Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 72

e v v .' v + +.+. @6 ** , .

* *
.+ .+

C haPter 6

A C T ransm issio n

This chapter A4r11l review the characteristics and m odelling of ac transm ission
elem ents and develop m ethods of pow er ;ow analysis ih transm lssion system s.
T he focus is on those aspects bf the transm ission system characteristics that
affect system stabillty and voltage control.Specifcally,the objectives are a: follow s:

(a) To develop perform ance equatiqns and m odels for transm ission linesr

(b) To exam ine the PoW er transfer capabilities of transm ission lines as iniuenced
by voltage, feactive POW er, therm al, and system stability cohsiderationg;

(c) To develop m odels for representatin of tw o-w inding, tk ee-w inding, nd

phase-shifting transform ers;

(d) To exam ine factors iniuncing the ;ow of active PoW er and reactive POW er
through transm ission netw orks; and

(e) To describe analytical tecu iques for the analysis of POW er ;ow 1
transm ission system s.

The above require consideration f balanced steady-state operation of the transm ission
system . A s such, w e w ill m odel and analyze the perform ance of transm ission elem ents
ln terrn s of their single-phase equivalents.

19 9
2O0 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6

6 .1 T R A N S M IS S IO N LIN E S

E lectrical PoW er I
*S transferred from generating stations to Consum ers through
overhead lines and cables.
O verhead lines are used for long distances 1 *11 Open country and rural areas,

w hereas cables are used for underground transm ission 11l urban areas and for

underw ater crossings. F or the San3e ratlng, cables are 10 to 15 tim es nAore expensive
than overhead lines and they are therefore only used 1 @11 special situations w here

overhead lines cannot be used ; the distances 1l1 such applications are short.

6 .1 .1 E lectrical C h a ra cteristics

(a) O verhead lines

A transm ission line is characterized by four param eters: series resistance R due
to the conductor resistivity, shunt conductance G due to leakage currents betw een the
* *

phases r d ground, Serles inductance f due ttl m agnetlc f eld surrounding the
conductors, and shunt capacitance C due to the electric eld betw een conductors.
D etailed derivations from f rst principles for the line paranleters Can be found

111standard books On PoW er system s (1-71.References 8 and 9 provide data related

to transm ission line cons gurations used in practice. llere, W e Ahrill briefly sum m arize
salient p oints relating to line pqram eters.

Series R esistance (R).The resistances of lines accounting for stranding and skin effect
are determ ined from m anufacturers' tables.

Shunt Conductance (G). The shunt conductance represents losses due to leakage
currents along insulator strings and Corona. ln pow er lines, its effect I
@S sm all and
usually neglected.

'nductance depend.s on the partial tlux linkages w ithin

Series Inductance (L).The line l
the conductor cross section and external ; ux linkages. F or overhead lines, the
inductances of the three phases are different from each other unless the conductors
have equilateral spacing, 'a geom etry not usually adopted in practice. T he inductances
ofthe three phases with non-equilateral syacing can be equalized by transposing the
lines in such a w ay that each phase occuples successively al1 three possible positions.
For a transposed three-phase line,the inductance per phase is (1j

L 2 x 10 -7jn MD d
H /m (6.1)
SeC.6 .1 T ransm issio n Lines 2O 1

In the above equation, D s is the self geom etric m ean distance, taking into account the
co n
ductor com posi tion, stranding, and bundl ing; it is also called the geom etric m ean
jus. A nd D eq is the geom etric m ean of the distances betw een the conductors of the
three phases G b, and C* *

D eq (tfabdbcdca)1/3 (6.2)

Sgnt Capacitance 4O . T he potential difference betw een the conductors of a

transm ission line causes the conductors to be charged; the charge per unit of potential
gjfference is the capacitance betw een conductors. W hen alternating voltages are
aPPlied to the conductors, a charging current i ow s due to alternate charging and
gischarging Of the capacitances. For a tk ee-phase transposed line, the capacitance of
each Phase to neutral is E11
C 2a k
h (D F/m (6.3)

w here r is the conductor radius, D eq is given by E quation 6.2, and k is the perm ittivity
of the dielectric m edium . F or parallel-circuit lines, the ttm odi ed geom etric m ean
distance'' of the conductors of the sam e phase replaces r in E quation 6.3 (1q.
T he earth presents an equipotential surface and w ill hence inf uence the
capacitance Per phase. T his Can be accounted for by using the concept of Etim ages''

(b) Underground cables JJ#4,6,71

U nderground cables have the SanAe basic paranleters aS overhead j* lnes.

. series a

resistance and inductance; shunt capacitance and conductance.

H ow ev er, the values of the paranAeters and hence the characteristic of cables
differ signif cantly from those of overhead lines for the follow ing reasons:

1. T he conductors 1@11 a cable are nauch closer to each other than are the
conductors of overhead lines.

2. T he conductors 1@11 a cable are surrounded by m etallic bodies such aS shields,

lead Or alum inium sheets, and steel pipes.

3. T he in-sulating m aterial betw een conductors ill a cable I

@S usually im pregnated
paper, low -viscosity oil, Or an inert gas.

6 .1.2 Perfo rm an ce Equ atio n s

ln the previous section, W e identi ed the paranleters of a transm ission line Per
unit length. T hese are distributed param eters; that 1*S, the effects represented by the
Paranleters are distributed throughout the length of the line.
2O 2 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6

If the line is assum ed transposed, W e Can analyze the line perform ance On
p er-phase basis* F igure 6.1 show s the relationship betw een curtent and ,voltage along
one phase of the line 1 *11 term s f the distributed param eters, w ith

Z R + jL series im pedance Per unit lengtl phase

# G + jC shunt adm ittance Per unit lengtk phase
l length of the line

T he voltages and currents show n are phasors representing sinusoidal tim e-varying
@ @


* f+d1
- - - - - >
JP j
. - - -
- -
S , I R

I z #x I
I l
FS r +# r l
. y dx ,
1r r
l l
l I
l I

1 Jx l X
l l

F igu re 6.1 V oltage and current relationship of a distributed paranleter line

C onsider a differential section of the line of length A t a distance x from the

receiving end.The differential voltage aCCOSS the elenlental length is gl
@veh by

dt f(z& )
H en ce,

Iz (6.4)

The dlfferentil current Gow ing illttlthe shunt adnailahce is

dl P(y& ) =
H ence,

Py (6.5)
Sec'-6 .1 T ransm issio n Lines 2O 3

D ifferentiating E quations 6.4 and 6.5 w ith respect to X, W e obtain

d 2 v- dl
Z--- yzF (6.6)
dIl dx


d 2-
l JP
dx2 y---
d zl (6.74

W e slrill establish the boundary conditions by assum ing that voltage VR and current
are u ow n at the receiving end (x=0).The general solution of E quations 6.6 and
6.7 for vol tage and cu rren t at a distance X from the receiving end I

F R +Z C IR F -Z f
F eYx+ R C R e -yx (6.8)
2 2

tplzc+ eYx FR/Zc-& e-YI
2 2

w here

Zc (6.10)

Y a +jq (6.11)

T he constant Z c I
@S called the characteristic im p edance and l I
@S called the
prop agation constant.
T he constants y and Z c are com p lex quantities. T he real part of the propagation
constan t y is called the attenuation constant a , and the im aginary part the p hase
consta n t p.Thus the exponential term eWx m ay be expressed as follow s:

eYI e(1Hqtx elxtcospx+jsin px) (6.12)

Therefore, the s rst term in E quation 6.8 increases in m agnitude and advances in phase
as the distance from the receiving end increases. T his term is called the incident
T he expanded form of the second exponential ternA I

e %X

e -lI(cospx-/sinpx) (6.13)
204 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6

A s a result, the second ternl 1 @11 m agnitude and is retarded

*I1 E quation 6.8 decreases 1

111 phase from the receiving end tosvard the sending end . It is called the ref ected
voltag e.
A t any point along the line, the voltage is equal to the sum of the incident and
rei ected com ponents at that point. Since E quation 6.9 is sim ilar to E quqtion 6.8,the
current I@S also com posed of incident and ref ected com ponents.
lf a line I
@Sterm inated 1
*11itscharacteristic im pedance Zc,VR isequalto Zch , @

and there isno reiected w ave.Such a line is called aF lfline or an inflnite line (slnce

a line of infnite length cannot have a reiected w ave). Pow er llnes, unlike
com m unication lines, are nOt usually term inated 1
@11 their characteristic im pedances.
F rona E quations 6.12 and 6.13, W C See that the incident and rei ected
com ponents of voltage and current at any instant in tim e appear aS sinusoidal CUCVCS
Or NVaVCS along the length of the line. In addition ttl this variation, the voltage and

current com ponents at any point along the line Vary 111 tim e, since VR and IR 1l1
@ @

E quations 6.8 and 6.9 are phasors representing sinusoidal tim e-varying quantltles.
T hus,the l
'ncident and ref ected com ponents of voltage and current represent travelling
W aVeS. T hey are sim ilar to the travelling W RVCS 1*11 w ater. T he total instantaneous
voltage and current along the transm ission line are not travelling, but they Can each
be interpreted as the SunA of tw o such travelling W aVeS.
F or typical POW er lines, G is practically Zero and R << o L . T herefore,

Zc R +jo L i
/O C N c ('-R
2YZ (6.14)
Y (R+joL)joC N jYULC 1-j R (6.15)
2Y i

If losses are cop pletely neglected,Zc I

*S a realnum ber (1
. .,a Pure resistance), and
l is an im aginary num ber.
F or a lossless line, E quations 6.8 and 6.9 sim plify to

F nRcosqx+jzclRsinpx (6.16)

I fscospx+ytps/zclsinpx (6.17)

T hus, the voltage and current Vary harm onically along the line length .A full cycle of
voltage and current 1 @11 SPaCC along the line length corresponds to 2a radian s. T he
length corresp onding to One fullcycle I @S called the w aveleng th 1.lf p I
*S the phase

shift in radians Per m eter, the w avelength 1*11 nAeters IS

sed.6 .1 T ransm issio n Lines 2O 5

l 2a (6 18)

6.1.3 N atural Or S urge Im pedance Loading


Since G IS negligible and R I *S sm all, high-voltage lines are assum ed to be

lossless w hen w e are dealing Anr
itll lijlltllillj and sw itching surges. H ence, the
characteristic im pedance Z c w ith losses neglected is com m only referred to as the
surge impedance. lt is equal to LIC and has the dim ension of a pure resistance.
T he pow er delivered by a transm ission line w hen it is term inated by its surge
impedance is know n as the natural load or surge impedance load (SlL):

SIL W (6.19)

where V isthe rated voltage ofthe line.If % isthe line-to-neutralvoltage, S1L given
by the above equation is the per-phase value; if L is the line-to-line value,then S1L
is the three-phase value.
Fronl E quations 6.16 and 6.17, the voltage and current along the length of a
lossless line at S1L are given by

F -%FReYX (6.20)


I IReYI (6.21)

where Y xg'j =jo LC .

A t SIL, transm ission lines (lossless) exhibit the follow ing special

@ P and I have constant am plitude along the line.

@ P and 1-are in phase tk oughout the length of the line.

@ Tshe
i phase
equal toangl
p/ (esee
w gur
eenethe sending end and receiving end voltages (currents)
2O6 A C T ran sm issio n C hap . 6

f Xx
S .r
Nx y

0 =
h. $
l = line length
0 /l //
w t


F igu re 6.2 Sending end and receiving end voltage and

cu rren t relationships of a lossless line at S1L

A t the natural load,the reactive PoW er generated by C is equal to the reactive

PoW er absorbed by f , for each increm ental length of the line. H ence, nO reactive
PoW er is absorbed Or generat ed at either end of the line, and the voltage and current
* @

prof les are G at. T his IS an optlm um condition w ith respect to control of voltage and
reactive pow er.
A s W e Alrill See ill subsequent sections of this chapter, the natural'
. Or Surge
im pedance loading of a line SCrVCS aS a convenient reference quantis for evaluating
and expressing its capability.

6 .1 .4 E q u iv ale nt C irc tlit of a T ra nsm issio n Lin e

E quations 6.8 and 6.9 provide a com plete description of the perfofm ance of
transm ission lines. H ow ever, for PVFPOSCS of analysis involving interconnection w ith
other elem ents of the system , it is nlore convenient to use equivalent circuits w hich
represent the perform ance of the lines only aS Seen from their term inals.
B y letting x =/ in E quation 6.8 and rearranging, W e have

e yl+ d -yI e y l e -yI


2 2

Sim ilarly from E quation 6.9, W e have


fS fscoshtyf) FR
+ - - sinhtyf) (6.23)

A a circuit w ith lum p ed param eters, aS show n 1

*11 F igure 6.3,can be used to represent
the above relationships.
SeC 6 .1
T ransm ission Lines 2O 7

s Is IR

- T T -
2 2

F igu re 6.3 E quivalent circuit of a transm ission line

Frorn the equivalent circuit, the sending end voltage is

Y ,
FS Ze IR+Mz L +Ps
e e+1 ps+zeja

Com paring E quation 6.24 w ith 6.22, W C hav:

Ze zcsinhtyl) (6.25)

Z #F e

2 +1 coshtyl)


L F9qh(Y)-1
2 Zc sinhtyl)

Equations 6.25 ahd 6.26 give the elem ents of the equivalent C1 -rcuit. T hese elem ents
reiect the voltage and current relationships given by E quations 6.22 and 6.23 exactly.
2O 8 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6

N om in al T equivalen t circuit

If y/<< 1, the expressions for Z e and Fe m ay be approxim ated aS follow s:

Ze zcsinhtyf)
Zc(yl) (6.27)

zl Z



2 tt-(wa)
1 rl (6.28)
Zc 2

Ll F
2 2

1r1 E quation s6.27 and 6.28,Z and F represent the totalseries im pedance (zp
and total shunt adm ittance @ 0,respectively. T he resultant circuit m odel is called the

nom inal T equivalent circult. G enerally, the approxim ation is good if

/<10,0001 km (170 at60 H z) for overhead lines-

/<3,0001 km (50 at60 H z) for underground cables.

Class6 cation length

O verhead lines m ay be classis ed according to length, based On the


approxim ations justifed 111 their m odelling'


(a) Shod lines:lines shorter than about 80 km (50 m i

).They have negl
ble shunt
capacitance, and m ay be represented by their series im pedance.

(b) M edium -length lines: lines w ith lengths in the range of 80 km to about 200
km (125 m i).They m ay be represented by the nom inal a equivalent circuit.

(c) Long lines-@ lines longer than about 200 % . F or such lines the distributed
effects of the paranleters are signif cant. T hey need to be represented by the

equivalent a C1rcuit. A lternatively, they m ay be represented by cascaded

sections of shorter lengths, w ith each section represented by a nom inal
SeC. 6 .1 T ran sm issio n Lin es 2O 9

6 .1.5 T ypical Paranneters

(a) O verkead lines

T able 6.1 gives typical paranleters of overhead lines of nom inal voltage
ranging from 230 W to 1,100 kV .

T able 6.1 T ypical overhead transm ission line paranleters

N om in al 230 kv 345 kv 500 kv 765 kv 1

V , 100 k v

R (n /km ) 0.050 0.037 0.028 0.012 0.005

Xz=o1 (X km ) 0.488 0.367 0.325 0.329 0.292
bc=oC (gs/km ) 3.371 4.518 5.200 4.978 5.544
a (nepers/km ) 0.000067 0.000066 0.000057 0.000025 0.000012
j (rad/km ) 0.00128 0.00129 0.00130 0.00128 0.00127
gc (D ) 380 285 250 257 230
sIL (M W ) 140 420 1000 2y80 5260
C harging M v Y km 0
. 18 0.54 1.30 2 .92 6.7 1
N otes: 1. R ated frequency I
@S assum ed to be 60 H z.
2. B undled conductors used for al1 lines listed, except for the 230 kv line.
3. R , xz, and bc are per-phase values.
4 . SlL and charging M V A are three-phase values.

W e SeC that the surge inapedance lies Alritllill the range of 230 to 290 D for
EH V and U H V overhead lines. F or a 230 kv line, it is about 380 D .The value of p

IS practically the SanAe for a11 lines. T his is to be expected since I

@S the
propagation velocity of electrom agnetic w aves. For overhead lines it is slightly slow er

than the velocity of light (300,000 km /s). A t 60 H z, p is nearly equal to 1.27x10 3


rad/e . T he corresponding w avelength (l=2a/p) IS approxim ately 5,000 km .


?tn easy-to-renlenAber approxlm ate equl

*valent circuit applicable to an overhead
line of 160 (100 m i) length and of any voltage rating I*S show n in F igure 6.4 .

F or exam ple, for the 500 kv line w hose paranleters are listed 111 T able 6.1,
svitll a line length of 160 % , W e have

XL 160x0.325 52 0'

O d
2 1O A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6

X s = 0.2 Pu
Xz 1f
BC o Cl
# BC O 2a 60
0.1 pu - = 0 .1 Pu B ase Z Z
2 2 c
I = line length 16Q km
& - J

F igu re 6.4 -A pproxim ate equivalent circuit for an overhead line of any
voltage rating, w ith param etrs in per unit of surge im pedance

Sc 160x5.20x 10 -6 8 32x 10 -4 siem ens


Expressed illPer unit of Zc (250 D ),


Tz 52.0/250 0.208 Pu
Bc 8 32x 10 -4x250
. 0.208 Pu

(b) Underground cables

T able 6.2 gives typical param eters of cables. Tw o types of cables are included:
direct-buried PX CF-insulated lead-covered (PILC)and high-pressure pipe type (PlPE),
w ith nom inal voltages of 115, 234, and 500 kV .

T able 6.2 T ypical cqble Paranlters

N om inal 115 kv 115 kv 230 kv 230 kv 500 kv

V oltage
k, u .


R (D /km ) 0.0590 0.0378 0.0277 0.0434 0.0128

xz=*L (Q /km ) 0.3026 0.1317 0.3788 0.2052 0.2454
b%= C (gs/km ) 239.4 160.8 245.6 298.8 96.5
a (nepers/km ) 0.00081 0.000656 0.000372 0.000824 0.000J27
p (rad/km ) 0.00839 0.90464 0.00913 9.00787 0.00487
Zc (D ) 36.2 24.5 37.1 26.2 50.4
SlL (M D 365 464 J426 2019 4960 <
. - .

C harging M v A /km 3
. 05 2 .13 13 .0 15.8 24 .1
SeC'6 .1 T ransm issio n Lines 2 11

Frorn the table W e See that underground cables have Very high shunt
caPacitance. T he characteristic im pedance Z c of a cable is about one-tenth to one- fth
of t
hat for an overhead line of the Sanle voltage rating.

6 .1.6 Perfo rm ance R equirem ents of P ow er T ransm ission Lines

ln Section 6.1.2, W C developed the perform ance equations of transm ission

lines. The basic equat ions apply to com m unication lines aS w ell aS POW er lines@
* @

H OW CVCF, the perform ance requirem ents of POW er and com m unicatlon llnes are
signif cantly different.
C om m unication lines transm it signals of DAany relatively high frequencies and
are very long com pared to the w avelengths involved. F idelity and strength of the
signals at the receiving end are the prim ary considerations. C onsequently, term ination
at the characteristic im pedance of the line is the only practical w ay of operation to
avoid distortion on the line. T he energy associated w ith com m unication lines is sm all;

consequently, eff ciency IS of m inor interest.


In contrast, eff clency, econom y and reliability of supply X e factors of prim e


im portance 111 the Case of pow er transm ission . T here is only one frequency, and
distortion is not a problem ill the Sanle SCnSC aS it I @S 1
@11 cum m unication lines. T he
lengths of m ost pow er lines are a fraction of the norm al w avelength ; hence, the lines
Can be term inated On equivalent load im pedances w hich are m uch losver than their
characteristic im pedances.
lf the p ow er line I
@S very ton: (greater than 500 % ),term inating close to the
* @

characteristic im pedance becom es lm peratlve. T o increase PoW er levels that Can be

transm itted, either the characteristic im pedance has to be reduced (1,), adding
com pensation) or the transm ission voltage has to be increased.
Voltage regulation, therm al lim its, and system stability are the factors that
determ ine the POW CC transm ission capability of PoW er lines. In w hat follow s, w e w ill
discuss these aspects of pow er transm ission line perform ance. W herever appropriate,
w e w ill consider a lossless line, as it offers considerable sim plicity and a better insight
into 'the perform ance characteristics of transm ission lines.

6.1.7 V oltage and C urrent Profile under N o-Load 13 ,101

(a) Receiving end open-circuited

W hen the receiving end is Open, IR =Q.E quations 6.8 and 6.9 then reduce to

FR Yx +
F 2 e
- e XX


f -
e YX e-%X (6.30)
2Zc 2Zc Y.
2 12 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6

For a lossless line,Y=jq,and the above tAArtlequations sim plify ttl

F Pacostpx) (6.31)

f - ytpa/zclsintpxl (6.32)

T he voltage 1 and current at the sending end are obtained by substituting line
length l for x :

ES Pacospf
Z R coso


I /(% /zc)sino (6 .

w here 0 =61.The angle 0 I

@S referred ttlaS the electrical length or the line angle,and
is expressed in radians.
B ased On E quations 6.3 1, 6.32 and 6.33, the line voltage and current can be
expressed 1*11 ternAs of sending end voltage E s as follow s:

F EScospx (6 35)


= J'M si
I (6.36)
Z c coso

A s an exam ple, let us consider the voltage M d current prof les for a 300 km , 500 kv
line w ith the sending voltage at rated value and the receiving end open-circuited. T he
*S assum ed to be lossless Alritlzp=0.0013 rad/km and Z c =250 D .
line I
T he electrical length of the line is

0 300 x0.00 13 0.39 rad N

22 .3O

1 Since the sending end voltage ill this CaSC is a controlled voltage it is denoted by the

sym bol F , instead of F .

SeC. 6 .1 T ra nsm issio n Lin es 2 13

Fronl E quation 6.33,

F 1
1.08 1 Pu
a cos22 3O .

r d from E quation 6.34

f - /(',/zc)t= 0

Expressing Is 111 per unit w ith base current equal to that corresponding to the natural
load, its m agnitude is

Is f str o Pu

1.0 t> 22 .3O

0.4 11 Pu

Frorn E quations 6.35 and 6.36, the voltage and current m agnitudes aS functions of
distance X from the receiving end are given by

F l.ocos(0.0013x)
cos22 .3O

1.0812cos(0.0013x) Pu


I 1.0sin (0.0013x)
cos22 .3O

1.0812sin (0.0013x) Pu

The voltage and current pros les are shou 1 @11 F igure 6.5. T he current represents the
* * @

capacltlve charging current of the line, expressed 111 Per unit of current at SIL .
The only line p aram eter, other than line length, that ay ects //it? results
F igure6.5 is #.Since # ispractically the sam efor overhead lines of allvoltage levels
(see Table 6.l), results are universally applicable, notjustfor a 500 kv line.
T he receiving end voltage VR for the 300 km line is 1.08 1 pu, that is, 8.1%
higher than the sending end voltage F or a 600 km line, the receiving-end open-circuit

voltage w ould be 1.407 Pu .A line ofabout 1,200 km (one quarter w avelength) w ould
@ @ @ *

have in nitely high recelvlng end voltage On Open-clrcult .

2 14 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6

f s = 1.0 pu V
. -
- JS AI- - I
l P R=0, QR=


p = 0.0013
/=300 km '---> 0 = j/ = 22.30

(a) Schem atic diagram

v (pu)
1.08 1

1.10 t
1.0812 cos(0.0013x)


100 200
, !
wy (km )

(b) V oltage profle

I (pu)

0 .4
1.0812 sin(0.0013x)
0 .3

0.2 B ase current = 1.0/Z c

0 .1

0 100 200 300 N

x.y (km )

(c) Cuaentprofle

F igure 6.5 V oltage and current pros les for a 300 km lossless
line w ith receiving end open-circuited
Sec. 6 .1 T ransm issio n Lines. 2 15

The rise 111 voltage at the receiving end On open-circuit I @S du to the f ow of

line charging (capaci tive) currnt through line inductance. T his phenom enon w as f rst
notced by Ferranti On overhead lines supplying a lijlltl)rloaded (and hence highly

capacitlve) cable netw ork;itistherefore referred to RS the Ferrantiey ect.

ll1 the above calculations, the sending end vol taje has been assum ed to be

con stan t. ln practice, follow ing a sudden Openlng of the llne at the receiving end, the
sending end voltage Al?ill rise due to the capacitive current of the line i ow ing tk ough
the SOVCCC im pedance (m ostly inductive reactance). A ppropriate form s of reactive
POW CC com pensation should be provided on long lines to kep the rise 1 *11 voltage to
acceptable levels. T his is discussed in C hapter 1 1.

(b) Line connected /@ SOMTCeS at@/# ends

F or sim plicity, 1t us assunle that the line is sym m etrical; 1

@.e.y it I
*S coM ected
ttl identical SOUrCCS at the $w o ends. L et E s and E R denote the volyages at the sending
end and receiving end,respectively . From E quations 6.8 and 6.9,w ith x=land 0 =61,
W e have

ES + Z f E
E # C R eyl+ R - Z cIR e . y/ (6 37)

2 2

H ence,

- -

2F yj .yj
,-ER(e +e ) (6
fR .
Zcleyl e -yl)

Substituting the abov expression for IR 1

*11Equatipns 6.8 M d 6.9,W e have

Es-ER e -yl E- e Y/- E- (6

e yx + R S e -yx
F .
e yl e -y I e yl e -y /

- - -
- n # --
E - E C 1j -

E e T'- F
I -
e YI - e-YI (6.40)
Y 1. -

Zclq -
e yf) Zcteyl e-yI)

Since E s=E R, W e have

- -

E - E e 1j E- e Yj- E-

F CYx+ S Se -yx (6.41)
e yl e -y I e y/ e -y I

2 16 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6

- -

E - E e 1J E* e Yj- E-

S S s s -

I -
e YI - -
e yX (6.42)
Zcle yl e -yl) Zc (d y/ e -yl)

For a lossless line,Y=j).ssritll0 =61,W e have

F cosp(!/2-x) (6.43)

' sinp(f/2-x)
f -J* (6,44)
Zc cos(0/2)

T he voltage and current pros les are shou 1

@11 F igure 6.6 for a 400 line sr?itll
E =1;R = 1.0 Pu .T he generators at the sending end and receiving end should be capable
of absorbing the reactive pow er due to line charging. If this exceeds the underexcited
reactive pow er capability of the connected generators, com pensation m ay have to be
lf E s and E R are not equal, the voltage and current prof les are not sym m etrical
and the highest voltage is not at m idpoint, but is nearer to the end w ith higher voltage.

6 .1.8 V oltage-pow er C haracteristics 14 ,101

(a) R adial with fa e# sending end voltage

Corresponding ttla load of PR +g': a atthe receiving end,W e have

# a-jQ R
F- +

F rona E quation 6.8, w ith x =l, W e have

ES Ps +zc(#a -jQ R)//R* y l L -Zc(#s-jlzR)//*

- e +- e-yl (6.45)
2 2

shlitllY=J.6 (lossless line) and 0=pf,

P 's-ye a
E scoso+/zcsino (6.46)
Sec. 6 .1 T ransm issio n Lines 2 17

f K f
s= 1.0 pu f a = 1.0

P s=Q # s =0
l 400

p = 0.0013 rad/km
0 = 0.52 rad = 29.80

F (pu)

1.1 1 j :g45 j ;z6

. 026 . .
1.0 1.0 (pu)

t 100 200 300 400
Sending end R eceiving end
(a) V oltage prosle

I (pu)
B ase current = 1.0/Z c
0 .4

0 .0 0 100 200 300 40 k


0 .2
(b) Current profle

F igu re 6.6 V oltage and current pros le of a 400

lossless line under no-load
2 18 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap 6

T he above equation can be solved for VR for any given load and sending end voltage .

F igure 6.7 show s a typical relationship betw een the receiving end voltage and load

for a s xed sending end voltage. T he results show n afe for a 300 line w ith E s= 1 g .

pu. The consyant p for the line is assum ed 10 be 0.00 13 rad/km . T he load 1*%
norm alized by dividing P R by P03 the natural load (SIL), S0 that //it
? results Jre
app licable ttl overhead lines all voltag e levels. Frorn F igure 6,7, several
fundam ental properties of ac transm ission X C evident:

@ T here is an inherent m axim um lim it of POW er that Can be transm itted at AnX
load POW er factor. O bviously, there has to be such a lim it since, AAritll
con stan t, the oply w ay to increase pow er is by low ering the load im pedance .

T his w ill result in increased current,but decreased VR and large line losses.U p

E s= 3.0 pu VR

P SJ .

l 300

p = 0.0013 rad/km
0 = 0.39 rad = 22 .30

(a) System diagrana

1.4 A - N atural load

VR IE s 1.081

0 I
. 8 l
l -
0 1
. 6 1
t 0.9 p -f. lead
0 l 0.98 p -f. lead
. 4
I U nity p .f.
0 1
. 2 , 0.98 p .f. 1ag
l 0 -9 P .f- 1ag
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2 .0 2 .5
p p jp o

(b) Receiving end voltage VCCSUS PoW er characteristic

F igure 6.7 V oltage-pow er characteristics of

a 300 lossless radial line
SeG. 6 .1 T ransm issio n Lines 2 19

to a certain point the increase of current dom inates the decrease of VR,thereby
resulting in an increased P R. F inally, the decrease in VR is such that the trend
re v erse s .

* M y value of PoW er below the m axim um Can be transm itted at tw o different

values of VR*T he norm al operation is at the upper value, w ithin narrow lim its

around 1.0 Pu . A t the loqver voltage, the current IS higher and m ay exceed
therm al ll
*m l
@ts. T he feasibility of operation at the loqver voltage also depends
On load characteristics and m ay lead to voltage instability . T his w ill be

discussed 111 C hapter 14 .

@ T he load PoW er factor has a signis cant ini uence On VR and the m axim um
POW er that can be transm itted. T he PoW er lilzxit and VR are loqver Alritll lagging

PoW er factors (inductive load,

posltive). s?itll leading P oW er factors

(capacltive load, negative),the top portlon of the voltage prof le tends to

@ @ @

be G atter and m axlm um PoW er IS higher. T his nAeans that the recelving end
voltage Can be regulated by the addition of shunt capacitive com pensation .

The effect of line length is depicted 1 *11 F igure 6.8, w hich show s the perform ance of
lines w ith lengths of 200, 300, 400, 600 and 800 w ith unity power factor load.
The results show that, for longer lines, VR is extrem ely sensitive to variations in P R.
For lines longer than 600 (0>450), VR at natural load is the loqver of the tANrtl
voltages (seehich satisfy the E quation 6.46. Such operat ion I
@S likely to be voltage
unstable Chapter 14).

2 .5
VR IE s 800 %

2 .0 6:: .

400 km 300 km 200 km

N atural load


0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
- P IP o

F igu re 6.8 R elationshiP betw een receiving end voltage,

line length, M d load of a lossless radial line
22O A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6

(b) L ine connected SOMTCeS at both ends

A s in the no-load Case (Section 6.1.7),W e ArrillassunAe the m agnitudes of the

Source voltages at the tANrtl ends to be equal. U nder load, E s leads E R 1 @1I phase .

B ecause the m agnitudes of E g and E R are equal, the follow ing conditions exl*st:

@ T he m idpoint voltage I
@S m idw ay 1
@11 phase betw een E g and E R.

@ T he POW er factor at m idpoint is unity.

* spitlz P R> P o, both ends supply reactive POW er to the j*

. w ith P R<P 54 both
ends absorb reactive POW er from the line.

T he phasor diagranA for P R<P o I

@S show n in F igure 6.9.

F ?N # fm
Es ER g
Is R


fs Im fa

(a) Schem atic diagrana

(b) Phasor diagrana

F igu re 6.9 V oltage and current phase relationship s

w ith E s equal to E R, and # R less thgn P o

F igure 6.8 m ay be used to analyze how F varies w ith the POW CC transm itted.
hTitll the m agnitudes of Es and E R equal to 1.0 pu and the length equal to half that
ofthe actualline,plots of VR shown in Figure 6.8 give the values of L .Forexam ple,
the variations in Vm w ith load of a 400 km line'connected to sources at both ends are
the SanAe aS the variations 1*11 VR of a 200 radial line.
A t 400 km , the perform ance of the line I @S signis cantly im proved by having
SOurCeS at both ends.H ow ever, an 800 km sym m etrical line w ould have unacceptably
large voltage variations at m idpoint.
A lthough W e have considered a line connected to identical SOurCeS at the tw o
ends, the observations naade here are suff ciently general and provide a physical
understanding helpful in dealing w ith n3ore com plex CaSeS.
Sec . 6 .1 T ran sm issio n Lin es 22 1

6 -1-9 P o w e r T ra n sfer an d S ta b ility C o n sid eratio ns

A ssum ing a lossless line,from Equation 6.16,w ith x=/,and 0=p/,W e have

ES E coso +pzcssh o

Expressing IR in ternls of P R and QR,W e have

' 's-je s
E acoso+/zcsino (6.47)

A s show n 1 @11Figure 6.9(b),let be the angle by w hich ES leads E#>*

1.e.,the load
angle Or the transm ission ang le.
sh?itll E R aS reference phasor, E s m ay be w ritten aS

E f ,ej6 F
tcos +/sia) (6.48)

Equating real and im aginary pad s of E quations 6.47 and 6.48, W e have

Escosn Fscoso+zc(Q R/fJ sino (6.49)

Fssin Zc(#RIIIRlsino (6.50)

R earranging E quation 6.50 yields

PR s1 (6.51)
Z csino

The above equation gives a Very im portant expression for PoW er transferred aCrOSS a
line. lt I
@S valid for a synchronous aS w ell RS an asynchronous load at the receiving
end. T he only approxim ation is that line losses arC neglected.
F or a short line, sino Can be replaced by 0 in radians. H ence,

Zcsho Zc0 M o# l YZ!

XL the series inductive reactance

Therefore, the expression for POW er transferred reduces to the nlore fam iliar fornl:
222 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6

#R sin (6.52)

lf E S =E R = Zoa the rated voltage, then the natural load I


Po E E

and E quation 6.5 1 beconaes

#R -- - sh (6.53)
sin o

W ith the voltage m agnitudes s xed, the pow er transm itted is a function of only
the transm ission angle .W hen PR is equal to the natural load (Po), =0.
Figure 6.10(a) show s this relationship for a 400 km line,for w hich 0 =0.52 rads
and sino =0.497. It is interesting to com pare this w ith the voltage-pow er characteristic
of F igure 6.8. T he
(equivalent to the 200characteristic corresponding ttl the 400 km sym m etrical line
krn radialline 1*11Figure 6.8) is reproduced in Figure 6.10(b).
F rona F igures 6.10(a) and (b),w e see thatthere is a m axim um pow er that can
be transm itted. A s the load angle is increased (i.e., as the sending end synchronous
sy stem is advanced w ith respect ttl the receiving end synchronous system ), the
transm itted POW er increases according to F igure 6.10(a) and E quation 6.53. This I @S
accom panied by a reduction 1 *11 the m idpoint voltage F rFigure 6.10(b)) and an
* @

increase 1
*11 the m idpoint current Im SO that there IS an lncrease 1
@11 POW CC. U p ttl a
certain point the increase 1 *l1 f dom inates Over the decrease of F m * % en 'the load
angle reaches 900, the transm itted POW Cr reaches its m axim um value.B eyond this, the

decrease 111 F I *S greater than the accom panying increase in Im ; hence, their product
decreases w ith any further increase in transm ission angle. T he system , as explained
below , is unstable w hen this condition is reached.
T he sending end and receiving end system s m ay be considered 1 @11 ternAs of
equivalent synchronous naachines. T he load angle is theh a nAeasure of the relative
position of the rotors of those tAA?tl m achines. B eyond the point of m axim um POW CC,

a n 1nCreaSC 1@11 the torque of the sending end nlachine results 1

@11 an increase of , but
the transm itted Pow er decreases. T his causes the sending end m achine to accelerate
and the receiving end m achine ttl decelerate, resulting in a further increase of 8.T his

IS a run aw ay situation, and the tw O nlachines (or the system s they represent) lose
synck onism .
T he m axim um P OW er that Can be transm itted represents the sm all-signal O r
@ @

steady-state stability lim it. F or the 400 km line considered ln Flgures 6.10(a)and (b),
this lim it is equal to # ./0.497 or 2 .0 12 tim es the natural load.
Sec.6 .1 T ransm issio n Lines, 223

E s= 3.QZ F E R = 1.0Z 0


0 29.80

# R /J7O

2 .0 12

PR sin

) # sin 29 80
. U ------l V Z
1 .

0 29, . L oad angle

. 80 90O 1y0O

(a) Pow er/angl characteristics

Vm lE s

1 l
1 1
1 I
7.. 17
I l
! I
l l
l l

0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5


(b) M idpoint voltage aS a function ofPoW er transm itted

Figure 6.10 The P2 -* and Z -lD characteristics of 400 lossless
line tran sm itting PoW er betw een tAArtl large system s
2 24 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6

T he stability analysis considered above represents a highly idealized situation .

In p articular, the assum ptlon that E s and E R have con stant m agnitude is not realistic;
the dynam ic characteristics of the sending and receiving end system s need to bt

considered for accurate analysis. H ow ever, the analysis presented IS useful for
understanding the phenom enon and the perform ance characteristics of tran sm ission
lines* C hapter 12 provides a com prehensive description of the sm all-signal stability
If the receiving end system I
@S a nonsynchronous load,there is still a m axim um

value of POW er that Can be transm itted, aS illustrated 111 Figure 6.10(b), but
m aintenance of synchronism w ould not be an 1

R eactive # @Y dr requirem en ts

T he relationship betw een the receiving end reactive pow er and the voltages at
the tsArtl ends is given by E quation 6.49 w hich is rew ritten here for convenience.

Escosn Fscoso +ZCIQ RIE Rlsino

R earranging, W e get

QR EplEscosn -Epcoso)
Z csin o

Sim ilarly, the sending end reactive PoW er I

@S given by

@ EslEpcos-ficoso)
$ Z %

If the m agnitudes of E s and E R arC equal, then

QR -Q s

s(cos -coso)
Z csh o

F igure 6.11 show s the term inal reactive POW CC requirem ents of lines of different
lengths aS a function of active POW er transm itted. B oth active PoW er and reactive
P oW er have been norm alized by dividing by the natural load P o. W hen P R<# o, thre

IS an CXCCSS of l ine charging; Qs I

@S negative and is positive, indicating reactive
p ow er absorption by the system s at both ends. W hen P R>P o, reactive P OW Cr I @S
supplied to the line from both ends.
SeC. 6 .1 T ran sm issio n Lin es 225

E = 1.0 R

> Pu ,. E=1.
# & Qs P #J
0.00 13 rad/e

l 800 600

Q/>o10 . 4 QR=-% 400km

3o: k

0.2 l = 200 km 300 km 200 km

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

().() j*; jz . j.4 j.6

. -
p p jp o


0.6 l 400 600 800

F igu re 6.11 T erm inal reactive PoW er aS a function of

POW er transm itted for different line lengths

T ransm ission lines Can be operated sh?itll varying load and nearly constant
voltage at both ends, if adequate SOurCeS of reactive PoW er r e available at the tAA?tl

6 .1.10 Effect of Lin e Loss O n W P and Q -P C haracteristics

1l1 the analysis of transm ission line perform ance presented so far, W e have
neglected line losses. W e Ahrillnow exam ine the effect of line resistance On VR-P R and
QrPR characteristics by considering a 300 % , 500 kv line having the follow ing

R 0.028 D /km Xz 0.325 bc 5.20 p s/km

0.000057 nepers/km 0.00 13 rad/e
226 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6

The line is assum ed to supply a radialload of unity powerfactor,w ith the sending
end voltage E s m aintained constant at 1.0 #u.
T he relationships betw een VR and # R and between Qs and P R are show n 1*I
F igure 6.12, w ith and w ithout the line resistance included. T he values of PR and Qs
plotted are norm alized values w ith 1.0 Pu equalto Po (1,008 M W ).
W e See from F igure 6.12(a) that the effect of the line resistance I
*S to reduce
the m axim um PoW er that Can be transm itted by about 8.5% .
@11Figure 6.12(b) corresponds
The loqver portion of the Qr PR Curves show n 1 * *

to the UPPCC portibn of the VR-P R characteristics, w here the recelvlng end voltage Fs
is closer to rated value. The high values of Qs in the upper portionof the QrPR curve
are due to the high values of line current (hence high XI2 line loss) corresponding to
the loqver portion of the F4-P R CG VC.W e SCe thatthe effect of line resistance on the
com puted value ofQg in the norm allow er polion is signiscant oly w hen P R exceeds
Po .

6 .1 .1 1 T h erm a l Lim its

T he heat produced by current ; ow in transm isgion lines has tANrtl undesirable


* A nnealing and gradual loss of m echanical strength of the alum inium conductor
caused by continued exposure to tem perature extrem es

* Increased Sag and decreased clearance to ground due to conduztor expansion

at higher tenlp eratures

T he second of the above two effzcts I@S generally the lilztitillj factor ilz setting

the m axim um perm issible Qperating tem peratufe. A t thls ll.m l@t, the resulting 'line sag
approaches the statutory m inim um ground clearM ce.

T he m axlm um lluw able conductor tenAperatures based On anealing

considerations are 1270C for conductors Alritll high alum inum content and 150OC for
other conductors.
Th: allow able m axim um current (1. .,the am pacity) depends On the am bient
tenAp erature and the w ind velcity . T he therm al tim constant is on the order of 10
to 20 m inutes. T herefore, distinttion is usually naade betw een cohtinuous rating and

lim ited tim e rating.D epending on the prercontlngency current,tem perature and w ind
velocity, the lim itd tim e rating m ay be used during em ergencies. A s an exam ple, the
230 kv line w hse param eters are given in T able 6.1 has sum m er and w inter
em ergency ratings bf 1,880 A and 2,040 A , respectively . T hese are design values
based on extrem e vatues of am bient tem perature, w ind velocity, and solar radiation.
Sec. 6 .1 T ran sm issio n Lines 227

# s= 1.0
> Pu VR ,
QR =0
P o = 1,008 M W


W ithout line loss



0 W ith line loss

. 4

P R I# O
0.0 - '
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2 .0

(a) VR-PR characteristic

2 Qslpo
. 5
W ithout line loss
2 .0
C orresponding to low er
1 pad of VR-P R curve
. 5


0.5 C orresponding to upper

part of VR-P R curve w jth li
ne loss
P R IP o

0.5 1.0 1.5 2 .0

(b) QrPR characteristic

Figure 6.12 The FR*PR and Q r PR characteristics of

a 300 % , 500 kv line supplying a radial load
228 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . c

6 .1 .1 2 Lo ad a b ility C h ara cteristics

T he concept of Gtline loadability'' is useful in developing a fuller understanding

of P oW er transfer capability as ini uenced by voltage level and line length . L ine
loadability is def ned as the degree of line loading (expressed in percent of SIL)
perm issible given the therm al, voltage drop, and stability lim its. T his concept w as i rst
introduced by H .P. St. Clair in 1953 (11). Based on practical considerations and
experience, St. C lair developed transm ission line pow er-transfer capability curves
covering voltage levels betw een 34 .5 kv and 330 kv and line lengths up to 400 m i
(approxim ately 645 km ). These Curves, know n aS St. Clair &&rPd3', have been a
valuable tool for transm ission planning engineers for quickly estim ating the m axim um
line loading lim its. T his w ork w as later extended in reference 12 by presenting an
analytical basis for the St. C lair curves so as to be able to cover higher voltage levels
(up to 1,500 kV ) and longer line lengths (600 m i or 960 km ).
F igure 6.13 show s the universal loadability curve for overhead uncom p ensated
transm ission lines applicable to a1l voltage levels. T he curve, w hich is based on the
results presented in reference 12, shows the lim itinj values of power that can be
transm itted as a function of line length . T hree factors lni uence the lim iting values of
P oW er: therm al lim it5 voltage drop lim it, and the sm all-signal Or steady-state stability
lim it. In determ ining the loadability Curves it is assum ed that the m axim um allow able

voltaje drop along the line IS 5$1 and that the m inim um allow able steady-stat e
stabillty m argin is 30% . R eferring to F igure 6.14, the percent steady-state stability
m argin is def ned as

P -# x loo
P ercent stability m argin limit
P m&A

A s show n 1*11 F igure 6.14, for a 30% stability m argin, the load angle IS 44O* T he

calculation of stability lim it includes the effects of the equivalent sy stem reactan ces
at the tw o ends of the line. I11 reference 12,the system strength at each end I@S taken
to be that corresponding to 50 G fault duty w hich represents a w ell-developed
sy stem .
Since the resistances of extra-high voltage (EH V ) and ultra-high voltage
(U H V ) lines are Very m uch sm aller than their reactances, such lines closely

approxim ate a lossless line. Since the param eter p IS practically the sam e for all
overhead lines,the loadabilities expressed in per unit of SlL are universally applicable
to lines of a11 voltage classes.
A s identif ed in F igure 6.13, the lim its to line loading are governed by the
follow ing considerations:

* Therm al lim its for lines UP to 80 (50 m i)

@ V oltage drop lim its for lines betw een 80 and 320 (200 m i) long
* Stability lim its for lines longer than 320
SeC.6 .1 T ransm issio n Lines 229


= 2.5

> 2 .0


* e+

O 1.0


0 160 320 4 80 640 800 960

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 m l


L ine length

0- 80 km : R egion of therm al lilllitttit)ll

80-320 % . R egion of voltage drop lilllitlttit)ll

320-960 km : Region of sm all-signal (steady-state) stability


F igu re 6.13 T ransm ission line loadability Curve

For lines longer than 480 (300 m i),the loadability I

*S less than SIL.The
loadabilit)r lim its Can be increased by ttcom pensating'' the lines.
A lternative fornAs of line com pensation and consideration that ins uence their

selection are discussed 111 C hapter 1 1.

T he universal loadability Curve discussed here provides a sim ple nAeans of
visualizing pow er-transfer capabilities of transm ission lines lt is useful for developing

conceptual guides to line loadability and prelim inary planning of transm ission
System s. H ow ever, it m ust be used w ith som e caution. L arge com plex pow er system s
require detailed assessm ent of their perform ance and consideration of additional
factors that inf uence their perform ance .

23O A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6

E sZ & P f aZ 0O Xs Sending end Source

reactan ce
XR R eceiving end Source
Xs L ine XR reactan ce
Source short circuit current
(a) System m odel 50

>W F or 30% stability m argl
'n 6
% ll*m l*t
Q 1
> 1.
P limit Q.7P
= I
sin-10 7

l 44O
> I
I =

00 44O 90O 1800

(b) Pow er-angle CUCVC

F igu re 6.14 Steady-state stability nlargin calculatin

Eg ect of using bundled conductors

B undled conductors r e com m only used On E H V lines to control the voltage

gradient at the surface of the conductors and thus avoid unacceptably high radio noise,
audible noise, and Corona loss.
T he uSe of bundled conductors decreases the self geom etric m ean distance.
H ence, it has an added advantage of reducing the characteristic im pedance Z c by
decreasing the series inductance r d increasing the shunt capacitance of the line.T he
reduction in Z c is on the order of 10 to 20% . C onsequently, S1L Or natural load
increases, thus contributing to the increase in loadability.
Sec 6 .2
T ran sfo rm ers 23 1

6 .2 T RA N S FO R M ER S

T ransfornlers enable utilization of different voltage levels aCCOSS the system .

the view points of efscincy and pow er-transfer capability, t:e transm ission
FronA *

voltages have to be hi gh, but it IS not pract ically feasi ble to gen erate and Consum e
at these voltages. l11 m odern electric pow er system s, the transm itted POW er
Pow er
undergoes four t o 5 ve vol tage transform ations betw een the generators and the ultim ate
COD SU C/ CCS . C onsequently, the total A rating of a11 the transfornAers 1 @11 a POW er

system IS about f ve t im es the total A ratlng of al1 the generators.

111 addition ttl voltage transform ation, transfornlers arC often used for control
0f voltage and reactive PoW er i ow . T herefore, practically al1 transfornlers used for
bulk PoW er transm ission and m any di stributioh transfor m ers have taps in one or m ore
w indings f0r changing the turns ratio.From the pow er system view point, changing the
ratio of trnsform ation is required to com pehsate for variations in system voltages.
Tw o types of tap-changing facilities are provided : off-load tap changing and under-
load taP changing (U LTC).1 The off-load tap-changing facilities require the
transform er to be de-energized for tap changing; they are used w hen the ratio w ill
need to be changed only to m eet long-term variations due to load grw th, system
expansion, r seasonal changes. T he U L T C is used w hen the changes in ratio need
to be frequent; for exam ple, to take care of daily variations in system conditions. T he
taps norm ally allow the ratio to vary in the range of + 10% to + 15% .
T ransform ers m ay be eithey three-phase units or three single-phase units. T he
latter type of congtruction is norm ally used for large E H V transform ers and for
gistribution trnsfotm ers. L arge E H V transform ers are of singleuphase design due to
the cost of spare, insulation requirem ents, and shipping considerations. T he
istribution system s serve single-phase loads and are supplied by single-phase
transform ers.
W hen the voltage transform ation ratio is sm all,autotransform trs are norm ally
used. T he prim ary and secondary w indings of autotransform ers are interconnected so
tat the pow er to be transform ed by m agnetic coupling is only a portion of the total
pow er transm itted throgh the transform er. There is thus inherent m etallic colm ectin
etw een the prim ary side and secondary side circuits; this is unlike the conventional
tw o-w inding transform er w hich isolates the tw o circuits.
ktutotransfornAers are usually Y connected, w ith neutrals solidly grounded to
m inim ize the propagation of disturbances occurring on one side into the other side.
ltis a com m on practice to add a low -capacity delta-connected tertiary w inding. The
tertiary w inding provides a path for third harm onic currnts, thereby reduding their

;ow on the netw ork . It also assists 111 stabilizing the neutral. R eactive com pensation
is often provided through uSe of sw itched reactors and capcitors On a tertiary bus

1 U nder -
load tap changing is also referred to by other nam ed such as on-load tap changing
(()laTC) and load tap changing (LTC).
232 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6

(see Chapter 11).

A scom pared to the conventional two-winding transform er,the autotransform er
has advantages of losver cost, higher eff ciency, and better regulation . T hest
advantages beconae less signi cant aS the transform ation ratio increases; benct,
autotransfornAers are used for low transform ation ratios (for exam ple, 500/230 kV ).
In interconnected sy stem s, it som etim es beconaes necessary to m ake electrical
coM ections that form loop circuits through One Or nlore P OW er sy stem s. T o control
the circulation of PoW er and prevent overloading certain lines, it is usually necessary

111 such situations to use phase-angle transform ers. O ften it is necessary tp vary the
extent of phase shift to suit changing system conditions; this requires provision of on-
load phase-shifting capability .V oltage transform ation m ay also be required in addition
to phase shift.
T he transform er I*S a w ell-know n device. T he basic principle of its operation
is covered 1 @11 standard textbooks (2,5,71. R eferences 2 and 8 provide inform ation

related to physical realization of varlous types of transform ers and their perform ance
characteristics. l4ere, W e Alrill focus on representation of transform ers 1
@11 stability and
P0W er-; ow studies.

6 .2 .1 R e p resentatio n o f T w o -W in d in 9 T ra nsfo rm e rs

B asic equivalent circuit in p hysical unl@ts..

T he basic equivalent circuit of a tw o-w inding transform er w ith al1 quantities


in physical units ls show n in F igure 6.15. T he subscripts p and s refer to prim ary and
secondary quantities, respectivly .

T he m agnetizing reactance X Y# IS Very large and I *S usually neglected. For

* * *

special studies requlrlng representatlon of transform er saturation, the m agnetizing

reactance representation m ay be approxim ated by m oving it to the pria tary or the

secondary term inals and treatlng it as a voltage-dependent variable shunt reactance.

P er unit equivalent circuit:

sh?itlz appropriate choice of prim ary and secondary side base quantities, the
equivalent circuit can be sim plis ed by elim inating the ideal transform er. H ow ever,
this is not alw ays possible and the base quantities often have to be chosen
independent of the actual turns ratio. lt is therefore necessary to consider an off-
nom inal tu rn s ratl*o .
From the equivalent circuit of F igure 6.15, w ith X mp neglected, W e have

Z r Mn aD z
V# P tP + ##- Z S lS (6.54)

V V# Z I
T +Z I
r (6.55)
# # S S
n# n
SeC 6 .2
T ransfo rm ers 233

Z# Z
K * DJ
up *

@ @

l# l

* X mp V

transform er

ZP R P +JX P >
.Z S R s+lx s
R p , R s = prim ary and secondary w inding resistances
X 'X S prim ary and secondary w inding leakage reactances
n# , DS num ber of turns of prim ary and secondary w inding
X mp m agnetizing reactance referred to the prim ary side

F igu re 6.15 B asic equivalent circuit of a tw o-w inding transform er


Zpp Zp at nom inal prim ary side tap position

Zso Z s at nom inal secondary side tap position
n#p prim ary side nom inal num ber of turns
s0 secondary side nom inal num ber of turns

Expressing E quations 6.54 and 6.55 1

*11 ternls of the above nom inal values,


s (6.
2 n 2
V -
S -
V# O -
S # Z Ir + s Z I
C (6.57)
p0 p 4 so s
n 4 n#o
# # o

llere, W C have assum ed that both leakage reactance and resistance of a

transfornzer w inding are proportional to the Square of the num ber of turns. T his
assum ption is generally valid for the leakage reactan ce, but nOt for the resistance.
Since the resistance is m uch sm aller than the leakage reactance and since the deviation
of the actual turns ratio from the nom inal turns ratio is not very large, the resulting
approxim ation is acceptable. F or convenience, w e w ill assum e that both prim ary and
secondary w indings are coM ected SO aS ttl form a Y -Y connected tk ee-phase bank.
234 A C T ran sm issio n C h aP . 6

sritli the nom inal num ber of turns related to the base voltages aS follow s:

n o V b. e

# so Vsba e

V#base Z p = e ipbu e, Vsba e Z se l*

e sbase

E quations 6.56 and 6.57 1

*1l Per unit form becole

-2 - -
n . .z n - -
V# npZ poI.p+ u - vs-ns -.p ZsoI.s (6.58)

n - 2 Vs -
og - -

V -

n# -- z poIp + n s Z soIs (6.59)

#& P

w here the superbars dente per unit values, w ith V# , VS$ l#' l@S equal to Per unit values
of p hasor voltages and currents, and

n #.
Mn (6 60)


# s

The per unit equivalent circuit representing E quations 6.58 and 6.59 is show n
in F igure 6.16.

n 2z p ldeal -
n 2Z
# # o
K *
',p @ S .

* *

J# l


F igu re 6.16 P ef unit equivalent cl

C -6 .2 T ransform ers 23 5

Standard equivalent circuit..

The equivalent circuit of F igure 6.16 Can be reduced to the standard form
shoe ill Figure 6.17, w here n is the Per unit turns ratl
*o :

# n#4so (6 62)

*5 n#o n S


Ze ns

n 2 - -
s (z#o+zso)
n o

N *1

@ @

l# l

V# Vt V J'

F igu re 6.17 Standard equivalent circuit for a transform er

T he equivalent circuit of F igure 6.17 is w idely used for representation of tw o-

w inding transform ers in pow er S ow and stability studies. T he IE E E com m on form at
for exchange of solved pow er ;ow case uses this representation (13).
W e see from E quation 6.63 that Z e does not change w ith np. T herefore, if the
tap is on the prim ary side, only n changes.
If the actual turns ratio is equal to npo/nso , then n = 1.0, and the ideal
transform er vanishes. W hen the actual turns ratio is not equal to the nom inal turns
ratio,9 represents the off-nom inal ratio (ON R).
T he equivalent circuit of Figure 6.17 Can be used to represent a transform er

w ith a sxed (or off-load) tap O n O n e slde and an under-load tap changer (U LTC) tn
the other side. T he off-nom inal turns ratio is assigned to the side w ith U L T C and Z e
* *

has a value corresponding to the f xed-tap posltlon of the other side, aS given by
Equation 6 63.
236 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap .6

Equivalent x circuitrepresentation J?#7.'

In digital com puter analysis of PoW er i ow , it is not convenient to represent an

ideal transform er. W e w ill therefore reduce the equivalent circuit of Figure 6.17 to the
form of a a netw ork of F igure 6.18(a).
Fronz F igure 6.17, the terrninal current at bus # is

- - Fe
I# (v,-vs)--

vP - Fe
(= -vs)= (6.64)
n D

(vp-nvs) .a

w here r e= 1/Z e. Sim ilarly, the terrninal current at bus S is

-- F

I (nvs-v
-s)--E (6.65)


* @

l# lJ

Mp $2 :3 V&

(a) G enerala netw ork


Fe 1/Z e
c(c -llre (1-c)Fe 1/n

(b) Equivalent circuit

F igu re 6.18 T ransfornzer representation Alritll O N R

SdC.6 .2 T ransfo rm ers 237

The corresponding term inalcurrents fotthe a netw ork show n in Figure 6.18(a)
r e

l# yltvs-vs)+yzvs (6.66)

I yltvs-vs)+yavs (6.67)

Equating the corresponding adnai ance ternls 1

@11 E quations 6.64 and 6.66, W e have

1 -

- Fe c re (6.68)


(1 1 - 2
:2 -a--- )Fe

(C c)re -

n 4

w here C - . Sim ilarly, from E quations 6.65 and 6.67,

:3 (1-c)Fe (6.70)

The equivalent circuit w ith is

ners expressed
in Figure 6.18(ib)
n .term s of the ON R and
transform er leakage inapedance

Consideration of three-phase transform er connections

T he standard equivalent circuit of F igure 6.17 represents the single-phase

equivalent of a te ee-phase transform er. ln establishing the O N R , the nom inal turns
ratio (npolnso) is taken to be equal to the ratio of line-to-line base voltages on both
sides of the transform er irrespective of the w inding coM ections (Y -Y ,A-A,or Y -A).
F0r Y -Y and A -A coM ected transform ers, this m akes the ratios of the base voltages
equal ttl the ratios of the nom inal turns of the prim ary and secondary w indings of
each transfornAer phase. F or a Y -LL connected transform er, this in addition accounts
forthefactor4 due t
othewinding connection.
ln the Case of a Y -A coM ected transform er, a 30O phase shift I @S introduced
betw een line-to-line voltages on the tAA?tl sides of the transform er T he line-to-neutral

voltages and line currents are sim ilarly shifted 1 @11 phase due ttl the w inding
coM ections. A s w e w ill illustrate in Section 6.4, it I
@S usually not necessary to take
this phase shift into consideration in system studies T hus, the single-phase equivalent

circuit of a Y -A transform er does not account for the phase shift, except in so far s
the phase shift of voltages due to the im pedance of the transform er .
238 A C T ra nsm issio n C h ap . 6

Example of m odelling two-winding transform ers

A s an exam ple, 1et us consider a 60 H z, tw o-w inding, three-phase transform er w ith

the follow ing data:

M V A rating * 42 .00 M V A

Prim aa (l1A?) nom inalvoltage @ 110.00 kv

Secondaa (lwV ) nom inal voltage *28.40 kv
W inding connections (l1A?JLV ) :Y /A
R esistance : A sp+A sp=0 .004 1 1 pu on rating/phase

L eakage reactance *X #o+X so=Q .1 153 Pu On rating/phase


O ff-load tap changer on side * 4 steps, 2.75 kv /step

U nder-load tap changer on L V side +2 .84 kv 1

@11 16 steps

L et us exam ine the condition w hen the L V w inding is initially at its nom inal position,
and the H V w inding is m anually set G o steps above its nom inal position, i.e., at 115.5 kV .
T he param eters of the standard equivalent circuit (Figure 6.17) Alritll the ON R On the LV

(U LTC) side and values expressed ln Per unit of the transform er rated values are aS follow s-.

lnitial off-nom inal turns ratio '


28.4 110
28.4 115.5

P er unit equivalent inapedance:

Z (!j
0.00453+/0.12712 Pu

M axim um Per unit tum s ratl

@o :

3 1.24 110 1
. 04762
28.4 115.5

M inim um Per unit turns ratl

@o :

25.56 110
m in
0.857 14
28.4 115.5

P er unit tum s ratio step :

L 2.84 110
n 0.0059524
16 x2 8.4 115.5
Sec. 6 .2 T ransfo rm ers 239

Y OW , if the com m on system voltage and M V A base values are

P rim ary system voltage base @ 115.0 kv

Secondaqy syst:m voltage base @ 28.4 kv
System M V A base * 100 M V A

the corresponding per unit param eters of the equivalent circuit are aS follow s:

lnitial off-nom inal turns ratl

*o :

0 28.4 115
. 95238 - 0.99567
28.4 110

Per unit equivalent im pedance'


Z= 110 2 100

M axim um p:r unit turns ratl
@o :

1 2j.4 115
. 04762 1.09524
28.4 110

M inim um Per unit tum s ratio :

0 28.4 115
m in
. 857 14 28.4 110 = 0.896 10

Per unit tum s ratio step :

lV 0 28k4 11r
. 005924 0.j06193
28.4 110

The equivalent circuit (Figur 6.18) paranleters representing the initialtap position
are as follosvs-

1 1
:1 =
nz 0.99567(0.009868+/0.27692)


(j-ljyj 0.
24 O A C T ran sm issio n C h aP . 6

(1-j)t 1-0.


@ yl=0.12908-73.
D62226 @

yc=0.00056 ya= -0.00056


70.01575 +70.01568

6 .2 .2 R eP resentatio n of T h ree-W in d in g T ran sfo rm ers

F igure 6.19 show s the single-phase equivalent of a three-w inding transform er

under balanced conditions. T he effect of the m agnetizing reactance has been
neglected, and the transform er I*S represented by three im pedances connect
k ed to fornl
a star. T he Com m on star point is f ctitious and unrelated to the system neutral.





F igu re 6.19 E quivalent circuit of a three-w inding transform er

T he three w indings of the transform er m ay have different M V A ratings.

H ow ever, the per unit im pedances m ust be expressed on the sam e M V A base. A s in
the case of the tw o-w inding transform er equivalent circuit developed in the previous
section, off-nom inal turns ratios are used to account for the differences betw een the
ratios of actual turns and the base voltages. T he values of the equivalent im pedances
Zp, Zs and Ztm ay be obtained by standard short-circuit tests aS follosvs (11:
Sec . 6 .2 T ransfo rm ers 24 1

Zps leakage inapedance nAeasured l

*n prim ary Arritll secondary shorted and

tertlary Op en
Zpt leakage inapedance nleasured 1
@11 prim ary AAritll tertiary shorted and
secondary Op en
Zst leakage inapedance nAeasured 1
@11 secondary w ith tertiary shorted and

Prlm ary Open

hyTitll the above inapedances 1

*11 ohnas referred to the SanAe voltage base, W e have

# S

Z#+Zt (6.71)

Z st Z +Z t

H ence,

Z# 1

2 (ZPS+ZPt-ZS/)

Z 1
2 (zps+zs,-z,,) (6.72)

Z 1
t 2 (Z#t+zst-Zps)

ln large transform ers, Z s is sm all and m ay even be negative.

Example of m odelling three-winding transform ers

W e w ill consider a 60 H z, three-w inding, three-phase transform er w ith the follow ing

M V A rating * 750 M V A
H igh/low /ted ial nom inal voltages *

* 500/240/28 kv
W inding cohnections (H /L/T)
@ YN M

h4easured positive-sequence im pedances 111 Pu On transform er M V A rating and

nom inal voltages at nom inal tap position '

ZH L 0.0015+70.1339

Z L T = 0 +70.1895

Z T-H 0+70.3335

U L T C at high voltage S1
, 500+ 50 kv in 20 steps.
24 2 A C T ran sm issio n C hap .6

N eglecting the m agnetizing reactance, the equivalent star circuit Alritll 'U L T C Rt
* *

nom inal tap posltlon is

@ H Zz


Z H L +Z T -Z
Z Jf L-T
- -

s 2 0.00075+/0.13895

+Z L -T
-Z r
Z ;I
- -

z 2 0.00075-/0.00505

ZL -
+z -z
Z T F-# H -L
r 2 -0.00075+/0.19455

E quivalent deltq circuit sl/itll param eters 1

*11 PU On transform er M V A rating and nom inal


Zsr Z sr

E ZsQ +ZsZw+ZsZw

0.02535 +/0.0002914

ZHL 0.0020+/0.1303

LT Z 0.0011+/0.1824

Zsw E
Zz -0.7859-/4.9029
SeC 6 .2
T ransfo rm ers 24 3

E quivalent delta circuit w ith param eters 1

@11pu on system M V A base of 100 M V A and voltage

aSeS (
W LIT) of 500/220/27.
6 kV :

n HL
/ .. 1 Z HL

n t . 1 w , . 1
H T ' * HLT '


0)2 0.
100 2 8.0 2
Z/ Z zr
LT 0.00015+/0.02504
750 27 .6
100 28.0 2
ru Z vu
yso (zy.
o -0.10784-/0.
/ 500 220
0.9 1667
500 240
/ 240 27.6
nLv 220 28.0 1.07532

/ 500 27.6
nur 0.9857 1
500 28.0

U LT C data:

nn/ m. &500 &500 M

240 1.00833

n n m in 0.8250
500 500 240
An/ 1:00833 - 0.825 0
HL . 009 17

nurm. 550 500 &
2 .6
500 500 28.0 1.08429

/ 4 50 500 =2 7 6
nn m in 0.887 14
500 500 28.0
A / 1.08429 - 0.8814
nHr 0 .0 10 14
244 A C T ran sm issio n C hap . 6

W e should recognize thatthe U LTC action atthe high-voltage side changes the ON R S nisand
D l *
HD these tw o ON R S cannot be adjusted independently.
T he three branches of the delta equivalent circuit Can each be represented by
equivalent circuit as show n in F igure 6.18.
T he equivalent circuits representing the initial U L T C tap pogition are aS follow s.

H -L branch :

1 1
:1 / /
nn zn 0.91667(0.00032+/0.02067)

1 yj

:2 /

1 1 1


:3 / /
n,z Z ss


@ 71=0.81687-.

,2=0.074258 , 3= -0.06807

74.79657 +74.39687

L -T branch :

1 1
y1 '
, / /
nzrzzv 1.0753240.00015+/0.02504)

1 yj

n Lv

1 1 1


:3 /
n Lr
Z /

Sec' 6 .2 T ransfo rm ers 24 5

yl=0.22247 -737.13748

y2= -0.0 1558 A a =0.0 1676

+72.60127 -72.79719

H -T branch:

1 1
y1 / /
nsrzsr 0.98571(-0.10784-/0.67280)

0.23564+/ 1.47010

1 yj

:2 /

1 -
1 1 1 -
1 1
:3 / /
nuv Z ,r 0.98571 -0.10784-/0.67280


@ yl=-0.23564+71.47010

,2= -0.00342 y7 =0.00337

+70.02131 -70.02101

6.2 .3 Phase-s hifting T ransform ers I14 1

A phase-shifting transform er can be represented by the equivalent circuit

* @

show n in F igure 6.20. It consists of an adm ittance ln serles w ith an ideal transform er
having a com p lex turns ratio, g =nZ G . T he phase angle step size m ay not be equal at
different tap positions. H ow ever, equal step size is usually used 1 @I1 POW CC ; ow and
transient stability program s.
24 6 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6

nZ a @ 1
p) re ((
= M

lp Idea1 Qq ls
F igu re 6.20 P hase-shifting transform er representation

B y def nition :

nZa n(cosa +/sina) (6
V .

w here a is the phase shift from bus # to bus q 5 ' it is positive w heh fp leads V9* Since
there is no POW er loss ill an ideal transform erk

V # Ir#* -
V (6.74)

T herefore, the transform er current at bus # is

P -
1 r
aS -<l.bS S
. b (gV-gS)
Js-7 s

E;llllstitlTtillj for f from E quation 6.73, W e get

Ye 1
lP # -#
Js 7-#s Js+7'bs P
2 2jgs- Las+jbs)gsj
as + bs

F rorn E quation 6.75,

IT . T

SeC. 6 .2 T ransfo rm ers 24 7

Substituting for l
T from E quation 6.76 gives

r Ye
IS as+jbs((Js+/#S)#S-##) (6.77)

Com bining E quations 6.76 and 6.77, w e obtain the follow ing m atrix equation relating
the phase-shiR er term inal voltages and currents

YB -Ye

r 2
a +# 2 J -7'b V#

- -Fe VS

@1l the above equation is n0t sym m etrical, that 1

W e SeC that the adm ittance m atrix 1 @S,
tlltltransfer adm ittance from p to s is not equal to th transfer adm ittance from s to
p .Therefor, a l equivalent circuit is n ot possible.
lf the turns ratio I
*S real (1
. ., JJ=n and :,=0), the m odel reduces to the
equivalent circuit shou 1 *11Figure 6.18(b).

Example of m odelling a phase-shfting trqnsform er

L et us consider a three-phase, tw o-w inding phase shiA er w ith the follow ing data:

A rating @ 300 M V A
Prim ary/secondary bas voltages *
* 240/240 kv
R esistance per phase @

@ 0
L eakage reactan ce Per phase @

@ 0.145 Pu
Phase-shiA range and step s * +400 36 steps
System voltag bas
(prim ary/secondal ) : 220/230 kv
System M V A base @ 100 M V A

n z% * 1 Z e=J'
24 8 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap .

L eakage reactance 1
*11 Pu On system voltage and M V A base:

Xe 0 145 x 100 ?40 2

a;; x
0.05263 Pu

O ff-nom inal turns ratio:

240 230
X --- 1.04545
220 240

P hase-shift angle ll
*ln l


m in
40 0

T he im pedance of the transfo= er changes w ith the phase-shiA angle. T he follow ing table
(provided by the m anufacturer) gives values of the im pedance m ultiplier as a function ofthe

A ngle in degrees +40 +29.5 + 25.1 +20.6 0

lm pedance m ultiplier 1.660 1.33 1 1.228 1.144 1.0

T he adm ittance m atrix of E quation 6.78 representing the phase shiA er I


F -Fe
2 2
a S +hS JS-Gl'bS


A s an illustration, w e w ill dete= ine the elem ents of the adm ittance m atrix for tw o values of
G .

(a) a =0:

Y 1 1
7'x e /0.05263 -j 19.0006 Pu
5eC 6 .2
T ransfo rm ers 24 9

T he turns ratio of the ideal phase shiA er I


Js+7'bs nlcosa +/sh a)

1.0455(cos0+jsin0) 1.0455+jo

T he corresponding adm il ance m atrix Y s I


YS -j 17.3844 /18.1745
j 18.1745 -j 19.0006

(b) c corresponding to the 10th step:

36 x 10 11.110

T he turns ratio I

Jx+7'bs ntcos11.110 +/s1 11.11O)


T he phase-shifter leakage reactance at this value of a by interpolation is

Xe 1 0 + 11.11(1.144-1.0) x;.;5z6a

20 .6


H ence,

Y 1 =
j 17.6305
e 7X

The adm ittance m atrl

*x Y 55w ith JsS #s=1.02585 +./0.20147 and re=717.6305,IS

Y -

j 16.1310 (-3.2499+/ 16.5479)

S (3.2499+/16.5479) -

j 17.6305
25O A C T ran sm issio n C h ap .


W w ill now exam ine factors ini uencing transfer of active and reactive POW ty
betw een tANrtl SOurCeS cor ected by an inductive reactance aS show n in Figure 6.21 .

Such a system is representative of tw o sections of a pow er system interconnected Ly

a tran sm ission system , w ith pow er transfer from one section to the other.
W e have considered a purely inductive reactance interconnecting the tw o
soures. T his is because im pedances rpresenting transm ission lines,transform ers, ank
generators are predom inantly inductive. W hen the full netw ork is reprsented by an
appropriate m odel for each of its lem ents and then reduced to a tw o-bus sy stem , the

resulting im pedance w ill be essentially an inductive reactance. T he shunt cap acltanes

of transm ission lines do not explicitly appear in the m odel show n in Figure 6.2 1; their
effects are im plicitly represented by the net reactive pow er traqsm itted . A nalysis of
trapsm ission of activ and reactive pow er through n inductive reactance ths gives
useful insight into the characteristics of Ac transm ission system s.
R eferring to F igure 6.2 1, the com plex pow er at the receiving end is

#a+/e a E R f-+ E- E S-E R


E EScos+jEssin-% +
p jX

E sz J:E E RZ Q

Ss=Ps+jQ s I Ss=PR+7':a

(a) Equivalent system diagranl

load angle
JX I # POW er factpr angle

# ER

(b) Phasor diagram

F igu re 6.2 1 P ow er transfer betw een tAArtl SOurCeS
Sec.6 .3 T ransfer of Pow er betw een A ctive S ources 26 1


PR sin (6.79)

E sE cos -E 2
Qs R (6.80)

Sim ilarly,

Ps sh (6.81)

@ s-E fscos (6.82)
$ X

E quations 6.79 to 6.82 describe the W ay in w hich active PoW er and reactive POW er are
transferred betw een active pad s of a POW er netw ork . L et us exam ine the dependence
of active POW CC M d reactive PoW er transfer On the Source voltages by considering
separately the effects of differences in voltage m agnitudes and angles.

(a) W e Alrilllook rst at the condition w ith =0.Equations 6.79 to 6.82 beconae

PR #, 0


Q E R(fs-fa)
a X

Q EsEs-fa)
s X

The active PoW er transfer I

*S nOW Zero.sllitllEs>ER,Qs and are positive, that is,
reactive PoW er I
@S transferred from the sending end to the receiving end. T he
corresponding phasor diagranl is shou in Figure 6.22(a).W ith Es<ER,Qs and QR are

negatlve, indicating that reactive PoW er i ow s from the receiving end to the sending
end. The phasor diagranx is shou illFiguze 6.22(b).
252 A C T ran sm issio n C h a9 . 6

JX I -
m r-


(a)E7 (b) ER>Es

F igu re 6.22 Phasor diagranAs w ith 6 =0

M alternative W ay of interpreting the above results I

@S aS follow s:

@ T ransm ission of lagging current through an inductive reactance CRUSOS a drop


1l1 receiving end voltage. V

* T ransm ission of leading current through an inductive reactance Causes a rise


111 receiving end voltage.

In each CaSC,

Q -Q R X I1

T herefore, the reactive POW er consunaed by X is X I 2 .

(b) W e w ill next consider the condition w ith E s=E R,but w ith # 0.From E quations
6.79 to 6.82, W e nOW have

PR #, - -

@ El
$ -% X (l-cos)

1 2

ss?itll positive, P s and P R are positive, that is, active pow er G ow s from the sending
end to the receiving end. W ith 8 negative, the direction of active pow er ; ow CC V C CSC S .
In each case there is no reactive pow er transferred from one end to the other; instead,
e a c h end supplies half of the X 1l consum ed by X T he corresponding phasor diagranAs

are show n in F igure 6.23.

Sec.6 .3 T ransfer of Pow er betw een A ctive S o urces 253

# R


(a) >0 (b) 8<0

F igu re 6.23 Phasor diagranz Alritll E =E R

If the current I I
*S 1
*11phase w ith ER (1. ., the receiving end pow er factor I*S
unity),the phasor diagram is aS shou in F igure 6.24 . ln this case, the m agnitude of
y is only slightly larger than E R. T he sending end supplies a11 of the X 12 consum ed
sy X


JX 1


F igu re 6.24 Phasor diagranA w ith f in phase sh?itll 1R

W e See that the active p ow er transferred (J7a) I @S a function of voltage


m agnitudes and . H ow ever, for satisfactory Operatlon of the pow er system , the
voltage m agnitude at any bus cannot deviate signif cantly from the nom inal value.
*S achieved prim arily tk ough variations
Therefore, control of actiVC POW CC transfer I
in angle .

(c) F inally, letus consiber a generalcase applicable to any values of ,Es and ER.
The current I is

Escosn +jfssin-% (6 83)


Fronl E quations 6.80, 6.82, and 6.83, W e have

2 54 A C T ransm issio n C h ap .

E s2 +E R2-ZE E R COS
Q s- Q s X
(X I)1 X Il

1f, 111 addition ttl inductive reactance A W e consider the series resistance R of tlw
netw ork, then

Q toss XI1 X PR2+QR

2 (6
2 .

P2 2
P # z2 R R +Q R
- - - -

W e See from E quation 6.84 that the reactive PoW er absorbed by X for a11 conditions

is X 1 2 T his leads US to the concept o f ttreactlve PoW er IOSS '' a com panion ternA to

active PoW er loss R 11 associated AAritll resistive elem ents.

A s Seen fromE quations 6.85 and 6.86, an increase of reactive PoW er
transm itted increases active as w ell aS reactive pow er losses. T his has an im pact On
eff ciency of POW er transm ission and voltage regulation .
F rom the above analysis, W e Can draw the follow ing conclusions. .

@ A ctive POW CC transfer depends m ainly on the angle by w hich the sending end
voltage leads the receiving end voltage.

@ R eactive POW CC transfer depends m ainly on voltage m agnitudes. It is

transm itted from the side w ith higher voltage m agnitude to the side w ith low er
voltage m agnitude.

@ R eactive PoW er cannot be transm itted OVer long distances since it w ould
require a large voltage gradient to do SO.

@ A n increase 1
*11 reactive POW er transfer Causes an increase in active aS w ell aS
reactive POW er losses.

A lthough W e have considered a sim ple system , the general conclusions are
applicable to any practical system . In fact, the basic characteristics of ac transm ission
rei ected in these conclusions have a dom inant effect on the W ay in Nvhich Nve Operate
and control the POW CC system .
Sef . 6 .4 P o w e r-Flo w A n aly si: 255


So far in this chapter, W e have considered sim ple system conf gurations and
idealizing assum ptions to gain an understanding of basic characteristics of aC
transm ission . In this section, W e Alrill describe analytical techniques for detailed
alysis of POW er ; ow ill large com plex netw orks.
The POW CV-;ow (load-iow ) analysis involves the calculation of p ow er R ow s
@ @

r d voltages of a transm lsslon netw ork for specis ed ternAinal or bus conditions. Such

calculatlons are required for the analysis of steady-state aS w ell aS dynam ic

Perform ance of PoW er system s.
T he system I@S assum ed to be balanced; this allow s a single-phase
representation of the system . F or bulk POW er system studies, C0nUn On practice I
@S to
Cepresent the com posite loads aS Seen from bulk POW er deliVery points (see C hapter

7, Sectlon 7.1).Therefore,the effects of distribution system voltage control devices

on loads are represented im plicitly .
l11 this section w e w ill describe the pow er-i ow analysis aS it applies to the
steady-state perform ance of the P OW ef sy stem . T he basic netw ork equation s presented

here also apply to their representation 111 the analysis of system stability ; how ever, a S
W C srrill SeC ill later chapters, som e of the constraints Vary depending on the type of
stallilit)p PT0blenl being solved.

Bus classT cation

A ssociated w ith each bus are four quantities'
. active PoW er # , reactive POW er
Q,voltage m agnitude F,and voltage ngle 0.
The follow ing types of buses (nodes) are reptesented, and at each bus tw o of
the above four quantities arC specif ed :

@ V oltage-cpntrolled (J71) bus: A ctive POW CC and voltage m agnitude are

specis ed. In addition, lim its to the reactive pow er are specis ed depending On
the characteristics of the individual devices. E xam ples are buses w ith
generators, synchronous condensers, and static var com pensators.

@ Load (PQ) bus:A ctive and reactive POW er are specif ed. N orm ally loads are
assum ed to have constant POW er. If the effect of distribufion transform er
U L T C operation is neglected, load # and Q are assum ed to Vary aS a function
of bus voltage.

* D evice bus: Special boundary conditions associated w ith devices such as

H V D C converters are recognized.

* Slack (sw ing) bus:V oltage m agnitude and phase apgl e are specil ed. B ecause
the PoW er losses in fhe system are not know n a p riori, at least One bus m ust
have unspeciled # and Q .Thus th slack bus is the onl y bus Asr
itll knpw n
256 A C T ransm issio n C h ap .

In som e applications,itis desirable to keep the Q associated w ith the slack bus
AAritllill reasonable ll
*m l
o otherw ise, the POW CF-; ow solution m ay becom t'
unrealistic.ssTitllQ at a lim iting value,only the angle of the slack bus voltagt

IS knou .

R epresentation of network elem ents

T ransm ission lines are represented by equivalent circuits w ith lunlped


paranleters as described in Section 6.1.4.Shunt capacltors and reactors are represented

RS sim ple adm ittance elem ents connected ttl ground.
T ransfornAers Alritll off-nom inal turns ratio are represented by eqivalent
circuits as described ilz Section 6.2 .2. A ny phase shifts introduced due to transform er
coM ections (such as A-Y connections) are notusually represented.In radial netw orks,
such phase shifts do not affect pow er-i ow analysis since currents and voltages a<Q

shifted by the sam e angle. In closed-loop netw orks, utilities take sp eclal Care to
coM ect transform er w indings SO that there I *S no net phase shift introduced 1 *11
Com m on direction round a loop ; otherw ise, circulating cu rren t Ahrill tlow , w hich IS
norm ally unacceptable. F igure 6.25 show s a schem e for connecting transform er
w indings w ith due regard ttl the resulting phase shifts.

13 .8 kv
Y Y o Station service

300( a s )0
22 kv
T w o-w inding o A
transformer 30 ( v
500 kv

00(A Y A Y wi
230 kv 230 kv
T hree-w inding
00(A Y transformer
115kv 30O( z
YzA zz:zigzag
30o( Y
28 W

F igu re 6.25 Illustration of a schem e for transform er-w inding connections

S 6 .4

P o w e r-Flo w A n aly sis 257

ec .

Phase-shifting transform ers, w hich are provided specif cally for controlling
tlow , Rre represented as illustrated in Section 6.2.3. T his representation m ay
#OW c
be used to account for phase shift introduced by the transform er-w inding
connecton (Y -A,Y -zigzag) in special situations w here this is desired; the phase-shift
' '

r gle in such CaSCS, how ever, rem alns f xed .

A s W e are considering only the balanced operation of the POW er system , each
* *

elem ent is m odelled in ternzs of its single-phase equivalent (posltlve sequence).

6-4 .1 N etw o rk E q uatio ns

relationships betw een netw ork bus (node) voltages and currents m ay be
represented by either loop equations or node equations g1). N ode equations a rC
norm ally preferred because the num ber of independent node equations is sm aller than
the num ber of independent loop equations.
T he netw ork equations in ternls of the node adm ittance m atrix can be v itten
as follow s:

I1 F11 F 12 **@ F 1 F1

f2 F21 F 22 @*@ F2n F2 (6 87)


* * * @ @ @ * * * * * @
@ * @ @ @ @

IN F 1 Fn2 *** F F

w here

is the total num ber of nodes

Yii is the self adm ittance of node l@
Sum of a1l the adm ittances term inating at node l*

J. is m utual adm ittance betw een nodes land j
negative of the Sum of a11adm ittances betw een nodes land
* j
Vi @S the phasor voltage to ground at node i
Ii I
@S the phasor current i ow ing into the netw ork at node I@

The effects of generators, nonlinear loads, and other devices (for exam ple,
dynam ic reactive com pensators, H V D C converters) connected to the netw ork nodes
X C rei ected in the node current. Constant im pedance (linear) loads are, how ever,
included 1*1l the node adm ittance m atrix .
W e Ahrill illustrate the form ulation of the node equation by considering the
sim ple three-bus system depicted 1 @11 F igure 6 26. .
258 A C T ran sm issio n C h aP . 6

G1 62

;1 ye Jz

ya Tc

= =

F igu re 6.26 Singleuline diagranx of a three-bus system

T he elem ents of the node adm ittance m atrix are

r l1 = ya +yg Y 12 0 r 13 -

r21 0 F22 = yg+yc F 23 @ #+#c)

F31 -

yb F32 -@ d+ye4 F33 = yy+yC+h +yo

T he node currents arC

fl current itlttl node 1 from generator G 1

Iz current into node 2 from generator 6 2
/3 0

T he node equation for the netw ork of F igure 6.22 I


I1 F11 0 F13 F 1

I2 0 F 22 F23 Fc

0 F 31 F 32 F 33 F

W e Can naake the follow ing general observations regarding the node adm ittance

m atrlx :

(a) It I
*S Sparse w ith the degree of sparsity increasing w ith the netw ork S1

(b) lt is singular if foating (1

. .,if there are no shunt branches to ground).

(c) Ithas w eak diagonal dom inance, 1


I iiI > C IYqI

SeG 6 .4
P o w e r-Flo w A n aly sis 259

(d) lt I
*S sym m etrical, if there are no phasz-shifting transform ers.

Nonline'r power-f ow equations

E quations
6.87 w ould be linear if the current injections I SVCCC know n.

l10wever,ln practice,the currentinjections are notG ow n form ostnodes.T he current

atany n0de k is related to #, Q and P as follow s:

P k-J'Q k (6
Ik -+ .

Forthe PQ nodes,P and Q are speciled;and for the P V nodes,# and the m atnitude
of V are specif ed. F or other types of nodes, the relationship s betw een # , Q, Z and I
r e def ned by the characteristics of the devices coM ected to the nodes. C learly the
boundary conditions im posed by the different types of nodes naake the PrOblenz
nonlinear and therefore POW er-S ow equations are solved iteratively using tecu iques
such aS the G auss-seidel or N eM on-R aphson m ethod. T he principles of application
of these m ethods arC bries y described below . R eferences 15 and 16 provide
com prehensive review s of num erical m ethods for POW er ; ow analysis.

($..1-1? G auss-s eid el M eth o d

@S based On the iterative approach proposed by Seidel 1

T his m ethod I *11 1874
(Acadenay of Science, M unich). For appl ication to the pow er-i ow problem , from

Equatlons 6.87 and 6.88, for the node W e Can v ite

# k-J'Q k -
*# F,,F,+E rkiz-i (6.89)
Fk I

from which the voltage nk m ay be expressed aS

F # k-jQ k 1 (6
k -. - Y q jzj .
F kk F k a y.j

Equation 6.89 I @S the heart of the iterative algorithm . T he iterations begin w ith an

lnform ed gUCSS of the m agnitude and angle of the voltages at a11 load buses, and of
tlltl voltage angle at a1l generator buses .

F or a load bus,# and are u ow n, and E quation 6.90 is used to com pute the
voltage nk by using the best available voltages for al1 the buses.ln other w ords,the
upgraded values of bus voltages are used aS SOOn aS they are available. F or exam ple,
2 6O A C T ran sm issio n C h ap . 6

for the p tll iteration, the best values of bus voltages

forcom puting the voltage % at
bus k are F 1# P Z p #-1
k-1, Zk , Z k+1
#-1, ''', Zn
p- @
2 > @**>

If the *4 bus I
*S a generator bus, the follow ing procedure I
@S used :

(a) Rearranging Equation 6.89,W e have

@* -kn F*#
kE rkiF-i (6.91)
i= 1

w here Qk is calculated by using the best available values ofbus voltages.lfQL

is w ithin the lim its pkw. and Qkmin,itis used in Equation 6.90 to com pute the
updated value of% .ltsrealand imaginary components aremultiplied by the
ratio of the spec6 ed value of the m agnitude of the generator voltage to the
m agnitude of its updated value,thus com plying w ith the m agnitude constraint.
ln other w ords,the m agnitude of the voltage is forced to be the specis ed value
and E quations 6.90 and 6.9 1 r e solved to com pute the angle.

(b) lf Qk com puted by E quation 6.9 1 exceeds either the m axim um Or m inim um
lim it, it is set equal to the 11
*t.The updated value of V is com puted by
treating the generator bus aS a PQ node.

T he iterations r e continued lllltil the real and im aginary com ponents of

voltages at each bus com puted by successive iterations Converge to a specif ed
T he G auss-seidel m ethod has slow convergence because of w eak diagonal
donAinance of the node adm ittance m atrix.ytcceleration factors are oR en used to speed
UP the Convergence:

A ccelerated F*neW
-o1d) (6.92)

w here C I
*S the acceleration factor, w hich is typically on the order of 1.4 to 1.7.

6 .4 .3 N ew ton-R aphson (N -R ) M ethod

T his I
@S an iterative tecu ique for solving a set of nonlinear equations. L et the
follow ing represent such equations ill ?7 unknow ns:

/1(x1,xz,''.,xn4 h1
/2(x1,xc,...,xn) bz (6193)
@ @ @ @ @ * @ @ @ @ @ * @ * @ * * *

/a(x1,xz,...,xa) %*
SeC. 6 .4 Po w er-Flo w A n aly sis 26 1

lf thC iterations start Alritll an initial estim ate of 1 10, 1 20, ''', x n0 for the n unknow ns r d
if M 1,M z , ..., M n are the corrections n CCCSSaCY to the estim ates so that the equations
are exactly satisf ed, w e have

0+Axa) bt
0+Ax1,xa0+Axz,#*@ xn
0+Axs) bz (6.
* * @ @ * * * @ * @ @ @ @ * * * * * * @ @ @ * @ * * * * * * @ @ @

f lxt
0+A x1,xz0+A x2, **@ xn0+A xa) b

Each of the above equations can be expanded using T aylor's theorem . T he expanded
form of the i equation I*S


0 0 o 0fi 0fi 0fi

fi(x1,x2,''.,xn)+ P Ax1+ Ax2+ '''+ ax
x1 0xa oxN
0 0 0

+ ternls w ith M gher POW eCS of A xl,A x2,...,A xn


The term s of higher pow ers can be neglected, if our initial estim ate is close to the true
solution .
T he resulting linear set of equations in m atrix form I

h 1-/1(x1
0) (0
xnoA x1

b -

@ @ * * @ * @ * *
@ * *

@ @ @ * * @ @ * @

* @ *
* * *
1n)oAx2 (6.
* * * * * * @ @ *
* @ @

b o

/a@ 1
0,xz0,''.,xn) d,


Af JA x (6.96)
262 A C T ransm issio n C h ap .6

0 0
w here J is referred to as the Jacobian. lf the estim ates 1 1 , --.y X n w ere exact, then Af
0 o @

and A x w ould be zero. H ow ever, as xl ,...,xn are only estlm ates, the errors A f are
l nite. E quation 6.95 provides a linearized relationship betw een the errors A f and the
corrections A x tk ough the Jacobian of the sim ultaneous equations. A solution for A &
can be obtained by applying any suitable m ethod for the solution of a st of linea?
equations. U pdated values of x are calculated from

1 0
xi Xi +A Xi

T he PCOCCSS is repeated lzlltilthe Crrors A/jare loqver than a specif ed tolerance. The
iterations have quadratic Convergence. T he Jacobian has ttl be recalculated at each
step .
T his m ethod is som etim es referred to as N ew ton 's m ethod .H ow ever, it is m ore
com m only called the N ewton-Raphson m ethod after 1. Raphson (1648-1715) who
N ote the iteration m ethod 1
@11 the form nOW com m only used.

Application of the N -R m ethod to power-f ow solution

T o apply the N ew ton-R aphson m ethod, each com plex equation represented by
E quation 6.89 has to be re- itten as tw O real equations in ternxs of tw o real variables
instead of One com plex variable. T his is because E quation 6.89 I *S not an analytic
function of the com plex voltages due to the conjugate ter- Pk*,and as a consequence
the com plex derivatives do n Ot ex lst.
M ost production-type pow er-i ow program s use the pow er equation form w ith
polar coordinates w hich w e w ill use here. F or any node k, W C have

Sk Pk+jo k F-kf-k@ (6.974

Frona E quation 6.87,

Ik E #km F (6.98)
m =1

E;tlllstitlztit)ll of Ik given by Equation 6.98 1

*11Equation 6.97 yields

Pk+jok K mE= 1(G km gs:

-.)z. . * #

The product of phasors nk and F* #m ay be expressed aS N

F- F- +
k m
(V e/%)(z e-/0m)
V F e/(0:-0m)
h F.(coso..+/sia0:.) (0 =0k-0 )
SeC-6 .4 Pow er-Flow A n alysis 263

Therefore, the expressions for Pk and Qk m ay be v itten 1

@I1realform aS follow s:

Pk F,E (GaL cos0a +#a *.sh0a )

m =1 (6 101)

* F,E
m =1
(7 F s10a -#aF cosoow)

Thus,P and at ech bus arC functions of voltage m agnitude F and angle j of all
If the active POW er and reactive POW er at each bus are specif ed, using
suPerscript ttl denote specif ed values, W e m ay w rite the L F equation .

# 1(01,...,0a, F1,...jFs) #1
@ @ @ * @ @ @ * * * * * * * * @ * * @ * @ @ @ * * * *

# (01,...,0a, 19@**:L ) PnSP (6

Q1(01,...,0s,F1,...,Fa) Q +
* @ * @ @ @ * @ @ * @ * # @ @ * @ * @ @ @ @ @ @ * * @

Q n(01,...,0a, F1,...,Fa) Q nSP

Follow ing the general procedure described earlier for the application of the N -R
m ethod (Equation 6.95),W C have

d01 *** :0 :P1 @@* P F
sp -# 1(01,
0 ...,0a,
0 F1
0, 0
... ,
Fs) * * * @ @ * * @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ * @ *
A 01
@ @ @ @ * * @ @ @ @ @ * @ @ @ * @ * * * @ @ * @ @ * *

# nsp-# n(01
0, ... ,
0 0 L 0) :01 *** :0 0Pj *** d F A 0a
1 : **#5

Q 1sp- Q 1(01,
0 ...,0s,
t F1
0 , ... , 0
Fp) OQ A F1
d01 *@@ :0 P F 1 *** P F
* * * * * * * * * * @ @ * @ * @ * * * * @ * * * n @ @ *

Q nSp- Q (01
0 , .-. ,
0 0 L 0) @@@ @@@ **@ @*@ **@ @@* AL
1 : ***>
:01 @*@ . M P F 1 **@ M
0s PF
264 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap 6


d0 A

i:1 PVAej
ga d0 PV
v (6.

T he sparsity of each subm atrix of the Jacobian is the Sanle as that of the node
adm ittance m atrix . F or efs cient solution of the above equation, a suitable m ethod,
such as sparsity-oriented triangular factorization m ethod (discussed 1*11Section 6.4.6),
m ust be used .
In form ulating E quation 6.103, w e have assum ed that a1lbuses are PQ buses.
F or a P V bus, only P is specil ed and the m agnitude of F is s xed. T herefore, ternls
corresponding to A: and A F w ould be absent for each of the P V buses.Thus the
Jacobian w ould have only One rO5V and One colum n for each P V bus.

Sensitiviy analysis using //it!Jacobian

W hen W e reach a solution Alritll the N -R m ethod, W e have a linearized m odel

around the given operating pol


J1AV g
i:j (6.104)
W e Can, therefore, easily com pute the expected sm all changes in 0 and F for sm all

changes 1T1 # and Q . This type of sensitivity inform ation is useful for estim ating
expected voltage changes w hich result from the installation of reactive com pensation.
@ *

A s W e A4?111 SCe 111 C hapter 14, the Jacobian also provides Very useful
inform ation regarding vo1tage stability .

6 .4 .4 Fast D ecoupled Load-Flow (FD LF) M ethods 117 ,18 1

T hese tecu
and betw een iques take advant
and 0 (see age ofthe physicalw eak coupling betw een P and
Z, Section 6.3). They also m ake a num ber of
approxim ations w hich sim plify the pow er-i ow problem .
T he basic algorithm for F D L F m ay be derived as follow s from E quation 6.103:

d0 A

xPV A0jd0 dV
SeC. 6 .4 P o w e r-Flo w A n aly sis 265

f rst step ill applying the P-QIQ -V decoupling IS to neglect the coupling
snbm atrces PP/PV and d(Fd0 1 @11Equation 6.103, giving tAN?tl separate equations:

:0 (6.105)
H A0


AQ 0Y AV (6

The elem ents of m atrices H and L are derived from Equation 6.101 aS follow s g17j:

H :0 = L L (G sinoa -Sa cosoa ) for m #k


d# 2
H -

Bv vk - Q k

Sim ilarly,

V (G sino -la cosoa )

H IVm for m #k


La -Bu vk. Q kIVk

Equations 6.105 and 6.106 m ay be solved alternately by the decoupled N -R m ethod,

re-evaluating and re-triangularizing m atrices H and L at each iteration . H ow ever,
fM her sim plif cations can be m ade by recognizing that in practical POW Cr system s the
follow ing approxim ations are valid:

cosoow N 1,
' G shlo << B ; Q k<< #a Fk2
266 A C T ransm issio n C h ap .

T herefore, E quations 6.105 and 6.106 sim plify to

AP (5?B IV )A 0 (6.1j7)

AQ (v B //)AV (6.108)

A t this stage, m atrices B / and B // are identical and equal to -B , w here B I

@S t*t
netw ork susceptance m atrix .
T h follow ing sim plif cations further im prove the Convergence rte of tht
iterative PrOCCSS (17j:

(a) The netw ork elem ents that predom inantly affect reactive p ow er iow s (1'g
shuntreactances and off-nom inalratio transform er taps) are om itted from B '
Sim ilarly, phase-shifter effects are om itted from B p/*

(b) The left-hand V ternAs ill Equations 6.107 and 6.108 are naoved to the lefb
hand sides of the equations, and the ini uence of reactive POW er S ow s on the
calculation of A 0 is rem oved by setting the right-hand V ternls to 1.0 Pu 1*
E qution 6.107.

E quations 6.107 and 6.108 nw sim plify to

A P/V B /A 0 (6.109)

A Q /V B //AV (6.110)

T he m ethod originally proposed 1 *11 reference 17, 1 *11 addition to the-

approxim ations stated above, neglects the effects of series resistances 1*11 B /,i
. t is called
the X B schem e. T he m ethod proposed later 1 @11 reference 18 neglects the effects of
series resistance 1*11 B // and I
*S called the B X schem e.
T he m atrices B / and B /? are both real and sparse. T hey contain oqly those
netw ork adm ittances that are constant. T herefore, they have to be triangularized only
once at the beginning. M atrix B '' I
*S sym m etrical so that only the upper triangular
factor needs to be stored. If phase shifters are absent, B ' is also sym m etrical.
The advantage of using E quations 6.109 and 6.110 is that very fast repeat
solutions of A 0 and A V can be obtained using constant triangular factors B ' and B ''.
T hese solutions m ay be iterated w ith each other 1
@11 SonAe defned m anner tow ard the
exactsolution.The power-iow solution isreached when hPN and LQ N becom e less
than the specif ed solution tolerance.A t the tlliteration AP and AQ are com puted aS
follow s by using E quations 6.10 1 and 6.102 :

AP P sp-P(ei-1,v i-1) (6.111)

AQ Q sP-Q (0f-1,V f-1) (6.112)

5 6 .4 P o w e r-Flo w A n aly sis 267
eC .

*SCDSUTCS that the fullsystem equations are satisf ed in the f nal solution .E quations
#.109 and 6.110 m erely establish the corrections for A V and A # at each iteration step .

6.4 .5 C o m pa ris ()11 o f th e P o w e r-Flo w S o lutio n M eth o d s

The G auss-seidel m ethod is the oldest of the P0W er-f ow solution m ethods.It
is sim ple, reliable, and usually tolerant of poor voltage and reactive PoW er conditions.
In addition, it has low com puter m em ory requirem ents. H ow ever, the com putation
tim e increases rapidly w ith system size. T his m ethod has a slow convergence rate and
cxhibits Convergence problenls w hen the system is stressed due to high levels of
actfve POW er transfer.
The N eM on-Raphson m ethod has a Very good Convergence rate (quadratic).

Te com putation tim e increases only linearly Alritll sy stem S1Ze. T his m ethod has
problem s w hen the initial vol tages a re signif cantly different from their
true values; it is therefore not suited for a i
jjat 5' voltage start. O nce the voltage
@ *

solution IS near the true solution, how ever, the convergence IS very rapid. T he

N ew ton-R aphson m ethod IS therefore particularly suited for applications involving

large system s requiring Very accurate solutions.
T he convergence properties of the N ew ton-R aphson m ethod com plem ent those
of the G auss-seidel m ethod. T herefore, m any pow er-i ow program s prov de both
solution teclm iques. T he solution m ay be started w ith the G auss-seidel m ethod and
then sw itched to the N eM on-R aphson m ethod to obtain a rapid w ell-converged
Fastdecoupled load-f ow (FD LF)m ethods are basically approxim ations to the
N eM on-R aphson @ -R) m ethod. l11 the N -R m ethod the Jacobian is required for
com puting A 0 and A V .T herefore, the Jacobian has an im pact On the convergence of
the iterative solution but does not directly affect the s nal solution. T he
approxim ations m ade in the F D L F m ethods generally result in a sm all increase in the
num ber of iterations. H ow ever, the com putation effort is signi cantly reduced since
the Jacobian does not have to be recalculated and refactorized in each iteration. In
addition, the com puter m em ory requirem ents are reduced.T he Convergence rate of the
FD L F m ethods is linear as com pared to the quadratic rate of the N -R m ethod. T he
FD L F m ethods are less sensitive to the initial voltage and reactive POW er conditions
than the N -R m ethod. T he fast decoupled X B m ethod is not suited for system s w ith
high W X ratio; the BX m ethod is better-suited for such system s. F or m ost sy stem
conditions the FD LF m ethods provide rapid solution Alritll good accuracy . H ow ev er,
for system conditions w ith Very large angles aCFOSS lines and w ith special control
devices that strongly ini uence active and reactive PoW er i ow s, full N -R form ulation

m ay be requlred.

1 lf a previously solved CaSC for the SaDAC netw ork w ith generally sim ilar operating
Conditions is not available, a com m on practice is to start the solution w ith a11 load bus voltages
atone per unit m agnitude and zero angle, and a11 generator bus voltage m agnitudes at specified
magnitude and zero angle.Thisisknow n as zp atvdltage start.
268 A C T ran sm issio n C h ap .-

6 .4 .6 S pa rsity -o rie nted T rian g u la r Facto rizatio n

A nalysis of the pow er-S ow problem using m ethods such aS the )-I: nlethoq
and the FD L F m ethod requires the solution of sparse linear m atrix equations.Sparsiy -

oriented triangular factorization IS com m only used for solving these equations.

A Sparse llnear m atrix equation has the form

Ax b (6.1l3j

F or any given b ,the above equation Can be solved for X, by triangular factorization
of A as follow s:

(L D U )x b (6.114)

w here

L is loqver triangular m atrix

U @S upper triangular m atrix
*S diagonal m atrix

T he m atrices L and U are also Sparse. lf A I *S sym m etrical, L I

*S the transpose of V
and need not be com puted Or stored.
E quation 6.114 is solved for X 1 @11 ternls of b by forw ard and backw ard
substitution . F orw ard substitution reduces E quation 6.114 to the form

j (
*11 effect is triangular factorization due to G auss elim ination . Solution of
T his 1
X is found by back substitution : the last equation gives Xn, inserted into (n -1)tll
equation gives xa l, and SO On.

Sparsity techniques using optim al ordering are essential to this approach for
the solution of lprge netw ork equations g19).The effciency of sparse m atrix m ethods
Can be enhanced by using sp arse vector m ethods (20j. Reference 21 provides a
detaild discussion of Sparse m atrix concepts and m ethods.

6 .4 .7 N etw o rk R ed u ctio n

T he size of the netw ork Can be reduced by elim ination of the pssive nodes.
lf Ik=0,node k can be elim inated by replacing the elem ents of the rem aining n - 1 COW S
and colum ns w ith
ReferenCeS 2 69

/ yikykj
Lqij lpfy (6.116)

for l-=1,2, @@@# :-1,k+1,@**5n and j=1,2,*@* k-1,k+1,@@*5n.

B y successive application of E quation 6.116, any desired num ber of passive
nodes Can be elim inated. Equation 6.116 is called Kron ' s reduction form ula.
lf sparsity tecu iques arC used, it I
@S not advisable to apply node elilllillttit)ll
indiscrim inately. In general, reduced system s beconae denser; therefore, the best
* @

COm W Om 1Se ls to elim inate only those nodes that do not contribute to an increase 1
tlltln= ber of branches w hen elim inated.
R eference 22 describes an efs cient netw ork reduction technique that takes

advantage of certain special properties of SPaCSC m atrix factorizatlon .


f1J W .D . Stevenson, Jr., Elem ents of Power System A nalysis, Third Edition,
M cG raw -H ill, 1975.

1 0 .Elgerd,Electric fncrr System s Theory: An Introduction, M cGraw -H ill,
197 1.

f3J J.Zaborszky and J.W .Rittenhouse, Electric Power Transm ission, V ols. 1 and
2, 3rd reprint, T he R ensselaer B ook Store, T roy? N .Y ., 1977.

f4J B .M . W eedy, llectric Power System s, John W iley & Sons, Third Edition,

(51 C.A . G ross, Power System A nalysis, Second Edition, John W iley & Sons,

(6) C.F.W Mgner and R .D .Evans,Sym m etrical Components, M cG raw -H ill, 1933.

(71 M .E . El-H aw ary, Electrical P ow er System s: D esign and A nalysis, R eston

Publishing C om pany, 1983.

E81 Electrical Transm ission and D istribution Reference Book, W estinghouse

E lectric C orporation, E ast P ittsburgh, P a., 1964.

t9) J.J.Leforest (editor), Transm ission Line Reference Book-345 kv and A bove,
Second E dition, E P W , 1982.
2 7O A C T ran sm issio n C h a9 .

(101 T.J.E.M iller (editor), Reactive Power Control j?zElectric Systems,% V5-
Interscience, 1982 .

(111 H .P. St. Clair, Gpractical Concepts 1

@11 Capability and Perform ance of
T ransm ission L ines,'' A IE E Trans., V o1. 72,PP. 1152-1157, IlecenAber 1953 .

(121 R .D .D unlop,R .G utm an, and R .P.M archenko, uEA nalytical D evelopm ent Of
L oadability C haracteristics for E H V and U H V T ransm ission L l
*rzes,:7 JE EE
Trans., V ol. PA S-98, PP . 606-6 17, s4arch/A pril 1979. J'

(13) IEEE Com m ittee R epod,ticom m on Form atfor the Exchange of Solved L oa
F low D ata,'' IE E E Trans., V ol.PA S-92, pp . 19 16-1925, N ovem ber/D ecem ber

(14J G .W .Stagg and A .H .El-A biad,Computer M ethods in Power System Analysis,

M cG raw -H ill, 1968.

(151 M .A .Laughton and M .W .H .D avies, itN um erical Techniques 1

*11 Solution Of
Pow er System Load-Flow Problem s,''Proceedings of IEE,V o1.111,N o.9,
1964 .

(16) B.Stott,iReview of Load-Flow Calculation M ethods,''Proceedings Of IEEE,

V ol. 62, PP . 9 16-929, July 1974.

(171 B .Stott and D .A lsac,<iFastD ecoupled L oad F low ,''IE E E Trans., V ol.PA S-
93, PP . 859-869, M ay/June 1974.

(18) R .A .M .V an A m erongen, &dA G eneral-p urpose V ersion of the F ast D ecoupled

L oad F low ,,7 IE E E Trans., V ol. P 5V1tS-4, PP . 760-770, M ay 1989.

(19) W *F.T inney and J.W . W alker, GiD irect Solutions of Sparse N etw ork E quations
by Optim ally Ordered Triangular Factorization,'' Proceedings of IEEE, V ol.
55, PP . 180 1-1809, N ovem ber 1967.

(20) W .F.Tinney,V .Brandw ajn,and S.M .Chan,(<gParse V ector M ethods,''IEEE

Trans., V ol. P A S-104, PP . 295-30 1, F ebruary 1985.

(21) F.L.A lvarado,W .F .T inney,and M .K .E nns,Gtsparsity in L arge-scale lfetxvork

C om putation,'' C ontrol and D ynam ic System s, V ol.4 1:A nalysis and C ontrol
System Techniquesfor Electric Power Systems,Pa= 1,pp .207-27 1, A cadem ic
P ress, Inc-, 199 1.

(221 W .F. Tinney and J.M . Bright, iiA daptive Reductions for Pon+Cr Flow
E quivalents,'' IE E E Trans*5 V ol. P 5V1tS-2, N o. 2,PP . 35 1-360, M ay 1987.