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2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

Modeling and Simulation of 6-Pulse Rectifier Drives with


Impacts to Input Current Harmonics

D.Maheswaran Dr.N.Rajasekar
Electrical Department, Electrical Engineering Department,
TNPL, Karur, India. VIT, Vellore, India.
e-mail:mwaran78@gmail.com e-mail: drnrajasekar@gmail.com

Abstract- This paper describes the measurements and II. SIX PULSE DRIVES
simulations of harmonics from six pulse adjustable speed
drives in Pulp and paper Industry. Harmonic analysis of
the distribution system is essential to study the behavior of Line
equipments connected in the non-sinusoidal system
J
Impedance
environment for designing and optimal location of filters. Ls
+
The simulations are done in Mat lab by sim-link circuit
simulator. Validation of the load models is done by
performing case study for an Tamil Nadu Newsprint and
Papers Ltd (TNPL) supply system and comparing the
THDs obtained from simulation using MATLAB package J
with the THD values obtained by measurement. Due to a
Rectifier Voltage Som-ce hlVener
very close match, the simulators are used further to
analyze different harmonic mitigation solutions. The best '-------
ASD System
solution found by simulations, for the given plant, is an
advanced harmonic filter dedicated for adjustable Speed Fig.l. Six pulse AC Drive Power Structure
Drives.
ASDs, consists of ACIDC converter connected to
Index Terms-Harmonics, Pulse Width Modulation, Six Pulse DC/AC inverter. Of all the modem power electronics
Drive, Filter. converters, the Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) is perhaps the
I. INTRODUCTION most widely utilized DC/AC conversion device with
commonly used Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) methods.
The application of cost effective power converter The PWM-VSI consists of three basic stages the first stage of
circuits which enhance the overall performance, efficiency, the drive must convert three-phase AC to DC. The first stage
and reliability of industrial processes is common in all is known as the converter section. In an AC drive, the
industry. The industrial applications of ACIDC and DC/AC converter stage consists of a three phase, full wave diode
power conversion have increased gradually since the advent of bridge, though SCRs (Silicon controlled rectifiers) are
silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR) in 1957. However, the wide sometimes used in place of diodes.
use of single and three phase diode/thyristor rectifiers, for DC
power supplies, Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD) in industrial A filter is required to smooth out the ripple on the DC
appliances. With an estimated 65% of industrial electrical bus in order to run the IGBT inverter. Therefore, a second or
energy used by electric motors, the major users in industry "filter" stage is required. Primarily, this consists of a large
increasingly see energy reduction as a key to improve their capacitor bank and an inductor or "link choke" may be added.
profitability and competitiveness. The choke, when used, helps buffer the capacitor bank from
the AC line and serves to reduce harmonics.
Because variable speed drives reduce energy
consumption (20-30% savings) and decrease pollutant The third stage is the inverter section. This section uses
emission levels to environment while increasing productivity, high-speed transistors or IGBTs as switches to apply a "Pulse
their proliferation is inevitable. For variable speed Width Modulated" or PWM waveform to the motor. Taking
applications, ASDs are widely employed in driving induction advantage of the fact that a motor is basically a large inductor,
and permanent magnet motors due to the high static and and that current does not change very fast in an inductor, the
dynamic performance obtained in such systems. High energy DC bus voltage can be applied in pulses of varying width in
efficiency and high motion quality, low starting torque, etc. order to achieve current in the motor that approximates a sine
are the positive attributes of the ASDs. wave.

978-1-4673-0210-4112/$31.00 2012 IEEE 477


2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

III.SIMULATON MODAL AND SIMULATION RESULS

Fig. 4. Simulation waveforms for voltage and current on Load


side. (a) Vde (b),Vinv (c) Vab (d) lab (e)Modulation Index.
Fig. 2.Simulation model of the Six Pulse Drive

The single line diagram of the system is simulated using


MATLAB/SIMULINK-platform to study the distortions in the
voltage and current waveform due to the presence of a
nonlinear load in the system. The actual system can be
modeled with a high degree of accuracy in this package. It
provides the user interactive platform and a wide variety of
numerical algorithms. Fig.2 shows the system modeled in
SIMULINK. The system consists of six pulse rectifier model
with dc link choke and PWM inverter. The same system is
simulated with line reactor and without line reactors.

Fig. 5. Simulation waveforms for Phase current Ia without Line


Reactor

The Fig.5 shows simulation results of Phase current Ia and


fig.6 shows the Real Time measured waveforms for Phase
voltage Va and Phase current Ia without Line Reactor. The line
reactors are commonly used in two types one is AC side three
phase line reactor and another one is DC side line reactor. The
simplest and most economical passive harmonic reduction
technique involves the use of AC line reactors (Lac) in front of
the ASD's. The series inductance filter or in-line reactance is a
well established method. Typically 1% to 5% Lac inductors
are used. In the USA 3% and in Europe 4% values are
commonly utilized. The effective impedance value in % is
Fig. 3. Simulation waveforms for voltage and current on II
based on the actual loading as given by
kV/4I5V side of the transformer. (a) 3-phase Voltages, (b).
Line current, Iabe 2*..J3*rr*I *L*[fnd
X 100 (1)
Zell = vu,
Fig. 3 and 4 shows simulation results of voltage and current on
11 kV side and 3-phase Voltages and Line current, Iabe on
The AC inductor's reactance increases proportional to the
4I5V side of the transformer and Simulation waveforms for
voltage and current on Load side. (a) Vde (b)Vinv (c) Vab (d) system frequency. Therefore, the inductance smoothens the
line current drawn by the converter. Hereby, a significantly
Iab(e)Modulation Index.

478
2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

lower current harmonic distortion can be achieved down to 30- initial capacity of 90,000 tonnes per annum (tpa). Over the
35 % THDI range compared to the basic ASD THDI. This years, the production capacity has been increased to 2,45,000
THDI range can be improved when a DC link inductance is tpa and the Company has emerged as the largest bagasse based
combined with the AC line reactors. Unlike the AC line Paper Mill in the world consuming about one million tonnes of
reactors, the DC link inductance does not cause any reactive bagasse every year. The Company completed a Mill
voltage drop while contributing to shaping the current Expansion Plan during December 2010 to increase the mill
waveforms. It is known that the effective impedance of the DC capacity to 4,00,000 tpa. The mill consists of the following
link inductance, when referred to the AC side, is approximate sections:
the half of its numerical value. DC link inductor size between I. Paper Machine-1
3% and 5% is typically built into some of the commercial 2. Paper Machine-2
ASD systems 3. Paper Machine-3
{1 j ,

uo.oo 140.00

4. Finishing House
I
-. uo.oo

I I 5. Pulp Mill
1\ i I
2SO.00 100.00

II 6. Soda Recovery Plant (SRP)


'. II II
zoo.oo '0.00

, I
150.00 U.OO 7. Power and Steam generation Plant
II
1' 8. Water Treatment Plant (WTP)
III In II I'
100.00 40.00

. I,
9. Effluents Treatment Plant (ETP)
I Iii i Il I' II ,/ J
50.00 20.on

11\1" i\ I11I1 II 10. Coal Handing Unit


.. ..

I II III I
1II11 1111' I Iii! I il " I\r
-50.00 -20.00

The harmonic study conducted in TNPL and results of a


I I IIW II II I IV IV
-100.00 -40.00

I harmonic study are presented in table I. The effects of


I I
-150.00 -0.00

I I ,
harmonic distortion on the operation of electric drives are
-zoo.OO -'0.00

I I I , ,
discussed. To provide detailed analysis of the system, one of
\ I \1
-250.00 -100.00

,
-100.00 -120.00 the 132 KW PA fan six pulse drive were investigated in
, V . ,
-350.00

0.04 . O.ll 0.1' o.n


-140.00
Recovery Boiler and simulated using Matlab/Simulink in
..
..
presence of harmonics and the results comparison are
O.Ol 0.10 0.14 O.lt O.U

,.,

presented in table II. The three phase line voltage and current
Fig. 6. Real Time measured waveforms for Phase voltage Va wave form measured by using power quality analyzer and its
and Phase current Ia without Line Reactor harmonic spectrum are shown in figure-8 and 9 .A six pulse
th th
converter would generate harmonic current of the order 5 , 7
th th th th rd th
, 11 , 13 , 17 , 19 23 ,25 ,etc.

I I I I

Fig. 7.Simulation FFT Result for Line current lab

Figure 7 shows the supply current waveform and its FFT


components with respect to phase voltage Vab. It is clear from
this figure that the supply current has very high THD mostly
th th
of 5 and 7 harmonics.lt is clear from this figure that the
supply current becomes to non sin-wave with 38.93%THD.
Fig.8. Line Voltage and Current Waveform
IV.CASE STUDY
Figure 10 and 11 shows the phase current waveform and its
Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers Limited (TNPL) was FFT components with respect to phase voltage Vab. It is clear
established by the Government of Tami Nadu during early from this figure that the supply current has very high THD
th th
eighties to produce Newsprint and Printing & Writing Paper mostly of 5 and 7 harmonics.lt is clear from this figure that
using bagasse, a sugarcane residue, as primary raw material. the supply current becomes to non sin-wave with
The Company commenced production in the year 1984 with a 33.87%THD.

479
2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

"[I Yolugu Currtnu not presented and very high THD


current.
th th
5 and 7 harmonics

"i[.I
Volagel'h1('/o)

11210

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4 12 16
'
20
.,.,'"
24 28 32 ii t4l .. 48 52 56 6/l N
'OM

11);)71

"i
.s
V'''gePll2('1o)

I
..
...
"

,,

4
I "i 12
"
16 2Q
.,
24
.
28 32 ii
" ,
t4l 44 48 52 56 6S
I N
""
.. m

\-vv
"

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"

\[v-/
., ""
"
" .
"

r
" ..

l I

""

.1
V --"
ill
...
,,. 0!IJ1Il
6.10 _
n III
Fig.9. Line Voltage and Current Harmonic spectrum ,

1 1 :1h1
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1 I:l' hS(AjWIWg I
nh1W
,w
'" I1h"W '"
ootlitll<.liiI
nOUflt<1td
[i!JlliJLilOiJWLiJ
." nhl3W '" ot q
Figure 10 and 11 shows the phase current waveform and its
!1J:=::.-

ro 111 , Ih th th
FFT components with respect to phase voltage Vab, the same Flg.I2. Average current and 3 ,5 ,7 ,11 and 13
is compared with simulated wave form in figure 7. The harmonics current.
simulation and real time measurement comparison results
were presented in table II. Figure 13 shows a simplified single line diagram for the six
pulse drive installation of the following Plants:

1. Power Boiler.
2. Paper Machine-I.
3. Paper Machine-2.
4. Chlorine Plant.

Fig. 10. Phase Current Waveform

50.0 Current Ph1 (%)


45.0 Power Boiler Paper Machine1

40.0
35.0
30.0 Fig.13. power Distribution and Drives Installation.
25.0
20.0 Consider the Industrial plant under study shown in Fig-l3. The
15.0 industrial plant is supplied from 24 and 20 MW T.G through
10.0 Distribution transformers 4.4, 8.3, 8.4 of 2 MVA, DynII, and
5.0 II kV/415V and II of 8 MVA II KV1170.2V star, 170.2V
0 star. The loads consist of 6-pulse converters. By studying the
0 thd
equivalent impedance of the system at Distribution panel
Fig.Il. Phase Current Harmonic spectrum (PCC) 1 , the table I presents the line voltage at bus and its
harmonics % THD V and the line current through main
d th th th
Figure 12 shows the average current and 3r ,5 ,7 , 11 and transformer and its harmonics %THD I. From the results we
th can see Distribution panel-l harmonic currents exceed the
13 order harmonics current with respect to varying load
d
current. It is clear from the figure 3r order harmonic current is standard limits of the IEEE Std. 519.

480
2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

TABLE-II

Result Comparison Table for Simulation and Experiment

Harmonic Simulation Experiment


order Results Result
Phase % distortion Phase %
Current Current distortion

1 117.45 100 116.41 100

5 34.33 29.23 36.45 31.31

7 9.86 8.40 11.62 9.98

11 7.50 6.38 7.33 6.30

13 4.16 3.54 3.72 3.19

17 2.87 2.45 2.88 2.48

19 2.30 1.96 2.01 1.72

%THDV %THDI %THDV %THDI


%THD
% 1.60 33.93 1.83 33.87

Fig.14. Photo view of the measuring equipments installed at


PCe.
V.CONCLUSION
TABLE-I
Harmonic Measurement Table at PCC Harmonic analysis of power system is performed to study the
system behavior under harmonics IEEE 519 norms. This paper
presents the simulation modeling of six pulses converters in
S.No Tran Voltage Capacity Actual Actual P.F VTHD hHD
s. Ratio in KVA Load in Load in (cos q industrial applications. Case study of harmonic analysis is
%) (%)
No KVA KW performed for Power Boiler, Chlorine Plant and Paper
I 4.4 11I.433KV 2000 405.6 291 0.72 0.5 38.8 machines distribution system at TNPL, Tamilnadu, India.
2 8.3 11I.433KV 2000 1080 796.9 0.74 I 31.2 THD is used as the harmonic index and harmonic spectrum is
3 8.4 11I.433KV 2000 703 535.3 0.77 1.1 24.3 presented for six pulse drives and for the industrial distribution
4 II 11I.170KV 8000 6267 4453 0.71 1.3 23.6 system. The simulation results of THD were acceptable with
the practical measurement values. These models can hence be
employed for harmonic analysis of a practical system and to
design a suitable filter to mitigate harmonics in the distribution
system.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors would like to acknowledge the Electrical


Department of Tamilnadu Newsprint and Papers Ltd (TNPL),
Karur, Tamilnadu, India for providing the electrical supply
distribution scheme to carry out the work.

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