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Discussion questions:

Laboratory report:




Discussion Questions
According to Hess Law, which states that the enthalpy of a reaction equals to the

difference of the enthalpy of the products and the reactants enthalpy. Due to this state being a

state function then the change will be similar regardless of the path followed.

Step 1: formation of sodium chloride and water

NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) Hrxn
Step 2: reacting the products of reaction one with ammonia
NaCl(aq) + NH3(aq) + H2O(l) NaOH(aq) + NH4Cl(aq) Hrxn = +0.34708kJ
Overall reaction; overall reaction and expected heat of the reaction
HCl(aq) + NH3(aq) NH4Cl(aq) Hrxn = -3.01892kJ
The expected value is -3.01892kJ while the experimental value is -2.6162 this is probably

because of energy losses through heat loss, interference from the surrounding or absorption of

heat by the Styrofoam cup.

The recognition of an exothermic and endothermic reactions, the deductions are made

basing the facts on the energy changes. When the energy change is negative the deductions are

that the reaction is exothermic as energy is released and when the energy change is positive the

reaction is endothermic as energy is absorbed. In the reaction in the experiment, the reactions are

as follows:

1. NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)Hrxn = -3.366kJ

The reaction is exothermic and thus the heat of neutralization and hence the enthalpy is negative.

2. NaOH(aq) + NH4Cl(aq) NaCl(aq) + NH3(aq) + H2O(l) Hrxn = -0.34708kJ

The reaction is exothermic and thus the heat of neutralization which is equal to the enthalpy is


3. HCl(aq) + NH3(aq) NH4Cl(aq) Hrxn = -2.6162kJ

The reaction is exothermic and thus the heat of neutralization and hence the enthalpy is negative

4. The heat of solution of ammonium nitrate is positive and hence it is Endothermic.


Hrxn = 1.36653kJ

Styrofoam cup is a good insulator thus minimizing loss of heat to the surrounding and

heat gain from the surrounding. This increases the degree of accuracy and confidence level of the

values and figures obtained in the reaction (Hunter et.al, 2016). On the other hand, the use of a

glass beaker allows the exchange of heat between the system and the surrounding and thus the

values obtained will be prone to errors due to this interference.

The reaction equation of hygrochloric acid and magnesiu is;

2HCl(aq) + Mg(s) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

Hydrogen gas is released as a result of the reaction.

The difference of using magnesium strips instead of magnesium powder would be massive as the

reaction will be slower when magnesium strips are used because of the small surface area

exposed for the reaction to occur (Hunter et.al, 2016). The heat of reaction will be lower since the

temperature difference will be lower compared to when magnesium powder is used.

Hunter, A. D., Williams, T. R., Zarzyczny, B. M., Bottesch, H. W., Dolan, S. A., McDowell, K.

A., ... & Mahler, C. H. (2016). Correlations among 31P NMR Coordination Chemical Shifts, Ru

P Bond Distances, and Enthalpies of Reaction in Cp Ru (PR3) 2Cl Complexes (Cp= 5-C5H5,

5-C5Me5; PR3= PMe3, PPhMe2, PPh2Me, PPh3, PEt3, P n Bu3). Organometallics, 35(16),