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Impacts to Input Current Harmonics

D.Maheswaran Dr.N.Rajasekar

Electrical Department, Electrical Engineering Department,

TNPL, Karur, India. VIT, Vellore, India.

e-mail:mwaran78@gmail.com e-mail: drnrajasekar@gmail.com

Abstract- This paper describes the measurements and II. SIX PULSE DRIVES

simulations of harmonics from six pulse adjustable speed

drives in Pulp and paper Industry. Harmonic analysis of

the distribution system is essential to study the behavior of Line

equipments connected in the non-sinusoidal system

J

Impedance

environment for designing and optimal location of filters. Ls

+

The simulations are done in Mat lab by sim-link circuit

simulator. Validation of the load models is done by

performing case study for an Tamil Nadu Newsprint and

Papers Ltd (TNPL) supply system and comparing the

THDs obtained from simulation using MATLAB package J

with the THD values obtained by measurement. Due to a

Rectifier Voltage Som-ce hlVener

very close match, the simulators are used further to

analyze different harmonic mitigation solutions. The best '-------

ASD System

solution found by simulations, for the given plant, is an

advanced harmonic filter dedicated for adjustable Speed Fig.l. Six pulse AC Drive Power Structure

Drives.

ASDs, consists of ACIDC converter connected to

Index Terms-Harmonics, Pulse Width Modulation, Six Pulse DC/AC inverter. Of all the modem power electronics

Drive, Filter. converters, the Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) is perhaps the

I. INTRODUCTION most widely utilized DC/AC conversion device with

commonly used Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) methods.

The application of cost effective power converter The PWM-VSI consists of three basic stages the first stage of

circuits which enhance the overall performance, efficiency, the drive must convert three-phase AC to DC. The first stage

and reliability of industrial processes is common in all is known as the converter section. In an AC drive, the

industry. The industrial applications of ACIDC and DC/AC converter stage consists of a three phase, full wave diode

power conversion have increased gradually since the advent of bridge, though SCRs (Silicon controlled rectifiers) are

silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR) in 1957. However, the wide sometimes used in place of diodes.

use of single and three phase diode/thyristor rectifiers, for DC

power supplies, Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD) in industrial A filter is required to smooth out the ripple on the DC

appliances. With an estimated 65% of industrial electrical bus in order to run the IGBT inverter. Therefore, a second or

energy used by electric motors, the major users in industry "filter" stage is required. Primarily, this consists of a large

increasingly see energy reduction as a key to improve their capacitor bank and an inductor or "link choke" may be added.

profitability and competitiveness. The choke, when used, helps buffer the capacitor bank from

the AC line and serves to reduce harmonics.

Because variable speed drives reduce energy

consumption (20-30% savings) and decrease pollutant The third stage is the inverter section. This section uses

emission levels to environment while increasing productivity, high-speed transistors or IGBTs as switches to apply a "Pulse

their proliferation is inevitable. For variable speed Width Modulated" or PWM waveform to the motor. Taking

applications, ASDs are widely employed in driving induction advantage of the fact that a motor is basically a large inductor,

and permanent magnet motors due to the high static and and that current does not change very fast in an inductor, the

dynamic performance obtained in such systems. High energy DC bus voltage can be applied in pulses of varying width in

efficiency and high motion quality, low starting torque, etc. order to achieve current in the motor that approximates a sine

are the positive attributes of the ASDs. wave.

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

side. (a) Vde (b),Vinv (c) Vab (d) lab (e)Modulation Index.

Fig. 2.Simulation model of the Six Pulse Drive

MATLAB/SIMULINK-platform to study the distortions in the

voltage and current waveform due to the presence of a

nonlinear load in the system. The actual system can be

modeled with a high degree of accuracy in this package. It

provides the user interactive platform and a wide variety of

numerical algorithms. Fig.2 shows the system modeled in

SIMULINK. The system consists of six pulse rectifier model

with dc link choke and PWM inverter. The same system is

simulated with line reactor and without line reactors.

Reactor

fig.6 shows the Real Time measured waveforms for Phase

voltage Va and Phase current Ia without Line Reactor. The line

reactors are commonly used in two types one is AC side three

phase line reactor and another one is DC side line reactor. The

simplest and most economical passive harmonic reduction

technique involves the use of AC line reactors (Lac) in front of

the ASD's. The series inductance filter or in-line reactance is a

well established method. Typically 1% to 5% Lac inductors

are used. In the USA 3% and in Europe 4% values are

commonly utilized. The effective impedance value in % is

Fig. 3. Simulation waveforms for voltage and current on II

based on the actual loading as given by

kV/4I5V side of the transformer. (a) 3-phase Voltages, (b).

Line current, Iabe 2*..J3*rr*I *L*[fnd

X 100 (1)

Zell = vu,

Fig. 3 and 4 shows simulation results of voltage and current on

11 kV side and 3-phase Voltages and Line current, Iabe on

The AC inductor's reactance increases proportional to the

4I5V side of the transformer and Simulation waveforms for

voltage and current on Load side. (a) Vde (b)Vinv (c) Vab (d) system frequency. Therefore, the inductance smoothens the

line current drawn by the converter. Hereby, a significantly

Iab(e)Modulation Index.

478

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

lower current harmonic distortion can be achieved down to 30- initial capacity of 90,000 tonnes per annum (tpa). Over the

35 % THDI range compared to the basic ASD THDI. This years, the production capacity has been increased to 2,45,000

THDI range can be improved when a DC link inductance is tpa and the Company has emerged as the largest bagasse based

combined with the AC line reactors. Unlike the AC line Paper Mill in the world consuming about one million tonnes of

reactors, the DC link inductance does not cause any reactive bagasse every year. The Company completed a Mill

voltage drop while contributing to shaping the current Expansion Plan during December 2010 to increase the mill

waveforms. It is known that the effective impedance of the DC capacity to 4,00,000 tpa. The mill consists of the following

link inductance, when referred to the AC side, is approximate sections:

the half of its numerical value. DC link inductor size between I. Paper Machine-1

3% and 5% is typically built into some of the commercial 2. Paper Machine-2

ASD systems 3. Paper Machine-3

{1 j ,

uo.oo 140.00

4. Finishing House

I

-. uo.oo

I I 5. Pulp Mill

1\ i I

2SO.00 100.00

'. II II

zoo.oo '0.00

, I

150.00 U.OO 7. Power and Steam generation Plant

II

1' 8. Water Treatment Plant (WTP)

III In II I'

100.00 40.00

. I,

9. Effluents Treatment Plant (ETP)

I Iii i Il I' II ,/ J

50.00 20.on

.. ..

I II III I

1II11 1111' I Iii! I il " I\r

-50.00 -20.00

I I IIW II II I IV IV

-100.00 -40.00

I I

-150.00 -0.00

I I ,

harmonic distortion on the operation of electric drives are

-zoo.OO -'0.00

I I I , ,

discussed. To provide detailed analysis of the system, one of

\ I \1

-250.00 -100.00

,

-100.00 -120.00 the 132 KW PA fan six pulse drive were investigated in

, V . ,

-350.00

-140.00

Recovery Boiler and simulated using Matlab/Simulink in

..

..

presence of harmonics and the results comparison are

O.Ol 0.10 0.14 O.lt O.U

,.,

presented in table II. The three phase line voltage and current

Fig. 6. Real Time measured waveforms for Phase voltage Va wave form measured by using power quality analyzer and its

and Phase current Ia without Line Reactor harmonic spectrum are shown in figure-8 and 9 .A six pulse

th th

converter would generate harmonic current of the order 5 , 7

th th th th rd th

, 11 , 13 , 17 , 19 23 ,25 ,etc.

I I I I

components with respect to phase voltage Vab. It is clear from

this figure that the supply current has very high THD mostly

th th

of 5 and 7 harmonics.lt is clear from this figure that the

supply current becomes to non sin-wave with 38.93%THD.

Fig.8. Line Voltage and Current Waveform

IV.CASE STUDY

Figure 10 and 11 shows the phase current waveform and its

Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers Limited (TNPL) was FFT components with respect to phase voltage Vab. It is clear

established by the Government of Tami Nadu during early from this figure that the supply current has very high THD

th th

eighties to produce Newsprint and Printing & Writing Paper mostly of 5 and 7 harmonics.lt is clear from this figure that

using bagasse, a sugarcane residue, as primary raw material. the supply current becomes to non sin-wave with

The Company commenced production in the year 1984 with a 33.87%THD.

479

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

current.

th th

5 and 7 harmonics

"i[.I

Volagel'h1('/o)

11210

" . I

11599

,I'",

4 12 16

'

20

.,.,'"

24 28 32 ii t4l .. 48 52 56 6/l N

'OM

11);)71

"i

.s

V'''gePll2('1o)

I

..

...

"

,,

4

I "i 12

"

16 2Q

.,

24

.

28 32 ii

" ,

t4l 44 48 52 56 6S

I N

""

.. m

\-vv

"

..

"

\[v-/

., ""

"

" .

"

r

" ..

l I

""

.1

V --"

ill

...

,,. 0!IJ1Il

6.10 _

n III

Fig.9. Line Voltage and Current Harmonic spectrum ,

1 1 :1h1

W 1149

1 I:l' hS(AjWIWg I

nh1W

,w

'" I1h"W '"

ootlitll<.liiI

nOUflt<1td

[i!JlliJLilOiJWLiJ

." nhl3W '" ot q

Figure 10 and 11 shows the phase current waveform and its

!1J:=::.-

ro 111 , Ih th th

FFT components with respect to phase voltage Vab, the same Flg.I2. Average current and 3 ,5 ,7 ,11 and 13

is compared with simulated wave form in figure 7. The harmonics current.

simulation and real time measurement comparison results

were presented in table II. Figure 13 shows a simplified single line diagram for the six

pulse drive installation of the following Plants:

1. Power Boiler.

2. Paper Machine-I.

3. Paper Machine-2.

4. Chlorine Plant.

45.0 Power Boiler Paper Machine1

40.0

35.0

30.0 Fig.13. power Distribution and Drives Installation.

25.0

20.0 Consider the Industrial plant under study shown in Fig-l3. The

15.0 industrial plant is supplied from 24 and 20 MW T.G through

10.0 Distribution transformers 4.4, 8.3, 8.4 of 2 MVA, DynII, and

5.0 II kV/415V and II of 8 MVA II KV1170.2V star, 170.2V

0 star. The loads consist of 6-pulse converters. By studying the

0 thd

equivalent impedance of the system at Distribution panel

Fig.Il. Phase Current Harmonic spectrum (PCC) 1 , the table I presents the line voltage at bus and its

harmonics % THD V and the line current through main

d th th th

Figure 12 shows the average current and 3r ,5 ,7 , 11 and transformer and its harmonics %THD I. From the results we

th can see Distribution panel-l harmonic currents exceed the

13 order harmonics current with respect to varying load

d

current. It is clear from the figure 3r order harmonic current is standard limits of the IEEE Std. 519.

480

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

TABLE-II

order Results Result

Phase % distortion Phase %

Current Current distortion

%THD

% 1.60 33.93 1.83 33.87

PCe.

V.CONCLUSION

TABLE-I

Harmonic Measurement Table at PCC Harmonic analysis of power system is performed to study the

system behavior under harmonics IEEE 519 norms. This paper

presents the simulation modeling of six pulses converters in

S.No Tran Voltage Capacity Actual Actual P.F VTHD hHD

s. Ratio in KVA Load in Load in (cos q industrial applications. Case study of harmonic analysis is

%) (%)

No KVA KW performed for Power Boiler, Chlorine Plant and Paper

I 4.4 11I.433KV 2000 405.6 291 0.72 0.5 38.8 machines distribution system at TNPL, Tamilnadu, India.

2 8.3 11I.433KV 2000 1080 796.9 0.74 I 31.2 THD is used as the harmonic index and harmonic spectrum is

3 8.4 11I.433KV 2000 703 535.3 0.77 1.1 24.3 presented for six pulse drives and for the industrial distribution

4 II 11I.170KV 8000 6267 4453 0.71 1.3 23.6 system. The simulation results of THD were acceptable with

the practical measurement values. These models can hence be

employed for harmonic analysis of a practical system and to

design a suitable filter to mitigate harmonics in the distribution

system.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Department of Tamilnadu Newsprint and Papers Ltd (TNPL),

Karur, Tamilnadu, India for providing the electrical supply

distribution scheme to carry out the work.

REFERENCES

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482

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