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Solutions 2.

7-Page 176

Problem 1
In the circuit of Fig. 2.7.7, suppose that L = 5 H, R = 25 , and that the source E of emf
is a battery supplying 100 V to the circuit. Suppose also that the switch has been in
position 1 for a long time, so that steady current of 4A is flowing in the circuit. At time
t = 0 , the switch is thrown to position 2, so that I (0) = 4 and E = 0 for t 0 . Find I (t ) .

It is given that LI + RI = E (t ) describes the circuit. Substituting given information


yields:

5 I + 25 I = 0

Separating variables and integrating yields:

dI
I
= 5 dt

ln I = 5t + K
~
I = Ke 5 t

The initial condition I (0) = 4 is used to solve for the integration constant as follows:

~
I (0) = 4 = K (1)
~
K =4

I = 4e 5t
Problem 3
Suppose that the battery in Problem 2 is replaced with an alternating current generator
that supplies a voltage of E (t ) = 100 cos 60t volts. With everything else the same, now
find I (t ) .

The differential equation describing the circuit is 5 I + 25 I = 100 cos 60t .

A particular and homogeneous solution must be found to find the entire solution.

Particular solution

The assumed form of the particular solution is I p = A cos 60t + B sin 60t . Substituting
this solution into the differential equation yields:

d ( A cos 60t + B sin 60t )


5 + 25( A cos 60t + B sin 60t ) = 100 cos 60t
dt
5(60 B cos 60t 60 A sin 60t ) + 25 A cos 60t + 25 B sin 60t = 100 cos 60t

Equating coefficients yields:

300 B + 25 A = 100
25 B 300 A = 0

A = 4 / 145 and B = 48 / 145

Substituting these coefficients into the particular solution yields:

I p = (4 cos 60t + 48 sin 60t ) / 145


I p = 4(cos 60t + 12 sin 60t ) / 145

Complementary solution

The homogeneous equation is 5 I + 25 I = 0 . From Problem 1 this equation has the


~
solution of the form I = Ke 5t .

The complementary solution is added to the particular solution and the initial condition is
~
now used to find K .
~
I (0) = 0 = 4(cos 60t + 12 sin 60t ) / 145 + Ke 5t
~
0 = (4 / 145) + K
~
K = 4 / 145

I = 4(cos 60t + 12 sin 60t e 5t ) / 145


Problem 7
(a) Find the charge Q(t) and current I(t) in the RC circuit if E (t ) = E 0 (a constant voltage
supplied by a battery) and the switch is closed at time t = 0, so that Q(0) = 0.

1
It is given that RQ + Q = E 0 describes the circuit. The particular and homogeneous
C
solutions must be found.

Q p = A is the assumed form of the particular solution. Substituting back into the
differential equation and solving for the constant yields A = E 0 C .

1
The homogeneous equation is RQ + Q = 0 . Separating variables and integrating
C
yields:

dQ 1
= dt
Q RC

1
ln Q = t+K
RC
1
~ t
Q = Ke RC

The homogeneous solution is added to the particular solution and the initial condition is
~
now used to find K .
~
Q(0) = 0 = E 0 C + K (1)
~
K = E0 C

Q = E 0 C (1 e t / RC )

Recall that I = Q . Therefore,

E 0 t / RC
I= e
R
(b) show that

lim Q(t ) = E 0 C and that lim I (t ) = 0 as t

As t , e t / RC 0 Q(t ) E 0 C

As t , e t / RC 0 I (t ) 0
Problem 11
The parameters of an RLC circuit with input voltage E (t ) are given. Substitute

I sp (t ) = A cos t + B sin t

in Eq.(4) using the appropriate value of , to find the steady periodic current in the form
I sp = I 0 sin( t ) .

R = 30 , L = 10 H , C = 0.02 F , E (t ) = 50 cos 2t

From Eq.10 and Eq.12,

E0 E0 120
I0 = = = = 1.64399
Z 2 2
1 1
R 2 + L (30) 2 + 2(10)
C (2)(0.02)

From Eq. 15,


LC 2 1 (10)(0.02)(2 2 ) 1 0.2
= tan 1 = = tan 1 = .165149 rad = 2 .165149 = 6.118 rad
RC 2(30)(.02) 1.2

I sp = 1.64399sin(2t 6.118)
Problem 17
An RLC circuit with input voltage E(t) is described. Find the current I(t) using the given
initial current (in amperes) and charge on the capacitor (in coulombs).

R = 16 , L = 2 H , C = 0.02 F , E (t ) = 100 V ; I (0) = 0 , Q(0) = 5

First we need an initial condition for I . This can be found from Eq.16 in the text.

1
LI (0) + RI (0) + Q(0) = E (0)
C
2 I (0) + 16(0) + 50(5) = 100
I (0) = 75

Now Eq.4 can be solved for current.

1
LI + RI + I = E (t )
C
2 I + 16 I + 50 I = 0

The solution can be found by solving the characteristic equation.

r 2 + 8r + 25 = 0
8 64 4(25) 8 6i
r= = = 8 3i
2 2
Therefore
I (t ) = e 8t ( A cos 3t + B sin 3t )

Now the initial conditions are used to find the constants.

I (0) = 0 = A
I (0) = 75 = 8e 8t ( B sin 3(0)) + e 8t (3B cos 3(0))
75 = 3B
B = 25

I (t ) = 25e 8t sin 3t