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wdjqo" WmlrK" ksuejq" mqoa.

,
wdrlaIdj yd kv;a;= lghq;=
05

5'1 rEmh

bls ;dlaIKfoh mq`M,a Ihh lafIa;%hls' O bls i|yd ksoiqka


f,i f.dvke.s,s" md," uydud." h ud." wf.S ud." c,dY" f,s" l=kq
i|yka l< yels h' tla tla lafIa;% i|yd iqfYaI wdjqo" WmlrK Nd; f'
bls lafIa;%fha wuqjH f,i j" f,day" f.dvke.s,s jH" ,s yd c, k<
Wmdx. nyq, j Nd; flfrhs' fuu tallfha fmdf Nd; lrk wdjqo WmlrK
ksuejq yd mqoa., wdrlaIdj ms<sn| j wjOdkh fhduq flf'

75 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


wdjqo yd WmlrK

wdjqo ^Tools&

h;=;,h kshka w;alsh;


Cutting iron Chisel Hand saw

5'2 rEmh

lemSfuka fldgia fjka lsu i|yd Nd; lrk oE wdjqo k f' lsh;"
kshk" h;=;, Bg ksoiqka lSmhla f' kej; kej; uqjy;a lrka Nd; l< yels
h'
WmlrK ^Equipment&



jeoa lrduh uq ugu w`vq h
"T" Cramp Try Square Claw hammer

5'3 rEmh

lemSula is fkdjk ldhkaj, Nd; jk oE WmlrK k f' uq`M


ugu" jeoa lrdu" Bg ksoiqka lSmhla f,i i|yka l< yels h'

5'4 rEmh - mekai, yd w;fld`Mj Nd;h

76 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


ksmo lghq;= i|yd ms;r Wmfhda.s lr .ekSfuka
ldhh myiq u
ksIamdokj, ;r.ld;ajh we;su
ldhlaIu;dj je u
mfhaIK ugfuka ls%hd;aul l< yelsu
m%fhda.sl u
kj fidhd .ekS i|yd odhl u
wod< wjYH;dj imqrd .; yelsu
ho wvqlr .ekSu

;dlaIKfha hqKqj iu by; lreKq w;ka tlla fyda lsysmhla u; kj


ksmo isjk neka Nd;fha mj;sk im%odhsl wdjqo yd WmlrK bj;a u;a
kj wdjqo yd WmlrK Nd;hg tla u;a is f'

Nd;fhka bj;a fjka mj;sk wdjqo$WmlrK


wj.drh kq lsh; /p nqreuh
Auger Bow saw Ratchet Brace

;gq h;a; ;yvq lsh; nqreu lgq


Rebaate plane Tenon saw Bits use with hand brace
5'5 rEmh

j;udkfha kj wdjqo$WmlrK ckms%h jqjo , wvqu" iuyr WmlrK


;udg u myiqfjka ksmojd .; yels u" .=l,a meje;au" r`M Nd;hg iqiq u jeks
fya;= u; iq`M jYfhka ldl lafIa;%fha kshq;= wh" fkdaoh i|yd fuu lafIa;%fha
w;ayod ne,S lrkakka yd ,s myiql fkdue;s Ialr m%foaYj, ldl Ys,amSka
idm%odhsl wdjqo yd WmlrK ;jrg;a Nd; lrkq olakg ,ef'

77 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


wdjqo yd WmlrK ksIamdokh
Nd; lrk l%uh wkqj wdjqo yd WmlrK ldKav follg fjka flf'

01' w;a wdjqo (Hand tools)


w;a .sks., w;a hka;%h ug h;a; ij,
Hand grinder Hand drill Wooden try plane Shovel
5'7 rEmh

02' n,f. wdjqo (Power tools)


nyq ldh ,S jev hka;%h ,s w;a hka;%h dj celal=j weka.,a .%hskavrh


Wood working machine Electric Hand drill Hydraulic jack Angle grinder

5'6 rEmh

n,f. wdjqo ls%hdlsu i|yd nyq, jYfhka"

m%;Hj; Odrd ,sh ^.afida nyqldh ,S jev hka;%h" ,s


hka;%h&
ir, Odrd ,sh - DC Current ^weka.,a .%hskav&
j mSvkh ^dj celal=j&
imS; jd;h hka;%h i|yd o fhdod .kshs'

78 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


mss;r (Specifications)

h fohla iqfYaI lr laug fyda" tjekakla ksjer j ykd f;dard .ekSu


i|yd fYaI lr olajk lreKq ms;r f,i yekaf' my; i|yka ms;r i|yd
idudkHfhka fhdod .kq ,nhs' h ksIamdokhl wjYH;d iia;rd;aul j lau
ms;r f,i yekah yels h' WodyrK jYfhka ksIamdofha"
kq ksudj <
jH yevh j.h
ldhlaIu;dj
wdh lah yels h'

ksKdhl
.
ksIamd; jH
nr
yevh
ksudj ^ler<sj, r`M nj" ishq nj&
ldhlaIu;dj
f yer iuyr g ksIamd; rg ms<sn| j ie,ls,a,g .kq ,nhs'
ykd.;a ksjer ms;r wkqj wdjqo WmlrK f;dard .ekSfuka ,efnk
m%;s,dN lsysmhls'

01' ldh ksjer j l< yels u'


02' ldh jvd;a myiq u'
03' ld,h b;s u'
04' w,xldr Wiia ksudjka ,nd.ekSug yels u'
05' wk;=re je<lSu'
06' Wiia m%;sfhka hq;= ksujqula ,eu'

79 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


wdjqo $ WmlrK Nd;fha ms;r i,ld ne,Su'

wdjqo $ WmlrKh ms;r


w;a lsh;a ^Hand saws& lemsh hq;= lemqu ^udxYh .g"
udxYh yryg&
lemsh hq;= ,Sfha .eUqr$,Sfha
.klu
lshf;a .
,sg 25 g ^w,lg we;s ;s
w;a lsh; .Kk&
Hand saw

nKa lsh;
Cross cut saw

;yvq lsh;
Tenon saw
5'8 rEmh

mS ^Files& mSf ." yrialv yevh" nf|ys o;a


^ler<s& lmd we;s wdldrh' ^r`M" uo
r`M" isiq wd f,i&

O yeve;s mS
Files shapes
5'9 rEmh

80 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


me;,s kshk iEysh hq;= ia:dkh $ wdldrh
f.,a kshk yeh hq;= ia:dkh $ .eUqr
;,fha yevh
mg kshk
;,fha m<,
fndl= kshk

kshka
Chisels
5'10 rEmh
iajdNdl .,a ^wdlkaidia&
lD;s%u .,a ^ldn/kav .,a&

je,s ., fi ksue hka;%h


Sand stone Bench grinder
5'11 rEmh

lrk ldhfha r`M" uD nj'


.eUqre $ fkd.eUqre nj'
wuqjH ^j" jdfka" weksh"
fldkalS%&

f.,a kshk lgq


Mortise chisel Drill bits

5'12 rEmh

Nd;h
wdjqo yd WmlrK j.SlrKh lsf tajdfha Nd;h wkqj j. lsu
jvd;a ksjer f' O fmd;a m;aj, o" wdh;kj, o" ld,fhka ld,hg O
j.SlrKhla olakg ,ef' j;udkh jk g wdjqo WmlrK ldKav yhla hgf;a
f.dkqlr ;sfnkq olakg ,ef'

81 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


uekSf i,l=Kq lsf WmlrK
lemSf" ;ekSf wdjqo WmlrK
ilsf yd .e<f WmlrK
w,a,d .ekSf yd ord isf WmlrK
bls lghq;= i|yd Wmfhda.S lr.kakd wdjqo WmlrK
uqjy;a ;eu i|yd fhdod.kakd wdjqo yd WmlrK

lemSf yd iEysf wdjqo WmlrK

wdjqo $ WmlrKh ms;r $ ldhh


w;a lsh; . fika grhg we;s o;a .Kk
(Hand saw) wkqj j. lr we;'
j fldgia fjkalr .ekSu i|yd
Nd; lrkq ,ef'
jhg ^450 jk fia & wdk; jk f,i
lsh; msysgqjd lemSu l< hq;= f'
5'13 rEmh
;yvq lsh; j uQgq ls i|yd Bg wod< fya;a;=
(Tenon saw) lmd .ekSug Nd; flf'

5'14 rEmh
f,day lsh; f,day o`vq" ng" l= fldgiaj,g
(Hacksaw) fjkalr .ekSu i|yd Nd;hg .kq
,nhs'
;,h ilr .ekSf;a lsh; Nd;
lsf;a ie,ls,su;a h hq;= h'

5'15 rEmh
;yvq l;=r ;=kS f,day ;yvq" ;=kS P.V.C ;yvq
(Snip) fuka u fmd,siagka ;=kS ;yvq lmd
.ekSug o Nd; lrkq ,ef'
W ;, ;yvq l;=r" jla;, ;yvq
l;=r" fmd ;, ;yvq l;=r" iafld
;yvq l;=r hkqfjka j. lsysmhla
5'16 rEmh we;'

82 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


hka;% (Drill machines) l=vd m%udKfha isre u i|yd
Wmfhda.s lr.kq ,ef'
wjYH isf YalNhg wkqj
lgq udre lr .; yelsh'
,s n,fhka iy w;ska ls%hd;aul
lrk hka;% Nd;fha mj;S'

w;a hka;%h (Hand drill)

lgq (Drll bits)

,s w;a hka;%h
(Electric hand drill)
5'17 rEmh

83 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


h;= j. ,Shl fyda ,E,a,l u;=msg iu
ugug ilia lr .ekSug h;= Nd;
lrhs'
h;= .d .; hq;= m%udKh yd
wjYH;djg wkqj ldh lr.; yels
h;= j. Nd;fha mj;S'
oE; Nd;fhka ls%hdlrk w;a h;=
ug h;a; (Trying plane)
yd ,sfhka ls%hdlrk h;= f,i
ksmo f'
udr h;a;" ug h;a;" leg h;a;"
;gq h;a;" fndro h;a;" msysh
h;a; idm%odhsl h;= w;r Nd;
f'

;gq h;a; (Rabaet plane)

msyshd h;a; (Spokeshave)

f,day h;a; (Block plane)


5'18 rEmh

84 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


j NdKav ksIamdokfha jj, odr
yd mDIaG u; ldKq ydrd .ekSu yev
.d .ekSug .kq ,ef'

sO fndro h;=
(Moulding planes)

j .d .ekSu i|yd Nd;hg .; yels


WmlrKhls' ,sfhka ls%hdlrhs'

,s h;a; ^Electric plane&

j NdKavj, odr .d .ekSu" fndro


.d .ekSu yd la,eka fnda lmd
.ekSu iy O yev lmd .ekSug
Nd;hg .kshs'

rjqgrh (Router)
5'19 rEmh

85 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


,Sj, odr jl% yev ilid .ekSug;a
." rn wdh .Eug;a rdiaih Nd;
flf'
o;aj, iajNdjh wkqj j. lsysmhla
;sf'

5'20 rEmh - rdiamh (Rasp)

me;,s kshk
,Sj, isre u" iEySu" lg lemSu
f.,a kshk i|yd .; yels h'
mg kshk kshk Nd;fha w; fldjla o
fndl= kshk Nd; l< hq;= h'
wjYH;dj wkqj f;dard .ekSug
kshka j. Nd;fha we;'

5'21 rEmh - kshka (Chisels)

86 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


ilsf yd .e<f wdjqo WmlrK

wdjqoh $ WmlrKh ms;r


bial=remamq weK ysia O wdldrhg ksmojkq
,nhs'
O ysi iys; bial=remamq kshka j. 28 la
muK kg fjf<|fmdf,a olakg ,ef'
nyq, j me;,s bial=remamq kshk yd ms,smaia
bial=remamq kshk ^u,a bial=remamq kshk&
O yeve;s bial=remamq Nd; f'
weK ysi

bial=remamq kshka j.
(Screw drivers)
5'22 rEmh

wjysr fkdjq ia:dkj, msys fmdg weK fyda


tajdfha uq ;o lsug fyda nqre,a lsug
.kq ,ef'
O h;=re fjf<| fmdf<a we;s w;r nyq,
jYfhka hdka;%sl jevj, Nd;hg .kshs'

fofldk h;=r
(Open wrench)
5'23 rEmh

87 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


k ,o isrlg .e<fmk fmdma h
weKhla fhdod h hka;%fhka weKfha
l+r wefuka weKfha fnda, fldgi ysr
weKh h f'
weKfha m%udKh wkqj fjkia lr.; yels
fkdi, ^Nozzle& lg,hla o we;' +

fmdma j hka;%h
(Pop riveter hand)
5'24 rEmh

O ldhhka i|yd ksudKh lr we;s


j. lsysmhls'
(Hammer)
w`vq h - l weK .eiSug yd .<jd bj;a
lsug'
fnda, fm;s h - weK ;o lsug" h
lsug
b fm;s yd yria fm;s - ;yvqj, ldKq
ilia lsug'
fnda, fm;s h
^Ball pane hammer&

w`vq h ^Claw hammer&


5'25 rEmh

88 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


w;fld`M kshk Nd;fha tys gg myr u i|yd o
w,sia lgqj Nd;h i|yd o w;fld`Mj wjYH
(Wooden mallets) f'
;=ks ;yvq ;,d .ekSf yd yev .id .ekS-
f lghq;= i|yd .kakd w;fld`M j. o
Nd;fha we;'

5'26 rEmh

89 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


w,a,d .ekSf yd ord isf wdjqo WmlrK

wdjqoh $ WmlrKh ldhh


o`vq w`vqj (Vice) h lD;shl fldgia lemSf f yd mS
.ef th iar j w,a,d .ekSu i|yd Nd;
l< yels h'
fuys yl=j, odrj,ska uD jHj,g ydks ish
yels h' ta ksid fndre yl= fhdod.; hq;= h'
l=vd jev fldgia w,a,d .ekSug w;a o`vq w`vqj
m%fhdackj;a f'
5'27 rEmh
w;a w`vq (Pliers) l lemSu" keu" weUu hk ldhhka i|yd
fmd w;a w`vqj Wmfhda.s lr.kq ,ef'
jg keye w`vqj" me;,s keye w`vqj" udre w`vqj
hkqfjka jQ w`vq j. lsysmhla o Nd;fha
mj;S'

5'28 rEmh
lrdu (Cramps) jev fldgia folla tlg ysr lr w,a,d ;nd
.ekSug fyda jev fldgila jev nxl=jg ysr
lr w,a,d .ekSug fyda Nd;hg .; yelsh'
ksoiqka (- ,E,s uQgq lsu ^"T" lrduh&
"G" lrduh ^,E,a,la nxl=jg
ysrlr ;nd.ekSug&
"G" lrduh

"T" lrduh
^jeoa lrduh&
5'29 rEmh

90 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


jev nxl=j jev tallh ;=< jev fldgia r|jd ;nd
.ekSug yelsjk fia ksmojd we;'
(Wood working bench)
jev nxl=f ueo we;s fldgi wdjqo ;nd .ekSug
Nd; lrhs'

5'30 rEmh

boslsrS lghq;= i`oyd Wmfhda.s lr.kakd wdjqo yd WmlrK

wdjqoh $ WmlrKh ldhh

kq fmh ^Gauge box& nodu yd fldkalS% i|yd wjYH iudydr yd


isfuka;s uek .ekSug Nd; lrkq ,ef'
iudydr uekSug Nd; lrk wdudk
fmh we;=<; ." m<, yd Wi ms<sfj,ska
400350250mm f' mudj >k g
0'035 ls'
isfuka;s uksk fmh ." m<," Wi
ms<sfj,ska 400350290mm f'
isfuka;s uksk wdudk fmh uola Yd,
j we;af;a isfuka;sj, msmSf fodaIh
uyerug h'

5'31 rEmh

91 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


wdjqoh $ WmlrKh ldhh
w;a nodu ,E,a, 225 mm 225 mm yd 300 mm 300 mm
m%udKj,ska jfhka fyda wekshj,ska
ksmojhs'
,Sia;r yd fudaia;r jevj, yd nodu iq`M
m%udKhla wjYH ia:dkhg <xlr .ekSug Nd;
lrhs'
uksia ,E,a, ^Rubbing lmrdre u;=msg iu ugug f.k taug yd
board& lvf;d`M uelSug yd iqo ;ef Nd; lrhs'
weo .eiS is fkdjk jfhka ;kd.kq ,ef'
weksh ;yvqj,ska ksmo jQ tajd o wo Nd;fha
we;'

5'32 rEmh
l nqreiqj lmrdrE lsf ;a;s uqyqK;a msis lsug
jer.ekajq i|yd .kakd jdfka fldgiaj, u,
^Wire brushes& bj;a lsug Nd; lrhs'

5'33 rEmh

fika ye`os nodu we;sug lmrdre lsug Nd; lrhs'


(Meshanary trowels) m%udK lsysmhlska ,nd.; yelsh'
fika yekaog wu;r j fmdhska yekao" l=ia;=r
yekao" fndro yekao wdh fYaI ldhh i|yd
m%fhdackhg .kq ,ef'

5'34 rEmh

92 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


fla;= ka;lh fldkalS%j, jev lsf yelshdj mlaId
lsug ^Slump Test& Nd; lrhs'
;yvqj,ska ksmojd we;'

5'35 rEmh
;<kh jdfka fyda j j,ska ksmojd we;'
^Rammers& fldkalS% yd f.u mia ;o lsug Nd;
lrhs'

5'36 rEmh

fldkalS% Y%l hka;%h O m%udKj,ska ksmojd we;'


(Concrete mixer) fldkalS% i|yd wod< jH Y% lsug
nyq, j Nd; lrkq ,ef'

5'37 rEmh

93 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


lml WmlrK fldkalS% iqixyikh ^Compacting&
i|yd Nd; lrkq ,ef'
(Vibrators)
blsf iajNdjh wkqj lml j.h
f;dard.; hq;= h'
fmjq lml ^Poker vibrators&
mDIaG lml ^Surface vibrators&
yevh lml^Shurter vibrators&
Nd;fha mj;S'

fmjq lml (Poker vibrators)

mDIaG lml (Surface vibrator)

yevh lml (Shutter vibrators)


5'38 rEmh

94 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


;ska; frda,rh yd ;ska; ;eh bu,aIka ;Ska; wdf,amh i|yd Nd;
lrhs' ^;a;s ;Ska; .Eu i|yd&
(Paint tools)
blauka yd iqug $ wdlIKSh u;=msg
ksudjla i|yd Nd; l< yels h'
j;udkfha oYk rgd ;a;s u;
ksufjk f,i ilia l< frda, ^Roll&
j. yd fYaI WmlrK o ksmojd
we;'

5'39 rEmh

95 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


wdjqo uqjy;a lsu
ksudK ldhhka lsf Bg wod< fldgia fjka lsu" u" isl< hq;=
f' Wiia ksudj yd jev lsf myiqj i|yd wdjqoj,g fyd| uqjy;la w;HjYH
f' ks;r Nd; lrk wdjqo lsysmhl ;,fha uqjy;a fldaK my; laf'

WmlrKh uqjy;a ;ef uqjy;a ;ef WlrKh


fldaKh

mgu 200 - 250 je,s .," f;,a .," frdao


h;=;,h $ kshka;,h
uqjd; 30 - 35
0 0 .sks .,

;yvq l;=r 870 frdao .sks.,

weUre lgqj 1180 frdao .sks.,

w;a lsh; 600 ^450 + 150& ;=kayq,ia mSr

me;,s lmk lgqj 600 .sks.,

wdjqoj,ska jev lsf jH .e<fmk m lemSug;a lemSu ldhlaIu


ug;a wdjqo ;,fha lemq fldaKh jeo.;a f'

uqjy;a ;ef wdjqo yd WmlrK


mS j.
je,s.,
ksue hka;%
ldn/kav .,
f;;a;sh wvqj
uqjy;a wdOdrlh
f;,a nk

96 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


kshka yd h;= ;, uqjy;a ;eu
kshka yd h;= ;, uqjy;a lsf mgu wxYl 200 - 250 yevhg ilia lr
.; hq;= f' l,ska Nd; l< j fldgia kej; Nd;hg .ekSf o isfuka;s
jeks oE ;ej we;s j fldgia Wmfhda.S lr .ekSf o .egh iys; j fldgia
Nd;hg .ekSf o wdjqo jer Nd;h ksid o wdjqoj, uqjd; lvf;d`M h yels
h' lvf;d`M jQ kshka h;= jeks wdjqo h:d ;;a;ajhg m;a lsf my; lafjk
mshjr wkq.ukh lsu iqiq h'

z
5'40 rEmh

frdao j;=r .," ldn/kav ^Carborundum& ., ^.sks .,& fhdod .kska


w;ska fyda uqjy;l wdOdrlhla u.ska frej ^,a,& ,efnk f;la mgu
ilia lr .; hq;= h'

uqjd;a odrh ;,hg iDcqfldaKs hs uq`M ugu Nd; lr mlaId lr .; hq;=


h' ieu uqjy;a lsul u .sks., Nd; lsu iqiq fkdjk w;r .sks.,
Nd; wjia:df wdjqo r;au je<elaug hr nklg jka jr .s,au
l< hq;= h' tfia u lrlefjk .sks., u; ksjer j wdjqoh msysgqjd .ekSu;a
wdrlaIl mQfjdamdhka wkq.ukh lsu;a jeo.;a f'

5'41 rEmh

97 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


mgu ilia lsfuka wk;=rej uqjd; ilia lsu i|yd uD uqjy;a .,la
Nd;d l< hq;=hs' 300 - 350 fldaKhg uqjd; .d .; hq;= w;r ,a, ^frej&
me;a; uqjy;a ., u; ^f;,a .,& iudka;r j ;nd lsysmj;djla we;s,a,Su
lrkq ,ef' f wdldrhg uqjd; ;enq wdjqofhka lvodishla lemSu u.ska
fyda kshu; ;nd fifuka jf ksh u; jfk uqjd; fydka ;sfnk
nj ;yjqre lr.; yels h'
f;,a., yd je,s., u; h;=;, kshka;, we;s,a,Sf tu ;,h ., mqrdu
ju isfkdjqk fyd;a .f,a tla ;Srhla yeug bv we;s neka l,a hdf
.eg /ila we;sjk ksid wg ^8& b,lalu yevhg wdjqo ., u; ju
Ys,amSh im%odhhls'

lsh;a uqjy;a ;eu


lsh;a j. .Kkdjla Nd;fha mj;S' nyq, jYfhka w;alsh; Nd;jk neka
fuu fldgfia ta ms<sn|j wjOdkh fhduq flf' lsh;a Nd;fha o;a wl%uj;aj
f.hdu;a" je,s" weK" f,day len,s .eu ksid o;a le hdu;a isf' o;a fudg jQ
w;a lsh;la uqjy;a ;ef mshjr y;rla wkq.ukh lrkq ,ef'

(1). lshf;a o;a Wi .Eu


uqjy;a lsug fmr ish o;a iu ugug m;alr .; hq;= w;r ta i|yd me;,s
f.jqk mSrla Nd; lr o;a u; mSr la w;g lSmjrla uq, isg w.g we;s,a,Sfuka
o;a iu ugug ilia lr.; hq;= h'

5'42 rEmh

98 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


(2). yevh fjkia jQ o;a h:d m yev .d kej; ilia lsu

o;aj, yevh wkqj ilia lr.;a ;=kS


f,day ;yvqqjla ^Template& wdOdrfhka
o;aj, fldaK yevh mlaId lrka o;a
yevh ;=ka yq,ia mSrlska mS .d ilia
lrkq ,ef'

5'43 rEmh

(3)' f;;a;sh ;eu

,S bf lsh; ,Sh ;=< isru


je<elaug l%udkql+,j ;s jug yd
ol=Kg ;,fha .Klka yd o;l
Wiska ld,la ne.ska kjkq ,ef' fuh
f;;a;sh ;eu jk w;r f i|yd
lsh;a o;a w`vqj ^f;;a;sh w`vqj& fyda
lsh;a o;a h;=r Nd; lrhs'

5'44 rEmh

(4). uqjy; ;eu


uqjy;a ;ef lsh;a o;a .shg


jvd 3 mm la by<g isk fia lsh;a ;,h
o`vq w`vqjl isrlr iqiq mSr ^f;dardf.k
th& ;,hg 900 l fldaKhla isk fia
msysgqjd lshf;a w. isg uq,g uqjy;a
;eu l< hq;= f'

5'45 rEmh

99 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


fjk;a WmlrK h:d ;;a;ajhg ilia lsu
uqjd; ;ef m%Odk WmlrKj,g wu;r fjk;a WmlrK lSmhla h:d
;;a;ajhg m;alr.; hq;= f' lgq" bial=remamq kshka" iqrk ;yvqj ta w;ka
lsysmhla f'

Nd;fha f.u ksid fuu WmlrK uqjy;a lsug isf' lgq


w;ka weUre lgqj uqjy; ;eug .sks., Nd; lrk w;r wj.dr
nqreu lgqf f,a`hd fldgfia we;=`M me;a; ;=kayq,ia mSrla wdOdrfhka
uqjy;a lrk w;r lemq odr fomi f;d,a foflys we;=`M me;a; o f
whqka m%fYfuka .Eu islrkq ,ef'

iQrk ;yvqf yq,ia odrh iDcqj isk f,i o`vq wvqjlg w,a,d me;,s
mSrla ta u; lSm j;djla we;s,a,Sfuka miqj f;,a .,l w;=,a,d ueu lrkq
,ef' miqj ;yvqf lemq odr fol msysgqu i|yd bial=remamq kshkl
l|lska fyda jdfka oKavlska f;rmka w;=,a,d .kq ,ef'

bial=remamq kshfka ;=v me;,s j o odr uo jYfhka fm yevfhka o


;eh hq;= h' fuu yev fjkia jQ g uo jYfhka mSr wdOdrfhka .Eu
u.ska ;snq yevh mj;ajdf.k hdug lghq;= l< hq;= h'

iafkaykh lsu (Lubrication)


wdjqo WmlrK yd hka;% fldgia iafkaykh lsu ksid

myiqfjka lrleu'
ls%hdld;ajh iqug u'
ldhlaIu u'
Wmdx. f.u wju u'
.=l,a meje;au'
f.jqk fldgia bj;a u'
hk ls%hd is f'

f i|yd iafkaykh l< hq;= ia:dkj,g" fldgiaj,g yd hka;% oje,a


^Bearing& fnhdu ;s frdao .efgk we;s,af,k fldgia u; f;,a" .S%ia jeks ,sysis
jH fhdod iafkaykh lrhs'

100 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


5'46 rEmh

hka;% ls%hd lsug fmr iafkaykh lsu fhda.H w;r tl .g .= ld,hla


ls%hd;aulf o" c,fha iamYjk ia:dkj, o ndysr wmjHj,g ksrka;rfhka
ksrdjrKh we;s wjia:dj, o ls%hdld;ajh ldhlaIu fkdjk wjia:dj,
;a iafkaykh l< hq;= h' iafkaykh lsu i|yd nyq, jYfhka ,sysis f;,a yd
idudkH .s%ia Nd; lrk w;r we;e ishq Wmdx. iys; WmlrKj,ska ksl=;ajk
hka;% fldgia i|yd hka;% ksIamdolhska iska fYaI ,sysis jH j. ksfoaY
lr we;s wjia:dj, tajd Nd; lsu jvd iqiqh' fuu ldhh i|yd 5'46 rEmfha
lafjk WmlrK jvd iqiq h' f;,a l=Kq" ,s ;ej we;ak tu ia:dk msis
lsfuka miqj iafkaykh lsu l< hq;= f'

wdrlaIdj ^Safety&

wdjqo WmlrK gq muKska yd ls%hdl< yels fuka muKla Nd; fkdl<


hq;=h' iEu ldhhla lsf u wk;=re ish yels ksid wdrlaIdjg m%:u ia:dkh
^Safety frist& ,ndh hq;= h' wk;=rla islr .ekSfuka lrk ldhhka ys jkdlula
fkdue;s w;r wk;=re j<laajd .ekSf Wmdhka $ Odk wkq.ukh lsu uska
Wmu wdrlaIdj i,id .; yels h'

101 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


mirfha f>daIdld nj

hdka;s%l fodaI

fkdie,ls,su;a nj yd
wms<sfj,

.skak

,s ldka
wk;=re we;sug n,mdk
idOl .Kkdjls'
wdf,dal lsrK

ridhk jH

wd>%dK jH

fkdkqj;alu

wre ia:dkj,
jev lsu

hka;% ls%hdlref.a j,;d

102 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


wdrlaIdj ms<sn|j ie,lSf wjOdkh fhduql< hq;= lreKq
mqoa., wdrlaIdj
wdrlaIl mQfjdamd wkq.ukh lsfuka wk;=re j<lajd .; yels h'

5'47 rEmh

wdhs;a; u ms<sn| wdrlaIdj ^Dress safety&


ldhhg .e<fmk we we| .ekSu'
t,a,d jefgk we me< .,jd ;eu'
weia" ysia" w;a" md" lka wdrlaIdjg m<okd me<u'

103 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


5'48 rEmh

ldhhla lsf wdrlaIdj ^Act safety&


fodaI iys; WmlrK Nd; fkdlsu'
wk;=re we;sjk fia WmlrK myrKh fkdlsu'
jev lrk g bv we;sj isu'
fydka wdf,dalh yd jd;h we;s ;ekaj, isg jev lsu'
jev lrk ia:dkhg fydka wdf,dalh ,efnk fia mirh ilia lsu'
jev lrk g fyd| udkisl;ajfhka yd Ydl fhda.H;djfhka hq;= j
isu'

5'49 rEmh - wdrlaIl mQfjdamd wkq.ukh fkdl< wjia:d lsysmhlaa

104 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


hka;% Nd;fha wdrlaIdj ^Machining safety&

hka;% ksIamdolhska ksl=;a lr we;s Wmfoia ms<smeu


lrk ldhh yd ms;rj,g wkqj wjYH wdjqo WmlrK f;dard .ekSu
hka;% ls%hd;aulj mj;sk g fldgia iSre udre lsu fyda fldgia .e,u
yd ;o lsu WmfoaYhlska f;drj fkdl< hq;= u
lerlfjk fldgia i|yd we;s wdrlaIs; wdjrK bj;a fkdlsu yd w;a
jehdj, .e, jQ fldgia i lsfuka miqj muKla hka;% ls%hd;aul
lsu
fldgia " l=vq bj;a jk hka;% Nd;fha weia wdjrK me<h hq;= u
hka;% ls%hd;aul lsug fmr th ls%hd;aul lsug iqiq ;;a;ajhl ;sfhs
fidhd ne,Su' ^,sysis f;,a m%udK" ,s mm: inkaOk&
hka;% ls%hd;aul lsug fmr wdrlaIs; we me, yd wfkl=;a wdrlaIs;
ls%hd ud. ish,a,la u wkq.ukh lsu'

5'50 rEmh

yeisu ms<sn| wdrlaIdj ^Behavior safety&

jev lrk ia:dkfha u" ys`M fkdlsu" Yo k.d lE flda


fkd.eiSu
wdjqo WmlrK tyd fuyd f.k hdu" tlla wfkldg ,ndu jeks wjia:dj,
iu; l%u wkq.ukh lsu
Wod(- ,nd .kakdg g me;a; w,a,d .ekSug u
ludka;Yd,d Wmfoia wkq.ukh lsu'
hka;% ls%hd;aul lsug fmr wdrlaIs; we me, yd wfkl=;a wdrlaIs;
ls%hd ud. ish,a,la u wkq.ukh lsu'

105 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


wdjqo yd WmlrKj, wdrlaIdj
bls lafIa;%fha Nd; lrk wdjqo yd WmlrK Yd, m%udKhla ;sf' tajd
ukd ;;a;ajfhka yd hym;a ls%hdld;ajfhka mj;ajdf.k hdu Nd; lrkakdf.a
j.lSu f' ks;sm;d kv;a;= lsfuka .=l,la Nd; lsug;a ukd ls%hdld;ajhla
mj;ajd .ekSug;a yels h'

msis lsu
wdjqo yd WmlrK Nd;fha yd Nd;fhka miqj msis lsu w;HjYH
lreKls' Nd;fha f;,a" .S%ia ;eju ksid;a" bj;ajk fldgia yd f.jqk fldgia
/u ksid;a" WmlrKfha ksis ls%hdld;ajhg ndOd mefKa' ^WmlrKh ysru is
f'& fjd bj;a lsug fl nqreiq" imSvk hka;%" f;,a ;ejre fr len,s Nd;
l< yels h'

ksIamdok Wmfoia wkqj hka;% Nd; lsu

wdjqo WmlrK ksIamdolhska iska WmlrK Nd;hg yd kv;a;= lghq;= i|yd


ksfoaY i|yka lr ;sf' tajd wkq.ukh lsu w;HdjYH jk w;r ta u.ska wdjqoj,
yd mqoa., wdrlaIdj hk folu i,id .; yels h' n,f. WmlrK ksIamdolhska
iska WmlrKh kdhg lrlefjk jg .Kkg wkqj iqiq lsh;a;, .%hskav
,a" rjqg lgq ksfoaY lr we;s w;r Bg fkd.e<fmk Wmdx. Nd;fhka wfmalaIs;
m%;sM, fkd,eu muKla fkdj tajd le hdfuka ldlhdg" WmlrKhg"
ndysr mirhg" ydks isjkq we;' tfia u i|yka lr we;s YalNj,g .e<fmk
ksue frdao ^Grinding wheels& lemq frdao ^Cutting wheel& m%udK wkqj Nd;
l< hq;= w;r Nd;hg .kafka j i|yd o" f,day i|yd o" fldkalS% i|yd o
hkak yd ksfoaYs; WmlrK fudkjdhs hkak uis,su;a u o w;HdjYH f'
fYaIfhka lgq Nd;fha j" idudkH f,day" jdfka" fldkalS% wd jH
u i|yd ksfoaYs; lgq j.h u Nd; l< hq;= h'

uqjy;a wdjqo Nd; lsu


ldhhka lsf lemSu" u" iEySu wd lghq;=j, uqjy;a wdjqo WmlrK
Nd; lsug isjk w;r lrk ldhfha wdrlaIdjg;a ldlhdf.a wdrlaIdjg;a
Wiia ksudjla ,nd .ekSug;a yd ldhlaIu;dj jOkh lr .ekSug;a fuh jeo.;a
f'

106 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


.nvd lsu

5'51 rEmh - fijke,s mqjrejla

jev lsfuka miqj ks;r Nd; lrk wdjqo WmlrK fjk u fijke,s
mqjrej, ^Shadow board& .nvd lsfuka o wu;r wdjqo yd WmlrK fjk fjku
.nvd lr ;eu o wdjqo WmlrKj, wdrlaIdjg jeo.;a f' ^fijke,s mqjre
^Shadow board& u; wdjqo ia:dk .;lsfuka WmlrK wia:dk.;u we;s wjia:d
rejk w;r myiqfjka oYkh f'& mS .nvd lsf mS ler<s u; w=re fyda
yqKq ^Chalk& wdf,am lrkq ,nk w;r f ksid u, lEu je<elSu is f'

jH yd ksmehqj, wdrlaIdj
lrkq ,nk ldhfha wdrlaIdj o b;d jeo.;a f' ldhhla lsf .=Kd;aul
ksujqula i|yd Nd;hg .kakd jH ksis m%;sfhka hq;= j ,nd .; hq;= w;r ta
ta jHj,g wod<jk fia ksIamdolhska we;s Wmfoia wkqj lghq;= lsfuka ksis
m%;sM, ,nd .; yelsh' ue,sh Y% lsu" ;Ska; Y% lsu" j NdKav i|yd fmd
j." wdrlaIl wdf,am Nd;h Bg ksoiqka lsysmhla f'
fudg wdjqqo WmlrK Nd;h ld,h wmf;a hdug;a ksujq ksis wdldrfhka
is lsug fkdyelsug;a mqoa., wk;=re we;sug;a fya;= f'

107 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'


f.dvke.s,s jH" j" f,day" ksujqj, r`Mnj bj;alr iqug lsu i|yd
ksue lvodis ^weu lvodis& Nd; flf' 40"60"80"280"1200 wd jYfhka lafjk
.s% wxl w;ka ksujqu i|yd .e<fmk weu lvodish f;dard .; hq;=h' ksue
lvodisfha wxlh jej;a u ishq nj je f'

mirfha wdrlaIdj ^ndysr wdrlaIdj&


iEu ;dlaIKsl ls%hdldrlul u mirhg wju n,mEula jk whqka
lghq;= l< hq;= h' iEu wuqjHla u mirfhka ,nd.kakd ksid;a im;a laIh jk
ksid;a kdia;sh wju lsug;a Wmu m%;sM, ,efnk whqka ls%hdldrl ie,iq
lsug;a wmjH neyer lsf mir ys;ld ls%hdud. wkq.ukh lsug;a uq,a
;ekla h hq;=h' .sks .kakd iq ;sk jeks jH .nvd lsf wdrlaIs;j .nvd
l<hq;= w;r tajdfha k ,shd .nvd lsu jvd iqiq h' .,a" je,s" .fvd,a wl%uj;aj
f.dv .eiSu fkdl< hq;= w;r c,h fkd/f`ok whqka .nvd l< hq;= h' bls
lafIa;%fha Nd;hg .kakd jeysms,s" ;yvq" j fldgia" re len,s" ma,diala
Ndck" fmd,s;Ska wd oE bj;a lsu;a ms<siaish yels oE iqiq whqkaa ms<siaiSu;a rd
fkdhk oE m%;splSs%lrKhg fhduq lsu;a b;d jeo.;a f' j" ,S l=vq" fmd,s;ska
wdh ms<siaiSfuka jqj o mirhg ydks mefKa' fndfyda g j fldgia bkaOk
^or& f,i Nd; lsu fyda iajdNdlj rdm;ajk f,i neyer lsug j. n,d
.; hq;=hs' jj,ska m%fhdack .kakd g .il ish fldgia lsk fyda jevlg
fhdod .ekSu hqKq rgj, islrkq ,ef' ksoiqka f,i ,S l=vq" .iaj, fmd;= lD;%su
,E,s i|yd o m;=re l=vd fldagq is;=re oE i|yd o Ydl m;% fldfmdia i|yd o
uq,a relal,d" legh wd foa jYfhka ie,iq iy.;j Nd;hg .; yels w;r
mirfha wdrlaIdjg;a j i|yd fyd| jkdlula ,eug;a th fya;= f'

108 fkdf,a fnodyeu i|yd h'