1 side)
Dr8
AtL
C2
XBtL XAs Dr2 (N2) Nega-con pressure port (P2 side)
SWING AtLR DOZER XAtL BtL XBtL
BtLR
PnA2 Arm2 logic valve pilot port
XBs XAtL CRb Pss Shuttle-swing pilot pressure port
Dr6 Pns PbL LCb BbR Psp
Pns Dr6 Pp Shuttle-swing or arm in pressure port
BOOM 2 BOOM 1 XBb1 Bb XAb1 XAb1
XAb2 XBb1 Ab
Atr Travel forward port
A (Head)
(Rod)
BoR Btr Travel reverse port
AbR LCk (XAo)
(Pd)
BkR
PCk (Ao) Optional port
OPTION BUCKET XAk Bk PCk
(XBo) XAk AkR Ak
(Rod)
(Bo) Optional port
AR
AoR
Pp (Head) LCAP2
XBk
XAa1 BaR
Ak Bucket cylinder head side port
XBa2
Pp
CRa XBk
XAa2 Bk Bucket cylinder rod side port
ARM 1 ARM 2 R2 XAa2 Ab Boom cylinder head side port 5~6.6 kgfm
XBa2
Dr3 XBa1 PaL
LCAT2 Bb Boom cylinder rod side port M10 (36.1~47.7 lbfft)
PCV1
PH PnA2 Dr7 Dr7 PnA2 As Swing motor right port
AaR
Aa
Bs Swing motor left port
Pss Pss
PCV2 (XBp2) (Rod) XBp1 Aa Arm cylinder rod side port
Ba Arm cylinder head side port
P1 Pump port (P1 side)
P2 Pump port (P2 side)
B 8.5~11.2 kgfm
R1 Return port M12 (61.5~81.1 lbfft)
AtL Dozer cylinder head side port
BtL Dozer cylinder rod side port 15.3~18.4 kgfm
(P0) Quick clamp solenoid valve supply port PF 3/4 (110.6~133 lbfft)
(P3) -
(P5) -
10~12.2 kgfm
20W92MC01A (P4) - PF 1/2 (72.3~88.2 lbfft)

2-21
N
101 159
273x10
B A 101 P2 housing 307 Boom 2 spool
153
102 P1 housing 308 Rod spool
(Po) 151 Plug 309 Spool (option)
Dr9
152 Plug 310 Bypass cut spool
273x12 AtrL 561 153 Plug 311 Swing priority spool
N XAtr MR 154 Plug 312 Dozer spool
C C 155 Plug 313 Bypass cut spool
XAtL XBtl
156 Orifice 320 Spring
AtLR 252 158 Plug 321 Spring
XBs XAtL
D Dr6 Pns
D 159 Plug 322 Spring
XBb1 XAb1
977 161 O-ring 323 Spring
978x2 XBb1
162 O-ring 326 Spring
XAb2
E E 163 O-ring 327 Spring
AbR
XAk PCk
(Pd)
164 O-ring 329 Spring
Pp
165 O-ring 331 Spring seat
(XBo) XAk AkR
XBk F AoR F 167 O-ring 332 Spring seat
XBa2 XAa2 AR
XBa2 Pp
168 O-ring 333 Bolt
201 Cover 335 Stopper
Dr3 XBa1 202 Cover 336 Bolt
G G
PnA2 Dr7 203 Cover 337 Stopper
Pss 252 204 Cover 339 Stopper
H PH PCV2 Pss O AaR
O AaR 205 Cover 370 Spring
(XBp2) H
206 Cover 371 Spring
A 602 207 Cover 511 Poppet
514 521 561 551 551 561 521 514 151 168
B XBa2 209 Flange 512 Poppet
SECTION A-A
210 Plate 513 Poppet
(XBp2) Pp 211 Piston 514 Poppet
153 561 PG
P1 (P3) R1 102 Pss 250 Logic control valve assy 521 Spring
156 Dr3 251 Logic control valve assy 522 Spring
975 975
SECTION N-N 252 Lock valve selector sub assy 523 Spring
SECTION O-O 254 Swing Logic poppet assy 551 Plug
256 Arm 2 Logic poppet assy 552 Plug
XBtr XAtr
257 Arm regeneration cut sub assy 553 Plug
975 258 Plug 561 O-ring
259 Plug 562 O-ring
XAs XBs 261 O-ring 601 Main relief valve assy
274x4 262 O-ring 602 Port relief valve assy
975 CCo (P5) Dr7
264 O-ring 603 Port relief valve assy
Dr6 Pns
Psp XAb2 273 Socket bolt 604 Port relief valve assy
(P4) PnA2
274 Socket bolt 605 Port relief valve assy
P P 301 Travel spool 611 Posi-nega conversion valve assy
975
153 561 302 Arm 1 spool sub assy 971 Screw
XAo (XBo) CCk
210 (P5)
303 Boom 1 spool sub assy 975 Screw
975 975 304 Bucket spool 977 Name plate
305 Swing spool 978 Pin
XAa1 XBa1
SECTION P-P 306 Arm 2 spool
975
XBp1 (XBp2)
XAa2

975 XBk
975 273x12 PCk 273x10
(P4) XBp1
165 165 167 155 165

SECTION B-B 20W92MC02

2-22
ROD 154 SWING DOZER 201
TRAVEL BOOM2 BOOM1
164 336 202 201
201 201 201
332 336 336
336 336 336
335 332 332
332 332 332
321 339 335
339 335
320 327
323 322 321
332 321
322 601 320 326
602 332 261 320
332
332 261 332 312 602
261 308 261 261 L
605 L 332
305 161 261
301
161 511 158
165 521
163 523
512 163
511 522 551 552
254 511 561
521 553 561
521 165 513
551 307 511
561 562 163
551
165 562 521
561
163 551 551
163 250
561 561
553 311
522
602 512
165
161 303
264
159 605 261
204 264
264 264 264 332 602
259 204 204 204 320 204
163 163
164 329
SECTION C-C SECTION D-D
152-1 339
201 201 332
201 OPTION BUCKET 158
162 336 207
336 ARM2 336
336 332 336 SWING PRIORITY
332 202
332 335 ARM1 332
335 335
335 SECTION E-E
321 321 323
321
320 322
320 320
332 332
261 602 257 261
603 332 332
163 261 L L 306 SECTION L-L
261
209 304 158
971x4 163 203 611 158 154 164 164 154 158 611 162 152
165 165 513
309 162 523
163 152 561
163 165 552
511 251
511 PCV1 PCV2
521 521 302
511 BYPASS CUT P1 BYPASS CUT P2
551 551 521
561
561 551 256
163 561 551
165 163 561
971x4 521
209 511 333 331 371 331 262 313 165 165 310 163 331 371 331 203
602
163 370 337 262 337 370 333
264 165
264
206 SECTION H-H
604 163
211
204 264 264
164 561
258 602
154 204
SECTION F-F 205 SECTION G-G 20W92MC03

2-23
2. HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

Ao2 Bo2 (P4)

PAo2

Pp2 PBo2 (P5)


(Pump) BU XBp2
Pc2 PS
Pp1 Pc1
(Pump) PS
PCV1 PCV2
AI PH
N2
Pp R2
N1
XBp1

PaL

PaL Aa
Pi1(Arm safety)
XBa2 Ba

ARM 1 XBa1 XAa2 ARM 2


XBa2
XAa1
Pp
XAa2 Pss
Dr3 Dr7
PnA2
Pis
Pd Ak
Bo Bk
Ao XBp1
XAo
OPTION XAk BUCKET
XBk
(XBp2) PCk
Bypass cut(P2)
X(P.SELECTOR)
XBo PbL

Ab
XAb2
BU
Bb PnA2
BOOM 2 XAb2 PCk
XAb1
XBb1
Pss BOOM 1
Psp Pi1(Boom safety)
AtLR Dr1
Pns AtL
Bs BtLR BtL
As
SWING XAs XAtL
DOZER
XBs
Dr6 Dr8 XBtL
BtrR Pw PS
Dr9 SH
Btr
Atr AtrR (Swing motor)
Pz
TRAVEL
XAtr
XBtr

P1 (P3) R1 Po P2 PH PG

A1 A2

20W92MC04A

2-24
3. FUNCTION
1) CONTROL IN NEUTRAL POSITION
P2
3
2 P2 Housing

Dr9

312

XAtL XBtl
DOZER 303

XBb1 XAb1
BOOM 1
304

XAk PCk
BUCKET
Pp
XBk
XBa2 XAa2
ARM 2
306

Pss

CCo CCk

SPOOL SECTION(P2) 20W92MC05

1 2 307
P1 (P3) R1
Housing P1
301

XBtr XAtr
TRAVEL
305

XAs XBs
SWING

Psp XAb2
BOOM 2
SWING
PRIORITY
XAo (XBo)
OPTION
309
XAa1 XBa1
ARM 1
302

XBp1 (XBp2)
BYPASS
BYPASS CUT P2
CUT P1

(P4)
SPOOL SECTION(P1)
20W92MC06A

2-25
When all spools are in the neutral positions, the pressurized oil discharged from the hydraulic pump
(A1) passes through Port P1, the main path (1), the bypass circuit (2) passing the spools for travel
(301), swing (305), boom confluence (boom 2; 307), option (309) and arm 1 (302), and the arm 1
side posi-nega conversion valve (611), and returns to the hydraulic oil tank through the tank port
(R1).
The positive control signal pressure (Pi1) of the arm 1 side posi-nega conversion valve (611) is
led from Port Pc1 to the regulator (Pi1) on the hydraulic pump (A1) side, and controls the pump
discharge flow rate to its minimum value.
The oil discharged from the hydraulic pump (A2) passes through Port P2, the main path (3), the
bypass circuit (2) passing the spools for dozer (312), boom 1 (303), bucket (304) and arm 2 (306),
and the boom1 side posi-nega conversion valve (611), and returns to the hydraulic oil tank through
the tank port (R1).
The positive control signal pressure (Pi2) of the boom 1 side posi-nega conversion valve (611) is
led from Port Pc2 to the regulator (Pi2) on the hydraulic pump (A2) side, and controls the pump
discharge flow rate to its minimum value.
When any of nine main spools is changed over, the bypass circuit (2) is cut off and the hydraulic oil
at Port N1 or N2 in the negative control circuit is shut off.

2-26
2) EACH SPOOL OPERATION
(1) Boom control
Boom up operation

511 303
Ab
Bb

XAb1

XAb 2

307
511

21092MC11

Pilot circuit
Since the boom 1 spool (303) transfers and shuts off the side-bypass path, the pressure at Port Px
increases.
Main circuit
During the boom up operation, the pilot pressure enters through Port XAb1 and moves the boom 1
spool (303) in the left direction. The pressurized oil entering through Port P2 passes through the
main path (3) and flows to the bypass circuit (2), but the bypass circuit (2) is shut off due to transfer
of the boom 1 spool (303). Therefore, the pressurized oil flows into the parallel circuit, pushes open
the check valve (511), and flows through the U-shaped path to the boom 1 spool (303). Then, it
flows around the periphery of the boom 1 spool (303) to Port Ab, and is supplied to the boom
cylinder head side.
At the same time, the pilot pressure enters also through Port XAb2 to transfer the boom 2 spool
(307) in the right direction. Though the pressurized oil enters into Port P1, the bypass circuit (2) is
shut off due to transfer of the boom 2 spool (307). Therefore, the hydraulic oil flows in the parallel
circuit and flows through the U-shaped path to the boom 2 spool (307). Then, the hydraulic oil
passes through the periphery of the boom 2 spool (307), pushes open the check valve (511), joins
into Port Ab in the inside path, and is supplied to the boom cylinder head side. (Boom confluent
flow)
On the other hand, the return oil from the boom cylinder rod side enters through Port Bb and
returns to the hydraulic oil tank through the tank port (R1).

2-27
Boom down operation

511
Ab
Bb

XBb1

(c) (b) (a) 303 303-317

21092MC12

Pilot circuit
Since the boom 1 spool (303) transfers and shuts off the side-bypass path, the pressure at Port Px
increases. Then, the pressure enters also through Port PbL and the release signal is sent to the
lock valve (252).
Main circuit
During the boom down operation, the pilot pressure enters through Port XBb1 and transfers the
boom 1 spool (303) in the right direction. The pressurized oil entering through Port P2 passes
through the main path (3) and flows to the bypass circuit (2), but the bypass circuit (2) is shut off
due to transfer of the boom 1 spool (303). Therefore, the pressurized oil flows into the parallel
circuit, pushes open the check valve (511), and flows through the U-shaped path to the boom 1
spool (303). Then, it flows around the periphery of the boom 1 spool (303) to Port Bb and is
supplied to the boom cylinder rod side.
On the other hand, the return oil from the boom cylinder head side passes to the holes (a) and the
notches (b) of the boom 1 spool (303).
Since this return oil has a sufficient pressure caused by the weight of the boom, it passes through
the path inside the spool, pushes the poppet (303-317) in the spool in the right direction, flows
around the outside of the spool. Then, it is supplied again to the boom cylinder rod side as
hydraulic oil to lower the boom. (Boom regeneration)
Besides, a part of the return oil from the boom cylinder flows from the hole (c) into the tank.

2-28
(2) Arm control
Arm out operation

256 511 306


Aa

XAa2
XBa2

XAa1
XBa1

Ba
302 511
21092MC13

Pilot circuit
Since the arm 2 spool (306) transfers and shuts off the side-bypass path, the pressure at Port Px
increases.
Main circuit
During the arm out operation, the pilot pressure enters through Ports XAa1 and XAa2. When the
pressure enters through Port XAa1 and XAa2, the spools transfer in the left direction. The hydraulic
oil entering through Port P1 passes through the main path (1) and flows to the bypass circuit (2),
but the bypass circuit is shut off due to transfer of the arm 1 spool (302).
Therefore, the hydraulic oil from the parallel circuit pushes open the check valve (511) and flows
through the U-shaped path to the arm 1 spool (302). Then, it flows around the periphery of the arm
1 spool (302) and the arm 2 spool (306) to Port Aa, and is supplied to the arm cylinder rod side.
On the other hand, the hydraulic oil entering through Port P2 passes in the main path (3), and flows
into the bypass circuit (2), and the bypass circuit is shut off due to transfer of the arm 2 spool (306).
The hydraulic oil from the parallel circuit pushes open the logic poppet (256) and the hydraulic oil
from the bypass circuit (2) pushes open the check valve (511) and flows through the U-shaped path
to the arm 2 spool (306). Then, it flows around the periphery of the arm 2 spool (306) in the inside
path and joins into Port Aa.
Besides, the return oil from the arm cylinder head side passes through Port Ba, flows into tank line
in arm 1 side and in arm 2 side, and returns to the hydraulic oil tank through the tank port (R1).

2-29
Arm in operation
During
During light load only
Arm self weight

P2
Aa

306

XBa2
XAa2

302-317

XBa1
XAa1

Ba (b)
(a) 302 P1
21092MC14

Pilot circuit
Since the arm 2 spool (306) transfers and shuts off the side-bypass path, the pressure at Port Px
increases. Then, the pressure enters also through Port PaL and the release signal is sent to the
lock valve (252).
Main circuit
During the arm in operation, the pilot pressure enters through Ports XBa1 and XBa2. When the
pressure enters through Port XBa1 and Port XBa2, the spools transfer in the right direction Fig.
MC14. The hydraulic oil entering through Port P1 passes through the main path (1) and flows to
the bypass circuit (2), but the bypass circuit is shut off due to transfer of the arm 1 spool (302).
Therefore, the hydraulic oil from the parallel circuit pushes open the check valve (511) and flows
through the U-shaped path to the arm 1 spool (302). Then, it flows around the periphery of the
arm 1 spool (302) to Port Ba, and is supplied to the arm cylinder head side.
On the other hand, the hydraulic oil entering through Port P2 passes in the main path (3), and flows
into the bypass circuit (2), and the bypass circuit is shut off due to transfer of the arm 2 spool (306).
The hydraulic oil from the parallel circuit pushes open the logic poppet (256) and the hydraulic oil
from the bypass circuit (2) pushes open the check valve (511) and flows through the U-shaped
path to the arm 2 spool (306). Then, it flows around the periphery of the arm 2 spool (306) and
the arm 1 spool (302) in the inside path and joins into Port Ba.
Besides, the return oil from the arm cylinder rod side is pressurized by self-weight of the arms
and so on, and returns to Port Aa. The pressurized oil returning to Port Aa enters into the spool
through the periphery hole (a) of the arm 1 spool (302). During a light load only, it pushes open the
check valve (302-317) and joins into Port Ba from the spool hole (b). The rest of oil returns to the
hydraulic oil tank through the tank port (R1). This is called the arm regeneration function.

2-30
The
The pressure in the arm cylinder head side increases

Aa

XBa 2

302-317

XBa1

(c)

Ba
257-211 Pis (a)

21092MC15

When the pressure in the arm cylinder head side and the U-shaped path increases, the arm
regeneration cut spool (257-211) is transferred in the left direction, and at the same time the
check valve (302-317) is closed by its backpressure. This shuts off the arm regeneration
function, and the return oil from the arm cylinder rod side enters from Port Aa through the
periphery hole (a) of the arm 1 spool (302) into the spool, flows to the arm regeneration cut valve
(257) through the periphery hole (c) of the arm 1 spool (302), and returns through the tank port
(R1) to the hydraulic oil tank.
When the Pilot Port Pis of the arm regeneration cut spool (257-211) is pressurized, a part of the
return oil from the arm cylinder rod side flows to the arm regeneration cut valve (257) and returns
through the tank port (R1) to the hydraulic oil tank. (Variable arm regeneration)

2-31
Arm 2 logic control valve operation

251-102
(b)
(a)
256-102
(c) (d) (e)
256-101

306

XAa 2

21092MC16

During both the arm in operation and the boom up operation, the pilot pressure enters through
Ports XBa1, XBa2, XAb1, XAb2, PaL and PnA2. The pressure PnA2 transfers the spool (251-102)
in the arm 2 logic control valve to the top direction, and the path from (a) to (b) is closed. Hereby,
the pressurized oil pushes open the poppet (256-102), passes in the path (c) and (d), enters into
the chamber (e), and the poppet (256-101) is pushed to the casing seat. Therefore, the most of
pressurized oil entering through Port P2 flows to the boom 1 spool (303) than the arm 2 spool (306)
to make the boom hoisting operation most preferential.
On the other hand, in the independent arm in operation, the pilot pressure does not enter through
Ports PnA2, and the path from (a) to (b) is not closed, and the hydraulic oil of the chamber (e) flows
to the path (a) and (b). The pressurized oil entering through Port P2 pushes open the poppet (256-
101) and flows to the arm 2 spool (306).

2-32
(3) Bucket control
Bucket in operation

Ak Bk

XAk PCk

304
21092MC17

Pilot circuit
Since the bucket spool (304) transfers and shuts off the side-bypass path, the pressure at Port Px
increases. Then, the pressure enters also through Port XBp1.
Main circuit
During the bucket in operation, the pilot pressure enters through Port XAk and transfers the bucket
spool (304) in the right direction. The pressurized oil entering through Port P2 passes through
the main path (3) and flows through the bypass circuit (2), but the bypass circuit (2) is shut off due
to transfer of the bucket spool (304). Therefore, the pressurized oil flows into the parallel circuit,
pushes open the check valve (511), and flows through the U-shaped path to the bucket spool (304).
Then, it flows through the periphery of the spool to Port Ak and is supplied to the bucket cylinder
head side.
On the other hand, the return oil from the bucket cylinder rod side enters through Port Bk, passes
around the periphery of the spool, and returns to the hydraulic oil tank through the tank port (R1).
During both the boom up operation and bucket in operation, the pilot pressure enters through
Port PCk and the bucket spool transfers in the half stroke not full stroke. Therefore, the most of
pressurized oil entering through Port P2 flows to the boom 1 spool (303) than the bucket spool
(304) to make the boom up operation most preferential.

2-33
Bucket out operation
Pilot circuit
Since the bucket spool (304) transfers and shuts off the side-bypass path, the pressure at Port
Px increases.
Main circuit
During the bucket out operation, the pilot pressure enters through Port XBk and transfers the
bucket spool (304) in the left direction. The pressurized oil entering through Port P2 passes
through the main path (3) and flows through the bypass circuit (2), but the bypass circuit (2) is
shut off due to transfer of the bucket spool (304). Therefore, the pressurized oil flows into the
parallel circuit, pushes open the check valve (511), and flows through the U-shaped path to the
bucket spool (304). Then, it flows through the periphery of the spool to Port Bk and is supplied to
the bucket cylinder rod side.
On the other hand, the return oil from the bucket cylinder head side enters through Port Ak,
passes around the periphery of the spool, and returns to the hydraulic oil tank through the tank
port (R1).

Ak Bk

XBk

304
21092MC18A

Bucket in confluence
During the bucket in operation, the pilot pressure enters also through Port XBp1 and transfers
the bypass-cut spool (313). The pressurized oil entering through Port P1 passes through the
main path (1) and flows through the bypass circuit (2), but the bypass circuit (2) is shut off due
to transfer of the bypass-cut spool (313). Therefore, the pressurized oil pushes open the check
valve CCk (514), and flows through inside path and the U-shaped path to the bucket spool (304).

2-34
(4) Swing control

XBs XAs

305

As Bs

254-101 254-102

250-102

21092MC19

Swing operation
Pilot circuit
Since the swing spool (305) transfers and shuts off the side-bypass path, the pressure at Port Px
increases.
Main circuit
During the swing operation, the pilot pressure enters through Port XAs (or XBs) and transfers the
swing spool (305). The pressurized oil entering through Port P1 passes through the main path
(1) and flows through the bypass circuit (2), but the bypass circuit (2) is shut off due to transfer of
the swing spool (305). Therefore, the pressurized oil flows into the parallel circuit, pushes open
the check valve (511), and flows through the U-shaped path to the swing spool (305). Then, it
flows through the periphery of the spool to Port As (or Bs) and is supplied to the swing motor.
On the other hand, the return oil from the swing motor enters Port Bs (or As) and returns to the
hydraulic oil tank through the tank port (R1).

Swing logic control valve operation


During both the swing operation and the boom up operation, the pilot pressure enters through
Ports XBs (or XAs), XAb1, XAb2 and Pns. The pressure Pns transfers the spool (250-102) in
swing logic control valve. Hereby, the pressurized oil pushes open the poppet (254-102), and the
poppet (254-101) is pushed to the casing seat. Therefore, the most of pressurized oil entering
through Port P1 flows to the boom 2 spool (307) than the swing spool (305) to make the boom
up operation most preferential.
On the other hand, in the independent swing operation, the pilot pressure does not enter through
Ports Pns. The pressurized oil entering through Port P1 pushes open the poppet (254-101) and
flows to the swing spool (305).

2-35
Swing operation preference function

311

Psp

21092MC20

Pilot circuit
The pilot pressure enters through Port Psp to transfer the swing priority spool (311).
Main circuit
Due to transfer of the swing priority spool (311), the open area of the swing priority spool
decreases, and the most of the pressurized oil entering through Port P1 flows to the swing side to
make the swing operation most preferential.

2-36
(5) Travel control

301

XBtr
XAtr

Atr Btr

20W92MC07

Pilot circuit
Since the travel spool (301) transfers and shuts off the side-bypass path, the pressure at Port Pw
increases.
Main circuit
When Pilot Port XBtr of the travel spool (301) is pressurized, the bypass circuit (2) in the arm 1 side
is shut off and the working fluid discharged from the hydraulic pump (A1) through Port Btr and flows
to the travel motor.
On the other hand, the return oil from the travel motor passes flows from Port Atr to the travel spool
(301) and returns to the hydraulic oil tank through the tank port (R1).
In the case of the opposite operation (when the pilot pressure is applied to Ports XAtr of the control
valve), the operation is similar.

2-37
(6) Dozer operation

AtL BtL

XBtL
XAtL

312
20W92MC08

Pilot circuit
Since the dozer spool (312) transfers and shuts off the side-bypass path, the pressure at Port Pw
increases.
Main circuit
When Pilot Port XBtL of the dozer spool (312) is pressurized, the bypass circuit (2) in the boom 1
side is shut off and the working fluid discharged from the hydraulic pump (A2) through Port BtL and
flows to the dozer cylinder rod side.
On the other hand, the return oil from the dozer cylinder rod side passes flows from Port AtL to the
dozer spool (312) and returns to the hydraulic oil tank through the tank port (R1).
In the case of the opposite operation (when the pilot pressure is applied to Ports XAtL of the control
valve), the operation is similar.

2-38
3) FUNCTION
UNCTION OF LOCK VALVE
The lock valve (252) is fitted between the arm cylinder rod side and the arm 2 spool (306). It
decreases the leakage by the pressure of the cylinder.
Another lock valve (252) is similarly fitted between the boom cylinder head side and the boom 1
spool (303). It decreases the leakage by the pressure of the cylinder.
(1) Neutral positions of spools
The following is the case of the boom 1 spool (303). (The case of the arm 2 spool (306) is in the
same way.)
During the boom 1 spool (303) is in the neutral position, the lock valve (252) is kept in the position
shown in figure. The spool (252-511) in the lock valve is pushed to the seat of the sleeve (252-
541) by the force of the spring (252-321).
In this position, the pressurized oil from the boom cylinder head side enters through the hole (a),
the periphery of the spool (252-511) in the lock valve and the hole (b), and it pushes the poppet
(513) to the casing seat, and the leakage is decreased.

252-321 252-511
252-541

(b)

513

(a)

21092MC35

2-39
(2) Boom down operation
During the boom down operation, the pilot pressure enters through Port PbL and XBb1. The pilot
pressure transfers the spool (252-511) in the lock valve assy in the top direction. By the transfer of
the spool (252-511), firstly the hole (a) is blocked and the pressurized oil from the boom cylinder
head side does not enter to the spring chamber (RH). Secondly, the oil in the spring chamber
(RH) enters through the hole (b) and flows to drain circuit. Therefore, the poppet (513) is lifted by
the pressure of the boom cylinder head side and the function of the lock valve (252) is released.

252-511

Dr (RH)
(b)
513

(a)
PbL

XBb

21092MC36

(3) Boom up operation


During the boom up operation, the pilot pressure enters through Port XAb1. The oil flowing from
the boom 1 spool pushes open the poppet (513) and flows to Port Ab.

2-40
4) Posi-Nega Conversion Valve
The posi-nega conversion valve is installed between the downstream of the center bypass path and
the low-pressure path, and functions as follows:

(1) The delivery oil (flow rate Q) from the pump is led to the path P after passing the center by-pass
path (2).
Then, it flows to the path R passing through the orifice A. On the other hand, the primary
pressure oil from the port PH flows to the port Pc1 (or Pc2) through the periphery of the spool
(511). On that occasion, the spool (511) remains to be pressed by the spring (621) if the pressure
at the path P and the pressure at the port Pc1 (or Pc2) are below the preset pressure.

A 511 621

R Dr
PH Pc
21092MC30

(2) When the flow rate Q increases and the pressure at the path P increases, the spool (511) begins
to move to the right, and so adjusts the Pc1 (or Pc2) pressure at the notches of the path B and C
that the pressure at the path P and the Pc1 (or Pc2) pressure are balanced with the spring (621)
at the set pressure. When the pressure at the path P rises, the Pc1 (or Pc2) pressure is lowered.
The relationship between the flow rate Q of the hydraulic oil flowing from the path P to the path R
and the pressure at the port Pc1 (or Pc2) is as shown in graph.

621
B 511 C
Pressure Pc

0 Flow rate Q
R Dr
PH Pc
21092MC31 21092MC34

2-41
(3) The pressure at Pc1 (or Pc2) is used for the control of pump discharge flow rate, and the pump
discharge flow rate can be reduced by lowering the Pc1 (or Pc2) port pressure.

B C

R Dr
PH Pc

21092MC32

(4) If the flow rate Q increases more than required, the spool strokes to largely open the P R line,
generating the relieving condition.

511

R Dr
PH Pc

21092MC33

2-42
5) CIRCUIT PRESSURE PROTECTION
The control valve has two kinds of relief valve to limit the pressure in a circuit.
(1) Main relief valve
The main relief valve is fitted in the P2 housing and functions as follows.

541 611 621

512 A Pz 103 614

21092MC25

The hydraulic oil is filled up in the inside space chamber (A) from the path (P) through a hole of the
seat (541) and a restriction of the plunger (512), and seats the plunger (512) against the seat (541)
securely.
When the pressure in the path (R) becomes equal to the set load of the spring (621), the poppet
(611) opens to make the hydraulic oil flow through a hole of the plug (103), around the poppet
(611) and into the low pressure path (R).
Opening of the poppet (611) causes the pressure in the chamber (A) to fall and the plunger (512)
to open. As the result the pressurized oil in the path (R) runs into the low pressure path (R) directly.
When the pressurized oil higher than pressure 30 kgf/cm2 enters through the port Pz, it pushes the
piston (614) to change the relief set pressure of the spring (621) to the high pressure.

2-43
(2) Port relief valve
The port relief valve is fitted between the cylinder port and low-pressure path. In addition to the
relief valve, this serves also as an anti-cavitation check valve, and functions as follows:
Function as relief valve
a. The pressurized oil passes through Hole A of the piston (301), is filled up in Chamber B of the
inside space, and seat the plunger (511) against the seat (541) securely.

A B

R
301 511 541

A B

R
301 511 541

A B

R
301 511 541

21092MC26

2-44
b. When the pressure in the path (P) becomes equal to the set pressure of the spring (621 or
622), the pressurized oil pushes open the poppet (611), flows around it, and flows to the low
pressure path (R) through hole C.

R
611 621

R
611 621

P FL

R
611 622

21092MC27

2-45
c. Opening of the poppet (611) causes the pressure in Chamber B to fall and the plunger (511) to
open. As the result the pressurized oil in the path (P) runs into the low pressure path (R)
directly.

R
511 611

R
511 611

P PL

R
511 611 622 624 105

21092MC28

d. When the pressurized oil higher than pressure 25 kgf/cm2 enters through the port PL, it pushes
the piston (624) to change the relief set pressure of the spring (622) to the high pressure.

2-46
Function as Anti-Cavitation Check Valve
When any negative pressure exists in the path (P), the oil is supplied through the path (R).
When the pressure at (R) becomes higher than that in the path (P), the seat (541) moves in the
right direction. Then, sufficient oil passes around the seat (541) from the path (R) to the path
(P) and prevents cavitation.

R
541

R
541

R
541

21092MC29

2-47
GROUP 3 SWING DEVICE

1. STRUCTURE
Swing device consists swing motor, swing reduction gear.
Swing motor include mechanical parking valve, relief valve, make up valve and time delay valve.

Reduction gear grease


supply port(PT 1/4) Time delay valve
Reduction gear oil
drain port(PT 1/2) Relief valve
Mu SH
SH PG DR
Au
PG
GA GB

Level gauge &


oil supply port
Reduction gear A B
air bleed port(PT 1/4)
Reduction gear Swing motor

20W92SM01

SH Port Port name Port size


PG A Main port 20
B Main port 20

Au Dr Drain port PF 1/2


Mu Make up port PF 1
PG Brake release port PF 1/4
SH Stand by port PF 1/4

Dr GA, GB Gauge port PF 1/4


Au Air vent port PF 1/4

GB GA

B Mu A
Hydraulic circuit

2-48
1) SWING MOTOR

44

DETAIL K

36
7 6 5 12 11 10 17 20 8 23 39 41 33 35 40

30
29
31

28
32
K
47

50
49
48

2 3 4 1 9 14 13 16 15 18 19 24 21 22 42 27 37 34
43 38
20W92SM02

1 Body 17 Brake piston 35 Time delay valve


2 Oil seal 18 O-ring 36 Wrench bolt
3 Roller bearing 19 O-ring 37 Plug
4 Snap ring 20 Spring 38 O-ring
5 Shaft 21 Rear cover 39 Plug
6 Bushing 22 Needle bearing 40 Plug
7 Stop ring 23 Pin 41 Plug
8 Pin 24 Valve plate 42 Name plate
9 Shoe plate 27 Wrench bolt 43 Rivet
10 Cylinder block 28 Plug 44 Level gauge
11 Spring 29 Back up ring 47 Plug
12 Ball guide 30 O-ring 48 O-ring
13 Set plate 31 Spring 49 O-ring
14 Piston assy 32 Check 50 Back up ring
15 Friction plate 33 Relief valve
16 Plate 34 Anti-inversion valve

2-49
2) REDUCTION GEAR

25 37 36 13 3 35 34 5 2 30 29 6 7 10 9 11 18 19 26 31

27
38

1 8 14 12 23 15 16 21 17 20 24 22 39

21092SM03

1 Casing 14 Thrust washer 26 Side plate 3


2 Drive shaft 15 Planet gear 2 27 Sun gear 1
3 Spacer 16 Pin & bushing 29 Plug
5 Roller bearing 17 Spring pin 30 Plug
6 Oil seal 18 Sun gear 2 31 Socket bolt
7 Roller bearing 19 Carrier 1 34 Cover plate
8 Thrust plate 20 Side plate 1 35 Hexagon bolt
9 Carrier 2 21 Pin 1 36 Lock plate
10 Stop ring 22 Needle cage 37 Hexagon bolt
11 Ring gear 23 Bushing 2 38 Stop ring
12 Knock pin 24 Planet gear 1 39 Side plate 2
13 Pinion gear 25 Lock washer

2-50
2. PRINCIPLE OF DRIVING
2.1 Generating the turning force
The high hydraulic supplied from a hydraulic pump flows into a cylinder (10) through valve casing of
motor (21), and valve plate (24).
The high hydraulic is built as flowing on one side of Y-Y line connected by the upper and lower sides of
piston (14).
The high hydraulic can generate the force, F1=PA (P : supplied pressure, A : water pressure area),
like following pictures, working on a piston.
This force, F1, is divided as N1 thrust partial pressure and W1 radial partial pressure, in case of the
plate of a tilt angle, .
W1 generates torque, T=W1+R1, for Y-Y line connected by the upper and lower sides of the piston as
following pictures.
The sum of torque (W1R1), generated from each piston (4~5 pieces) on the side of a high
hydraulic, generates the turning force.
This torque transfers the turning force to a cylinder (10) through a piston; because a cylinder is
combined with a turning axis and spline, a turning axis rotates and a turning force is sent.

W1 Pistion
Cylinder

W1
R1
N1
O A
f1 F1 P

High Y Low
pressure pressure

21078TM05

2-51
2) MAKE UP VALVE
In the system using this type of motor, there is no counter balance functioning valve and there
happens the case of revolution exceeding hydraulic supply of motor. To prevent the cavitation
caused by insufficient oil flow there is a make up valve to fill up the oil insufficiency.
A make up valve is provided immediately before the port leading to the hydraulic oil tank to secure
feed pressure required when the hydraulic motor makes a pumping action. The boost pressure
acts on the hydraulic motor's feed port via the make up valve.
Pressurized oil into the port B, the motor rotate counterclockwise.
If the plunger of MCV moves neutral position, the oil in the motor is drain via left relief valve, the
drain oil run into motor via right make up valve, which prevent the cavitation of motor.

Relief valve

Make up check valve Make up check valve

A B

21092SM04

2-52
3) RELIEF VALVE

11 1 Body
2 Seat
10
5 3 Plunger
4 Spring
6 5 Adjusting screw
7
6 Piston
7 Bushing
8
8 Spring seat
9
9 Shim
12
10 O-ring
1 11 Back up ring
3 12 O-ring
4

2
14007A2SM05

(1) Construction of relief valve


The valve casing contains two cartridge type relief valves that stop the regular and reverse
rotations of the hydraulic motor. The relief valves relieve high pressure at start or at stop of swing
motion and can control the relief pressure in two steps, high and low, in order to insure smooth
operation.

(2) Function of relief valve


Figure illustrates how the pressure acting
on the relief valve is related to its rising P P=pressure, T=time
process. Here is given the function, Ps
referring to the figure following page.
4
P2

3
P1

T
1
2-48(2)

2-53
Ports (P,R) at tank pressure.

A2 m h n g

A1
P

14007A2SM06

When hydraulic oil pressure (PA1) reaches the preset force (FSP) of spring (4), the plunger (3)
moves to the right as shown.
P1A1=Fsp+PgA2

Fsp+PgA2
P1=
A1

4 g

P=P1

14007A2SM07

2-54
The oil flow chamber g via orifice m and n. When the pressure of chamber g reaches the preset
force (FSP) of spring (4), the piston (6) moves left and stop the piston (6) hits the bottom of bushing
(7).

4 m n g

P=P2

7 6
14007A2SM08

When piston (6) hits the bottom of bushing (7), it stops moving to the left any further. As the
result, the pressure in chamber (g) equals (Ps).
PsA1=Fsp+PsA2

Fsp
Ps=
A1-A2

P=Ps

7 6 g
14007A2SM09

2-55
4) BRAKE SYSTEM
(1) Control valve swing brake system
This is the brake system to stop the swing motion of the excavator during operation.
In this system, the hydraulic circuit is throttled by the swing control valve, and the resistance
created by this throttling works as a brake force to slow down the swing motion.

Work Deceleration Stop

A B A B A B

MCV MCV MCV

MCV A, B opened MCV A, B throttled MCV A, B closed


2-48(1)

(2) Mechanical swing parking brake system


This is function as a parking brake only when all of the RCV lever (except travel pedal) are not
operated.

Brake assembly
Circumferential rotation of separate plate
(16) is constrained by the groove located
at housing (1). When housing is
20
pressed down by brake spring (20)
through friction plate (15), separate plate 10
(16) and brake piston (17), friction force 17
occurs there. 16
Cylinder block (10) is constrained by this 15
friction force and brake acts, while brake 1
Groove
releases when hydraulic force exceeds
spring force.

21092SM15

1 Housing 16 Separate plate


10 Cylinder block 17 Brake piston
15 Friction plate 20 Spring

2-56
Operating principle
a. When one of the RCV lever (1) is set to the operation position, the each spool is shifted to left
or right and the pilot oil flow is blocked. Then the pilot oil go to SH of the time delay valve (3).
This pressure moves spool (5) to the leftward against the force of the spring(8), so pilot pump
charged oil (P3) goes to the chamber G through port PG.
This pressure is applied to move the piston (16) to the upward against the force of the spring
(19). Thus, it releases the brake force.

19 5

16 G SH

PG

1 RCV lever
2 Main control valve
3 Time delay valve
5 Spool P3
8 Spring
16 Brake piston 2
19 Brake spring

20W92SM03

2-57
b. When all of the RCV lever (1) are set the neutral position, the spool (5) returns to right.
Then, the piston (16) is moved lower by spring force and the return oil from the chamber G
flows back to tank port.
At this time, the brake works.

19 5

16 G SH

PG

1 RCV lever
2 Main control valve
3 Time delay valve
5 Spool P3
8 Spring
16 Brake piston 2
19 Brake spring

20W92SM04

2-58
GROUP 4 TRAVEL MOTOR

1. CONSTRUCTION
Travel motor consists motor unit, regulator and counter balance valve.

Motor unit U T X2
M2
M3
Regulator
MB(MA )
Gext

MA MB

B, A
Y

X2
M2 T G X1 Counter balance valve
M3

Gext

B A

B A
S

S
G
X1
VIEW Y
14W92TR01

T
X2 U
Port Port name Port size
T G
A, B Main port SAE 6000psi 1"
G N.A M141.5-12
X1 Pilot pressure port M141.5-12
X2 Pilot pressure port M141.5-11.5
X1 T Drain port PF 3/4-18
M2 M3
MA MB U Flushing port PF 1/2-17
S Make up port M272.0-16
MA, MB Gauge port M181.5-12
M2, M3 Gauge port M101.0-8
Gext Brake release port M121.5-12.5
Gext.

A(fw) S B(bw)
Hydraulic circuit

2-59
1) MOTOR UNIT

1 22 8 23 24 13 26 5 29 12

9 11 10 20 21 27 25 28 30 31 17 18 32 33

200W34TM02

1 Drive shaft 17 Threaded pin 26 Piston


5 Housing 18 Seal lock nut 27 Center pin
8 Locking screw 20 Retaining ring 28 Pan head screw
9 Retaining ring 21 Back up plate 29 Steel sealing ring
10 Shaft seal ring 22 Taper roller bearing 30 Cylinder block
11 Back up plate 23 Shim 31 Pressure spring
12 O-ring 24 Taper roller bearing 32 Adjustment shim
13 Locking screw 25 Retaining plate 33 Control lens

2-60
2) REGULATOR

76 77
71 88 75
79 83
85
89 82
74
86 80 73
72
87 78 84
81
32 23
20
7
15
4
16
8
28 3
34 5 26
50

13 33
11 55
10 57
21 56
22 58
51
59
19 52
60
1 53
54
61
62

63 63

65 65
20W92TR01

1 Control housing 32 Double break off pin 71 Housing


2 Stroke limiter 33 O-ring 72 Piston
3 Port plate 34 Locking screw 73 Control piston
4 Positioning piston 50 Relief valve 74 Pressure spring
5 Positioning trunnion 51 Adjusting bushing 75 Locking screw
7 Piston 52 Cylinder pin 76 Locking screw
8 Threaded pin 53 Threaded pin 77 Socket head screw
10 Valve guide 54 Seal lock nut 78 O-ring
11 Bolt 55 Pressure spring 79 Locking screw
12 Throttle screw 56 Spring collar 80 Locking screw
13 Bushing 57 Pressure spring 81 Orifice
15 Socket head screw 58 O-ring 82 O-ring
16 Socket head screw 59 Retaining ring 83 Shim
19 O-ring 60 Control piston 84 Double break off pin
20 O-ring 61 Control bushing 85 Piston
21 O-ring 62 Retaining disc 86 Control piston
22 Back up ring 63 Locking screw 87 Pressure spring
23 Socket head screw 64 Double break off pin 88 O-ring
26 Cylinder pin 65 Double break off pin 89 Shim
28 Double break off pin 66 Socket head screw

2-61
2. TRAVEL MOTOR FUNCTION
The direction of the drive shaft rotation is dependent on which is the port, port A or port B, the
pressure oil shall be connected to.
When the pressure oil is led into the cylinder in which seven pistons are flexibly mounted in a circular
formation, pistons press the shaft and set it in rotation. One piston travels one stroke during one
rotation, which results in that oil is sucked and discharged. As each of seven pistons continuously
acts such movement in turn, the drive shaft can do rotary movement smoothly. The component of the
hydraulic force acting on the piston produces turning effect. Therefore, as the swivel angle becomes
larger, the turning effect becomes larger. In addition, as the travel angle becomes larger, the
displacement becomes larger, which results in that the operating speed becomes slower.
The control plate is connected to the control piston by means of the connecting rod, and the swivel
angle is dependent on the position of the control piston.

Fp = Swivel angle
F

Port A
F = The component of the
hydraulic force Fp Port B

Piston

Fp

Control piston

Qmin

Qmax

Connecting rod
Drive shaft Motor unit Cylinder

Control plate
14W92TR05

2-62
3. REGULATOR FUNCTION
HA function
By sensing the load, the displacement varies.
HA operation
The high pressure PH at the either side of port A or port B is selected by the shuttle valve fitted in the
counter balance valve, and it is led into the smaller diameter of the control piston and the spool.
If the circuit pressure value is lower than the pressure value at the start of swivel, the control pressure
Pc acting on the larger diameter of the control piston becomes zero, and thus the swivel angle is the
minimum. On the contrary, if the circuit pressure value is higher than the pressure value at the start of
swivel, the spool is shifted and the control pressure increases, which causes the control piston to
move toward the larger swivel angle.
The traveling speed is variable in proportion to the load pressure, by means of the function above.
When the load pressure is high, for example, at starting or at climbing a slope, the swivel angle is set
to be the maximum, and the torque is be the maximum. And as the load pressure drops down, the
swivel angle is getting smaller, which results in higher speed of traveling. When the load pressure is
low, for example, traveling on the flat, the swivel angle is set to be the minimum, which results in the
maximum speed of traveling.

Control piston
Larger diameter
PH (MPa)

Smaller diameter
Pressure at the
start of swivel

Q(cm3)
Qmin Qmax
A
PA Pc
HA characteristic
Qmin

Qmax HA adjusting
spring
PB To tank
B
PH
FAJ

A
PH
Control bushing F H = PH x A
(primary) HA servo spool
Control bushing
Control bushing
Adjusting
Adjusting screw
screw (secondary)
(secondary)

14W92TR06

2-63
4. RETARDING FUNCTION
When the travel motor operates as a pump at putting on a brake or going down a hill, it causes
braking pressure (counter pressure). By using this braking pressure, the displacement will be a little
bit larger, which results in a better braking performance. We call that retarding function.
Because there are some concerns that the cavitation occurs when the variation of the displacement
is large, it is necessary to select the proper displacement (Qmid) with considering the conditions and
the feeling over the real machine.
In running at port A pressurized (Fig TR07), the pressure at port MB becomes a high pressure at the
brake. When that pressure exceeds the setting pressure of the switching valve , the switching valve
shifts and the high pressure line connects with port M2. This causes the control piston to move
toward the larger swivel angle and thus the displacement becomes a middle displacement (Qmid)
(Fig TR08). In this case, the pressure at port X2 is unloaded.
We recommend that the pressure at the start of swivel be about 2 MPa lower than the setting
pressure of the switching valve and the setting pressure of relief valve be about 4 MPa higher than
the setting pressure of the switching valve . Furthermore, by pressurizing port X2, the switching
valve is kept off-state and the displacement doesnt changes (Fig TR09).
: The switching valve has the function to select the displacement in proportion to the gear ratio
(first gear or second gear), by pressurizing port X2, the switching valve becomes on-state and the
minimum displacement at first gear is selected.

1) IN RUNNING : Port X2 : unloaded

X1

G
U T MB Gext.

B(bw)

Switching valve 1
A(fw)
MA
M3
M2

X2
Switching valve 2
14W92TR07

2-64
2) IN BRAKING : Port X2 : unloaded

X1

G
U T MB Gext.

B(bw)

Switching valve 1
A(fw)

M3 MA
M2

X2
Switching valve 2
14W92TR08

3) IN BRAKING : Port X2 : pressurized

X1

G
U T MB Gext.

B(bw)

Switching valve 1
A(fw)

M3 MA
M2

X2
Switching valve 2
14W92TR09

2-65
GROUP 5 RCV LEVER

1. STRUCTURE
The casing has the oil inlet port P (primary pressure) and the oil outlet port T (tank). In addition the
secondary pressure is taken out through ports 1, 2, 3 and 4 provided at the bottom face.

23.3 Switches
No. LH RH
5 One touch decel Horn
6 Power boost Breaker
5

B
6
19
25
Single
operation Simultaneous
operation DETAIL B

Tilted direction of
handle(RH)

1 P

T Tilted direction of
connector(LH, RH)
2 3

Tilted direction of
handle(LH)

VIEW A

A
Port LH RH Port size

P P Pilot oil inlet port Pilot oil inlet port


T
T Pilot oil return port Pilot oil return port
1 Left swing port Bucket out port
PF 1/4
2 Arm in port Boom down port
3 Right swing port Bucket in port
4 Arm out port Boom up port
1 3 2 4
Hydraulic circuit
21092RL01

2-66
CROSS SECTION
The construction of the pilot valve is shown in the attached cross section drawing. The casing has
vertical holes in which reducing valves are assembled.
The pressure reducing section is composed of the spool (4), spring (6) for setting secondary pres-
sure, return spring (10), stopper (8), spring seat (7, 13) and shim (5). The spring for setting the sec-
ondary pressure has been generally so preset that the secondary pressure is 5 to 20.5 kgf/cm2
(depending on the type). The spool is pushed against the push rod (9, 11) by the return spring.
When the push rod is pushed down by tilting the handle, the spring seat comes down simultaneously
and changes setting of the secondary pressure spring.

2-67
CROSS SECTION

23
25

26

24

22

21
9
19
20 16
17,27
18
14
11 15
8
7
28 10
6
13
5
12
4

3
1
2
Port 1,3 Port 2,4
32092RL01

1 Case 8 Stopper 15 O-ring 22 Lock nut


2 Plug 9 Push rod 16 Rod seal 23 Handle assembly
3 Bushing 10 Spring 17 Plate 24 Handle bar
4 Spool 11 Push rod 18 Boot 25 Nut
5 Shim 12 Spring 19 Joint assembly 26 Boot
6 Spring 13 Spring seat 20 Swash plate 27 Spring pin
7 Spring seat 14 Plug 21 Adjusting nut 28 Bushing

2-68
2. FUNCTIONS
1) FUNDAMENTAL FUNCTIONS
The pilot valve is a valve that controls the spool stroke, direction, etc of a main control valve. This
function is carried out by providing the spring at one end of the main control valve spool and apply-
ing the output pressure (secondary pressure) of the pilot valve to the other end.
For this function to be carried out satisfactorily, the pilot valve is composed of the following ele-
ments.
(1) Inlet port (P) where oil is supplied from hydraulic pump.
(2) Output ports (1, 2, 3 & 4) to apply pressure supplied from inlet port to ends of control valve spools.
(3) Tank port (T) necessary to control the above output pressure.
(4) Spool to connect output port to inlet port or tank port.
(5) Mechanical means to control output pressure, including springs that work on the above spools.
2) FUNCTIONS OF MAJOR SECTIONS
The functions of the spool (4) are to receive the supply oil pressure from the hydraulic pump at its
port P, and to change over oil paths to determine whether the pressure oil of port P is led to output
ports 1, 2, 3 & 4 or the output port pressure oil to tank port T.
The spring (6) works on this spool to determine the output pressure.
The change the deflection of this spring, the push rod (9,11) is inserted and can slide in the plug
(14).
For the purpose of changing the displacement of the push rod through the swash plate (20) and
adjusting nut (21) are provided the handle (23) that can be tilted in any direction around the fulcrum
of the universal joint (19) center.
The spring (10) works on the case (1) and spring seat (7, 13) and tries to return the push rod
(9,11) to the zero-displacement position irrespective of the output pressure, securing its resetting to
the center position.
This also has the effect of a reaction spring to give appropriate control feeling to the operator.

2-69
3) OPERATION
The operation of the pilot valve will be described on the basis of the hydraulic circuit diagram
shown below and the attached operation explanation drawing.
The diagram shown below is the typical application example of the pilot valve.

5 6

3
1
3
P T

2 4

2-70

1 Pilot valve 3 Main pump 5 Hydraulic motor


2 Pilot pump 4 Main control valve 6 Hydraulic cylinder

2-70
(1) Case where handle is in neutral position

10

T 6

1 3

21092RL03

The force of the spring (6) that determines the output pressure of the pilot valve is not applied to
the spool (4). Therefore, the spool is pushed up by the spring (10) to the position of port (1, 3) in
the operation explanation drawing. Then, since the output port is connected to tank port T only,
the output port pressure becomes equal to tank pressure.

2-71
(2) Case where handle is tilted

11

1 3

21092RL04

When the push rod (11) is stroked, the spool (4) moves downwards.
Then port P is connected with port (1) and the oil supplied from the pilot pump flows through port
(1) to generate the pressure.
When the pressure at port (1) increases to the value corresponding to the spring force set by tilt-
ing the handle, the hydraulic pressure force balances with the spring force. If the pressure at port
(1) increases higher than the set pressure, port P is disconnected from port (1) and port T is con-
nected with port (1). If it decreases lower than the set pressure, port P is connected with port (1)
and port T is disconnected from port 1.
In this manner the secondary pressure is kept at the constant value.
Besides, in some type, when the handle is tilted more than a certain angle, the upper end of the
spool contacts with the inside bottom of the push rod and the output pressure is left to be con-
nected with port P.

2-72
GROUP 6 ACCELERATOR PEDAL

1. STRUCTURE
The casing has the oil inlet port P (primary pressure), and the oil return port T (tank). In addition the
secondary pressure is taken out through port A.

25

42

T
P

17032RP01

Port Port name Port size


P Pilot oil inlet port
T T Pilot oil return port PF 1/4
A
A Pilot oil output port
P

Hydraulic circuit

17032RP01(2)

2-73
GROUP 7 BRAKE PEDAL (VALVE)

1. STRUCTURE
The casing (spacer) has the oil inlet port A (primary pressure), and the oil outlet port T (tank). In
addition the secondary pressure is taken out through ports 1,2, 3 and 4 provided at the bottom face.

18
17-2
19
20
17
17-1
17-4
23
17-3
21
26 25
28 22
27 29
24
15
5 16
8 2
9 T1 30
31 BL1 29
32 P1 3
12 BR1
7 1
11 T2 BL2
13 14
P2 6
BR2
10
4 14W92BV01

1 Lower body 13 Spring Guide 21 Lock pin 1


2 Upper body 14 Snap ring 22 Lock pin 2
3 Spool 15 DU bushing 23 Torsion spring 1
4 Plug 16 Pedal plate 24 Torsion spring 2
5 Holder 17 Pedal assy 25 Retainer ring
6 Lower spring 17-1 Pedal 26 E-ring
7 Upper spring 17-2 Lock plate 27 Hex bolt
8 Main spring 17-3 Hex bolt 28 Hex nut
9 Spring retainer 17-4 Plain washer 29 Socket head bolt
10 O-ring 18 Pedal cover 30 Spring washer
11 O-ring 19 Latch 31 Plat washer
12 Oil seal 20 Bellows 32 Retainer ring

Port Port name Port size


P1 Port
P2 Port
BR1 Brake cylinder port
BL1 BR2 Brake cylinder port
T1
BR1 PF 3/8
P1 BL1 Pluging
BL2 Pluging
T1 Drain port
T2 Drain port
BL2
T2
BR2 P2
14W72BV02

2-74
2. FUNCTION
1) PURPOSE
The purpose of the brake valve is to sensitively increase and decrease the braking pressure when
the brake pedal is actuated.
2) READY POSITION
When the braking system is ready for operation, its accumulator pressure acts directly on port P1/
P2 of the brake valve. A connection is established between ports BR1/BR2 and port T1/T2 so that
the wheel brakes ports BR1/BR2 are pressureless via the returns ports T1/T2.
3) PARTIAL BRAKING
When the brake valve is actuated, an amount of hydraulic pressure is output as a ratio of the foot
force applied.
The spring assembly (8) beneath pedal plate (16) is designed in such a way that the braking
pressure changes depending on the angle. In the lower braking pressure range, the machine can
be slowed sensitively.
When the braking process is commenced, the upper spool (3) is mechanically actuated via spring
assembly (8), and the lower spool (3) is actuated hydraulically by spool (3). As spools (3) move
downward, they will first close returns T1/T2 via the control edges, thus establishing a connection
between accumulator port P1/P2 and ports BR1/BR2 for the wheel brake cylinders. The foot force
applied now determines the output braking pressure. The control spools (3) are held in the control
position by the force applied (spring assembly) above the spools and the hydraulic pressure below
the spool (balance of forces).
After output of the braking pressure, spools (3) are in a partial braking position, causing ports P1/
P2 and T1/T2 to close and holding the pressure in ports BR1/BR2.
4) FULL BRAKING POSITION
When pedal (17) is fully actuated, an end position of the brakes is reached and a connection
established between accumulator ports P1/P2 and brake cylinder ports BR1/BR2. Returns T1/T2
are closed at this point.
When the braking process ended, a connection is once again established between brake cylinder
ports BR1/BR2 and return ports T1/T2, closing accumulator ports P1/P2.
The arrangement of spools in the valve ensures that even if one braking circuit fails the other
remains fully operational. This is achieved by means of the mechanical actuation of both spools
and requires slightly more pedal travel.
5) LIMITING THE BRAKING PRESSURE
Pedal restriction screw (29) on pedal plate (16) below pedal (17) is used to limit the braking
pressure.
6) FAILURE OF A CIRCUIT
In the event of the lower circuit failing, the upper circuit will remain operational. Spring assembly
(8) will mechanically actuate spool (3). In the event of the upper circuit failing, the lower circuit will
remain operational since the lower spool (3) is mechanically actuated by spring assembly (8) and
spool (3).

2-75
GROUP 8 TRANSMISSION

1. STRUCTURE

Breather(EN)
Lubrication pressure(S)

Y
Pressure relief
valve(UN)

Gauge port(Low speed, M)


Gauge port(High speed, J)

Oil filler hole Oil drain hole


Oil level check
Shift pressure port(Low speed, P2)
Shift pressure port(High speed, P1)
K B
High speed breather(EB)
Low speed breather(EK)

VIEW X

VIEW Y
20W92TM01

2-76
2. TRANSMISSION DIAGRAM

P
Pressure valve
M
Gearshift valve

Shift modulation valve T


B K M2 M1

K B Rotary
Upper chassis/undercarriage

S
K B
M Gearshift piston

J Check valve
EB Change over
check valve
EK Nab
LB Leakage check
valve
Pressure limiting
valve

LK
Pump for lube oil &
control pressure shift interlock

= Pressure line transmission control


= Tank line transmission control
UN Output = Lubrication pressure
Output
= Suction line lube oil pump
PN = Transmission lubrication oil
S = Emergency actuation parking brake
EN
14W7A2TM02

Measuring points-Transmission/Shift interlock : Measuring points-Valve block :


J : High speed (brake) M : System pressure transmission control
M : Low speed (clutch)
S : Lubrication pressure Connections-Valve block :
P : System pressure transmission control
Connections-Transmission/Shift interlock : T : Tank
B : Brake B : Brake
K : Clutch K : Clutch
PN : Emergency actuation parking brake
Solenoid valves-valve block :
M1 : Solenoid valve (low speed)
M2 : Solenoid valve (high speed)

Port Name Size Port Name Size


P1 (B) Shift pressure, High speed M161.5 M Gauge port, Low speed M101.0
P2 (K) Shift pressure, Low speed M161.5 S Lubrication pressure port M101.0
J Gauge port, High speed M101.0 PN Parking brake lubricant Grease nipple

2-77
3. OPERATION OF TRANSMISSION
1) DESCRIPTION

1 2 3 4 5 6 11

INPUT

OUTPUT OUTPUT

10 9 8
14W7A2TM03

1 Cup spring 5 Planetary drive 9 Output flange-Front axle


2 Input shaft 6 Lub oil pump 10 Travel motor attachment
3 Disk brake 7 Spur gear drive 11 Shift interlock
4 Disk clutch 8 Output flange-Rear axle

Coaxially-mounted variable displacement travel motor (10) with specific displacement 107 cm3/rev.
The 2-speed powershift transmission comprises a planetary drive (5), a 2 shaft spur gear drive (7)
with output flanges to front and rear axle.
The powershift mechanism for the planet drive comprises a rotating multi-disk clutch (4) underneath
a multi-disk brake (3) rigidly connected to the housing. Both are closed by spring pressure (2) and
released hydraulically.
The shift interlock (11) prevents downshifts at high machine speeds and thus prevents over-rotation
of the travel motor. If the low speed gear is selected while the high speed gear is engaged and input
speed is above approx. 1000rpm, the low speed gear shift is inhibited and only performed if input
speed is below this limit. With higher viscosity oil (cold starting), the downshift is performed at a
lower input speed. Upshifts are always possible.The speed-dependent interlock is effective in both
directions. It does not prevent the possibility of over-rotation when the machine is coasting. For this,
a drive brake valve should be fitted to the travel motor.

2-78
2) LOW SPEED (forward & reverse)

Ring gear Planetary carrier

Low speed
pilot pressure
applied

P1(B)
INPUT
P2(K)

Spur gear 1
Spring
Spur gear 2

Piston Clutch
Brake
OUTPUT OUTPUT

14W7A2TM04

In low speed operation, the internal gear of the planetary drive is backing upon the closed, case-
rigid brake. In this speed the piston chamber of the brake is unpressurized, so that the elastic force
and additionally the hydraulic pressure of the clutch piston is acting upon the disk pack.
At this time the clutch is open, i.e. the hydraulic released.

2-79
3) HIGH SPEED (forward & reverse)

Ring gear Planetary carrier

High speed pilot


pressure applied

P1(B)
INPUT
P2(K)

Spur gear 1
Spring
Spur gear 2

Piston Clutch
Brake
OUTPUT OUTPUT

14W7A2TM05

In high speed operation, the clutch is held closed under spring pressure and the brake is
hydraulically opened.
When a gear shift occurs-for example from high speed to low speed gear- the oil from the brake
piston space is fed back to the tank through a restrictor (change over check valve) due to the spring
pressure acting on the brake piston. At the same time the clutch is filled with oil and opened.
Required oil flow is necessary for the transmission control to ensure the clutch is open before the
brake begins to transmit torque.
A shift modulation valve is also integrated in the transmission. This modulates the pressure
sequence at the brake during a upshift in order to achieve good shift quality.
The gear shift equipment also has the function of a parking brake. When the brake is operated-for
example with high speed gear engaged-the clutch is closed and is statically loaded.

2-80
4) BRAKES

Travel high & low speed


pilot pressure not applied

P1(B)

P2(K)

OUTPUT OUTPUT

14W7A2TM06

When the travel high/low speed pilot pressure is not applied in the piston space, the piston
compress against the multi disk pack due to the spring force. Thus the parking brake is engaged.

2-81
4. TECHNICAL DATA
1) GENERAL DATA
(1) Max input power : 110 kW
(2) Max input torque : 78.5 kgfm
(3) Max output speed : 3500 rpm
(4) Hydraulic motor : 140 cm3/rev
(5) Transmission ratio
Gear step : 4.06
Low speed gear : 4.87
High speed gear : 1.20
(6) Shift interlock
Downshift possible at operating temperature with input speed 1000rpm (downshift point lower when
oil temperature cold).
(7) Disconnection device
For towing away machine auxiliary release device for parking brake.
(8) Brake
Parking brake. Necessary brake deceleration by controlled locking of planetary drive. Braking
torque depends on opening pressure set at brake valve (13 bar).
(9) Output flange
Bolts for propshaft connection : M101.0 (class 10.9)
(10) Transmission weight : 135kg
2) TRANSMISSION CONTROL
Following data are valid for oil temperature 30C to 40C in hydraulic tank, measured at connections
at powershift transmission (see structure and diagram).
(1) Control pressure
At connection P1 and P2 at Low/High engine speed : 33+1 kgf/cm2
Definition of lubricants : API GL-5, SAE 10W-30, 15W-40
(2) Oil flow
Min oil flow at 24+1 kgf/cm2 counter pressure (low engine speed) : 5.5/min
Max oil flow : 25/min
(3) Residual pressure
Max residual pressure in control line to tank connection P1 and P2 : 1.0 kgf/cm2
(4) Leakage oil transmission control
Pressure in input housing connection (E) max : 1.0 kgf/cm2
Max oil flow (low speed actuated) : 1/min

2-82
GROUP 9 TR
TRAVEL
AVEL CONTROL VALVE

1. STRUCTURE

CT2

CT1

T
TRAVEL
PILOT TP
AC1

M1 CT3

CH

M2

14W7A2TCV02

AC1 M2

1.2 Port name Port size


M1 P, T, AC1 PF 1/2
CT3 TP PF 3/8
CT2
M1, M2, CH PF 1/4
P
TP
(TRAVEL
PILOT) T

CT1

CH (CHOCK)

Hydraulic circuit

2-83
2. COMPONENT

4 7

7
AC1

M1 6
CT3
T

1
1
CT
2
CT

7 7

2, 5

14W7A2TCV01

1 Body 5 Coil
2 Solenoid valve 6 Orifice
3 POD valve 7 Plug
4 Check valve

2-84
GROUP 10 STEERING VALVE

1. STRUCTURE

Section A-A

L R
T P
A A

17032SV01

L R

Port Port name Port size


L Left port
R Right port
3/4-16UNF
T Tank port
P Pump port

P T

Hydraulic circuit
17032SV01(1)

2-85
2. COMPONENTS

26

26

2
25
2
1
24
27
29
5
2 6
7

9 3 8
4
2
2

12
2

11
10
13
14

15
16 18
21
15
16
17
18
20
20W72STV01

1 Dust seal 10 Spacer 18 Washer


2 Housing, spool, sleeve 11 Shaft 20 Pin screw
3 Ball 12 Spring set 21 Screw
4 Bushing 13 O-ring 24 Pressure relief valve
5 O-ring 14 Distributor plate 25 Wire spring
7 Bearing assy 15 Gear wheel set 26 Shock valve
8 Ring 16 O-ring 27 Ball
9 Cross pin 17 End cover 29 Bushing

2-86
GROUP 11 AXLE

1. OPERATION
The power from the engine passes through main pump, travel motor and transmission and drive
shafts, and is then sent to the front and rear axles.
Inside the axles, the power passes from the bevel pinion to the bevel gear and is sent at right angles.
At the same time, the speed is reduced and passes through the both differentials to the axle shafts.
The power of the axle shafts is further reduced by planetary-gear-type final drives and is sent to the
wheels.
1) FRONT AXLE

Oil filler/level check/ Brake line port


drain port (M14x1.5)

Planetary gear A Differential gear


Oil filler & level check port
Grease nipple

Outer steering angle 24.5

Inner steering angle 35

Brake breather Oil drain port VIEW A

20W7A2AX01

2) REAR AXLE

Oil filler/level check/


drain port B

Planetary gear Differential gear


Brake breather
Oil filler & level check port

Oil drain port


Brake line port
(M14x1.5) VIEW B
20W7A2AX01A

2-87
2. SECTION OF DIFFERENTIAL

11 2 3 1 8 7

10 10a 4

17W7A2AX02

1 Drive pinion
2 Differential (with crown wheel)
3 Shim for contact pattern (bevel gear set)
4 Spacer ring (bearing rolling moment / pinion bearing)
5 Shim for backlash
6 Shim (bearing rolling moment / differential bearing)
7 Input flange
8 Seal ring
9 Axle drive housing
10 Axle housing
10a O-ring
11 Axle housing (crown wheel side)

2-88
3. DIFFERENTIAL

Rear axle

Differential

Front axle

17W7A2AX03

The differential is installed on the front and rear axle to transfer the driving torque from the axle to
the wheels. The differential transfers half of the output torque of the transmission via the universal
drive shaft to the planetary gear of the wheel hubs and transfers the rpm and torque from the gear
via the pinion and the ring.
In addition, the differential also servers as an equalizer when going around curves. If the
mechanical connection from the transmission to the universal drive shaft, differential, shaft, and
planetary gears to the wheels would be rigid, every steering movement would strain the axle
construction and would result in increased tire wear.
The equalizing function comes from the special construction of the differential. The power input
from the input flange to the pinion shaft, ring and differential housing to the equalizing axle in the
differential housing meshes the four equalizing tapered gears with the axle gears, which are
located in the equalizing axles. This changes the relative direction of rotation between the shafts
meshed with the side gears. This means that one shaft turns clockwise and the other
counterclockwise, and one shaft turns faster than the other.
This balancing movement has the disadvantage that when traveling off road, traction is reduced on
uneven ground, on loose ground or on snow or ice only wheel per axle is engaged. This
disadvantage can be corrected in part by installing a self locking differential.

2-89
4. FINAL DRIVE
1) FRONT AXLE

1 3 2

17W7A2AX04

1 Joint fork 2 Planetary gear 3 Ring gear

(1) To gain a large drive force, the final drive uses a planetary gear system to reduce the speed and
send drive force to the tires.
(2) The power transmitted from the differential through joint fork (1) is transmitted to planetary
gear(2). The planetary gear rotates around the inside of a fixed ring gear (3) and in this way
transmits rotation at a reduced speed to the planetary carrier.
This power is then sent to the wheels which are installed to the planetary carriers.

2-90
2) REAR AXLE

1 3 2

17W7A2AX05

1 Sun gear shaft 2 Planetary gear 3 Ring gear

(1) To gain a large drive force, the final drive uses a planetary gear system to reduce the speed and
send drive force to the tires.
(2) The power transmitted from the differential through sun gear shaft (1) is transmitted to planetary
gear(2). The planetary gear rotates around the inside of a fixed ring gear (3) and in this way
transmits rotation at a reduced speed to the planetary carrier.
This power is then sent to the wheels which are installed to the planetary carriers.

2-91
5. TIRE AND WHEEL

17032TI01

1 Wheel rim 3 Flap 5 Stone resister ring


2 Tire 4 Tube 6 Valve assembly

1) The tire acts to absorb the shock from the ground surface to the machine, and at the same time
they must rotate in contact with the ground to gain the power which drives the machine.

2) Various types of tires are available to suit the purpose. Therefore it is very important to select the
correct tires for the type of work and bucket capacity.

2-92

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