You are on page 1of 5

5/29/2017 EssayonNuclearPollution:Sources,EffectsandControl

EssayonNuclearPollution:Sources,EffectsandControl
Articlesharedby

EssayonNuclearPollution:Sources,EffectsandControl!

Radionuclidesareelements(uranium235,uranium283,thorium232,potassium40,radium226,carbon14
etc.)withunstableatomicnucleiandondecompositionreleaseionizingradiationsintheformofalpha,beta
andgammarays.

Outoftheknown450radioisotopesonlysomeareofenvironmentalconcernlikestrontium90,tritium,
plutonium239,argon41,cobalt60,cesium137,iodine131,krypton85etc.Thesecanbebothbeneficialand
harmful,dependingonthewayinwhichtheyareused.

ADVERTISEMENTS:

WeroutinelyuseXraystoexaminebonesforfractures,treatcancerwithradiationanddiagnosediseases
withthehelpofradioactiveisotopes.About17%oftheelectricalenergygeneratedintheworldcomesfrom
nuclearpowerplants.

Radioactivesubstanceswhenreleasedintotheenvironmentareeitherdispersedorbecomeconcentratedin
livingorganismsthroughthefoodchain.Otherthannaturallyoccurringradioisotopes,significantamounts
aregeneratedbyhumanactivity,includingtheoperationofnuclearpowerplants,themanufactureofnuclear
weapons,andatomicbombtesting.

Forexample,strontium90behaveslikecalciumandiseasilydepositedandreplacescalciuminthebone
tissues.Itcouldbepassedtohumanbeingsthroughingestionofstrontiumcontaminatedmilk.Again
anotherexampleistritium,whichisradioactivehydrogen.

Theamountoftritiumreleasedfromnuclearpowerplantstotheatmospherehavereachedashighastensof
thousandsofcuriesinoneyear,andreleasestobodiesofwaterhavemeasuredashighastensofmillionsof

http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/essay/essayonnuclearpollutionsourceseffectsandcontrol/30176/ 1/5
5/29/2017 EssayonNuclearPollution:Sources,EffectsandControl

picocuriesperlitre.TheU.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgencystandardforpermissiblelevelsoftritiumin
drinkingwateris20,000picocuriesperlitre.

ADVERTISEMENTS:

Nuclearpowerplantsroutinelyandaccidentallyreleasetritiumintotheairandwater.Tritiumhasahalflife
of12.3yearsandemitsradioactivebetaparticles.Oncetritiumisinhaledorswallowed,itsbetaparticlescan
bombardcellscausingamutation.

Fewoccupationsthatinvolveradioactiveexposuresareuraniummineworkers,radiumwatchdialpainters,
technicalstaffatnuclearpowerplants,etc.Exposuretoradioactiveandnuclearhazardshasbeenclinically
proventocausecancer,mutationsandteratogenesis(Teratogenesisisaprenataltoxicitycharacterizedby
structuralorfunctionaldefectsinthedevelopingembryoorfetus).

Nuclearhazardeffectscanbeeitherinitialorresidual.Initialeffectsoccurintheimmediateareaofexplosion
andarehazardousimmediatelyaftertheexplosionwhereastheresidualeffectscanlastfordaysoryearsand
causedeath.Theprincipalinitialeffectsareblastandradiation.

Blastcausesdamagetolungs,ruptureseardrums,collapsesstructuresandcausesimmediatedeathorinjury.
ThermalRadiationistheheatandlightradiation,whichanuclearexplosionsfireballemitsproducing
extensivefires,skinburns,andflashblindness.Nuclearradiationconsistsofintensegammaraysand
neutronsproducedduringthefirstminuteaftertheexplosion.

ADVERTISEMENTS:

http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/essay/essayonnuclearpollutionsourceseffectsandcontrol/30176/ 2/5
5/29/2017 EssayonNuclearPollution:Sources,EffectsandControl

Thisradiationcausesextensivedamagetocellsthroughoutthebody.Radiationdamagemaycause
headaches,nausea,vomiting,diarrhea,andevendeath,dependingontheradiationdosereceived.

SourcesofNuclearPollution:
Thesourcesofradioactivityincludebothnaturalandmanmade.

EffectsofNuclearPollution:
Studieshaveshownthatthehealtheffectsduetoradiationaredependentonthelevelofdose,kindof
radiation,durationofexposureandtypesofcellsirradiated.Radiationeffectscanbesomaticorgenetic.

ADVERTISEMENTS:

http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/essay/essayonnuclearpollutionsourceseffectsandcontrol/30176/ 3/5
5/29/2017 EssayonNuclearPollution:Sources,EffectsandControl

1.Somaticeffects:

Somaticeffectsthefunctionofcellsandorgans.Itcausesdamagestocellmembranes,mitochondriaandcell
nucleiresultinginabnormalcellfunctions,celldivision,growthanddeath.

2.Geneticeffects:

Geneticeffectsthefuturegenerations.Radiationscan
causemutations,whicharechangesingeneticmakeupofcells.Theseeffectsaremainlyduetothedamages
toDNAmolecules.Peoplesufferfrombloodcancerandbonecancerifexposedtodosesaround100to1000
roentgens.Instantaneousdeathsonexposureintheeventifdisastersaremany.

ManagementofRadioactiveWaste:

a.Theradioactivewastewhichcomesoutfromindustry,nuclearreactorsshouldbestoredandallowedto
decayeithernaturallyincloseddrumsorinverylargeundergroundairtightcementedtanks(Delayand
Decay).

b.Theintermediateradioactivewasteshouldbedisposedoffintotheenvironmentafterdilutingitwithsome
inertmaterials(DiluteandDisperse)

c.Nowadayssmallquantitiesofhighactivitywastesareconvertedintosolidssuchasconcreteandthenitis
buriedundergroundorsea.(Concentrateandcontain)

ControlMeasures:
a.Laboratorygeneratednuclearwastesshouldbe
disposedoffsafelyandscientifically.

http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/essay/essayonnuclearpollutionsourceseffectsandcontrol/30176/ 4/5
5/29/2017 EssayonNuclearPollution:Sources,EffectsandControl

b.Nuclearpowerplantsshouldbelocatedinareasaftercarefulstudyofthegeologyofthearea,tectonic
activityandmeetingotherestablishedconditions.

c.Appropriateprotectionagainstoccupationalexposure.

d.Leakageofradioactiveelementsfromnuclearreactors,carelessuseofradioactiveelementsasfueland
carelesshandlingofradioactiveisotopesmustbeprevented.

e.Safetymeasureagainstaccidentalreleaseofradioactiveelementsmustbeensuredinnuclearplants.

f.Unlessabsolutelynecessary,oneshouldnot
frequentlygofordiagnosisbyxrays.

g.Regularmonitoringofthepresenceofradioactivesubstanceinhighriskareashouldbeensured.

Amongthemanyoptionsforwastedisposal,thescientistsprefertoburythewasteinhundredsofmeters
deepintheearthscrustisconsideredtobethebestsafetylongtermoption.

http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/essay/essayonnuclearpollutionsourceseffectsandcontrol/30176/ 5/5