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Journal of Environment and Waste Management

JEWM
Vol. 4(1), pp. 164-172, May, 2017. www.premierpublishers.org. ISSN: 1936-8798

Research Article

Impact of structural amendment of Paper mill wastes


with different organic materials on vermicomposting
using Eisenia fetida earthworms
Devjani Mohapatra1, K.K. Sahoo 1 and A. K. Sannigrahi2*
1
Department of Chemistry, Fakir Mohan (Autonomous) College, Proof Road, Balasore, Odisha, 756001, India.
2*
Proof & Experimental Establishment (PXE), Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO), Chandipur,
Balasore, Odisha, 756 025, India.

Solid wastes of Waste Paper based Emami Paper Mill at Balasore was collected from dumping
ground by the side of Swapna nala (effluent releasing channel) and vermicomposted after
mixing separately with different organic materials like cabbage leaves, water hyacinth, paddy
straw and sawdust in different ratio either alone or in combination with cowdung. It was found
that Paper Mill Wastes (PMW) alone was not palatable to Eisenia fetida, many of them either died
or moved away from the tray. Amendment of PMW with cabbage leaves was also not promising.
However, the amendment of PMW with cowdung and sawdust in 1:0.5:0.5 produced good
quantity vermicompost in comparatively less time with better survival of earthworms.
Vermicompost of this treatment was also recorded comparatively higher nutrient contents and
performed better growth of paddy seedlings.

Keywords: Cowdung, Eisenia fetida, Paddy straw, Paper Mill Wastes, Sawdust, Seedling growth, Vermicomposting,
Vermicompost quality, Water hyacinth

INTRODUCTION

Paper mill wastes (PMW) are the residuals constituted to compost well (Tucker, 2005). Some researchers have
with unsuitable fibers for paper making produced during tried for vermicomposting of different PMW after its
pulping of raw materials, paper sludge, lime sludge, inks, amendment with sawdust (Thyagarajan et al., 2010), or
fly ash, clays and other fillers found in de-inking sludge. fruit and vegetable wastes (Tucker, 2005), or food
The types and amount of wastes vary greatly amongst processing industrys wastes (Quintern, 2011), or Leaf
paper mills, depending on the specific production process litter and cowdung mixture (Ponmani et al., 2014), or
used, nature of raw materials used and type of paper mixture of Pig wastes, water hyacinth and cowdung
produced. With the diversity in quality and quantity of (Natarajan and Gajendran, 2014), or with a mixture of
waste materials, their nutrient values also vary widely. Agricultural, municipal solid wastes and poultry wastes
Although many paper mills have started incineration of (Yadav and Madan, 2013).
their wastes for energy recovery, a substantial amount
(about 70%) of these solid wastes (by-products) is still *Corresponding author: Asoke Kumar Sannigrahi, Proof
dumped or spread directly on land (Yadav and Madan, & Experimental Establishment (PXE), Defence Research
2013). However land spreading creates depletion of soil & Development Organisation (DRDO), Chandipur,
nitrogen (immobilization) due to high carbon to nitrogen Balasore, Odisha, 756 025, India. Email:
(C/N) ratio and shows deleterious effects on plant growth. sannigrahi_ak@rediffmail.com
1
Paper Mill wastes are not easy material to compost and Co-author: mohapatradevjanee@gmail.com ,
2
normally need both structural and nitrogen amendments sahoo_karunakara@gmail.com
Impact of structural amendment of Paper mill wastes with different organic materials on vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida earthworms
Mohapatra et al. 165

Figure 1. Heap of Paper Mill Wastes

Vermicomposting is stabilization of organic waste total K, 12.0% total Ca, 0.15% total S, 0.19% total Na,
materials with the help of epigeic earthworms and 22.1 mg/kg total Cr, 15.7 mg/kg total Pb and 1.32 mg/kg
microorganisms. During vermicomposting, nutrients are total Zn. Sawdust is collected from Remuna Saw Mill at
converted into soluble and available forms required for Balasore. Its pH (1:2) and EC are 7.49 and 0.4 dS/m,
growth of plants. Utilizing waste papers Emami Paper Mill respectively while total N, P, K, Ca, S and Na are 0.89%,
at Balasore is producing 100 tons of fresh paper per day. 0.48%, 0.54%, 2.4%, 0.02% and 0.04%, respectively.
During this process it also generates a huge quantity of Different substrates like cowdung, paddy straw, water
different sludges. Those are dumped as Paper mill hyacinth and cabbage leaves are collected locally. The
wastes by the side of effluent channel (Figure 1). PMW experiment is conducted in rectangular plastic trays of
being toxic pollutes soil & water and hampers the growth capacity 2 kg. Paddy straw, water hyacinth and cabbage
of crops in nearby fields. So far no effort has been taken leaves are chopped into fine pieces for thoroughly mixing
for any beneficial use of this waste. Experiment was with PMW. Different organic materials are mixed in
carried out for vermicomposting of this paper mill waste different ratios with PMW for making experimental
after mixing with different locally available organic beddings of 2 kg each. Sufficient water is added to make
materials as structural amendments and for studying the the beds moist. Each treatment is kept in triplicate
quality of those vermicompost through chemical analysis following a randomized block design under the shade
of nutrients as well as through bioassay by growing after covering each tray with hessian cloths. The bedding
paddy seedlings. materials of all the trays are thoroughly mixed thrice at 7
days interval and covered every time. After 21 days 20
healthy adult Eisenia fetida earthworms are released on
MATERIALS AND METHODS top of each bed and covered again with moist hessian
cloths. Regular monitoring is done to maintain 70 to 80 %
PMW after collection from the dump yard of Waste paper moisture by spraying deionized water as and when
based Paper Mill at Balasore dried in sheds and required. When composting material become black
powdered for conducting experiment. Chemical analysis coloured loosely granular structured material up-to lower
has shown that this PMW is almost neutral in reaction layer, as observed by physical verification once in a
(pH 7.65) with electrical conductivity 3.0 dS/m and C/N week, the bed materials are spread on the floor of
ratio 27.6. It contains 1.14% total N, 0.24% total P, 0.65% laboratory room for partial air drying. Earthworms are
Impact of structural amendment of Paper mill wastes with different organic materials on vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida earthworms
J. Environ. Waste Manag. 166

Figure 2. Growth of paddy seedlings on sands with different vermicomposts

separated by hand sorting. Vermicompost of each earthworms and also less eating by survived earthworms
replication is sieved separately through 2mm sieve and as PMW alone was not palatable to Eisenia fetida. During
stored in plastic zipper bags. To determine the nutrient investigation on paper mill sludge collected from the
status different chemical analysis of these vermicomposts National Cellulose Company Ltd. in Spain as a feedstock
are done following standard methods mentioned by for vermiculture, Elvira and Dominguez (1995) found that
Bhargava and Raghupati (1993). Results are calculated the worms suffered weight loss when it was their sole
on oven dry basis and analyzed statistically. diet. When the raw sludge was supplemented with rabbit
manure, sewage sludge, or pig or hen slurries, the
Growth of paddy seedlings is studied in pot culture. earthworms grew well. In this experiment all organic
Vermicomposts at the rate of 12 g/pot are mixed with 48 materials showed positive impact on vermicomposting of
g sand taken in plastic pots of 100 ml capacity in triplicate PMW which took about 50 to 55 days times except the
and kept in randomized block design. Ten paddy seeds paddy straw, which took more time about 75 to 80 days.
are placed on each pot and water is added to submerge This is obvious since decomposition of paddy straw itself
seeds. After 15 days seedlings (Figure 2) are taken out of takes more time. The cabbage leaves as a structural
sand beds, washed thoroughly to remove sands and put amendment for vermicomposting of PMW was not at all
on blotting papers to soak out excess water attached to encouraging as quantity of vermicompost produced was
seedlings. Plant weight is measured in electronic very less. The earthworms could not survive in this
balance. Shoot length and root length are measured for composition due to high moisture in cabbage leaves
each seedling. Seedlings are kept in oven for overnight added beds, either gone outside or died. The water
0
drying at 100 C. Dry weight of all seedlings of each pot is hyacinth with PMW combination, though found little better
measured together. Average results are calculated. in performance, but the amount of vermicompost
production was also recorded very less. However, the
amendment of PMW with cowdung and sawdust gave
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION encouraging results by taking comparatively lesser time
for vermicomposting. The survival of earthworms and the
Vermicomposts and growth of earthworms quantity of vermicompost production were also found
better in those treatments. Sawdust with PMW in 1:1
Quantities of Vermicomposts, prepared from Paper Mill combination produced highest amount of vermicompost
wastes after its amendment with different organic (1.84 kg). Addition of 0.5 kg cowdung with other
materials, were presented in Table 1. Vermicomposting substrates always recorded better performance.
was not completed in Paper Mill waste alone (Control Thyagarajan et al. (2010) also reported earlier about
treatment) obviously due to dying of majority of beneficial impact of sawdust during co-composting of

Impact of structural amendment of Paper mill wastes with different organic materials on vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida earthworms
Mohapatra et al. 167

Table 1. Period of vermicomposting and Quantity of vermicomposts produced from Emami Paper Mill wastes
amended with different substrates

Treatme Quantity of mixed raw Period of Vermi Non- Earthworms at


nts materials in beds vermicomp compost composte harvesting
osting produced d Nos. Total
(days) (kg) portion (Big + weight
(%) Small) (g)
T1 2 kg Paper mill waste Not fully 0.35 + 0.10 46.7 5+0 4
(PMW) completed
T2 1.5 kg (PMW) + 0.5 kg cow 50 0.67 + 0.05 21.3 10 + 30 15
dung (CD)
T3 1 kg PMW + 1 kg CD 45 0.48 + 0.04 14.6 20 + 200 45
T4 0.5 kg PMW + 1.5 kg CD 40 0.57 + 0.07 10.4 15 + 120 40
T5 1.5 kg PMW + 0.5 kg 50 0.33 + 0.05 32.5 8+6 15
Cabbage Leaves (CL)
T6 1 kg PMW + 1 kg CL 55 0.16 + 0.04 20.1 10 + 0 20
T7 0.5 kg PMW + 1.5 kg CL 49 0.30 + 0.01 8.9 2 + 10 3
T8 1 kg PMW + 0.5 kg CL + 0.5 52 0.34 + 0.14 15.3 5 + 80 10
kg CD
T9 1.5 kg PMW + 0.5 kg Paddy 80 0.66 + 0.16 17.2 25 + 10 52
straw (PS)
T10 1 kg PMW + 0.5 kg PS + 0.5 75 0.82 + 0.05 10.1 20 + 80 40
kg CD
T11 1.5 kg PMW + 0.5 kg water 50 0.38 + 0.08 34.7 10 + 5 19
hyacinth (WH)
T12 1 kg PMW + 1 kg WH 47 0.27 + 0.03 19.3 8 + 15 12
T13 0.5 kg PMW + 1.5 kg WH 45 0.12 + 0.02 12.5 5 + 10 8
T14 1 kg PMW + 0.5 kg WH + 40 0.41 + 0.12 18.8 18 + 20 32
0.5 kg CD
T15 1 kg PMW + 1 kg Saw dust 45 1.84 + 0.08 7.9 20 + 100 64
(SD)
T16 1 kg PMW + 0.5 kg SD + 0.5 30 1.15 + 0.08 6.5 25 + 300 78
kg CD

pulp and paper mill sludge in presence of cowdung and liked this combination. However, as per body weight and
effective microorganism. The non-composted portion was population of earthworms, combination of sawdust and
found highest in T1 i.e. vermicomposting of PMW alone cowdung as amendment to Emami Paper Mill wastes
followed by treatments where PMW was amended with (T16) performed as best for vermicomposting. This might
water hyacinth and cabbage leaves, which supports be due to availability of better airy and moist environment
earlier explanation about their non-palatability. for growth and palatable feed for earthworms in this
Vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida was almost particular combination than other substrates used in this
completed (> 90%) in presence of saw dust. experiment.

The number and weight of earthworms harvested from Chemical analysis of vermicomposts
different beds after completion of vermicomposting
showed that PMW alone was not good for earthworm The pH is an important parameter in the vermicompost
growth and survival (Table 1). The PMW in combination quality since it helps in promoting plant growth. The pH
of cabbage leaves and water hyacinths at different ratios of vermicomposts varied from 7.05 to 8.04, indicating
were also found not much conducive for growth and some rise of pH when PMW was amended with different
survival of earthworms. High moisture released from substrates, especially with cowdung and sawdust (Table
cabbage leaves and water hyacinth along with acidic 2). Thyagarajan et al. (2010) also recorded slight
environment created during their decomposition might increase in pH of composts produced from Pulp and
have made un-favourable salty environment for Paper Industry sludge amended with sawdust and
earthworms inside the beds due to mineralization and cowdung. Garg et al. (2006) observed near neutral pH in
consequent release of ions from PMW. The availability of the range of 7.7 - 8.0 in final vermicompost prepared from
more number of adult and juvenile earthworms during different types of waste using Eisenia fetida. Slight
vermicomposting of PMW with both cowdung and increase in pH of vermicomposts might be due to
sawdust in different ratios suggested that Eisenia fetida degradation of short-chained fatty acids and

Impact of structural amendment of Paper mill wastes with different organic materials on vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida earthworms
J. Environ. Waste Manag. 168

Table 2. Physico chemical characteristics (pH, EC, Oxidizable organic carbon and Moisture content) of processed
vermicomposts

Treatme Quantity of mixed raw materials pH EC Oxidizable Moisture


nts in beds (1 : 2) (dS/m) organic carbon content
(%)
T1 2 kg Paper mill waste (PMW) 7.06 + 0.02 3.67 + 0.35 3.13 + 0.78 46.8 + 9.2

T2 1.5 kg (PMW) + 0.5 kg cow dung 7.30 + 0.20 3.07 + 0.11 5.48 + 0.68 47.6 + 9.5
(CD)
T3 1 kg PMW + 1 kg CD 7.78 + 0.19 3.40 + 0.26 4.70 + 1.04 52.5 + 13.8

T4 0.5 kg PMW + 1.5 kg CD 8.04 + 0.35 2.70 + 0.10 5.48 + 4.14 56.2 + 4.6

T5 1.5 kg PMW + 0.5 kg Cabbage 7.40 + 0.10 3.70 + 0.10 3.26 + 0.59 46.9 + 2.2
Leaves (CL)
T6 1 kg PMW + 1 kg CL 7.43 + 0.21 4.27 + 0.23 3.92 + 0.67 36.8 + 8.5

T7 0.5 kg PMW + 1.5 kg CL 7.60 + 0.10 3.8 + 0.11 6.88 + 0.15 39.8 + 1.3

T8 1 kg PMW + 0.5 kg CL + 0.5 kg 7.00 + 0.20 4.67 + 0.29 6.81 + 4.11 41.4 + 13.6
CD
T9 1.5 kg PMW + 0.5 kg Paddy straw 7.38 + 0.43 4.07 + 0.92 7.18 + 2.29 40.3 + 10.2
(PS)
T10 1 kg PMW + 0.5 kg PS + 0.5 kg 7.40 + 0.05 3.27 + 0.06 5.09 + 1.79 52.8 + 4.8
CD
T11 1.5 kg PMW + 0.5 kg water 7.34 + 0.15 3.63 + 0.59 4.44 + 2.52 46.0 + 13.9
hyacinth (WH)
T12 1 kg PMW + 1 kg WH 7.60 + 0.15 4.57 + 0.15 6.23 + 1.36 36.6 + 5.5

T13 0.5 kg PMW + 1.5 kg WH 7.67 + 0.44 6.90 + 0.95 9.79 + 1.15 43.0 + 17.0

T14 1 kg PMW + 0.5 kg WH + 0.5 kg 7.65 + 0.48 3.13 + 0.21 9.94 + 0.23 33.2 + 13.1
CD
T15 1 kg PMW + 1 kg Saw dust (SD) 7.77 + 0.15 3.40 + 0.12 10.54 + 0.05 29.9 + 1.4

T16 1 kg PMW + 0.5 kg SD + 0.5 kg 7.52 + 0.07 3.12 + 0.09 12.51 + 0.64 35.8 + 5.2
CD

ammonification of organic nitrogen (Michel and Reddy, vermicomposting of urban green waste processed by
1998). Electrical conductivity (EC) of vermicomposts three earthworm speciesEisenia fetida, Eudrilus
prepared in different treatments varied from 2.70 to 6.90 eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus. The slight increasing
dS/m showing decreasing trend in presence of cowdung trend of EC, however, was recorded by Natarajan and
and sawdust but slight increasing trend in presence of Gajendran (2014) during vermicomposting of Paper Mill
water hyacinth and cabbage leaves in comparison to sludge with water hyacinth amendment which might be
PMW alone (Table 2). The EC indicates the level of total due to mineralization and consequent formation of ions
dissolved salts in a compost sample at particular stage of from waste mixtures in presence of earthworms.
degradation and the most desired value should be < 3.0 Umamaheswari et al. (2009) and Prakash and Hemlatha
dS/m (Brinton, 2000). The decreasing pattern of EC (2013) also observed slight increase in EC during
during composting of Pulp and Paper Industry sludge in vermistabilization of Paper Mill sludge.
presence of sawdust cowdung amendments was also
observed by Thyagarajan et al. (2010). Pattnaik and Amendment of Paper Mill waste with different substrates
Vikram (2010) reported earlier about EC reduction during showed considerable variation in oxidizable organic
Impact of structural amendment of Paper mill wastes with different organic materials on vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida earthworms
Mohapatra et al. 169

Table 3. Macro Nutrient status in vermicomposts prepared from PMW amended with different substrates

Treat- Quantity of mixed raw Total Total Total


ments materials in beds Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium
(%) (%) (%)
T1 2 kg Paper mill waste (PMW) 0.55 + 0.06 0.27 + 0.58 0.18 + 0.01
T2 1.5 kg (PMW) + 0.5 kg cow 0.93 + 0.03 0.27 + 0.01 0.34 + 0.03
dung (CD)
T3 1 kg PMW + 1 kg CD 0.95 + 0.09 0.22 + 0.04 0.64 + 0.02
T4 0.5 kg PMW + 1.5 kg CD 0.86 + 0.02 0.21 + 0.02 1.02 + 0.07
T5 1.5 kg PMW + 0.5 kg 0.57 + 0.25 0.27 + 0.06 0.41 + 0.01
Cabbage Leaves (CL)
T6 1 kg PMW + 1 kg CL 1.13 + 0.25 0.34 + 0.03 0.87 + 0.06
T7 0.5 kg PMW + 1.5 kg CL 1.11 + 0.01 0.21 + 0.02 1.38 + 0.01
T8 1 kg PMW + 0.5 kg CL + 0.5 0.96 + 0.24 0.28 + 0.02 0.94 + 0.01
kg CD
T9 1.5 kg PMW + 0.5 kg Paddy 1.21 + 0.31 0.25 + 0.02 1.54 + 0.26
straw (PS)
T10 1 kg PMW + 0.5 kg PS + 0.5 0.87 + 0.02 0.21 + 0.02 1.87 + 0.13
kg CD
T11 1.5 kg PMW + 0.5 kg water 0.97 + 0.16 0.27 + 0.01 0.73 + 0.01
hyacinth (WH)
T12 1 kg PMW + 1 kg WH 1.28 + 0.32 0.31 + 0.02 1.47 + 0.06
T13 0.5 kg PMW + 1.5 kg WH 1.43 + 0.22 0.37 + 0.01 1.99 + 0.02
T14 1 kg PMW + 0.5 kg WH + 0.5 1.34 + 0.66 0.26 + 0.01 1.03 + 0.01
kg CD
T15 1 kg PMW + 1 kg Saw dust 1.41 + 0.02 0.37 + 0.01 0.86 + 0.11
(SD)
T16 1 kg PMW + 0.5 kg SD + 0.5 1.32 + 0.02 0.33 + 0.02 0.76 + 0.12
kg CD

carbon content of processed vermicomposts, lowest nitrogen (0.55%) in cowdung itself in comparison to other
(3.13%) was recorded in PMW alone while highest substrates. Availability of total nitrogen in vermicomposts,
(12.51%) was recorded in treatment T 16 where half of though mainly depends on the nitrogen content present in
PMW was amended with both sawdust and cowdung. raw materials used for vermicomposting, but usually
Mixing with water hyacinth also recorded little higher increases during vermicomposting due to net loss of dry
quantity (4.4 to 9.9%) of organic carbon in comparison to mass in terms of CO2 during oxidation of organic matter
cowdung, cabbage leaves or paddy straw. Moisture and due to addition of mucus and nitrogenous waste
content is an important factor in degradation because it secreted by earthworms. The increase of total nitrogen in
influences the structural and thermal properties of the vermicomposts confirmed the earlier findings of Elvira et
material, as well as the rate of degradation and metabolic al. (1998), Tucker (2005), Umamaheswari et al. (2009),
process of microorganisms. The total moisture Thyagarajan et al. (2010), Yadav and Madan (2013),
percentage of processed vermicomposts was varied from Natarajan and Gajendran (2014), Sonowal et al. (2014)
29.9 to 56.2 percent, indicating well maintenance of and Ponmani et al. (2014) during their experiment on
moisture by all vermicomposts. composting / vermicomposting of paper mill wastes with
different substrates.
Total nutrient status presented in Table 3 clearly showed
that addition of cowdung, cabbage leaves, water The total phosphorus content was observed 0.27% in
hyacinth, and paddy straw or sawdust as structural vermicomposts prepared from PMW alone. However
amendment with Emami Paper Mill wastes improved the amendments of PMW with water hyacinth and sawdust
total nitrogen status of vermicomposts processed by increased the total phosphorus content in vermicomposts
Eisenia fetida. Total nitrogen was recorded 0.55% in while amendment with cowdung alone or in combination
vermicompost prepared from PMW alone. But with other substrates, on the contrary, reduced the total
amendment with cowdung increased total nitrogen 0.86 phosphorus contents. Lower in phosphorus with cowdung
to 0.95%, cabbage leaves 0.57 to 1.13%, paddy straw amendment was reported earlier by Tucker (2005) while
0.87 to 1.21%, water hyacinth 0.97 to 1.43% and sawdust higher phosphorus with sawdust amendment was
1.32 to 1.41%, respectively. Addition of cowdung with recorded earlier by Thyagarajan et al. (2010) and Yadav
other substrates always reduced the total nitrogen and Madan (2013), with water hyacinth by Natarajan and
content, which might be due to less presence of total Gajendran (2014) and with leaf litters by Ponmani et al.
Impact of structural amendment of Paper mill wastes with different organic materials on vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida earthworms
J. Environ. Waste Manag. 170

Table 4. Calcium, sulphur and sodium status in vermicomposts prepared from PMW amended with different
substrates

Treatme Quantity of mixed raw Total Total Total


nts materials in beds Calcium Sulphur Sodium
(%) (%) (%)
T1 2 kg Paper mill waste (PMW) 13.38 + 0.21 0.41 + 0.03 0.54 + 0.05
T2 1.5 kg (PMW) + 0.5 kg cow 12.18 + 0.42 0.40 + 0.07 0.52 + 0.04
dung (CD)
T3 1 kg PMW + 1 kg CD 11.22 + 0.83 0.38 + 0.06 0.47 + 0.02
T4 0.5 kg PMW + 1.5 kg CD 6.48 + 0.47 0.27 + 0.02 0.34 + 0.05
T5 1.5 kg PMW + 0.5 kg 13.50 + 0.47 0.36 + 0.07 0.46 + 0.03
Cabbage Leaves (CL)
T6 1 kg PMW + 1 kg CL 13.02 + 0.58 0.23 + 0.03 0.42 + 0.06
T7 0.5 kg PMW + 1.5 kg CL 9.48 + 0.72 0.18 + 0.04 0.33 + 0.06
T8 1 kg PMW + 0.5 kg CL + 0.5 8.38 + 0.37 0.09 + 0.04 0.32 + 0.05
kg CD
T9 1.5 kg PMW + 0.5 kg Paddy 11.28 + 0.99 0.23+ 0.03 0.37 + 0.02
straw (PS)
T10 1 kg PMW + 0.5 kg PS + 0.5 9.24 + 0.56 0.10 + 0.07 0.30 + 0.01
kg CD
T11 1.5 kg PMW + 0.5 kg water 12.69 + 0.65 0.32 + 0.02 0.46 + 0.01
hyacinth (WH)
T12 1 kg PMW + 1 kg WH 10.50 + 0.77 0.28 + 0.04 0.42 + 0.06
T13 0.5 kg PMW + 1.5 kg WH 10.02 + 0.99 0.24 + 0.07 0.39 + 0.03
T14 1 kg PMW + 0.5 kg WH + 0.5 9.02 + 0.68 0.21 + 0.09 0.35 + 0.02
kg CD
T15 1 kg PMW + 1 kg Saw dust 8.39 + 0.41 0.27 + 0.03 0.26 + 0.02
(SD)
T16 1 kg PMW + 0.5 kg SD + 0.5 7.08 + 0.12 0.23 + 0.02 0.22 + 0.02
kg CD

(2014), mainly depending on the nutrient contents with amendments by different substrates. The total
present in added substrate. Umamaheswari et al. (2009) sodium contents also followed similar decreasing trends
and Sonowal et al. (2014) also reported increase in total with addition of different substrates.
phosphorus content in vermicomposts prepared from
solid pulp and paper mill sludge after mixing with Impact of vermicomposts on growth of paddy
cowdung. seedlings

Similar to nitrogen total potassium content was also Table 5 showed that paddy seed germination was proper
considerably increased in all vermicomosts prepared only in vermicompost prepared from PMW amended with
from amended paper mill wastes with different saw dust and cow dung at 1:0.5:0.5 ratios, however the
substrates. However, comparatively higher potassium germination is affected severely in vermicompost
was noticed with paddy straw amendment (1.54 to amended with cabbage leaves followed by paddy straw
1.87%) and water hyacinth amendment (0.73 to 1.99%). and water hyacinth. Germination was completed within 5
These findings were in consistent with other researchers days. Vermicomposts prepared from PMW amended with
(Tucker, 2005; Umamaheswari et al., 2009; Thyagarajan different substrates performed better in seedling growths
et al., 2010; Yadav and Madan, 2013; Natarajan and than vermicomposts of PMW alone, which was obvious
Gajendran, 2014 and Ponmani et al., 2014). since former vermicomposts were significantly higher in
their nutrient availability in comparison to later one. Both
Data presented in Table 4 indicated that total Calcium shoot and root length also showed similar pattern. In this
contents ranging from 6.48 to 13.38 percent recorded experiment, the vermicomposts of treatment T 16 prepared
considerable reduction with amendment of paper mill from the mixture of PMW (1 kg) with CD (0.5 kg) and SD
waste by different substrates, obviously due to its less (0.5 kg) gave best growth of paddy seedlings (average
concentration in different substrates as compared to shoot length 23.5 cm, average root length 10.84 cm,
PMW. More reduction was noticed in sawdust average weight of seedlings 1.05 g and dry weight of
amendment while lesser reduction in water hyacinth seedling 0.13 g). In case of amendment of PMW with
amendment. Similar to total calcium, total sulphur ranging cabbage leaves, earthworms either died or left the beds
from 0.09 to 0.41 % was also found comparatively lesser during vermicomposting. Quick wilting of paddy seedlings
Impact of structural amendment of Paper mill wastes with different organic materials on vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida earthworms
Mohapatra et al. 171

Table 5. Germination and growth of paddy seedlings in sand with vermicomposts

Treatme Quantity of mixed raw Total Shoot length Root Fresh Dry weight
nts materials in beds Seeds (cm) length weight of of seedling
germinate (cm) Seedling (g)
d (g)
T1 2 kg Paper mill waste 4 8.35 3.97 0.2 0.012
(PMW)
T2 1.5 kg (PMW) + 0.5 kg cow 6 11.3 8.2 0.38 0.037
dung (CD)
T3 1 kg PMW + 1 kg CD 6 12.34 9.64 0.35 0.037
T4 0.5 kg PMW + 1.5 kg CD 6 14.57 10.6 0.49 0.052
T5 1.5 kg PMW + 0.5 kg 3
Cabbage Leaves (CL) seedlings wilted quickly
T6 1 kg PMW + 1 kg CL 3
T7 0.5 kg PMW + 1.5 kg CL 3
T8 1 kg PMW + 0.5 kg CL + 0.5 3 7.32 4.28 0.1 0.005
kg CD
T9 1.5 kg PMW + 0.5 kg Paddy 4 10.44 7.31 0.27 0.020
straw (PS)
T10 1 kg PMW + 0.5 kg PS + 0.5 6 12.18 9.94 0.36 0.037
kg CD
T11 1.5 kg PMW + 0.5 kg water 5 10.20 6.02 0.30 0.028
hyacinth (WH)
T12 1 kg PMW + 1 kg WH 5 11.56 6.43 0.34 0.035
T13 0.5 kg PMW + 1.5 kg WH 5 12.01 7.01 0.38 0.037
T14 1 kg PMW + 0.5 kg WH + 6 12.12 8.87 0.41 0.042
0.5 kg CD
T15 1 kg PMW + 1 kg Saw dust 7 14.07 7.25 0.52 0.060
(SD)
T16 1 kg PMW + 0.5 kg SD + 0.5 10 23.5 10.84 1.05 0.130
kg CD

within 3 days after germination also pointed towards combat the problem of recycling of Emami Paper Mill
formation of some toxic condition due to reaction with solid waste.
some chemicals present in PMW with extract of cabbage
leaves during decomposition.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

CONCLUSION The first author is thankful to the Principal, F M (A)


College, Balasore for extending laboratory facility to carry
The vermicomposts prepared from amended Paper Mill out her research work.
Wastes were no doubt nutrient rich, odour free, more
matured and stabilized than initial waste mixture. The
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Impact of structural amendment of Paper mill wastes with different organic materials on vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida earthworms

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