* *
++
.+ .+
C haPter 6

*
<
*
'
T
+T
.
%
w
MM4
*
e
'
r
e
w
*
.
t
*
Mw
t
'
*
t
*
'
v
#
,*
V
+
'
%
.*
.
+
A
M#
Vm
*
+
#
*
M
H
'*
W
.
N
@

W.
#
e
u
**
M
.
e
<
*
+
#
A
*V
'
.
+
.
'
+
*4
.
%
#
Y
N
V
*
'
Y
4%
r
*
4
Y
%
*
M
+T
.
%
4
'
A C T ransm issio n
This chapter A4r11l review the characteristics and m odelling of ac transm ission
elem ents and develop m ethods of pow er ;ow analysis ih transm lssion system s.
T he focus is on those aspects bf the transm ission system characteristics that
affect system stabillty and voltage control.Specifcally,the objectives are a: follow s:
(a) To develop perform ance equatiqns and m odels for transm ission linesr
.
(b) To exam ine the PoW er transfer capabilities of transm ission lines as iniuenced
by voltage, feactive POW er, therm al, and system stability cohsiderationg;
(d) To exam ine factors iniuncing the ;ow of active PoW er and reactive POW er
through transm ission netw orks; and
(e) To describe analytical tecu iques for the analysis of POW er ;ow 1
*11
transm ission system s.
The above require consideration f balanced steadystate operation of the transm ission
system . A s such, w e w ill m odel and analyze the perform ance of transm ission elem ents
ln terrn s of their singlephase equivalents.
19 9
2O0 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6
6 .1 T R A N S M IS S IO N LIN E S
E lectrical PoW er I
*S transferred from generating stations to Consum ers through
overhead lines and cables.
O verhead lines are used for long distances 1 *11 Open country and rural areas,
@
w hereas cables are used for underground transm ission 11l urban areas and for
*
underw ater crossings. F or the San3e ratlng, cables are 10 to 15 tim es nAore expensive
than overhead lines and they are therefore only used 1 @11 special situations w here
@
overhead lines cannot be used ; the distances 1l1 such applications are short.
6 .1 .1 E lectrical C h a ra cteristics
A transm ission line is characterized by four param eters: series resistance R due
to the conductor resistivity, shunt conductance G due to leakage currents betw een the
* *
phases r d ground, Serles inductance f due ttl m agnetlc f eld surrounding the
conductors, and shunt capacitance C due to the electric eld betw een conductors.
D etailed derivations from f rst principles for the line paranleters Can be found
*
Series R esistance (R).The resistances of lines accounting for stranding and skin effect
are determ ined from m anufacturers' tables.
Shunt Conductance (G). The shunt conductance represents losses due to leakage
currents along insulator strings and Corona. ln pow er lines, its effect I
@S sm all and
usually neglected.
L 2 x 10 7jn MD d
H /m (6.1)
D
SeC.6 .1 T ransm issio n Lines 2O 1
In the above equation, D s is the self geom etric m ean distance, taking into account the
co n
ductor com posi tion, stranding, and bundl ing; it is also called the geom etric m ean
jus. A nd D eq is the geom etric m ean of the distances betw een the conductors of the
rad
three phases G b, and C* *
D eq (tfabdbcdca)1/3 (6.2)
w here r is the conductor radius, D eq is given by E quation 6.2, and k is the perm ittivity
of the dielectric m edium . F or parallelcircuit lines, the ttm odi ed geom etric m ean
distance'' of the conductors of the sam e phase replaces r in E quation 6.3 (1q.
T he earth presents an equipotential surface and w ill hence inf uence the
capacitance Per phase. T his Can be accounted for by using the concept of Etim ages''
g15J.
1. T he conductors 1@11 a cable are nauch closer to each other than are the
conductors of overhead lines.
ln the previous section, W e identi ed the paranleters of a transm ission line Per
unit length. T hese are distributed param eters; that 1*S, the effects represented by the
Paranleters are distributed throughout the length of the line.
2O 2 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6
If the line is assum ed transposed, W e Can analyze the line perform ance On
p erphase basis* F igure 6.1 show s the relationship betw een curtent and ,voltage along
one phase of the line 1 *11 term s f the distributed param eters, w ith
T he voltages and currents show n are phasors representing sinusoidal tim evarying
@ @
quantltles.
fs
* f+d1
     >
l
.
JP j
.   
I
 
>
*
fl
S , I R
I I
I z #x I
I l
FS r +# r l
. y dx ,
1r r
I I R
l l
I I
l I
l I
1 Jx l X
l l
dt f(z& )
H en ce,
dv
Iz (6.4)
dx
dl P(y& ) =
H ence,
dl
Py (6.5)
dx
Sec'6 .1 T ransm issio n Lines 2O 3
d 2 v dl
Z yzF (6.6)
dIl dx
rd
d 2
l JP
dx2 y
d zl (6.74
x
W e slrill establish the boundary conditions by assum ing that voltage VR and current
are u ow n at the receiving end (x=0).The general solution of E quations 6.6 and
6.7 for vol tage and cu rren t at a distance X from the receiving end I
*S
F R +Z C IR F Z f
F eYx+ R C R e yx (6.8)
2 2
f
tplzc+ eYx FR/Zc& eYI

(6.9)
2 2
w here
Zc (6.10)
Y a +jq (6.11)
T he constant Z c I
@S called the characteristic im p edance and l I
@S called the
prop agation constant.
T he constants y and Z c are com p lex quantities. T he real part of the propagation
constan t y is called the attenuation constant a , and the im aginary part the p hase
consta n t p.Thus the exponential term eWx m ay be expressed as follow s:
Therefore, the s rst term in E quation 6.8 increases in m agnitude and advances in phase
as the distance from the receiving end increases. T his term is called the incident
voltage.
T he expanded form of the second exponential ternA I
*S
e %X

e lI(cospx/sinpx) (6.13)
204 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6
111 phase from the receiving end tosvard the sending end . It is called the ref ected
voltag e.
A t any point along the line, the voltage is equal to the sum of the incident and
rei ected com ponents at that point. Since E quation 6.9 is sim ilar to E quqtion 6.8,the
current I@S also com posed of incident and ref ected com ponents.
lf a line I
@Sterm inated 1
*11itscharacteristic im pedance Zc,VR isequalto Zch , @
and there isno reiected w ave.Such a line is called aF lfline or an inflnite line (slnce
*
a line of infnite length cannot have a reiected w ave). Pow er llnes, unlike
com m unication lines, are nOt usually term inated 1
@11 their characteristic im pedances.
F rona E quations 6.12 and 6.13, W C See that the incident and rei ected
com ponents of voltage and current at any instant in tim e appear aS sinusoidal CUCVCS
Or NVaVCS along the length of the line. In addition ttl this variation, the voltage and
@
current com ponents at any point along the line Vary 111 tim e, since VR and IR 1l1
@ @
E quations 6.8 and 6.9 are phasors representing sinusoidal tim evarying quantltles.
T hus,the l
'ncident and ref ected com ponents of voltage and current represent travelling
W aVeS. T hey are sim ilar to the travelling W RVCS 1*11 w ater. T he total instantaneous
voltage and current along the transm ission line are not travelling, but they Can each
be interpreted as the SunA of tw o such travelling W aVeS.
F or typical POW er lines, G is practically Zero and R << o L . T herefore,
Zc R +jo L i
/O C N c ('R
2YZ (6.14)
Y (R+joL)joC N jYULC 1j R (6.15)
2Y i
F nRcosqx+jzclRsinpx (6.16)
and
I fscospx+ytps/zclsinpx (6.17)
T hus, the voltage and current Vary harm onically along the line length .A full cycle of
voltage and current 1 @11 SPaCC along the line length corresponds to 2a radian s. T he
length corresp onding to One fullcycle I @S called the w aveleng th 1.lf p I
*S the phase
@
l 2a (6 18)
.
L2
SIL W (6.19)
ZC
where V isthe rated voltage ofthe line.If % isthe linetoneutralvoltage, S1L given
by the above equation is the perphase value; if L is the linetoline value,then S1L
is the threephase value.
Fronl E quations 6.16 and 6.17, the voltage and current along the length of a
lossless line at S1L are given by
F %FReYX (6.20)
and
I IReYI (6.21)
A t SIL, transm ission lines (lossless) exhibit the follow ing special
characteristics'
.
@ Tshe
i phase
equal toangl
p/ (esee
betFi
w gur
eenethe sending end and receiving end voltages (currents)
6.2).
2O6 A C T ran sm issio n C hap . 6
ns

f Xx
S .r
Nx y
N
X
l
0 =
p/
h. $
l
l
f
l
l = line length
0 /l //
w t
VR
prof les are G at. T his IS an optlm um condition w ith respect to control of voltage and
reactive pow er.
A s W e Alrill See ill subsequent sections of this chapter, the natural'
x.x
. Or Surge
im pedance loading of a line SCrVCS aS a convenient reference quantis for evaluating
and expressing its capability.
X
E quations 6.8 and 6.9 provide a com plete description of the perfofm ance of
transm ission lines. H ow ever, for PVFPOSCS of analysis involving interconnection w ith
other elem ents of the system , it is nlore convenient to use equivalent circuits w hich
represent the perform ance of the lines only aS Seen from their term inals.
B y letting x =/ in E quation 6.8 and rearranging, W e have
F FR +ZcIR
2 2
(6.22)
Pacoshtyll+zcfRsinhtyl)
fS fscoshtyf) FR
+   sinhtyf) (6.23)
Zc
s Is IR
R
Ze
 T T 
F& M M FR
2 2
Y ,
FS Ze IR+Mz L +Ps
(6.24)
Z F
e e+1 ps+zeja
2
Ze zcsinhtyl) (6.25)
and
Z #F e

2 +1 coshtyl)
Thefefore,
Ye
L F9qh(Y)1
2 Zc sinhtyl)
(6.26)
j(ia)
Equations 6.25 ahd 6.26 give the elem ents of the equivalent C1 rcuit. T hese elem ents
reiect the voltage and current relationships given by E quations 6.22 and 6.23 exactly.
2O 8 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6
N om in al T equivalen t circuit
Ze zcsinhtyf)
N
Zc(yl) (6.27)
zl Z
and
Yd
2 tt(wa)
N
1 rl (6.28)
Zc 2
Ll F
2 2
1r1 E quation s6.27 and 6.28,Z and F represent the totalseries im pedance (zp
and total shunt adm ittance @ 0,respectively. T he resultant circuit m odel is called the
@
(b) M edium length lines: lines w ith lengths in the range of 80 km to about 200
km (125 m i).They m ay be represented by the nom inal a equivalent circuit.
(c) Long lines@ lines longer than about 200 % . F or such lines the distributed
effects of the paranleters are signif cant. T hey need to be represented by the

T able 6.1 gives typical paranleters of overhead lines of nom inal voltage
ranging from 230 W to 1,100 kV .
W e SeC that the surge inapedance lies Alritllill the range of 230 to 290 D for
EH V and U H V overhead lines. F or a 230 kv line, it is about 380 D .The value of p
*
F or exam ple, for the 500 kv line w hose paranleters are listed 111 T able 6.1,
svitll a line length of 160 % , W e have
XL 160x0.325 52 0'
.
?
O d
2 1O A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6
X s = 0.2 Pu
Xz 1f
BC o Cl
# BC O 2a 60
=
0.1 pu  = 0 .1 Pu B ase Z Z
2 2 c
I = line length 16Q km
&  J
F igu re 6.4 A pproxim ate equivalent circuit for an overhead line of any
voltage rating, w ith param etrs in per unit of surge im pedance
Tz 52.0/250 0.208 Pu
Bc 8 32x 10 4x250
. 0.208 Pu
T able 6.2 gives typical param eters of cables. Tw o types of cables are included:
directburied PX CFinsulated leadcovered (PILC)and highpressure pipe type (PlPE),
w ith nom inal voltages of 115, 234, and 500 kV .
C harging M v A /km 3
. 05 2 .13 13 .0 15.8 24 .1
=
Vbc
SeC'6 .1 T ransm issio n Lines 2 11
Frorn the table W e See that underground cables have Very high shunt
caPacitance. T he characteristic im pedance Z c of a cable is about onetenth to one fth
of t
hat for an overhead line of the Sanle voltage rating.
k
H OW CVCF, the perform ance requirem ents of POW er and com m unicatlon llnes are
signif cantly different.
C om m unication lines transm it signals of DAany relatively high frequencies and
are very long com pared to the w avelengths involved. F idelity and strength of the
signals at the receiving end are the prim ary considerations. C onsequently, term ination
at the characteristic im pedance of the line is the only practical w ay of operation to
avoid distortion on the line. T he energy associated w ith com m unication lines is sm all;
@
im portance 111 the Case of pow er transm ission . T here is only one frequency, and
distortion is not a problem ill the Sanle SCnSC aS it I @S 1
@11 cum m unication lines. T he
lengths of m ost pow er lines are a fraction of the norm al w avelength ; hence, the lines
Can be term inated On equivalent load im pedances w hich are m uch losver than their
characteristic im pedances.
lf the p ow er line I
@S very ton: (greater than 500 % ),term inating close to the
* @
W hen the receiving end is Open, IR =Q.E quations 6.8 and 6.9 then reduce to
FR Yx +
FR
F 2 e
 e XX

(6.29)
2
FR FR
f 
e YX e%X (6.30)
2Zc 2Zc Y.
2 12 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6
F Pacostpx) (6.31)
f  ytpa/zclsintpxl (6.32)
T he voltage 1 and current at the sending end are obtained by substituting line
length l for x :
ES Pacospf
(6.33)
Z R coso
and
I /(% /zc)sino (6 .
34)
jl's/zcltano
F EScospx (6 35)
.
coso
E
= J'M si
njx
I (6.36)
Z c coso
A s an exam ple, let us consider the voltage M d current prof les for a 300 km , 500 kv
line w ith the sending voltage at rated value and the receiving end opencircuited. T he
*S assum ed to be lossless Alritlzp=0.0013 rad/km and Z c =250 D .
line I
T he electrical length of the line is
M'
22 .3O
1 Since the sending end voltage ill this CaSC is a controlled voltage it is denoted by the
,
F 1
1.08 1 Pu
a cos22 3O .
f  /(',/zc)t= 0
Expressing Is 111 per unit w ith base current equal to that corresponding to the natural
load, its m agnitude is
Is f str o Pu
ae
0.4 11 Pu
Frorn E quations 6.35 and 6.36, the voltage and current m agnitudes aS functions of
distance X from the receiving end are given by
F l.ocos(0.0013x)
cos22 .3O
1.0812cos(0.0013x) Pu
and
I 1.0sin (0.0013x)
cos22 .3O
1.0812sin (0.0013x) Pu
The voltage and current pros les are shou 1 @11 F igure 6.5. T he current represents the
* * @
capacltlve charging current of the line, expressed 111 Per unit of current at SIL .
The only line p aram eter, other than line length, that ay ects //it? results
F igure6.5 is #.Since # ispractically the sam efor overhead lines of allvoltage levels
(see Table 6.l), results are universally applicable, notjustfor a 500 kv line.
T he receiving end voltage VR for the 300 km line is 1.08 1 pu, that is, 8.1%
higher than the sending end voltage F or a 600 km line, the receivingend opencircuit
.
voltage w ould be 1.407 Pu .A line ofabout 1,200 km (one quarter w avelength) w ould
@ @ @ *
f s = 1.0 pu V
V R
. 
 JS AI  I
l P R=0, QR=
I
I
l
I
p = 0.0013
/=300 km '> 0 = j/ = 22.30
v (pu)
1.08 1
1.10 t
1.05
1.0812 cos(0.0013x)
1.00
1
0
I
100 200
, !
300
wy (km )
0 .4
1.0812 sin(0.0013x)
0 .3
0 .1
(c) Cuaentprofle
F igure 6.5 V oltage and current pros les for a 300 km lossless
line w ith receiving end opencircuited
Sec. 6 .1 T ransm issio n Lines. 2 15
@
con stan t. ln practice, follow ing a sudden Openlng of the llne at the receiving end, the
sending end voltage Al?ill rise due to the capacitive current of the line i ow ing tk ough
the SOVCCC im pedance (m ostly inductive reactance). A ppropriate form s of reactive
POW CC com pensation should be provided on long lines to kep the rise 1 *11 voltage to
acceptable levels. T his is discussed in C hapter 1 1.
ES + Z f E
E # C R eyl+ R  Z cIR e . y/ (6 37)
.
2 2
H ence,
 
2F yj .yj
,ER(e +e ) (6
fR .
38)
Zcleyl e yl)
  
 n # 
E  E C 1j 
S R
E e T' F
I 
e YI  eYI (6.40)
Y 1. 
Zclq 
e yf) Zcteyl eyI)
 
E  E e 1j E e Yj E

S S
F CYx+ S Se yx (6.41)
e yl e y I e y/ e y I
X
2 16 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6
 
E  E e 1J E* e Yj E

S S s s 
I 
e YI  
e yX (6.42)
Zcle yl e yl) Zc (d y/ e yl)
F cosp(!/2x) (6.43)
cos(0/2)
' sinp(f/2x)
f J* (6,44)
Zc cos(0/2)
# ajQ R
fR
F +
R
P 'sye a
E scoso+/zcsino (6.46)
e,
'R
Sec. 6 .1 T ransm issio n Lines 2 17
f K f
s= 1.0 pu f a = 1.0
x
P s=Q # s =0
l 400
p = 0.0013 rad/km
0 = 0.52 rad = 29.80
F (pu)
0
t 100 200 300 400
t
Sending end R eceiving end
(a) V oltage prosle
I (pu)
B ase current = 1.0/Z c
0 .4
v
0.266
0.2

0 .2

0.266

0.4
(b) Current profle
T he above equation can be solved for VR for any given load and sending end voltage .
F igure 6.7 show s a typical relationship betw een the receiving end voltage and load
!
for a s xed sending end voltage. T he results show n afe for a 300 line w ith E s= 1 g .
pu. The consyant p for the line is assum ed 10 be 0.00 13 rad/km . T he load 1*%
norm alized by dividing P R by P03 the natural load (SIL), S0 that //it
? results Jre
app licable ttl overhead lines all voltag e levels. Frorn F igure 6,7, several
fundam ental properties of ac transm ission X C evident:
@ T here is an inherent m axim um lim it of POW er that Can be transm itted at AnX
load POW er factor. O bviously, there has to be such a lim it since, AAritll
con stan t, the oply w ay to increase pow er is by low ering the load im pedance .
T his w ill result in increased current,but decreased VR and large line losses.U p
E s= 3.0 pu VR
P SJ .
)
l 300
p = 0.0013 rad/km
0 = 0.39 rad = 22 .30
0 I
. 8 l
l 
0 1
. 6 1
t 0.9 p f. lead
0 l 0.98 p f. lead
. 4
I U nity p .f.
0 1
. 2 , 0.98 p .f. 1ag
i
l 0 9 P .f 1ag
0.0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2 .0 2 .5
w
p p jp o
to a certain point the increase of current dom inates the decrease of VR,thereby
resulting in an increased P R. F inally, the decrease in VR is such that the trend
re v erse s .
around 1.0 Pu . A t the loqver voltage, the current IS higher and m ay exceed
therm al ll
*m l
@ts. T he feasibility of operation at the loqver voltage also depends
On load characteristics and m ay lead to voltage instability . T his w ill be
@
@ T he load PoW er factor has a signis cant ini uence On VR and the m axim um
POW er that can be transm itted. T he PoW er lilzxit and VR are loqver Alritll lagging
*
be G atter and m axlm um PoW er IS higher. T his nAeans that the recelving end
voltage Can be regulated by the addition of shunt capacitive com pensation .
The effect of line length is depicted 1 *11 F igure 6.8, w hich show s the perform ance of
lines w ith lengths of 200, 300, 400, 600 and 800 w ith unity power factor load.
The results show that, for longer lines, VR is extrem ely sensitive to variations in P R.
For lines longer than 600 (0>450), VR at natural load is the loqver of the tANrtl
w
voltages (seehich satisfy the E quation 6.46. Such operat ion I
@S likely to be voltage
unstable Chapter 14).
2 .5
VR IE s 800 %
2 .0 6:: .
1.5
400 km 300 km 200 km
1.0
'
,
N atural load
0.5
0.0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
 P IP o
'
B ecause the m agnitudes of E g and E R are equal, the follow ing conditions exl*st:
@ T he m idpoint voltage I
@S m idw ay 1
@11 phase betw een E g and E R.
F ?N # fm
Es ER g
Is R
Es V ER
PA H QR
fs Im fa
F igure 6.8 m ay be used to analyze how F varies w ith the POW CC transm itted.
hTitll the m agnitudes of Es and E R equal to 1.0 pu and the length equal to half that
ofthe actualline,plots of VR shown in Figure 6.8 give the values of L .Forexam ple,
the variations in Vm w ith load of a 400 km line'connected to sources at both ends are
the SanAe aS the variations 1*11 VR of a 200 radial line.
A t 400 km , the perform ance of the line I @S signis cantly im proved by having
SOurCeS at both ends.H ow ever, an 800 km sym m etrical line w ould have unacceptably
large voltage variations at m idpoint.
A lthough W e have considered a line connected to identical SOurCeS at the tw o
ends, the observations naade here are suff ciently general and provide a physical
understanding helpful in dealing w ith n3ore com plex CaSeS.
Sec . 6 .1 T ran sm issio n Lin es 22 1
A ssum ing a lossless line,from Equation 6.16,w ith x=/,and 0=p/,W e have
ES E coso +pzcssh o
' 'sje s
E acoso+/zcsino (6.47)
#+
U R
E f ,ej6 F
y
tcos +/sia) (6.48)
Equating real and im aginary pad s of E quations 6.47 and 6.48, W e have
E SE R
PR s1 (6.51)
Z csino
The above equation gives a Very im portant expression for PoW er transferred aCrOSS a
line. lt I
@S valid for a synchronous aS w ell RS an asynchronous load at the receiving
end. T he only approxim ation is that line losses arC neglected.
F or a short line, sino Can be replaced by 0 in radians. H ence,
Therefore, the expression for POW er transferred reduces to the nlore fam iliar fornl:
222 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6
E E
#R sin (6.52)
Xz
Po E E
Zc
Po
#R   sh (6.53)
sin o
W ith the voltage m agnitudes s xed, the pow er transm itted is a function of only
the transm ission angle .W hen PR is equal to the natural load (Po), =0.
Figure 6.10(a) show s this relationship for a 400 km line,for w hich 0 =0.52 rads
and sino =0.497. It is interesting to com pare this w ith the voltagepow er characteristic
of F igure 6.8. T he
(equivalent to the 200characteristic corresponding ttl the 400 km sym m etrical line
krn radialline 1*11Figure 6.8) is reproduced in Figure 6.10(b).
F rona F igures 6.10(a) and (b),w e see thatthere is a m axim um pow er that can
be transm itted. A s the load angle is increased (i.e., as the sending end synchronous
sy stem is advanced w ith respect ttl the receiving end synchronous system ), the
transm itted POW er increases according to F igure 6.10(a) and E quation 6.53. This I @S
accom panied by a reduction 1 *11 the m idpoint voltage F rFigure 6.10(b)) and an
* @
increase 1
*11 the m idpoint current Im SO that there IS an lncrease 1
@11 POW CC. U p ttl a
certain point the increase 1 *l1 f dom inates Over the decrease of F m * % en 'the load
angle reaches 900, the transm itted POW Cr reaches its m axim um value.B eyond this, the
*
decrease 111 F I *S greater than the accom panying increase in Im ; hence, their product
decreases w ith any further increase in transm ission angle. T he system , as explained
below , is unstable w hen this condition is reached.
T he sending end and receiving end system s m ay be considered 1 @11 ternAs of
equivalent synchronous naachines. T he load angle is theh a nAeasure of the relative
position of the rotors of those tAA?tl m achines. B eyond the point of m axim um POW CC,
@
IS a run aw ay situation, and the tw O nlachines (or the system s they represent) lose
synck onism .
T he m axim um P OW er that Can be transm itted represents the sm allsignal O r
@ @
steadystate stability lim it. F or the 400 km line considered ln Flgures 6.10(a)and (b),
this lim it is equal to # ./0.497 or 2 .0 12 tim es the natural load.
Sec.6 .1 T ransm issio n Lines, 223
E s= 3.QZ F E R = 1.0Z 0
M
PR
400
0 29.80
# R /J7O
2 .0 12
PR sin
=
) # sin 29 80
. U l V Z
I
I
I
l
l
I
1 .
I
!
I
I
I
l
1
I
l
1
1.5
Vm lE s
l
l
l
I
I
I
I I
1 l
I I
5
*G
I
l
1
'
1
1 1
1 I
I I
7.. 17
I l
! I
l l
l l
I I
!
*
In p articular, the assum ptlon that E s and E R have con stant m agnitude is not realistic;
the dynam ic characteristics of the sending and receiving end system s need to bt
*
considered for accurate analysis. H ow ever, the analysis presented IS useful for
understanding the phenom enon and the perform ance characteristics of tran sm ission
lines* C hapter 12 provides a com prehensive description of the sm allsignal stability
PrOblenl.
If the receiving end system I
@S a nonsynchronous load,there is still a m axim um
@
value of POW er that Can be transm itted, aS illustrated 111 Figure 6.10(b), but
m aintenance of synchronism w ould not be an 1
@SSue.
R eactive # @Y dr requirem en ts
T he relationship betw een the receiving end reactive pow er and the voltages at
the tsArtl ends is given by E quation 6.49 w hich is rew ritten here for convenience.
R earranging, W e get
QR EplEscosn Epcoso)
Z csin o
@ EslEpcosficoso)
$ Z %
csino
%
QR Q s
E2
s(cos coso)
Z csh o
F igure 6.11 show s the term inal reactive POW CC requirem ents of lines of different
lengths aS a function of active POW er transm itted. B oth active PoW er and reactive
P oW er have been norm alized by dividing by the natural load P o. W hen P R<# o, thre
@
E = 1.0 R
> Pu ,. E=1.
0
# & Qs P #J
0.00 13 rad/e
l 800 600
0.6

0.2
. 

p p jp o

0.4

0.6 l 400 600 800
T ransm ission lines Can be operated sh?itll varying load and nearly constant
voltage at both ends, if adequate SOurCeS of reactive PoW er r e available at the tAA?tl
ends.
1l1 the analysis of transm ission line perform ance presented so far, W e have
neglected line losses. W e Ahrillnow exam ine the effect of line resistance On VRP R and
QrPR characteristics by considering a 300 % , 500 kv line having the follow ing
paranzeters:
The line is assum ed to supply a radialload of unity powerfactor,w ith the sending
end voltage E s m aintained constant at 1.0 #u.
T he relationships betw een VR and # R and between Qs and P R are show n 1*I
F igure 6.12, w ith and w ithout the line resistance included. T he values of PR and Qs
plotted are norm alized values w ith 1.0 Pu equalto Po (1,008 M W ).
W e See from F igure 6.12(a) that the effect of the line resistance I
*S to reduce
the m axim um PoW er that Can be transm itted by about 8.5% .
@11Figure 6.12(b) corresponds
The loqver portion of the Qr PR Curves show n 1 * *
to the UPPCC portibn of the VRP R characteristics, w here the recelvlng end voltage Fs
is closer to rated value. The high values of Qs in the upper portionof the QrPR curve
are due to the high values of line current (hence high XI2 line loss) corresponding to
the loqver portion of the F4P R CG VC.W e SCe thatthe effect of line resistance on the
com puted value ofQg in the norm allow er polion is signiscant oly w hen P R exceeds
Po .
* A nnealing and gradual loss of m echanical strength of the alum inium conductor
caused by continued exposure to tem perature extrem es
T he second of the above two effzcts I@S generally the lilztitillj factor ilz setting
'
the m axim um perm issible Qperating tem peratufe. A t thls ll.m l@t, the resulting 'line sag
approaches the statutory m inim um ground clearM ce.
@
lim ited tim e rating.D epending on the prercontlngency current,tem perature and w ind
velocity, the lim itd tim e rating m ay be used during em ergencies. A s an exam ple, the
230 kv line w hse param eters are given in T able 6.1 has sum m er and w inter
em ergency ratings bf 1,880 A and 2,040 A , respectively . T hese are design values
based on extrem e vatues of am bient tem perature, w ind velocity, and solar radiation.
Sec. 6 .1 T ran sm issio n Lines 227
# s= 1.0
> Pu VR ,
QR =0
300
M P
P o = 1,008 M W
14 ZR IIS
*
1.2
W ithout line loss
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.2
P R I# O
0.0  '
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2 .0
1.0
0.50
0.5 1.0 1.5 2 .0
voltaje drop along the line IS 5$1 and that the m inim um allow able steadystat e
stabillty m argin is 30% . R eferring to F igure 6.14, the percent steadystate stability
m argin is def ned as
P # x loo
P ercent stability m argin limit
P m&A
A s show n 1*11 F igure 6.14, for a 30% stability m argin, the load angle IS 44O* T he
k
#
k
calculation of stability lim it includes the effects of the equivalent sy stem reactan ces
at the tw o ends of the line. I11 reference 12,the system strength at each end I@S taken
to be that corresponding to 50 G fault duty w hich represents a w elldeveloped
sy stem .
Since the resistances of extrahigh voltage (EH V ) and ultrahigh voltage
(U H V ) lines are Very m uch sm aller than their reactances, such lines closely
*
approxim ate a lossless line. Since the param eter p IS practically the sam e for all
overhead lines,the loadabilities expressed in per unit of SlL are universally applicable
to lines of a11 voltage classes.
A s identif ed in F igure 6.13, the lim its to line loading are governed by the
follow ing considerations:
@ V oltage drop lim its for lines betw een 80 and 320 (200 m i) long
* Stability lim its for lines longer than 320
SeC.6 .1 T ransm issio n Lines 229
3.0
= 2.5
%
Q
> 2 .0
=
Q
*eA
*+
* e+
1.5
=
O 1.0
*>
0.5
L ine length
conceptual guides to line loadability and prelim inary planning of transm ission
System s. H ow ever, it m ust be used w ith som e caution. L arge com plex pow er system s
require detailed assessm ent of their perform ance and consideration of additional
factors that inf uence their perform ance .
/
/
23O A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6
D
>W F or 30% stability m argl
@n:
S1
'n 6
% ll*m l*t
Q 1
I
> 1.
I
P limit Q.7P
= I
I
I
sin10 7
Q
*
I
.
l
I
l 44O
l
> I
I
I
I
1
I
I
l
l
I
I
I
i
I =
6 .2 T RA N S FO R M ER S
voltages have to be hi gh, but it IS not pract ically feasi ble to gen erate and Consum e
at these voltages. l11 m odern electric pow er system s, the transm itted POW er
Pow er
undergoes four t o 5 ve vol tage transform ations betw een the generators and the ultim ate
COD SU C/ CCS . C onsequently, the total A rating of a11 the transfornAers 1 @11 a POW er
*
*
;ow on the netw ork . It also assists 111 stabilizing the neutral. R eactive com pensation
is often provided through uSe of sw itched reactors and capcitors On a tertiary bus
1 U nder 
load tap changing is also referred to by other nam ed such as onload tap changing
(()laTC) and load tap changing (LTC).
232 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6
111 such situations to use phaseangle transform ers. O ften it is necessary tp vary the
extent of phase shift to suit changing system conditions; this requires provision of on
load phaseshifting capability .V oltage transform ation m ay also be required in addition
to phase shift.
T he transform er I*S a w ellknow n device. T he basic principle of its operation
is covered 1 @11 standard textbooks (2,5,71. R eferences 2 and 8 provide inform ation
*
related to physical realization of varlous types of transform ers and their perform ance
characteristics. l4ere, W e Alrill focus on representation of transform ers 1
@11 stability and
P0W er; ow studies.
6 .2 .1 R e p resentatio n o f T w o W in d in 9 T ra nsfo rm e rs
in physical units ls show n in F igure 6.15. T he subscripts p and s refer to prim ary and
secondary quantities, respectivly .
*
sh?itlz appropriate choice of prim ary and secondary side base quantities, the
equivalent circuit can be sim plis ed by elim inating the ideal transform er. H ow ever,
this is not alw ays possible and the base quantities often have to be chosen
independent of the actual turns ratio. lt is therefore necessary to consider an off
nom inal tu rn s ratl*o .
From the equivalent circuit of F igure 6.15, w ith X mp neglected, W e have
Z r Mn aD z
V# P tP + ## Z S lS (6.54)
S S
nS
V V# Z I
T +Z I
r (6.55)
# # S S
n# n
P
SeC 6 .2
.
T ransfo rm ers 233
Z# Z
K * DJ
up *
@ @
l# l
V#
* X mp V
Ideal
transform er
ZP R P +JX P >
.Z S R s+lx s
R p , R s = prim ary and secondary w inding resistances
X 'X S prim ary and secondary w inding leakage reactances
#
n# , DS num ber of turns of prim ary and secondary w inding
X mp m agnetizing reactance referred to the prim ary side
Let
V#
(s
n:)2Z#0l
v
#+
nS#su
nSnS
s
o2Zs0I
r
s (6.
56)
2 n 2
V 
S 
V# O 
S # Z Ir + s Z I
C (6.57)
p0 p 4 so s
n 4 n#o
# # o
sritli the nom inal num ber of turns related to the base voltages aS follow s:
n o V b. e
# so Vsba e
and
2  
n . .z n  
V# npZ poI.p+ u  vsns .p ZsoI.s (6.58)
n  2 Vs 
.
og  
.
V 
Vp

w here the superbars dente per unit values, w ith V# , VS$ l#' l@S equal to Per unit values
of p hasor voltages and currents, and
n #.
Mn (6 60)
.
n#o
(6.61)
# s
The per unit equivalent circuit representing E quations 6.58 and 6.59 is show n
in F igure 6.16.
n 2z p ldeal 
n 2Z
# # o
K *
',p @ S .
* *
J# l
VP V
The equivalent circuit of F igure 6.16 Can be reduced to the standard form
shoe ill Figure 6.17, w here n is the Per unit turns ratl
*o :
# n#4so (6 62)
.
*5 n#o n S
rd
Ze ns
2(Zpo+zso)
n 2  
(6.63)
s (z#o+zso)
n o
ldeal
Z
N *1
@ @
l# l
V# Vt V J'
w ith a sxed (or offload) tap O n O n e slde and an underload tap changer (U LTC) tn
the other side. T he offnom inal turns ratio is assigned to the side w ith U L T C and Z e
* *
has a value corresponding to the f xedtap posltlon of the other side, aS given by
Equation 6 63.
.
236 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap .6
@
  Fe
I# (v,vs)
vP  Fe
(= vs)= (6.64)
n D
Ye
(vpnvs) .a
n
 F
@
I (nvsv
s)E (6.65)
/1
* @
l# lJ
Mp $2 :3 V&
Fe 1/Z e
c(c llre (1c)Fe 1/n
The corresponding term inalcurrents fotthe a netw ork show n in Figure 6.18(a)
r e
l# yltvsvs)+yzvs (6.66)
@
I yltvsvs)+yavs (6.67)
1 

y1

 Fe c re (6.68)
4
rd
(1 1  2
:2 a )Fe

(C c)re 
(6.69)
n 4
1
w here C  . Sim ilarly, from E quations 6.65 and 6.67,
:3 (1c)Fe (6.70)
voltages and line currents are sim ilarly shifted 1 @11 phase due ttl the w inding
coM ections. A s w e w ill illustrate in Section 6.4, it I
@S usually not necessary to take
this phase shift into consideration in system studies T hus, the singlephase equivalent
.
circuit of a Y A transform er does not account for the phase shift, except in so far s
the phase shift of voltages due to the im pedance of the transform er .
238 A C T ra nsm issio n C h ap . 6
M V A rating * 42 .00 M V A
@
L et us exam ine the condition w hen the L V w inding is initially at its nom inal position,
and the H V w inding is m anually set G o steps above its nom inal position, i.e., at 115.5 kV .
T he param eters of the standard equivalent circuit (Figure 6.17) Alritll the ON R On the LV
@
(U LTC) side and values expressed ln Per unit of the transform er rated values are aS follow s.
28.4 110
0.95238
28.4 115.5
N
Z (!j
!j
pgp)2(0.
00411+/0.1153)
0.00453+/0.12712 Pu
3 1.24 110 1
. 04762
28.4 115.5
25.56 110
m in
0.857 14
28.4 115.5
L 2.84 110
n 0.0059524
16 x2 8.4 115.5
Sec. 6 .2 T ransfo rm ers 239
the corresponding per unit param eters of the equivalent circuit are aS follow s:
0 28.4 115
. 95238  0.99567
28.4 110
Z= 110 2 100
(0.
00453+/0.12712)(jjsj4,
0.009868+/0.27692
M axim um p:r unit turns ratl
@o :
1 2j.4 115
. 04762 1.09524
28.4 110
0 28.4 115
m in
. 857 14 28.4 110 = 0.896 10
lV 0 28k4 11r
. 005924 0.j06193
28.4 110
The equivalent circuit (Figur 6.18) paranleters representing the initialtap position
are as follosvs
.
1 1
:1 =
nz 0.99567(0.009868+/0.27692)
0.12908j3.62226
:2
(jljyj 0.
99
1567.g
x0.
9956749.
0091
t68+/0.
27692)
0.00056/0.01575
24 O A C T ran sm issio n C h aP . 6
:3
(1j)t 10.
99
15670.
009868+
1/0.
27692

0.00056+/0.01568
@ yl=0.1290873.
D62226 @
70.01575 +70.01568
ZP ZS
ON R
Zt
ON R
tertlary Op en
Zpt leakage inapedance nleasured 1
@11 prim ary AAritll tertiary shorted and
secondary Op en
Zst leakage inapedance nAeasured 1
@11 secondary w ith tertiary shorted and
*
ZPS Z +Z
# S
Z
#r
Z#+Zt (6.71)
Z st Z +Z t
H ence,
Z# 1

2 (ZPS+ZPtZS/)
Z 1

2 (zps+zs,z,,) (6.72)
Z 1
t 2 (Z#t+zstZps)

W e w ill consider a 60 H z, threew inding, threephase transform er w ith the follow ing
data:
M V A rating * 750 M V A
@
H igh/low /ted ial nom inal voltages *
* 500/240/28 kv
W inding cohnections (H /L/T)
@
@ YN M
ZH L 0.0015+70.1339

Z L T = 0 +70.1895

Z TH 0+70.3335
U L T C at high voltage S1
*dee
, 500+ 50 kv in 20 steps.
.
24 2 A C T ran sm issio n C hap .6
N eglecting the m agnetizing reactance, the equivalent star circuit Alritll 'U L T C Rt
* *
Z
@ H Zz
Zv
Z H L +Z T Z
Z Jf LT
 
s 2 0.00075+/0.13895
ZH L
+Z L T
Z r
Z ;I
 
z 2 0.00075/0.00505
ZL 
+z z
Z T F# H L
r 2 0.00075+/0.19455
k
Z HL
@
Zsr Z sr
E ZsQ +ZsZw+ZsZw

0.02535 +/0.0002914
>
E
ZHL 0.0020+/0.1303
ZF
Z E
LT Z 0.0011+/0.1824
H
Zsw E
Zz 0.7859/4.9029
SeC 6 .2
'
T ransfo rm ers 24 3
aSeS (
W LIT) of 500/220/27.
6 kV :
n HL
/ .. 1 Z HL
/
H
n t . 1 w , . 1
H T ' * HLT '
Z H'T Z LT
'
Z/
n
ZSZ7
15
00
?(a
2c
4o
0)2 0.
00032+/0.
02067
100 2 8.0 2
Z/ Z zr
LT 0.00015+/0.02504
750 27 .6
100 28.0 2
Z/
ru Z vu
yso (zy.
o 0.10784/0.
6728
/ 500 220
HL
0.9 1667
500 240
/ 240 27.6
nLv 220 28.0 1.07532
/ 500 27.6
nur 0.9857 1
500 28.0
U LT C data:
/
n n m in 0.8250
500 500 240
An/ 1:00833  0.825 0
HL . 009 17
20
/
nurm. 550 500 &
2 .6
500 500 28.0 1.08429
/ 4 50 500 =2 7 6
nn m in 0.887 14
500 500 28.0
A / 1.08429  0.8814
nHr 0 .0 10 14
20
244 A C T ran sm issio n C hap . 6
W e should recognize thatthe U LTC action atthe highvoltage side changes the ON R S nisand
D l *
HD these tw o ON R S cannot be adjusted independently.
T he three branches of the delta equivalent circuit Can each be represented by
equivalent circuit as show n in F igure 6.18.
T he equivalent circuits representing the initial U L T C tap pogition are aS follow s.
H L branch :
1 1
:1 / /
nn zn 0.91667(0.00032+/0.02067)
0.81687/52.76457
1
1 yj
(,.
qj
(,g1j(o.
g16gay52.
26457)

:2 /
nn
0.074258/4.79657
1 1 1
(10.
91667)0.
00032+1
/0.
02067

:3 / /
n,z Z ss

0.06807+/4.39687
@ 71=0.81687.
/52.76457
,2=0.074258 , 3= 0.06807

74.79657 +74.39687
L T branch :
1 1
y1 '
, / /
nzrzzv 1.0753240.00015+/0.02504)
0.22247/37.13748
1
1 yj
(j.
ig
15ga1140.
22247/37.13748)

:2
n Lv

0.01558+/2.60127
1 1 1
(11.
o)aaj;.
oxj5+1
y,.
;a5;4

:3 /
n Lr
Z /
Lv
0.01676/2.79719
Sec' 6 .2 T ransfo rm ers 24 5
yl=0.22247 737.13748
H T branch:
1 1
y1 / /
nsrzsr 0.98571(0.10784/0.67280)

0.23564+/ 1.47010
1
1 yj
(;.
qg
15gj1140.
23564+/1.
47010)

:2 /
nHr
0.00342+/0.02131
1 
1 1 1 
1 1
:3 / /
nuv Z ,r 0.98571 0.10784/0.67280
0.00337/0.02101
@ yl=0.23564+71.47010
show n in F igure 6.20. It consists of an adm ittance ln serles w ith an ideal transform er
having a com p lex turns ratio, g =nZ G . T he phase angle step size m ay not be equal at
different tap positions. H ow ever, equal step size is usually used 1 @I1 POW CC ; ow and
transient stability program s.
24 6 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6
nZ a @ 1
(q
p) re ((
s)
= M
lp Idea1 Qq ls
F igu re 6.20 P haseshifting transform er representation
B y def nition :
V#
nZa n(cosa +/sina) (6
V .
73)
Js+7'bs
w here a is the phase shift from bus # to bus q 5 ' it is positive w heh fp leads V9* Since
there is no POW er loss ill an ideal transform erk
V # Ir#* 
*#


V (6.74)
q
lT
P 
1 r
I
aS <l.bS S
(6.75)
Fe
. b (gVgS)
Js7 s
T
Ye 1
lP # #
Js 7#s Js+7'bs P

S
(6.76)
Fe
2 2jgs Las+jbs)gsj
as + bs
IT . T

laslbs)Is
SeC. 6 .2 T ransfo rm ers 24 7
Substituting for l
T from E quation 6.76 gives
#
r Ye
IS as+jbs((Js+/#S)#S##) (6.77)
Com bining E quations 6.76 and 6.77, w e obtain the follow ing m atrix equation relating
the phaseshiR er term inal voltages and currents
YB Ye
I
r 2
a +# 2 J 7'b V#
#
'
(6.78)
.
 Fe VS
H
Ye
Js+7'bs
L et us consider a threephase, tw ow inding phase shiA er w ith the follow ing data:
A rating @ 300 M V A
Prim ary/secondary bas voltages *
* 240/240 kv
R esistance per phase @
@ 0
L eakage reactan ce Per phase @
@ 0.145 Pu
PhaseshiA range and step s * +400 36 steps
System voltag bas
(prim ary/secondal ) : 220/230 kv
System M V A base @ 100 M V A
*
n z% * 1 Z e=J'
Xe
24 8 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap .
L eakage reactance 1
*11 Pu On system voltage and M V A base:
240 230
X  1.04545
220 240
P haseshift angle ll
*ln l
*ts.
.
40O
m in

40 0
T he im pedance of the transfo= er changes w ith the phaseshiA angle. T he follow ing table
(provided by the m anufacturer) gives values of the im pedance m ultiplier as a function ofthe
angle.
F Fe
2 2
a S +hS JSGl'bS
Y:

F
Fe
Js+7'bs
A s an illustration, w e w ill dete= ine the elem ents of the adm ittance m atrix for tw o values of
G .
(a) a =0:
Y 1 1
7'x e /0.05263 j 19.0006 Pu
5eC 6 .2
,
T ransfo rm ers 24 9
1.0455(cos0+jsin0) 1.0455+jo
YS j 17.3844 /18.1745
j 18.1745 j 19.0006
40
36 x 10 11.110
T he turns ratio I
*S
1.02585+/0.20147
Xe 1 0 + 11.11(1.1441.0) x;.;5z6a
.
20 .6
0.05672
H ence,
Y 1 =
j 17.6305
e 7X
e
Y 
j 17.6305
25O A C T ran sm issio n C h ap .
6 .3 T R A N S FE R O F P O W E R B ET VVE E N A C T IV E S O U R C ES
W w ill now exam ine factors ini uencing transfer of active and reactive POW ty
betw een tANrtl SOurCeS cor ected by an inductive reactance aS show n in Figure 6.21 .
E EScos+jEssin% +
p jX
E sz J:E E RZ Q
Ss=Ps+jQ s I Ss=PR+7':a
Es
load angle
JX I # POW er factpr angle
# ER
I
M CZOC'
E E
PR sin (6.79)
X
E sE cos E 2
Qs R (6.80)
X
Sim ilarly,
E E
Ps sh (6.81)
X
E2
@ sE fscos (6.82)
$ X
E quations 6.79 to 6.82 describe the W ay in w hich active PoW er and reactive POW er are
transferred betw een active pad s of a POW er netw ork . L et us exam ine the dependence
of active POW CC M d reactive PoW er transfer On the Source voltages by considering
separately the effects of differences in voltage m agnitudes and angles.
(a) W e Alrilllook rst at the condition w ith =0.Equations 6.79 to 6.82 beconae
PR #, 0
and
Q E R(fsfa)
a X
Q EsEsfa)
s X
negatlve, indicating that reactive PoW er i ow s from the receiving end to the sending
end. The phasor diagranx is shou illFiguze 6.22(b).
252 A C T ran sm issio n C h a9 . 6
I
JX I 
JX I
m r
ER Es ES ER
1
In each CaSC,
(ESER)2
Q Q R X I1
X
(b) W e w ill next consider the condition w ith E s=E R,but w ith # 0.From E quations
6.79 to 6.82, W e nOW have
E2
PR #,  
sl
X
@ El
$ % X (lcos)
1 2

XI
2
ss?itll positive, P s and P R are positive, that is, active pow er G ow s from the sending
end to the receiving end. W ith 8 negative, the direction of active pow er ; ow CC V C CSC S .
In each case there is no reactive pow er transferred from one end to the other; instead,
e a c h end supplies half of the X 1l consum ed by X T he corresponding phasor diagranAs
.
E E
# R
f
JX I JX I
I
Es
If the current I I
*S 1
*11phase w ith ER (1. ., the receiving end pow er factor I*S
'e
unity),the phasor diagram is aS shou in F igure 6.24 . ln this case, the m agnitude of
y is only slightly larger than E R. T he sending end supplies a11 of the X 12 consum ed
sy X
Es
JX 1
I ER
m agnitudes and . H ow ever, for satisfactory Operatlon of the pow er system , the
voltage m agnitude at any bus cannot deviate signif cantly from the nom inal value.
*S achieved prim arily tk ough variations
Therefore, control of actiVC POW CC transfer I
in angle .
(c) F inally, letus consiber a generalcase applicable to any values of ,Es and ER.
The current I is
I
Escosn +jfssin% (6 83)
.
j)l
E s2 +E R2ZE E R COS
Q s Q s X
(6.84)
(X I)1 X Il
X
1f, 111 addition ttl inductive reactance A W e consider the series resistance R of tlw
netw ork, then
P2 2
P # z2 R R +Q R
loss
   
(6.86)
E2
R
W e See from E quation 6.84 that the reactive PoW er absorbed by X for a11 conditions
@
is X 1 2 T his leads US to the concept o f ttreactlve PoW er IOSS '' a com panion ternA to
.
@ A ctive POW CC transfer depends m ainly on the angle by w hich the sending end
voltage leads the receiving end voltage.
@ R eactive PoW er cannot be transm itted OVer long distances since it w ould
require a large voltage gradient to do SO.
@ A n increase 1
*11 reactive POW er transfer Causes an increase in active aS w ell aS
reactive POW er losses.
A lthough W e have considered a sim ple system , the general conclusions are
applicable to any practical system . In fact, the basic characteristics of ac transm ission
rei ected in these conclusions have a dom inant effect on the W ay in Nvhich Nve Operate
and control the POW CC system .
Sef . 6 .4 P o w e rFlo w A n aly si: 255
6 ,4 PO W ER FLO W A N A LY S IS
So far in this chapter, W e have considered sim ple system conf gurations and
idealizing assum ptions to gain an understanding of basic characteristics of aC
transm ission . In this section, W e Alrill describe analytical techniques for detailed
alysis of POW er ; ow ill large com plex netw orks.
The POW CV;ow (loadiow ) analysis involves the calculation of p ow er R ow s
@ @
r d voltages of a transm lsslon netw ork for specis ed ternAinal or bus conditions. Such
@
here also apply to their representation 111 the analysis of system stability ; how ever, a S
W C srrill SeC ill later chapters, som e of the constraints Vary depending on the type of
stallilit)p PT0blenl being solved.
@ Load (PQ) bus:A ctive and reactive POW er are specif ed. N orm ally loads are
assum ed to have constant POW er. If the effect of distribufion transform er
U L T C operation is neglected, load # and Q are assum ed to Vary aS a function
of bus voltage.
* Slack (sw ing) bus:V oltage m agnitude and phase apgl e are specil ed. B ecause
the PoW er losses in fhe system are not know n a p riori, at least One bus m ust
have unspeciled # and Q .Thus th slack bus is the onl y bus Asr
itll knpw n
voltage.
256 A C T ransm issio n C h ap .
In som e applications,itis desirable to keep the Q associated w ith the slack bus
AAritllill reasonable ll
*m l
*ts,
o otherw ise, the POW CF; ow solution m ay becom t'
unrealistic.ssTitllQ at a lim iting value,only the angle of the slack bus voltagt
*
IS knou .
shifted by the sam e angle. In closedloop netw orks, utilities take sp eclal Care to
coM ect transform er w indings SO that there I *S no net phase shift introduced 1 *11
Com m on direction round a loop ; otherw ise, circulating cu rren t Ahrill tlow , w hich IS
norm ally unacceptable. F igure 6.25 show s a schem e for connecting transform er
w indings w ith due regard ttl the resulting phase shifts.
G EN
13 .8 kv
M
Y Y o Station service

300( a s )0
22 kv
T w ow inding o A
transformer 30 ( v
500 kv
00(A Y A Y wi
Autt
hotr
earn
ti
s
afl
o=er
230 kv 230 kv
T hreew inding
00(A Y transformer
115kv 30O( z
YzA zz:zigzag
30o( Y
A
28 W
Phaseshifting transform ers, w hich are provided specif cally for controlling
tlow , Rre represented as illustrated in Section 6.2.3. T his representation m ay
#OW c
be used to account for phase shift introduced by the transform erw inding
also
connecton (Y A,Y zigzag) in special situations w here this is desired; the phaseshift
' '
relationships betw een netw ork bus (node) voltages and currents m ay be
The
represented by either loop equations or node equations g1). N ode equations a rC
norm ally preferred because the num ber of independent node equations is sm aller than
the num ber of independent loop equations.
T he netw ork equations in ternls of the node adm ittance m atrix can be v itten
as follow s:
I1 F11 F 12 **@ F 1 F1
a
* * * @ @ @ * * * * * @
@ * @ @ @ @
IN F 1 Fn2 *** F F
w here
Fj
J. is m utual adm ittance betw een nodes land j
negative of the Sum of a11adm ittances betw een nodes land
* j
Vi @S the phasor voltage to ground at node i
I
Ii I
@S the phasor current i ow ing into the netw ork at node I@
The effects of generators, nonlinear loads, and other devices (for exam ple,
dynam ic reactive com pensators, H V D C converters) connected to the netw ork nodes
X C rei ected in the node current. Constant im pedance (linear) loads are, how ever,
included 1*1l the node adm ittance m atrix .
W e Ahrill illustrate the form ulation of the node equation by considering the
sim ple threebus system depicted 1 @11 F igure 6 26. .
258 A C T ran sm issio n C h aP . 6
##
yb
G1 62
;1 ye Jz
ya Tc
= =
r l1 = ya +yg Y 12 0 r 13 
yb
r21 0 F22 = yg+yc F 23 @ #+#c)

F31 
I1 F11 0 F13 F 1
I2 0 F 22 F23 Fc
0 F 31 F 32 F 33 F
3
W e Can naake the follow ing general observations regarding the node adm ittance
*
m atrlx :
(a) It I
*S Sparse w ith the degree of sparsity increasing w ith the netw ork S1
@Ze.
(d) lt I
*S sym m etrical, if there are no phaszshifting transform ers.
E quations
6.87 w ould be linear if the current injections I SVCCC know n.
@
P kJ'Q k (6
Ik + .
88)
Fk
Forthe PQ nodes,P and Q are speciled;and for the P V nodes,# and the m atnitude
of V are specif ed. F or other types of nodes, the relationship s betw een # , Q, Z and I
r e def ned by the characteristics of the devices coM ected to the nodes. C learly the
boundary conditions im posed by the different types of nodes naake the PrOblenz
nonlinear and therefore POW erS ow equations are solved iteratively using tecu iques
such aS the G aussseidel or N eM onR aphson m ethod. T he principles of application
of these m ethods arC bries y described below . R eferences 15 and 16 provide
com prehensive review s of num erical m ethods for POW er ; ow analysis.
# kJ'Q k 
*# F,,F,+E rkizi (6.89)
Fk I
*=1
i#k
F # kjQ k 1 (6
k .  Y q jzj .
90)
F kk F k a y.j
j.:
Equation 6.89 I @S the heart of the iterative algorithm . T he iterations begin w ith an
@
lnform ed gUCSS of the m agnitude and angle of the voltages at a11 load buses, and of
tlltl voltage angle at a1l generator buses .
F or a load bus,# and are u ow n, and E quation 6.90 is used to com pute the
voltage nk by using the best available voltages for al1 the buses.ln other w ords,the
upgraded values of bus voltages are used aS SOOn aS they are available. F or exam ple,
2 6O A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6
If the *4 bus I
*S a generator bus, the follow ing procedure I
@S used :
@* kn F*#
kE rkiFi (6.91)
i= 1
(b) lf Qk com puted by E quation 6.9 1 exceeds either the m axim um Or m inim um
lim it, it is set equal to the 11
@1141
*t.The updated value of V is com puted by
treating the generator bus aS a PQ node.
A ccelerated F*neW
k
ho1d+c(LnewF:
o1d) (6.92)
w here C I
*S the acceleration factor, w hich is typically on the order of 1.4 to 1.7.
T his I
@S an iterative tecu ique for solving a set of nonlinear equations. L et the
follow ing represent such equations ill ?7 unknow ns:
/1(x1,xz,''.,xn4 h1
/2(x1,xc,...,xn) bz (6193)
@ @ @ @ @ * @ @ @ @ @ * @ * @ * * *
/a(x1,xz,...,xa) %*
SeC. 6 .4 Po w erFlo w A n aly sis 26 1
lf thC iterations start Alritll an initial estim ate of 1 10, 1 20, ''', x n0 for the n unknow ns r d
if M 1,M z , ..., M n are the corrections n CCCSSaCY to the estim ates so that the equations
are exactly satisf ed, w e have
(x1
0+Ax1,xa0+Axz,***5xn
0+Axa) bt
4@1
0+Ax1,xa0+Axz,#*@ xn
0+Axs) bz (6.
94)
* * @ @ * * * @ * @ @ @ @ * * * * * * @ @ @ * @ * * * * * * @ @ @
f lxt
n
0+A x1,xz0+A x2, **@ xn0+A xa) b
Each of the above equations can be expanded using T aylor's theorem . T he expanded
form of the i equation I*S
/f(x1
0+Ax1,x20+Axa,''.,xn0+Axa)
bi
The term s of higher pow ers can be neglected, if our initial estim ate is close to the true
solution .
T he resulting linear set of equations in m atrix form I
@S
h 1/1(x1
o,x2
o,'..,xn
0) (0
:x
41jc
(j

E
!

,
x
.at
j
y
.g
,*@(0
M)
xnoA x1
b 
2
@ @ * * @ * @ * *
0
/2(x1,x2,.'.,xn)
@ * *
0
@ @ @ * * @ @ * @
0
* @ *
()
01
L1jc(j
.12)c@
@(0
* * *
:x
1n)oAx2 (6.
95)
* * * * * * @ @ *
* @ @
b o

n

/a@ 1
0,xz0,''.,xn) d,
(xl;c:
(:x
T2
n)c@
,
@
*(0
:x
T
n)oAxn
0r
Af JA x (6.96)
262 A C T ransm issio n C h ap .6
0 0
w here J is referred to as the Jacobian. lf the estim ates 1 1 , .y X n w ere exact, then Af
0 o @
and A x w ould be zero. H ow ever, as xl ,...,xn are only estlm ates, the errors A f are
l nite. E quation 6.95 provides a linearized relationship betw een the errors A f and the
corrections A x tk ough the Jacobian of the sim ultaneous equations. A solution for A &
can be obtained by applying any suitable m ethod for the solution of a st of linea?
equations. U pdated values of x are calculated from
1 0
xi Xi +A Xi
T he PCOCCSS is repeated lzlltilthe Crrors A/jare loqver than a specif ed tolerance. The
iterations have quadratic Convergence. T he Jacobian has ttl be recalculated at each
step .
T his m ethod is som etim es referred to as N ew ton 's m ethod .H ow ever, it is m ore
com m only called the N ewtonRaphson m ethod after 1. Raphson (16481715) who
N ote the iteration m ethod 1
@11 the form nOW com m only used.
T o apply the N ew tonR aphson m ethod, each com plex equation represented by
E quation 6.89 has to be re itten as tw O real equations in ternxs of tw o real variables
instead of One com plex variable. T his is because E quation 6.89 I *S not an analytic
function of the com plex voltages due to the conjugate ter Pk*,and as a consequence
the com plex derivatives do n Ot ex lst.
@
M ost productiontype pow eri ow program s use the pow er equation form w ith
polar coordinates w hich w e w ill use here. F or any node k, W C have
Ik E #km F (6.98)
m
m =1
F F +
k m
(V e/%)(z e/0m)
m
V F e/(0:0m)
(6.100)
h F.(coso..+/sia0:.) (0 =0k0 )
SeC6 .4 Pow erFlow A n alysis 263
* F,E
m =1
(
(7 F s10a #aF cosoow)
Thus,P and at ech bus arC functions of voltage m agnitude F and angle j of all
buses.
If the active POW er and reactive POW er at each bus are specif ed, using
suPerscript ttl denote specif ed values, W e m ay w rite the L F equation .
# 1(01,...,0a, F1,...jFs) #1
SP
@ @ @ * @ @ @ * * * * * * * * @ * * @ * @ @ @ * * * *
Follow ing the general procedure described earlier for the application of the N R
m ethod (Equation 6.95),W C have
OP OP DP OP
d01 *** :0 :P1 @@* P F
#1
sp # 1(01,
0 ...,0a,
0 F1
0, 0
... ,
Fs) * * * @ @ * * @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ * @ *
A 01
@ @ @ @ * * @ @ @ @ @ * @ @ @ * @ * * * @ @ * @ @ * *
OP OP OP MOP
# nsp# n(01
0, ... ,
0a,
0 0 L 0) :01 *** :0 0Pj *** d F A 0a
1 : **#5
Q 1sp Q 1(01,
0 ...,0s,
t F1
0 , ... , 0
Fp) OQ A F1
d01 *@@ :0 P F 1 *** P F
* * * * * * * * * * @ @ * @ * @ * * * * @ * * * n @ @ *
Q nSp Q (01
0 , .. ,
0a,
0 0 L 0) @@@ @@@ **@ @*@ **@ @@* AL
1 : ***>
MOQ OQ
:01 @*@ . M P F 1 **@ M
0s PF
264 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap 6
.
Or
PP dP
d0 A
i:1 PVAej
ga d0 PV
v (6.
103)
Jacobian
T he sparsity of each subm atrix of the Jacobian is the Sanle as that of the node
adm ittance m atrix . F or efs cient solution of the above equation, a suitable m ethod,
such as sparsityoriented triangular factorization m ethod (discussed 1*11Section 6.4.6),
m ust be used .
In form ulating E quation 6.103, w e have assum ed that a1lbuses are PQ buses.
F or a P V bus, only P is specil ed and the m agnitude of F is s xed. T herefore, ternls
corresponding to A: and A F w ould be absent for each of the P V buses.Thus the
Jacobian w ould have only One rO5V and One colum n for each P V bus.
A0
J1AV g
a
i:j (6.104)
W e Can, therefore, easily com pute the expected sm all changes in 0 and F for sm all
@
changes 1T1 # and Q . This type of sensitivity inform ation is useful for estim ating
expected voltage changes w hich result from the installation of reactive com pensation.
@ *
A s W e A4?111 SCe 111 C hapter 14, the Jacobian also provides Very useful
inform ation regarding vo1tage stability .
T hese tecu
and betw een iques take advant
and 0 (see age ofthe physicalw eak coupling betw een P and
Z, Section 6.3). They also m ake a num ber of
approxim ations w hich sim plify the pow eri ow problem .
T he basic algorithm for F D L F m ay be derived as follow s from E quation 6.103:
PP :P
d0 A
1
)

,

(
:

, PQN
xPV A0jd0 dV
v
SeC. 6 .4 P o w e rFlo w A n aly sis 265
*
f rst step ill applying the PQIQ V decoupling IS to neglect the coupling
The
snbm atrces PP/PV and d(Fd0 1 @11Equation 6.103, giving tAN?tl separate equations:
AP dP

A0
:0 (6.105)
H A0
rd
AQ 0Y AV (6
.
106)
L AV
The elem ents of m atrices H and L are derived from Equation 6.101 aS follow s g17j:
OP
H :0 = L L (G sinoa Sa cosoa ) for m #k
and
d# 2
H 
Bv vk  Q k
00k
Sim ilarly,
OQ
Lw PF
V (G sino la cosoa )
H IVm for m #k
rd
cosoow N 1,
' G shlo << B ; Q k<< #a Fk2
.
266 A C T ransm issio n C h ap .
AP (5?B IV )A 0 (6.1j7)
AQ (v B //)AV (6.108)
(a) The netw ork elem ents that predom inantly affect reactive p ow er iow s (1'g
..,
shuntreactances and offnom inalratio transform er taps) are om itted from B '
Sim ilarly, phaseshifter effects are om itted from B p/*
(b) The lefthand V ternAs ill Equations 6.107 and 6.108 are naoved to the lefb
hand sides of the equations, and the ini uence of reactive POW er S ow s on the
calculation of A 0 is rem oved by setting the righthand V ternls to 1.0 Pu 1*
E qution 6.107.
A P/V B /A 0 (6.109)
A Q /V B //AV (6.110)
*SCDSUTCS that the fullsystem equations are satisf ed in the f nal solution .E quations
W I
#.109 and 6.110 m erely establish the corrections for A V and A # at each iteration step .
The G aussseidel m ethod is the oldest of the P0W erf ow solution m ethods.It
is sim ple, reliable, and usually tolerant of poor voltage and reactive PoW er conditions.
In addition, it has low com puter m em ory requirem ents. H ow ever, the com putation
tim e increases rapidly w ith system size. T his m ethod has a slow convergence rate and
cxhibits Convergence problenls w hen the system is stressed due to high levels of
actfve POW er transfer.
The N eM onRaphson m ethod has a Very good Convergence rate (quadratic).
@
Te com putation tim e increases only linearly Alritll sy stem S1Ze. T his m ethod has
problem s w hen the initial vol tages a re signif cantly different from their
COnVCCgCDCC
1
true values; it is therefore not suited for a i
jjat 5' voltage start. O nce the voltage
@ *
solution IS near the true solution, how ever, the convergence IS very rapid. T he
@
m ay be requlred.
1 lf a previously solved CaSC for the SaDAC netw ork w ith generally sim ilar operating
Conditions is not available, a com m on practice is to start the solution w ith a11 load bus voltages
atone per unit m agnitude and zero angle, and a11 generator bus voltage m agnitudes at specified
magnitude and zero angle.Thisisknow n as zp atvdltage start.
268 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap .
s
A nalysis of the pow erS ow problem using m ethods such aS the )I: nlethoq
and the FD L F m ethod requires the solution of sparse linear m atrix equations.Sparsiy 
@
oriented triangular factorization IS com m only used for solving these equations.
@
Ax b (6.1l3j
F or any given b ,the above equation Can be solved for X, by triangular factorization
of A as follow s:
(L D U )x b (6.114)
w here
ysjxjjb,
j (
6.
115)
*11 effect is triangular factorization due to G auss elim ination . Solution of
T his 1
X is found by back substitution : the last equation gives Xn, inserted into (n 1)tll
equation gives xa l, and SO On.

Sparsity techniques using optim al ordering are essential to this approach for
the solution of lprge netw ork equations g19).The effciency of sparse m atrix m ethods
Can be enhanced by using sp arse vector m ethods (20j. Reference 21 provides a
detaild discussion of Sparse m atrix concepts and m ethods.
6 .4 .7 N etw o rk R ed u ctio n
T he size of the netw ork Can be reduced by elim ination of the pssive nodes.
lf Ik=0,node k can be elim inated by replacing the elem ents of the rem aining n  1 COW S
and colum ns w ith
ReferenCeS 2 69
/ yikykj
Lqij lpfy (6.116)
ykk
COm W Om 1Se ls to elim inate only those nodes that do not contribute to an increase 1
@11
tlltln= ber of branches w hen elim inated.
R eference 22 describes an efs cient netw ork reduction technique that takes
*
REFER EN C ES
f1J W .D . Stevenson, Jr., Elem ents of Power System A nalysis, Third Edition,
M cG raw H ill, 1975.
(2.
1 0 .Elgerd,Electric fncrr System s Theory: An Introduction, M cGraw H ill,
197 1.
f3J J.Zaborszky and J.W .Rittenhouse, Electric Power Transm ission, V ols. 1 and
2, 3rd reprint, T he R ensselaer B ook Store, T roy? N .Y ., 1977.
f4J B .M . W eedy, llectric Power System s, John W iley & Sons, Third Edition,
1979.
(51 C.A . G ross, Power System A nalysis, Second Edition, John W iley & Sons,
1986.
(6) C.F.W Mgner and R .D .Evans,Sym m etrical Components, M cG raw H ill, 1933.
t9) J.J.Leforest (editor), Transm ission Line Reference Book345 kv and A bove,
Second E dition, E P W , 1982.
2 7O A C T ran sm issio n C h a9 .
(101 T.J.E.M iller (editor), Reactive Power Control j?zElectric Systems,% V5
Interscience, 1982 .
(121 R .D .D unlop,R .G utm an, and R .P.M archenko, uEA nalytical D evelopm ent Of
L oadability C haracteristics for E H V and U H V T ransm ission L l
*rzes,:7 JE EE
Trans., V ol. PA S98, PP . 6066 17, s4arch/A pril 1979. J'
(13) IEEE Com m ittee R epod,ticom m on Form atfor the Exchange of Solved L oa
F low D ata,'' IE E E Trans., V ol.PA S92, pp . 19 161925, N ovem ber/D ecem ber
1973.
(171 B .Stott and D .A lsac,<iFastD ecoupled L oad F low ,''IE E E Trans., V ol.PA S
93, PP . 859869, M ay/June 1974.
(19) W *F.T inney and J.W . W alker, GiD irect Solutions of Sparse N etw ork E quations
by Optim ally Ordered Triangular Factorization,'' Proceedings of IEEE, V ol.
55, PP . 180 11809, N ovem ber 1967.
(221 W .F. Tinney and J.M . Bright, iiA daptive Reductions for Pon+Cr Flow
E quivalents,'' IE E E Trans*5 V ol. P 5V1tS2, N o. 2,PP . 35 1360, M ay 1987.