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9.

which of the following is not a contribution of


St.LouisReviewCenter,Inc. technologytothelearningprocess?.
EneelsusBldg.Gen.LunaSt.,DavaoCity A. Thequalityoflearningcanbeimproved
Tel.no.(082)2242515or2228732 B. The delivery of instructions can be more
interesting
EDTECH C. The role of the teacher can be changed into a
POSTTEST demonstrator.
D. The method of teaching and learning becomes
1. Whichofthefollowingstatementsiscorrectaboutthe moreinteractive
domainsofeducationaltechnology? 10. Inwhatwaycaninstructionalaidsfosterlearning?
A. Designistheproductionstagewhiledevelopment A. Reinforcelearning
istheplanningstage. B. Entertainstudents
B. Boththedesignanddevelopmentaretheplanning C. Taketheplaceoftheteacher
stage, D. Holdsstudentsintheclassroom
C. Evaluationissynonymouswithimplementation. 11. With the pervasiveness of technologies nowadays, a
D. Utilizationistheactionphase. learnercentered instruction can be promoted. Which
2. Ms. Cruz was hired in a wellequipped school but she of the following statements support this approach to
has to start preparing her instructional materials teaching?
before classes begin. Which of the following is a I.Itfocusesontransformationoffacts.
systematicprocessinpreparinghermaterials? II.Itsupportstheuseoflectureanddrillmethods.
A.designutilizationevaluationdevelopment III. It gives emphasis on collaboration and authentic
B.designdevelopmentutilizationevaluation assessment.
C.developmentdesignutilizationevaluation IV.Students workon tasksdetermined and controlled
D.developmentutilizationevaluationdesign bytheteacher.
3. Ms. Briones is planning to integrate technology in her A. IandIIonly C.IIandIVonly
Mathematics class. Which of the following would be B. IandIIIonly D.IIIandIVonly
hersecondstep? 12. Prof. Villamins students use cooperative learning,
A.settheobjectives inquirybasedandprojectbasedlearningapproachesin
B.analyzethelearners creatingtheirdigitalunitplans.Whatcanbedeveloped
C.utilizethematerialswithshowmanship amongthelearnersthroughtheseapproaches?
D.evaluatetheperformanceofthestudents A. repetitionandactivelearning
4. Which of the following should Ms. Gomez primarily B. repetition&informationdelivery
consider in determining her teaching and learning C. informationprocessingandactivelearning
objectivesanduseofinstructionalmedia? D. construction of knowledge and information
A. thelearner C.theinstructionalactivity exchange
B. theteacher D.theinstructionalstrategy 13. Which of these technologies are arranged from the
5. Which is the best reason why teachers state the mostsymbolictomultisensory?
objectivesbeforeusinginstructionalmedia? A. real objects, print, audiovisual materials, and
A. To be able to practice how to operate the visualmaterials
equipment. B. visual materials, audio visual materials, print and
B. Todeterminewhichmediatousebest. computers
C. Topreparethematerialsbeforehand. C. visual materials, print, audiovisual materials and
D. Tosecureavailablematerials. realia
6. Ms. Villegas is thinking of an educational technology D. print,audio,visualmaterials,andcomputers
that can relay information clearly to her class. Which 14. Whichgroupoftechnologieshasthehighestdegreeof
principlewillguideherintheselectionofthematerial? abstraction?
A. interest C.costeffectiveness A. book, imaginative literature, programmed
B. meaningfulnessD.communicationeffectiveness instruction
7. Mrs. Zinampan presented real samples of rocks when B. digitalvideo,film,versatilecompactdisc
she discussed the different forms of rocks. What C. video,picturesandtelevision
principle in the selection of instructional material did D. realiaandcomputer
sheapply? 15. Mrs. Soriano, a Grade V teacher prefers to use
A. interest C.costeffective textbooks than other instructional materials. What
B. Bauthenticity D.responsiveness couldbeherreasonforusingit?
8. Which of the following is a limitation of conventional A. Textbookscanbeeasilyduplicated.
technologiesinteachingandlearning? B. Textbooksquicklybecomeupdated.
A. Theyposeproblemsonstorage.. C. Textbooksaddresstheneedsofdiversestudents.
B. Theyarelessabstractandmoreconcrete. D. Textbookscontainmostofthematerialstheyneed
C. They are readily available in the environment, tolearninthecourse.
aroundschool,andinthehome. 16. It is impractical to bring real objects to the classroom
D. They provide handson learning experiences and soMs.Simanganconstructedathreedimensionalvisual
emphasizerealworld instead.Whichofthefollowingdidsheconstruct?
E. applications A. cartoon C.graphic
B. chart D.model 27. RomalynisgoingtodiscussaboutTheADDIEModelto
17. If a teacher wants to teach her pupils the skill to a big class. She is planning to use a technology by
organize and integrate related concepts, which of the whichpartsofherpresentationcouldbepartlyhidden
followingis themost appropriate graphicorganizer to tomakeitmoreexcitingandinteresting.Whatdoyou
use? thinkshallsheuse?
A. timeline C.venndiagram A. model C.transparency
B. fishbone D.semanticwebbing B. realia D.video
18. Which graphic organizer is usedto show howaseries 28. Marifewantstomakeapresentationmaterialwherein
ofeventsinteracttoproduceasetofresultsagainand more additional transparent sheets with information
again? can be placed over a base transparency. Which one
A. Seriesofeventschart C.cycle shouldshemake?
B. Web D.timeline A. cutout C.silhouette
19. Whichinstructionalaidrequirespupilstoverbalize? B. puppet D.overlay
A. graphic C..model 29. Whichoneisusedwith2Dand3Dmaterials?
B. diorama D..video A. Opaqueprojector C.digitalprojector
20. Whichofthefollowingisinappropriateinusingprinted B. overheadprojector D.slideprojector
visualssuchascharts,graphs,anddrawings? 30. After watching the film, Muro Ami, the students of
A. Provide written or verbal cues to highlight Mrs. Tamaray are expected to show a demonstrative
importantaspectsofvisuals. proof of what they have learned. How is the
B. Allowthestudentstopassthematerialsfromone technologyusedinthissituation?
persontoanother. A. entertainment C.instructional
C. Usematerialsthateveryonecansee. B. informationalD.entertainmentandinformational
D. Presentthematerialoneattime. 31. Selfmadechartsandillustrationsserveasuniversalaid
21. Under what category will a globe as an instructional forbringingfascinatingandexcitingexperiencesinthe
materialfall? classroom. To tap the optimum potentials of these
A. Realia C.solidmodel materials,whichofthefollowingshouldbeavoided?
B. mockup D.cutawaymodel A. Givingdueconsiderationtolettering.
22. Prof. Agustin would like to provide handson B. Presentingmaterialswithaccuratefacts.
experience on the expansion and contraction of C. Givingmoreimportancetoausterityoverlegibility.
matter.Whichofthefollowingmaterialswouldbethe D. Focusingonthemainideaofthelessonpresented.
besttouse? 32. Kamyl used overhead transparencies when she
A. models C.realias presented her assigned topic to class. What type of
B. pictures D.slides educationaltechnologyaretransparencies?
23. Ms. Sarah finds the chalkboard an effective A. printedmaterial C.projectedmaterial
instructionalmaterialuptopresent.However,justlike B. graphicmaterial D.nonprojectedmaterial
any other materials, it also has its limitations. Which 33. Which instructional material/s is/are MOST fit in
oneisit? contextualizedlearning?
A. Itallowsspontaneity,speedandchange. A. TV C.pictures
B. Absent students cannot keep up with their B. Slides D.fieldtrip
assignments.
C. It is valuable for emphasizing the major points of
thelesson. 34. Ms. Villanueva wants to teach the students the
D. It can be used for displaying pictures and performance of a certain skill such as dancing. Which
importantclippings. technology would be the most appropriate and
24. With which learning style group are manipulatives convenienttouse?
MOSTeffective? A. film C.television
A. Masterstylegroup B. video D.printedmaterial
B. Interpersonalstylegroup 35. Slides are miniature transparencies. They can be
C. Understandingstylegroup created with simple cameras and simple equipment.
D. Selfexpressivestylegroup Theydisplaycolorinarealisticmanner.However,they
25. Whichdoesapupilusewhens/hesingsaconcepttoa alsohavesomelimitations.Whichoneisit?
familiar tune in order to help himself commit the A. Theycanbeeasilyupdatedandrevised.
concepttomemory? B. Theycanbeadaptedtogrouportoindividualuse.
A. rap C.pop C. They can get out of sequence if handled
B. jingle D.lullaby individually.
26. Prof. Arcilla would like to use audiocassette tape in D. They can be combined with taped narration for
teaching a lesson in English. In which activity is greatereffectiveness.
audiocassette tape very effective in the teaching 36. Mrs. Santos used a film clip in teaching science
learningprocess? concepts to her Grade Six class. However, she found
A. indevelopinglisteningskills out that it was inefficiently used in the classroom.
B. inteachingcreativewriting Whenisatechnologyconsideredinefficient?
C. incomposingpoems A. Whenitmakesviewingmoreinteresting.
D. inbuildingconcepts B. Whenitincreasesthetimetomasterthelesson.
C. Whenithelpsattaintheobjectivesofthelesson. B. tutorial D.drillandpractice
D. Whenitenhancesunderstandingofnewlesson. 45. 45.Prof.Natividadwouldliketocreateapresentation
37. Prof.ManantanslessoninEPPisaboutPagtatanimng material for his lesson on the types of computer
halaman to her students. How can she make her assistedInstruction.Whichtoolshouldheuse?
lessonmoreinterestingandmeaningful? A. communicativetool C.productivitytool
A. Haveaviewingactivityaboutthelesson. B. Informativetool D.situatingtool
B. HavethemreadtheirEPPbook. 46. Prof. De Guzman uses an online learning approach by
C. Givethemacollaborativework. which content provides links to information at other
D. Letthemlistentoagardener. locations and serves as a focal point for a distance
38. Prof.DelosSantoswouldlikeherstudentstogivemore education experience. Whichof the following does he
accurate observations about plants in the use?
environment. Which technique would help her attain A. computeraidedinstruction
herobjective? B. webbasedinstruction
A. Bringthemtothegarden. C. selfpacedprogram
B. Bringactualplantstoclass. D. teleconferencing
C. Showcolorfulpicturestotheclass. 47. Mr.Villenasearchesforrelatedliteraturebyaccessing
D. Lettheclassreadbooksaboutthetopic. several databases in the library computer that is
39. Whichofthefollowingshouldbeavoidedinpresenting connectedwithothercomputersthathavedatabases.
visuals? Howisthistermed?
A. Showvisualswithanelementofsuspense. A. CDROMsearch C.mechanicalsearch
B. Shut off the overhead projector when explaining B. computersearch D.onlinesearch
lengthily. 48. Which pair of tools provide synchronous
C. Present all the materials simultaneously to hold communication?
thelearnersinterest. A. chatroomandemail
D. Eraseanywritingonthechalkboardorwhiteboard B. emailandbulletinboard
whenyounolongerneedit. C. videoconferencingandblogs
40. Afterlistingdowntheadvantagesanddisadvantagesof D. instantmessagingandchatroom
computers, Mrs. Muoz decided to purchase a 49. ShouldMrs.ReyesallowherpupilstosurftheInternet
computerforherclass.Whichdo youthinkisthelast increatingagroupnewsletterduringherEnglishclass?
considerationinpurchasingtheequipment? Why?
A. Computerscanmakehermoreefficient. A. No, because pupils may just be exchanging
B. Computerscanbeaformofentertainment. messagesviaemail.
C. Computerscanenhanceteachingandlearning. B. No, because the pupils might open undesirable
D. Computers can be used for interactive websites.
presentations. C. Yes,toallowthepupilstochatwiththeirfriends.
41. Marnel prepares his school research works using D. Yes,aslongasitisusedeffectively.
computer to submit his requirements on time. Does 50. Which of the following should you ask yourself in
the computer make him productive and efficient? evaluatingthecontentofaninstructionalmaterial?
Why? A. Dothematerialsreinforcelearningeffectively?
I.Yes,becauseitcangenerateitsowndata. B. Arethematerialsofhightechnicalquality?
II.Yes,becauseitcanmakeonesworkeasier. C. Doesthecontentmatchthecurriculum?
III. Yes, because it can perform tasks fast and D. Isitappropriateforthestudents?
accurately. 51. WhichofthefollowingstatementsdoesNOTdescribe
A. IandII C.IIandIII educationaltechnology?
B. IandIII D.I,IIandIII i.Itincludeshardwareandsoftware.
42. Prof. Aguinaldo would like to integrate technology in ii. It refers to the efficiency of teachers in using
writingafriendlyletter.Howcanhedoiteffectively? computers
A. Let the pupils surf a friendly letter from the iii.Itisthedevelopment,application,andevaluationof
Internet. systems, techniques and aids to improve human
B. Have the pupils write a friendly letterand send it learning.
throughanemail. A. ionly C.Bothiiandiii
C. Have the pupils forward a downloaded friendly B. iionly D.Bothiandiii
lettertoothersviaemail. 52. What should Mr. Asuncion determine first in the
D. Let the pupils write a friendly letter using word selectionofmediainteaching?
processingandhaveitcritiquedby A. needsofthestudentsC.techniquetobeused
E. theirpeers. B. availabilityofthemediaD.objectivesofthelesson
43. Which of the following is known for its strength of 53. Which is the most important reason why teachers
givingimmediatefeedback? previewmaterialstobeusedinclass?
A. video C.digitalencyclopedia A. Togainconfidenceinusingthem.
B. storybook D.computerassistedinstruction B. Toencourageviewerstobemorefocused.
44. Which of the following computerbased instructional C. To avoid potential problems that might occur
materialcanbeusedtolearnnewconcepts? whilematerialsareinuse.
A. games C.simulation
D. To ensure appropriateness of the materials with D. verbal symbols, still pictures, visual symbols,
theobjectivesandtargetaudience. models,motionpictures
54. After Ms. Raca planned her lesson in English, she 63. Which is the best way to present instructional
foundoutthatthematerialsathanddonotmatchher materials?
objectives.Whichisthebestthingthatshecando? A. concrete >semiconcrete> abstract>semi
A. Modifytheavailablematerials. abstract
B. Teachthelessonthefollowingday. B. semiconcrete> concrete > abstract> semi
C. Changetheobjectivestomatchwiththeavailable abstract
materials. C. abstract>semiabstract> semiconcrete>
D. Carry out the lesson as planned and use the concrete
materialsathand. D. concrete >semiconcrete> semiabstract >
55. Prof. Balagtas used worksheets, manipulatives and abstract
models in teaching math to help her students 64. Which of the following technologies provide iconic
understand the lesson and love the subject. What did experiences?
shebearinmindwhensheusedthesematerials? A. videosandcomputer
A. appropriateness C.breadth B. booksandperiodicals
B. balance D.variety C. audioandaudiomaterials
56. Ms.Torresalwaysmakessurethattext,animationand D. printedandverbalsymbols
color do not confuse students in her presentation 65. How can Prof. Ubia best promote the use of
materials.Whichprincipleisapplied? multimediainteachingSciencetohercoteachers?
A. simplicity C.responsiveness A. Sellmultimediaatlowcost.
B. variety D.costeffectiveness B. Demonstrateitsusetothem.
57. Mrs. Reyes, a librarian, informed the students as well C. Explaintheliteraturesupportingitsuse.
astheteachersthatseveralsoftwareareavailablefor D. Convince the principal to require the use of
classroom instruction and individual learning. Which technology.
materialisshereferringto?
A. Computers C.Televisionset
B. CDROM D.VCDandDVDplayers
58. Susans mother tongue is a vernacular. Which of the
following materials would be the most efficient and
effectivematerialtolearnasecondlanguage?
A. interactivemultimedia 66. Therearecountlessthingsintheenvironmentthatyou
B. picturesandprintmaterials andyourstudentscanusetolearnfromsuchastrees,
C. audiocompactdiscsandradio globes, pebbles, blocks etc. These real objects and
D. printedmaterialsandrealobjects modelsarereallyeffectiveiftheyareutilizedproperly.
59. Computer can be a good tool for individualized Which of the following is incorrect about the use of
instruction. Which of the following aspects can be a realobjectsandmodels?
deterrentforitsfullutilizationintheclassrooms? A. Familiarizeyourselfwiththeobjectormodel.
A. economic C.social B. Allowpassingofasingleobjectaroundtheclass.
B. physical D.technical C. Make sure that objects/models are large enough
60. With the increasing use of educational technology tobeseenbythewholeclass.
inside the classroom, what roles are expected of the D. Encourage students participation through
teacher? questioningandhavingstudents
A. facilitator C.knowledgegiver E. decidethenextstep.
B. demonstrator D.sourceofinformation 67. Aaron constructed a three dimensional material to
61. Which of the following technologies are properly simulate the circulation of blood. Which of the
classified? followingdidheconstruct?
A. computers,compactdiscs,film,television A. Asolidmodel C.mockupmodel
B. imaginative literature, book, programmed B. cutawaymodel D.crosssectionalmodel
instruction 68. Which is a twodimensional representation of the
C. versatile compact disc, printed material, diagram, earthsgeographicand/orpoliticalfeatures?
sketches A. globe C.mockup
D. digital video, phonograph, compact discs, radio, B. map D.model
audiotape 69. You asked your students to illustrate what they have
62. Whichofthefollowingtechnologiesarearrangedfrom understood from what they have read. Which of the
themostconcretetothemostabstract? followingnonprojectedvisualsareyoureferringto?
A. motion pictures, verbal symbols, visual symbols, A. printedvisuals C.models
radio,realias B. graphics D.realias
B. realias,visualsymbols,television,motionpictures, 70. Which software should Dr. Balagtas to manipulate
stillpictures numericaldatainthecomputer?
C. realias, motion pictures, still pictures, visual A. Spreadsheet C.wordprocessing
symbols,verbalsymbols B. desktoppublishing D.multimedia
71. Prof. Silva uses projected visuals such as OHP in B. vocabularylevel D. students
presentingherlesson.Whatcouldbehermainreason achievement
inusingsuchaneducationaltechnology? 80. Which statement is true about the opaque projector
A. Thematerialsarereadilyavailable. andoverheadprojector?
B. Mostvisualscanbeobtainedatnocost. A. An opaque projector allows more flexibility than
C. Itismoreabstractthananyothervisuals. anoverheadprojector.
D. She can easily prepare her own transparencies in B. Anoverheadprojectorallowsmoreflexibilitythan
advance. anopaqueprojector.
72. Ms. Pacheco showed a segment of matter in sine C. Opaque and overhead projectors can
skwelatoherpupilswithoutafollowupactivity.Thus, instantaneouslyproject3Dvisualswell.
thepupilsgotlowinthetest.Whatdoesthisimply? D. Theseriesofstillvisualsinanopaqueprojectorare
A. TVmakesviewingenjoyable. arrangedinafixedpatternbutnotinanoverhead
B. TVpromotesmasteryofthelesson. projector.
C. TVinducesalienationonthepartofthelearners. 81. AgradeIIteacherwantedtoshowthepartsofaseed
D. TV is effective when learners attain the lesson by using a large, wooden seed visual aid with
objectives. detachable cotyledons and tiny seed. Under what
73. Whichactivityisclosesttotherealthing? classificationdoeswoodenstructurefall?
A. hear C.watchademonstration A. assemblymodel C.realia
B. viewimages D.performinapresentation B. cutawaymodel D.solidmodel
74. Your department would like to purchase a computer 82. Whichtermreferstoamodelwhichisconstructedso
setasyourproject.Whichofthefollowingadvantages astoemphasizeaparticularpartorfunction?
of computer will be your last consideration in A. audiorecording C.mockup
purchasingit? B. simulation D,realia
A. Itcanenhancetheteachingandlearningprocess. 83. Which is the best use of computers to students like
B. Itcanbeusedforinteractivepresentation. you?
C. Itcanbeusedforresearchactivity A. Theyareusedforchattingandsurfingthenet.
D. Itcanbeusedforentertainment. B. Theyareusedforresearchandcollaboration.
75. Prof.Orenciawillhaveadigitizedpresentationtopre C. Theyareusedforplayingonlinegames.
serviceteachers.Whichofthefollowingwillmakeher D. Theyareusedforwatchingmovies.
presentationappealingandeffective? 84. Which statement makes technology ineffective in
A. Observemaximumuseofanimationsandgraphics studentlearning?
together. A. Itdevelopshigherthinkingskills.
B. Apply as many computer effects per slide as B. Itpreparesstudentsfortheworkforce.
possible. C. Itenhancesstudentscollaborativeskills.
C. Reinforce textual information with graphic D. Itdecreasesachievementincontentlearning.
organizers. 85. You plan to use instructional materials to a big class
D. Useasmanycoloraspossible. size.Whichofthesewillyounotuse?
76. Whyarecomputersincreasinglybecomingpervasivein A. picturesC.27inchtelevision
schoolsnowadays? B. projectiondeviceD.computerwithLCDprojector
A. Schoolsadvocatetheuseofcomputers. 86. Computerscanbeclassifiedaccordingtotherolesthey
B. Theyincreaseefficiencyandproductivity. playnamelycommunicativetool,informativetool,and
C. Anybody can operate computers without formal constructivetool.Whatistheotherroleofcomputesin
training. theoptionsbelow?
D. Students have access to computers in school and A. instructionaltool C.utilitytool
athome. B. situatingtool D,applicationtool
77. Thereareseveralreasonswhyteachersarereluctantin 87. WhichofthefollowingcategoriesofCAIwillyouusein
using electronic media in the teachinglearning yourclassifyourobjectiveistoincreaseproficiencyin
process.Whichisthemostcommonreason? anewlylearnedskillorrefreshanexistingone?
A. Thedifficultyinintegratingtheminthecurriculum. A. tutorial C.simulation
B. The limited exposure of teachers to new B. drillandpractice. D.Instructionalgame
equipment. 88. Which of the following is an ineffective use of
C. Their incompatibility to diverse needs of the presentationsoftware?
learners. A. Darkentheroom
D. Theexcessiveavailabilityoflocaltechnologyinthe B. Useappropriatepacing
community. C. Readdirectlyfromtheslides.
78. With the number of senses to be stimulated as D. Allowinteractionwiththelearner.
criterion,whichoneshouldbefirstinthelist? 89. Which of the following is NOT an example of
A. multisensoryaidC.visualaid communicativetool?
B. audiovisualaid D.audioaid A. multimediaencyclopedia
79. Which of the following is considered in terms of B. teleconferencing
technicalqualityofamaterial? C. electronicmail
A. stereotyping C.colorandsizeoftext D. chat
90. WhichisacharacteristicoftheteachingmachinesofB. C. WebQuests
F.Skinner? D. ComputerBasedInstruction
A. Itdoesnotneedanyfeedback. 99. Prof.RuscoewouldliketoshowRizalsmuseumtothe
B. Itrequiresteachersassistance. students but due to financial constraint, she couldnt
C. Itismeantforacollaborativework. bring them there. What should she do to make the
D. Itallowsastudenttolearnathis/herownpace. teachinglearningprocessmorerealistic?
91. Why is oneway delivery of information a misuse of A. Conductavirtualtour.
communicationtools? B. UseDVDwithlessresolution.
A. because theteacherexpects the student to study C. Showpicturesofthemuseumtothewholeclass.
more D. Go to the museum and relate all observations
B. becauseitrequiresactivitiesthatfocusonthinking made.
thanresponding 100.Which of the following should you avoid if you were
C. because it enables the users to focus more on askedtoevaluatetheeffectivenessofaninstructional
higherlevelcognitiveactivities gameafterusingitinteachingalessonin highschool
D. because this kind of practice lessens interaction science?
capabilitiesofcommunicationtools A. Present problems which are relevant to learning
92. Internetconsistsofthousandsofconnectedcomputer objectives.
networks around the world. Which term does NOT B. Allow learners to select different content
refertoInternet? materials.
A. A.NET C.Cyberspace C. Provideacooperativelearningatmosphere.
B. B.Online D.InformationSuperhighway D. Provideascoringsystem.
93. Yourclassadviserisplanningtohaveanasynchronous
communication with your classmates. Which
technologytoolscansheuse? * * * * * T H E E N D * * * * *
A. chatandblog
B. chatandinstantmessaging POSTTEST
C. blogandvideoconferencing EDTECH
D. electronicbulletinboardandemail 1. Whichofthefollowingstatementsiscorrectaboutthe
94. Inyourcomputersubject,youallowyourclasstochat domainsofeducationaltechnology?
asapartofyourmotivationbeforediscussingthemthe
rolesofcomputer.Howischatusedinthiscontext? 1. D 51. B
A. Communicativetool C.Applicationtool 2. B 52 A
B. Informativetool D.Situatingtool 3 A 53 D
95. Yourmotherwantedtofinishherlongdreamedcourse 4 A 54 A
butshewantedtodoitathomeduringherfreetime. 5 B 55 D
How could you help your mother in pursuing her 6 D 56 A
dream? 7 B 57 B
A. Encourage her to hire a helper so that she can 8 A 58 A
attendregularlytoherclass. 9 C 59 A
B. Giveupyourstudysothatyourmothercanattend 10 A 60 A
herclasses.
11 B 61 B
C. Enrollhertotheschoolwhereyouenrolled.
12 D 62 C
D. Enrollherindistanceeducation
13 D 63 D
96. The following statements are true about computer
14 A 64 A
conferencing.Whichisanexception?
A. Itreferstolivestudentinteractionwithanexpert. 15 D 65 B
B. It is also known as discussion forum or bulletin 16 D 66 B
board. 17 D 67 C
C. Italsoreferstoonlineclassdiscussions,forumsor 18 C 68 B
debates 19 A 69 B
D. It permits two or more individuals to engage in 20 B 70 A
asynchronoustextbaseddialogue. 21 C 71 D
97. Whichinstructionaltoolapplicationwillyouintroduce 22 C 72 D
toyourclassifyourobjectiveistohelpthemfindand 23 B 73 D
useinformationresourcesavailableintheinternet? 24 C 74 D
A. Webquests C.ScavengerHunt 25 B 75 C
B. Hybridcourse D.Distanceeducation 26 A 76 B
98. Maryjane is looking for an organized instructional 27 C 77 B
program in which the teacher and learners can be 28 D 78 A
physically separated. Which of the following will she 29 A 79 C
choose? 30 C 80 A
A. DistanceEducation 31 C 81 A
B. UniformResourceLocator
32 C 82 C 12. _____taingaanglupa,maypakpakangbalita.
33 D 83 B a. May b.Mayroon
34 B 84 D 13. Angbawattaosamundo___aydapatmagkaunawaan
35 C 85 A parasakanilangikabubuti.
36 B 86 B a. Daw b.raw
37 C 87 B 14. AngPilipinasaymalakas____tuladngSingaporekung
38 A 88 C karapatanangPaguusapan.
39 C 89 A a. din b.rin
40 B 90 D 15. Untiunti____humuhupaangkanyanggalit.
41 C 91 D a. Ng b.nang
42 D 92 B
43 D 93 D II.Ibinigayangkahuluganngsalitangmaysalungguhit.
44 B 94 A 16. Narinig ko ang alawat ng mga bata sa silid ng mag
45 C 95 D asawangMariaatJose.
46 B 96 A a. ingay c.sigaw
47 D 97 C b. mahinangalingawngawd.tawanan
48 D 98 A 17. AngItayayalimbuyawnangdumatingkanina.
49 D 99 A a. Aburido c.Patakbo
50 B 100 B b. Masaya d.sumigaw
18. SiTjayisanganluwaginangmapangasawaniLuisa.
a. Guro c.karpintero
b. katulong d.pulis
19. Kakarampotangnakuhakongulamsamesa.
a. marami c.malalaki
b. katiting d.mamhahaba
20. AlumpihitangItayhabanghinihintayangInay.
a. Kabangkaba c.Dimapalagay
b. Siyangsiya d. Tuwang
FILIPINO tuwa
POSTTEST 21. Iyon ang kinamihasnan ng babaeng iyon sa bundok
kayadimakaunawasaiyo.
I.Panuto:Biluganangtitikngwastongsagot. a. natutuhan c.napagaralan
1. Agad na sumigaw ang bata ____ makitang dumating b. kinagawian d.nagustuhan
angkanyangkapatid 22. Ang alipustahin ang mga dukha ay di kanaisnais na
a. ng b.nang paguugali.
2. Ang mga magaaral ay nagkasundo _____ sa a. layuan c.talikdan
iminungkahingguro. b. apihin d.kagalitan
a. din b.rin 23. Nakitakongpakimodnasumagotangbabaesadalaga
3. Ang bawat tao _____ ay kailangang isakatuparan ang nangmagusapsila.
kanyangmithiinsabuhay. a. Paismid c.patawa
a. Daw b.raw b. Pangiti d.pasigaw
4. Angkirotayuntiunti______nawawala. 24. Isang indihente ang tumawag ngaking pansin dahil sa
a. ng b.nang nakakatawangayosnito.
5. Ayon kay Jose Rizal, ang mga bata _____ ang siyang a. Maralita c.magasawa
pagasangbansa. b. Matanda d.paslit
a. daw b.raw 25. Naging Cum Laude si Memi dahil siya ay nagsunog ng
6. SaSabado_____gabimawawalanngkuryente. kilaygabigabi.
a. ng b.nang a. nagbubunot c.nagaahit
7. Hindi na nakaramdam ng gutom si Kuya mula _____ b. puspossapagaaral d.nagaayuno
siyaaynatulog. 26. Parangbalatsibuyasangkutisngbabaengito.
a. ng b.nang a. namumulasabilog c.mahabaatpayat
8. _____dalangpusaangInaynangumuwi. b. napakaputiatmalinisd.pinoatmalambot
a. May b.Mayroon 27. Kapittuko sa isatisa habang naglalakad ang
9. Mayamayaaysisingaw_____angamoyngPatay. magkasintahangHeartatEcho.
a. din b.rin a. awaynangaway
10. Ang dunong ay kailangan ng tao ngunit kailangan b. mahigpitnamagkahawakkamay
_____niyaangtulongngMaykapal. c. malayoangagwat
a. din b.rin d. patakbo
11. Sino ba ang sumisigaw _____ at nagtatakbuhan ang 28. Anglangitngitngmgabintanaaygumigisingnanglubos
mgatao. sakatahimikanngsilidaralan.
a. doon b.roon a. Alatiit c.dekorasyon
b. kulay d.sira b. PedroPaterno d.ModestodeCastro
29. Matagintingnatinanggapngbatangpaslitangpangaral 45. AngkilalangepikongmgaMuslim
ngguro. a. Hudhud c.Hinalawod
a. maingay c.mapayapa b. Darangan d.Bantugan
b. pasigaw d.paismid 46. Angkaunaunahangaklatnanalimbagsapilipinas
30. Angpaswitaysaaso,angOoaysatao. a. Pasyon c.DoctrinaChristiana
a. Palo c.buto b. BarlaanatJosaphat d.FloranteatLaura
b. Sipol d.sigaw 47. AmangWikangPambansa
a. EmilioAguinaldoc.AurelioTolentino
III.Ibinigayangtamangsamgatulangbayani b. ManuelL.Quezon d.FloranteatLaura
31. Angtawagsamgatulangbayani 48. AngOratorngPagbabago
a. dalit c.senakulo a. GracianoLopezJaena c.UrbanaatFeliza
b. epiko d.duplo b. MarianoPonce d.JoseBuhain
32. TinaguriangJosengBatutengPilipinas 49. Isang dulang nagwagi ng kaunaunahang Gatimpalang
a. JoseGarciaVilla c.JoseCorazondeJesus Palanca
b. FranciscoBaltazar d.ModestodeCastro a. Medusa c.UrbanaatFeliza
33. MgasagisagnaginamitniRizal b. Tibag d.Hulyo4,1946A.D
a. PipingDilat c.PudpodatPlaridel 50. AngmayakdangAngCadaquilaanngDios
b. DoloresManapatd.Dimasalangatlaonglaan a. EmilioAguinaldoc.JulianFelipe
34. AngprinsipengmakatangTagalog b. MarceloH.delPilar d.LopezJaena
a. ModestodeCastro 51. BastonniAdanHindimabilangbilang
b. FranciscoBaltazar a. buhok c.dahon
c. FernandobagongLanta b. ulan d.palay
d. JoseGarciaVilla 52. AngdalawaYtatlona,
35. Siya ay tinaguriang Ama ng Balarila ng Wikang Angmaitimaymaputina
Pambansa Angbakodaylagasna
a. JoseVillaPanganiban c.SeverinoReyes a. aso c.matandangtao
b. LopeK.Santos d.RafaelPalma b. kalabaw d.punongkahoy
36. Isang dula noong panahon ng Hapon na isinulat ni 53. Anganakaynakaupona
FranciscoSocRodrigo Anginaygumagapangpa
a. Panibugho c.PandayPira a. kalabasa c.sanggol
b. Sapula,SaPuti d.LuhangBuwaya b. saging d.aso
37. AmangKatipunan 54. Kungarawaybumbong
a. EmilioJacinto c.ApolinarioMabini Kunggabiaydahon
b. AndresBonifacio d.MarceloH.delPilar a. saging c.atipngbahay
38. Isanguringpanitikannanagsasaadngsimulainngmga b. banig d.paying
bagayotaosadaigdig 55. Isangreyna
a. tula c.alamat Nakauposatasa
b. tibag d.maiklingkwento a. kandila c.kasoy
39. Pinakabantog at pinakamahalagang awit na nasulat ni b. kapa d.santol
FranciscoBaltazar 56. Dalawangmagkaibigan,
a. Senakulo c.duplo unahannangunahan.
b. epiko d.FloranteatLaura a. trak c.bibig
40. AngkaunaunahangPilipinongmanlilimbag b. paa d.mata
a. MarcelodelPilar c. Jose Maria 57. Dalawangbolangsinulid
Panganiban Umaabothangganglangit
b. TomasPinpin d.EmilioAguinaldo a. bola c.lobo
41. Angtawagsaatingunangalpabeto b. mata d.saranggola
a. AlpabetongRomano c.Kartilya 58. Mayulongwalangmukha
b. Alibata d.Romanisasyon Maykatawan,walangsikmura
42. Angtaongmaymemoryafotograpica Namamahaynangsadya
a. JoseMariaPanganiban a. pako c.upo
b. JoseGarciaVilla b. palitongposporo d.talong
c. JoseCorazondeJesus 59. Bumiliakongalipin
d. JoseRizal Mataaspasaakin
a. payong c.sombrero
43. AmangDulangPilipino b. atip d.bahay
a. JulianBalmaceda c.LopeK.Santos 60. Tubigsainingining
b. SeverinoReyes d.EmilioJacinto Dimahipannghangin
44. SiyaaytinaguriangJosengSisiw a. ilog c.ulan
a. JoseVillaPanganibanc.JosedelaCruz b. balon d.dagat
61. 76. AngKumitangayisanguringawitingbayan.Itoaymay
a. eskursiyon c.exkursion karaniwanginaawitsa:
b. iskursiyon d.excursion a. paghaharana c.paghehele
62. b. pakikidigma d.pamamangka
a. scout c.iskawt 77. Ang senakulo ay isang panrelihiyon; ito ay naglalayon
b. escout d.skawt na
63. a. ipaalaangkapanganakanniHesukristo
a. colisiyon c.koliseum b. ipakita ang pagkakapatiran ng mga Kristiyano at
b. kolisiyum d.coliseum Muslim
64. c. magsalarawan ngmga pinagdaanang buhay at
a. Istadyum c.Estadyum kamatayanniHesukristo
b. Stadium d.estadium d. magligtassamgakasalanan
65. 78. Sa akda niyang Guryon, ipinalintulad ni Idelfonso
a. Matematika c.matimatika SantosangGuryonsa:
b. Mathematica d.matemateka a. buhayngtao c.anyongpagpapalipad
66. Karamihan sa mga sugapa ay mula sa wasak na b. tibayngpisi d.hanginghabagat
tahanan. 79. Unupo si Itim, sinulot ni Pula, heto na si Puti na
a. malakiangsitangbahay bubugabuga.Itoayhalimbawangisang:
b. maliitlamangangbahay a. bugtong c.alamat
c. magkahiwalayangmagulang b. salawikain d.kuwentongbayan
d. walngmagulang 80. Angsinumanaymakabubuongmatibaynalubidkung
67. Matagal na lumagay sa tahimik si Marcia. Ang ibig pagsasamahin ang sinulid. Ang ibig sabihin ng
sabihinay_______. kasabihangitoay:
a. matagalnanamatay c.hindinanagpakita a. Mahirapmagkaisaangmgatao.
b. nagasawana d.nanganakna b. Madalianggumawanglubidkungmaysinulid
68. Alinangsalawikainsasumusunod: c. KailangannatinanglubidsaatingmgaGawain.
a. NasaDiyosangawa d. Magkakaroon tayo ng lakas kung tayoy
NasaTaoanggawa magkakaisa.
b. Dimaliparanguwak 81. Angtaongnagigipitsapatalmkumapit.Anoangibig
c. Maypunowalangbunga sabihinngsalawikaingito:
Maydahonwalangsanga a. Ang kaligtasan ng taong nagigipit ay sa tapang ng
d. Nagbubuhatngsarilingbangko dibdib
69. Ang bagong alpabetong Filipino ay may ______ ng b. Susuungin ng tao kahit ani mang panganib upang
letra. malunasanangkanyangproblema
a. 20 b.24 c.28 d.30 c. Malapitsapanganibangmgataongnagigipit.
70. Itoaybahagingaklatnamakikitasalikod.Itoaytalaan d. Huwagmakiharapsataongnagigipitsapagkatsiya
nglahatnamahalagangpaksakasamaangpahina.Ang aysiguradonggalit
mgapaksaaynakasulatsapaalpabeto. 82. Alin sa sumusunod ang hindi tuluyang anyo ng
a. Talatuntunan c.Talahulugan panitikan?
b. Talatinigan d.Talaanngnilalaman a. korido c.kuwentongbayan
71. Isang kuwento ng ang gumagapang ay mga hayop na b. alamat d.maiklingkuwento
kumikilosatnagsasalitanaparangtao. 83. Tukuyin kung anong uri ng panitikan ang Isang
a. Parabola c.kuwento bayabas,pitoangbutas.
b. pabula d.alamat a. Sawikain c.Salawikain
72. Itoayisanguringdulananawawakasapagkamatayng b. Idyoma d.Bugtong
pangunahingtauhan. 84. Anomanangtibayngpilingabakaaywalaringlakas
a. komedya c.melodrama kapag nagiisa. Isinasasaad ng salawikaing ito ang
b. epiko d.trahedya kahalagaanng:
73. Isang kuwento hango sa banal na kasulatan na a. pagkakaisatpagtutulungan
umaakaysataosamatuwidnalandasngbuhay.Itoay b. tibayngdibdibatlakaskahitnagiisa
mayaral. c. pagkakaroonnglakaskahitnagiisa
a. Anekdota c.parabola d. pagpapalakasnglooblalotnagiisa
b. alamat d.sanaysay 85. Saakinlipaindoonnagmula
74. Isang tagisan ng mga talino sa pamamagitan ng Lahatngpagkainnitongatingbansa
katwiransapamamaraangpatula. Anglahatngtaomayamanodukha
a. balagtasan c.tula Silayumaasasapawiskotgawa.
b. talumpati d.duplo Anoangipinahihiwatigngsaknong?
75. Si severino Reyes na lalong kilala sa tawag na Lola a. Lahatngpagkainaysamagsasakanagmumula
Basyangayhigitnakilalasalaranganng: b. Lahatngmagsasakaaymaylupangsinasaka
a. dulaan c.pagawit c. Lahatngtaotbagayaygallingsalupa
b. pagtula d.balagtasan d. Lahatngumaasasabiyayanggallingsamagsasaka.
86. Angkaibigankoayisalamangmaralita.
a. mangmang c.mabait 1 B 51 B
b. maliliitnatao d.mahirap 2 B 52 C
87. Si Nena ay inaruga ng kanyang lola mula pa noong 3 B 53 A
siyaymaulila. 4 B 54 B
a. pinabayaan c.inalagaan 5 B 55 C
b. pinamigay d.kinuha 6 A 56 B
88. Palasaknaangdesenyongiyan. 7 B 57 B
a. pambihira c.magastos
8 A 58 B
b. pangkaraniwan d.walasamoda
9 B 59 C
89. Angmgasalbaheaykinamuhianniya
10 A 60 B
a. kinakalinga c.kinatatakutan
b. kinukumusta d.kinasusuklaman 11 A 61 B
90. Ang mga kawal na lumabag sa utos ay binigyan ng 12 A 62 C
babala. 13 B 63 B
a. sundalo c.kusinero 14 A 64 A
b. kaibigan d.pulis 15 B 65 A
91. Nangangambakabanahindikaniyapagbibigyan? 16 B 66 C
a. nasisiyahan c.nababanas 17 A 67 B
b. natatakot d.naiinis 18 C 68 A
92. AngpagpuntasaSaudiArabiaaydigawangbiro. 19 B 69 C
a. Madali c.mahirap 20 C 70 A
b. masayangGawain d.maayos 21 B 71 B
93. SiMiguelaysumakabilangbuhaynanoongLinggo. 22 B 72 D
a. nagpaalam c.nagpuntasasiyudad 23 A 73 C
b. namatay d.nagbayadngutang
24 A 74 A
94. BakitmukhangBiyernesSantosiMarko.
25 B 75 A
a. malungkot c.mukhangmasaya
26 D 76 B
b. lumuluha d.tumatawa
27 B 77 C
95. Nakaririmarimangnangyaringsakunasadagat.
a. nakalulungkot c.nakaiinis 28 A 78 A
b. nakatatakot d.nakapangingilabot 29 C 79 A
96. AngdayuhangsiyangpinakamataliknakaibiganniRizal 30 B 80 D
ay 31 A 81 B
a. AustinCraig c.Otleybeyer 32 C 82 A
b. FerdinandBlumentritt d.DonEulogioDespujl 33 D 83 D
97. Dahilsatulongatpagmamalasakitni 34 B 84 A
a. DonaAuroraA.Quezon 35 B 85 D
b. TandangSora 36 B 86 D
c. LuzB.Magsaysay 37 B 87 C
Sa kapakanan ng mga sinalanta ng sakuna, siyay 38 C 88 B
tinaguriangInangKruznaPula.
39 D 89 D

40 B 90 A
98. KunganoangUrbanaatfelisasamgatagalogang
41 A 91 B
a. Lagda c.Bidasari
b. Maragtas d.Hudhud 42 A 92 C
aysiyanamansamgaBisaya. 43 B 93 B
99. SamgatauhanngNoliMeTangereniRizal,si 44 C 94 A
a. Basilio c.CapitanTiago 45 B 95 D
b. Elias d.Simon 46 C 96 B
AngnagligtaskayIbarrasakapahamakan 47 B 97 A
100. AngaklatngmgatinipongtulasaTagalogniLope 48 A 98 D
K.Santosaypinamagatang 49 D 99 D
a. Damdamin c.TungkosngAlaala 50 B 100 B
b. PusoatDiwa d.MgaDahongGinto

* * * * * T H E E N D * * * * *
HUMANGROWTHANDDEVELOPMENT
WORKHARD,DREAMHARDER POSTTESTApril2010

MultipleChoices:
filipino
1. The process by which certain potentials are inherited 12. Which of the following principles IS NOT considered
fromtheparentsforhisdevelopment underClassicalConditioningbyIvanPavlov?
a. Life c.Heredity a. Excitation
b. Birth d.Character b. AdhesivePrinciple
2. This theory states that there are 8 basic development c. StimulusGeneralization
stagesthattheindividualhastopassthroughhislife d. Noneoftheabove
a. LearningTheory 13. The reinforcement of a persons responses by
b. PsychoanalyticTheory presentationorremovalofrewardsandpunishment.
c. PsychosocialTheory a. Operantconditioningc.FeedbackPrinciple
d. CognitiveDevelopment b. Transferoflearningd.Discipline
3. Transition age from childhood to adulthood where 14. Thisstimulationofactionbestexplainsthebehaviorof
rapidphysicalchangesandsexmaturityoccurresulting an individual to take what he perceives to be the
inchangesinwaysoffeelings,thinkingandacting. shortestroutetohisgoals.
a. Puberty c.Earlyadulthood a. Recognition c.Response
b. Adolescence d.StageV b. Assimilation d.Motivation
4. Modifying an existing scheme after an individuals 15. Theprocessbywhichanindividualacquiresthesocial
interaction with the environment, resulting in the andculturalheritageothesocietywherehebelongs.
creationofanewscheme. a. Socialization c.Integration
a. Assimilation c.Recognition b. Internalization d.Acquisition
b. Interaction d.Accommodation 16. Philosophyofeducationsmainfunction.
5. Theory stating that a persons behavior can be a. Aid the leaner to build his own personal
motivatedbyurgestowardsselfsatisfaction. philosophy
a. PsychoanalyticTheory b. Definition o goals and setting of directions from
b. Cognitivedevelopmenttheory whicheducation
c. PsychosocialTheory c. Educationscarriesonalifetimecycle
d. Moraldevelopmenttheory d. Provision of academic background prerequisite to
6. Theabilityofachildtoconceptualizetheretentionand learning
preservation of the same quantity under various 17. According to Froebel, kindergarten is also known as
changes. ____________?
a. Recognition c.Assimilation a. childrenhavefunandenjoyment
b. Reversibility d.Conservation b. Gardenwherechildrencouldgrow
7. Refers to the idea that no individual are exactly the c. HelearningCenterforLife
sameoralike. d. Wherenewbeginningsbegin
a. Cognitivetheoryc.Individualdifferences 18. Whichofthefollowingstatementsisgivenemphasisby
b. Exclusivitytheoryd.Emotionalquotient humanisticeducation?
8. HeisknownastheFatherofModernI.Q.Test a. Thegreatworksofmansuchastheclassicsshould
a. LewisTerman c.LaurenceKohlberg beenjoyed.
b. ErickErickson d.MartinLesley b. Man should learn the different philosophies of
9. IntellectualappreciativeExperienceis education
a. base on the premise that all learning has c. Buildamanwhoisdistinctlycivilized,educations
emotionalcorrelates andrefined
b. obtainedinthefieldofmusic,artandliterature d. Developmanintoathinkingindividual
c. the acquisition and retention o acts and 19. Ateacherwhoadvocatesthepragmaticphilosophyof
information education believes that experience should follow
d. assumes that human activities are based on learning,thus,shehasto?
stimulusandresponse a. requireherstudentmasteryofthelessons
10. These statements imply that children at the early b. encourageherstudentstomemorizefacts
learning stage consider parents and teachers as c. equipherstudentswithbasicskillsandabilities
authoritiesandmodels. d. provide her student with opportunities to apply
a. Parents and teachers should always coordinate theirskillsandabilities
childrensactivities 20. How are institutions of learning encouraged to set
b. Parents should enforce strict discipline at home higher standards over and above the minimum
andteachersinschool requirementforstaterecognition?
c. Parentsandteachersshouldbetherolemodelsat a. Scholasticachievement
alltimes b. Facultydevelopment
d. Parents and teachers should always consult each c. Academicfreedom
other with regards the childs intellectual d. Voluntaryaccreditation
development 21. The period of physical, especially sexual, and mental
11. Anychangeinthebehaviorofanindividual maturation which is characterized by rapid somatic
a. Learning c.Change growthisknownas
b. Response d.Development a. infancy c.puberty
b. earlychildhood d.adulthood
22. Claustrophobiaisanirrationalfearof 34. When the learner is wellmotivated, he performs his
a. Darkness c.closedspace task
b. strangers d.height a. withindifferencec.witharrogance
23. An eye defect characterized by clear vision in one b. withdisinterest d.withenthusiasm
dimensionbutunfocusedvisionontheotheriscalled 35. Asixyearoldchildwhohasamentalageofeightyears
a. myopia c.hyperopia hasanIQof
b. astigmatism d.presbyopia a. 120 b.130c.132d.133
24. Which of the following statements does not apply to 36. The ratio obtained by dividing mental age by
adolescents? chronologicalagetimes100iscalled
a. theydesiretheapprovaloftheirpeers a. derivedquotient
b. theyseekdependenceontheirparents b. deviation
c. theyhaveamarkedsexdevelopment c. intelligencequotientorIQ
d. noneoftheabove d. intelligenceratio
25. As young people mature, society expects them to 37. WhichofthefollowingwaswrittenbyPlato?
develop competencies and assume social roles in a a. SicetNon c.TheRepublic
conventionalmanner. b. TheSchoolandSociety d.Emile
a. expectationofparents 38. Who among those below asserted that Education is
b. influenceofpeersgroups forcompleteliving
c. influenceofformaleducation a. Dewey c.Kant
d. culturaldemands b. Spencer d.Froebel
26. The founder of the theory of psychology called 39. Therightofaneducationalinstitutionanditsfacultyto
psychoanalysiswas prescribethemethods/strategiesofteachingrefersto:
a. Lock c.Freud a. buildingstyle
b. Hume d.leibnitz b. choiceofcurriculum
27. When the learner reaches a point where no further c. academicfreedom
improvementcanbeexpected,heisinasocalled d. coandextracurricularprogram
a. developmentcrisis c.regression 40. The 1987 Constitution provides that religious
b. learningplateau d.depression institutioncanbegiven
28. Regarding the sexual maturation o boys and girls, a. withthestudentsconsent
teachersshouldbearinmindthat: b. withtheparent/guardianapproval
a. girlsmatureatalatestagethanboys c. withmayorspermit
b. girlsmatureatanearlierstagethanboys d. withtheschoolssupport
c. boysandgirlsmatureatthesametime 41. PublicschoolsinthePhilippinesarethecontributionof
d. there are no marked differences in heir time of whichcolonizer?
maturity a. American c.Japanese
29. Rationalizationisusedbystudentwho b. British d.Spanish
a. alwaysgiveexplanationorreasonfortheirfailures
ratherthanowntheirfaults
b. liketotaketheblamefortheirfaults 42. Hardshipallowanceisgiventoateacherwhen
c. bribetheirelderswithpromises a. hesassignedinadepressedarea
d. substitutewordsfordeeds b. hesgivenadditionalteachingload
30. WhichofthefollowingistrueofAbnormalPsychology? c. hesinlahararea
a. itstudiesthecauseofpersonalitydefects d. hesassignedinahazardousarea
b. itmeasurestheaccomplishmentsoftheindividual 43. Theabilityforquantitativelearningoftherelationsof
c. it concentrates on the scholastic performance of facts taken from newspaper readings, letter writing
theindividual andthelikeiscalled:
d. it investigates the educational background of the a. functionalliteracy c.Knowledgeoutcome
individual b. adjustmentlearning d.Socialcompetence
31. Whichofthefollowingisacontinuousvariable? 44. A teacher who gives a uniform assignment to be
a. weight c.nationality worked out by all learners in Arithmetic is not
b. sex d.race observingacharacteristicofagoodassignment.Which
32. WhichofthefollowingistrueaboutonesIQ? characteristicisoverlooked?
a. itremainsfairlyconstant a. Itshouldbedefinite
b. itishighlychangeable b. Itshouldbestimulating
c. itisaffectedbyattitude c. Itshouldemphasizetheessential
d. itisneverconstant d. Itshouldprovideforindividualdifferences
33. Transfer of training easily takes place if the activities 45. Ifastudentaskaquestionwhichtheteacherdoesnot
involved haveareadyanswer,thelattershould:
a. Aredifferent a. dismissthequestionasirrelevant
b. Haveidenticalelement b. offerabluff
c. Occurinthesameplace c. admitthefactthathedoesntknowtheanswer
d. Varyindifficulty
d. ask volunteers to answer the question and do d. logicalreasoning
researchonitlater. 56. Thecapacitytoanalyzeonesfeelingsandthusbeable
46. Thehereditytraitsacquiredbyapersoninhislifetime; to understand and be able to know the motives of
a. aretransmissibletohisoffspring otherpeoplesactions.
b. reappearinhisfuturegrandparent a. spatial c.logical
c. Havenoinfluenceontheoffspring b. personal d.diametric
d. Becomerecessivetraits 57. The type of intelligence which enables a person to
47. Whenstudentaregivenachancetosettledifferences understand other persons feelings, behavior and
ofopinionbydiscussion,theydevelop: motivation.
a. fairplay c.irritants a. emotional c.socialintelligence
b. tolerance d.sociability b. spatial d.quantitativeandqualitative
48. The schools responsibility towards teenagers gang 58. The type of intelligence which characterizes actress,
ageis: actors,mimes,dancersandpeopleoftheArts?
a. providethegangallthefreedomitneeds a. bodilykinesthetic c.research
b. gives classroom activities to give directionto out b. scientific d.emotions
ofschoolyouthactivities 59. An emerging thrust in determining ones personality,
c. supervisegangactivities whether pleasant or unwholesome, this type of
d. set up norms of conduct or the member of the personality measurement is the wholesomeness of
gang ones virtues, i.e., values, relationships with other,
49. In an intelligence test, a 13year old girl got a score adjustments to varying situations, behavior an
equivalenttothatofa15yearold.Thismeans: motivations
a. thatthegirlmustbeaccelerated a. emotionalquotient(E.Q.)
b. thatthegirlis2yearsoldermentally b. intelligencequotient(I.Q.)
c. thatthegirlhasachronologicalageof15 c. maladjustmentpersonality
d. thatshehasamentalageof13 d. anticipatedbehavior
50. Which statement is not necessary to achieve the 60. It is a measurement of personality which is the result
learnersinterestinalearningactivity? bydividingthementalagebythechronologicalage.
a. theactivitymustleadtoapracticalend a. emotionalquotient(E.Q.)
b. the activity must be within the ability of the b. intelligencequotient(I.Q.)
learner c. multipleIntelligence
c. the activity must fill a need recognized by the d. forecastedbehaviorquotient
learner 61. The teacher must be aware that both heredity and
d. the learner must have the experience that will environmentrepresentcomplexfactors,exertingmany
furnishthebackgroundfortheactivity specificinfluencesonanindividualsgrowth.Whichof
51. He is responsible for the theory which recognizes the thefollowingstatementsbestrepresentstheinfluence
importanceofdevelopingmultipleintelligence ofheredityandenvironment?
a. JeanPiaget c.FrederickFreobel a. Hereditycounts;environmentislessimportant.
b. HowardGardnerd.SigmundFreud b. If the environment is changed, heredity becomes
52. The need to recognize and develop special sensitivity lessimportant.
tolanguage,thushelpingthelearnerstousetheright c. The relative influences of heredity and
word, phrase and/ or graph to grasp new meaning environment can vary widely in an individuals
refersto growth.
a. visualintelligence c.feelingssensitivity d. In the long run, both tend to cancel each others
b. linguisticintelligence d.jargon influences
53. The sensitivity to tone and pitch, allowing one to e. Noneoftheabove
producemusicalscoringisintelligencein? 62. The best possible way to measure the influence of
a. musical c.quantitativeexercises heredityisby:
b. verbalability d.qualitativeanalysis a. keepingtheenvironmentconstant.
54. Ones ability to do abstract reasoning and manipulate b. Ignoringtheenvironment
symbolsreferstowhattypeofintelligence? c. Studyingonlyfraternalonormalcapability
a. musical d. Studyingonlyidenticaltwinsofnormalcapability
b. personalityidentification e. Doingnoneoftheabove
c. mentalability 63. Educators who contributed to the open education
d. mathematicallogical movementincludes:
a. Neillandpiaget c.BrunerandSilberman
b. Kohlandkozol d.Alloftheabove
55. Theabilitytoperceivehowobjectsarerelatedinorder 64. Achildssocialskillscanbemeasuredby:
to mentally perceive what is seen, thus creating a. directobservationandparentteacherconferences
concretevisualimagesfrommemoryrefersto? b. psychologicaltest
a. visualspatialintelligence c. adaptivebehaviorscales
b. musical d. AandCabove
c. language
65. A teacher uses behavioral modification techniques in a. thelearners
his classes. Which of the following student behaviors b. thelearningenvironment
wouldhefindmostdifficulttochange? c. thelearningprocess
a. Aggressivetendenciestowardclassmates d. thebehaviorofthelearners
b. Poorhabitsinorganizingworkmaterials 74. WhichofthefollowingconditionsdoesNOTcontribute
c. Interruptingaspeaker toaclimatepsychologicallysuitedtolearning?
d. Abandoningaprojectbeforeitisfinished a. Theteacheractslikearealperson.
b. The teacher makes all of the decisions about
studentslearningactivities.
c. Theteacheracceptsstudentsastheyare
66. Learningdisabledchildrenmostcharacteristicallyhave: d. Theteachershowstrustinstudentsdecisions
a. lowIQ
b. poorsocioeconomicbackgrounds
c. anaveragelevelofintelligence
d. minimalbraindamage
67. Whichofthefollowingistrueabouteducablementally
retardedchildren?
a. TheirIQrangebetween50and70
b. They have short attention spans and experience
difficultyingeneralizing
c. Theirreading,writing,andarithmeticskillscannot
beimproved
d. AandBabove
68. Which of the following is characteristics of a dyslexic 75. William Glasser advocates the frequent use of
child classroom meetings, with teacher and students sitting
a. Mirrorwriting in a small circle. Which one of the following types of
b. listlessness discussionwouldNOTbeappropriateinsuchasetting?
c. Belowaverageintelligence a. An educationaldiagnostic conference on the
d. Hyperactivity learningweaknessesofindividualstudents.
69. Primary reading retardation is presumed to be b. An openended meeting for the purpose of
neurologically based, related to parietal lobe exploringanddiscussingstudentsideasaboutthe
dysfunction? curriculum
a. Inabilitytorelatesoundtolettersymbols c. A socialproblemsolving meeting to resolve
b. Inadequateauditoryinformationprocessing teacherorstudentproblemselatingtotheschool,
c. Leftrightdirectionalconfusion theclass,oranyindividualmember.
d. Speechaphasia d. A sensitivitytraining meeting for the purpose of
70. Students with secondary reading problems have helpingstudentsacetheirschoolrelatedproblems
capacitytoread,butarenonreadersbecauseof: andlearnhowtheiractionscanaffectothers
a. auditoryproblems 76. WhichofthefollowingdoesNOTrepresentateachers
b. congenitaldefects contribution to the emotional environment of the
c. visualacuityimpairment classroom?
d. environmentaloremotionalactors a. Astrident,compellingvoice.
71. IfateacheracceptsMaslowstheoryonthehierarchy b. A sustained sense of expectation where student
of needs, he or she will probably structure objectives achievementisconcerned
to: c. Awellwrittenlessonplan
a. meetboththephysiologicalandintellectualneeds d. Asenseofhumorinatensesituation
ofstudents 77. According to Jones, student commitment to
b. eliminatetesting accomplishing a learning goal depends on all of the
c. eliminateextrinsicmotivations followingEXCEPT:
d. maintain a certain anxiety level for increased a. howinterestingthegoalis
competition b. how likely it seems that the goal can be
72. The knowledge explosion has led to crowding more accomplished
andmoreinformationintocurriculumcourses.Alikely c. whatdegreeofchallengethegoalpresents
resultisthat: d. whetherthelearnerwillbeabletotellifthegoal
a. the textbook will no longer be the main hasbeenaccomplished
instructionalmediuminmanyclasses e. whether materials are ready assembled for
b. thechildmayspendmoretimeinschool undertakingthegoal
c. the teacher may have to rely more on the se of 78. Theteacherwhounderstandstheadolescentsneedto
multimediamaterials conformwill:
d. alloftheabove a. usesarcasmasadisciplinarydevice
73. During the learning process the teacher has most b. disregard unique responses in discussion and on
controlover: examinations
c. establishalearningclimatethatfostersfeelingsof c. intelligence is a safe gauge for budgetary
security allocation
d. lecturestudentsontheirweaknessocharacter d. intelligence test when carefully conducted, can
79. Thebestpublicrelationsagentsforaschoolarethe: help in determining need for future facilities for
a. pupils c.PTAmembers nationalbuilding
b. Teachersandpupils d.principals 87. There are no two individuals who are the same.
80. Thestructuredcurriculumisindecidedcontrasttothe Individual differences, when early recognize and
childcenteredcurriculum,which: provided for, enable the teacher to provide different
a. emphasizesfundamentaleducation motivations and approaches in guiding the learning
b. is changeable andis builtaroundstudent interest process.Eachpupildiffersphysically,mentally,socially
andneeds and emotionally from other children. Unless the
c. isorientedtotheneedsofademocraticsociety. teacher provides for this nature of the learner, no
d. Utilizesthetheoryofmentaldiscipline amount of modern approaches in teaching can elicit
81. According to Bruner, teacher working with young favorableresults.
childrenshould a. The paragraph highlights the need or motivating
a. Push the children to maximum cognitive learning
developmentasrapidlyaspossible b. Individual differences is an important
b. Presentallinformationverballysothechildrenwill considerationinguidingthelearner
listenwell c. The above paragraph focuses on teacherpupil
c. Present new material from the concrete to the relationship
abstract d. Ittakesaboutthenatureofthelearningprocess
d. Presentnewinformationfromtheabstracttothe 88. Robert Craig, et al, wrote of the phase of steps in
concrete everylearningprocess.Theseinclude:1.)thefocusing
82. fromtheeducationalviewpoint,intelligenceis: of attention to the stimulation at hand, 2.) the
a. anabstractconcept interplay of the learner and the social factors that
b. atraitthatcanbemanipulated surroundhim,3.)theacquisitionofanewresponseor
c. goodjudgment behaviorhegivestothenewlearningand4.)Retention
d. aformofbehavior whichpresupposesthatthenewlearningisacquired.
83. Everytaxonomyofeducationalobjectives: Theaboveparagraphemphasizes
a. describesincreasinglydifficultlearningactivities a. thelearningprocess
b. describeslevelsofgoalsforlearnerdevelopment b. thesteps/phaseofhowindividualslearn
c. suggestevaluationmeasureforteacheruse c. themanifestationsoflearning
d. Classifieslearningoutcomes d. whylearningisadifficultprocess
89. Approaches in teaching change from time to time
dependingonthetraditionalofsophisticationattached
tothecoursebeingtaught.Somementorsbelievethat
the tie tested ways to teaching is effective. Other are
84. A mathematics teacher following Gagnes theory of easily carried away to use modern approaches in
learningbelievesthat: imparting new subject matter. It maybe safe to
a. learningcantakeplaceunderallconditions concludethatonceresultsarerealizedinteaching,no
b. learning is mainly a mater of accurate specific method can be considered the oneandonly
discrimination methodtouse.
c. learningtakesplaceonlywhenthestudentisina Whenteachingasubjectarea,itissafeto
receptivestate a. sticktothetraditionalway
d. learning is reinforced chiefly by classical b. bemodernandmostrecent
conditioning c. getresultsinteaching
85. UnderwhichofthefollowingconditionsisachildsIQ d. totryanymethodastheyarealltheoriesafterall
morelikelytoincrease?
a. Iftheemotionalclimateintheclassroomimproves
b. Ifthechildisgivenalargeresearchproject.
c. If the child enjoys problem solving and is given
ampleopportunityforit
d. IfAandCaretrue
86. Intelligence is the basis of education. Education is the 90. In the early 1980s programmed teaching became
effective means for national development, hence, a popular in helping teachers to provide for individual
country spends a large portion of its budget for the differences in learners. The chunks of the subject
systematic training of the learner to attain full matter which are divided into units are supposed to
development helpthelearnermasterthelesson,sinceitissimplyto
Why is education one major concern of every c understandtheframeofthelessons.Notestomastery
country?Because oftheunitsaredonebecausethepurposeistoprovide
a. intelligencehasmanyfacets informationoncertainsubjectmatter
b. intelligenceisusefulintesting
Would you as a teacher use programmed 100. To produce a young man who would be
instruction if you handle a subject on Values charming in person and graceful in manner, e.g. a
Education? beautifulsoulinabeautifulbodyistheeducationalaim
a. yes,definitely ofeducationofthe
b. no,notimportantforthesubjectmatter a. Romans c.Spartans
c. Idontknow b. Athens d.Italians
d. Whynotifthesubjectmattercallsforit
91. The data/subject matter to teach are gathered in
different ways, These include historical sources like * * * * * T H E E N D * * * * *
surveys, systematic observations, experimentation,
interviews, etc. to be reliable and valid, the data WORKHARD,DREAMHARDER
collected must be organized, properly analyzed and
interpreted.Fromtheseprocesses,someconclusionor
generalization aredone to reveal certain relationships humangrowthanddevelopment
likecause&effect.Datagatheringinvolves: 1 c 51 c
a. tediousandseriousstudy 2 c 52 b
b. easydoesit 3 b 53 a
c. data gathered are tested and filed, then verified
4 d 54 d
beforebeingused
5 a 55 a
d. nofollowupneeded
6 d 56 b
92. Heredityandenvironmentplayimportantrolesinthe
function of human beings. DNA or Deoxyribonucleic 7 c 57 c
Acidisthebiological(heredity)bandofourgenes.Our 8 a 58 a
environment includes the house, school and the 9 a 59 a
community where we live. Whether we become 10 c 60 b
successful or a failure will depend on the interplay of 11 a 61 c
bothnatureandnurture. 12 d 62 d
If heredity and environment affect the individual, 13 c 63 d
thus,wecanconcludethat 14 d 64 d
a. bothactorsplayequalroesinoneslife 15 a 65 a
b. one factor, either heredity or environment exerts 16 b 66 c
moreinfluencethantheother
17 a 67 d
c. neitherfactorisimportant
18 c 68 a
d. nurtureandnaturearethesame
19 d 69 d
93. The first systematic philosopher to work in the field
ofeducationwas 20 d 70 d
a. Socrates c.Plato 21 c 71 a
b. Aristotle d.Rousseau 22 c 72 d
94. The first state in the worlds history where all human 23 b 73 b
capabilitieswereallowedtodevelopfreely 24 b 74 b
a. Rome c.Sparta 25 d 75 a
b. Athens d.Germany 26 c 76 c
95. They are the most practical, pragmatic people who 27 b 77 e
absorbedthemselvesinthemanagementoftheirstate 28 b 78 c
affairs 29 a 79 b
a. Spartans c.Romans 30 a 80 b
b. Athens d.Chinese
31 a 81 c
96. Inventedthefirstsystemofwritingintheorient
32 a 82 a
a. Phoenicians c.Greeks
33 b 83 b
b. Chinese d.Romans
34 d 84 c
97. first to introduce the use of printing press in the
Philippines 35 d 85 d
a. Romans c.Greeks 36 c 86 d
b. Chinese d.Japanese 37 c 87 b
98. conductedtheworldsfirstcivilservicetest 38 b 88 b
a. Greeks c.Chinese 39 c 89 c
b. Romans d.English 40 b 90 b
99. To develop the capacity of man only for war was the 41 a 91 a
educationalaimoftheancient 42 c 92 a
a. Romans c.Athenians 43 d 93 c
b. Spartans d.Chinese 44 d 94 b
45 a 95 c
46 a 96 b
47 b 97 b
48 b 98 c
49 b 99 b
50 a 100 b















LICENSUREEXAMINATIONFORTEACHERS(LET)

RefresherCourse

ContentArea:MATHEMATICS
Focus:ANALYTICGEOMETRY
Preparedby:DaisydeBorjaMarcelino
Competencies:
1. Solve problems involving coordinates of a point, midpoint of a line segment, and distance between two
points.
2. Determine the equation of the line relative to given conditions: slope of a line given its graph, or its
equation,oranytwopointsonit.
3. Determine the equation of a nonvertical line given a point on it and the slope of a line, which is either
parallelorperpendiculartoit.
4. Solveproblemsinvolving
a. themidpointofalinesegment,distancebetweentwopoints,slopesoflines,distancebetweena
pointandaline,andsegmentdivision.
b. acircle,parabola,ellipse,andhyperbola.
5. Determinetheequationsandgraphsofacircle,parabola,ellipseandhyperbola.

I.TheCartesianPlane

BelowisadiagramofaCartesianplaneorarectangularcoordinatesystem,oracoordinateplane.

The two axes separate the plane into


four regions called quadrants. Points can lie in
one of the four quadrants or on an axis. The

points on the xaxis to the right of the origin

correspondtopositivenumbers;whiletotheleft

of the origin correspond to negative numbers.


The points on the yaxis above the origin
correspond to positive numbers; while below
theorigin correspondtonegativenumbers.
Anorderedpairofrealnumbers,calledthecoordinatesofapoint,locatesapointintheCartesianplane.Each
orderedpaircorrespondstoexactlyonepointintheCartesianplane.

Thefollowingarethepointsinthefigureontheright:
A(6,3),B(2,3),C(4,2),D(3,4),E(0,5),F(3,0).

Fornumbers12,usethefollowingcondition:TwoinsectsMandTareinitiallyatapointA(4,7)onaCartesian
plane.

1.IfMtraveled7unitstotherightand8unitsdownward,atwhatpointisitnow?
Solution:(4+7,78)or(3,15)
2.IfTtraveled5unitstotheleftand11unitsdownward,atwhatpointisitnow?
Solution:(45,711)or(9,18)

II.TheStraightLine

A.DistanceBetweenTwoPoints
A.Thedistancebetweentwopoints(x1,y1)and(x2,y2)isgivenby ( x1 x2 ) ( y1 y 2 ) .
2 2

Example:GiventhepointsA(2,1)andB(5,4).DeterminethelengthAB.

Solution:AB= 2 52 1 4 2 92 32 9 9 18 or 9 2 or 3 2 .
Exercises:For12,usethefollowingcondition:TwoinsectsLandOareinitiallyatapoint(1,3)onaCartesianplane.
1.IfLtraveled5unitstotheleftand4unitsupward,atwhatpointisitnow?
A)(6,7) B)(4,7) C)(6,1) D)(4,7)

2.IfOtraveled6unitstotherightand2unitsupward,atwhatpointisitnow?
A)(7,5) B)(5,5) C)(7,5) D)(5,5)

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 18


3.Twobusesleavethesamestationat9:00p.m.Onebustravelsattherateof30kphandtheothertravelsat40kph.If
theygoonthesamedirection,howmanykmapartarethebusesat10:00p.m.?
A)70km B)10km C)140km D)50km

4.Twobusesleavethesamestationat8:00a.m.Onebustravelsattherateof30kphandtheothertravelsat40kph.If
theygoonoppositedirection,howmanykmapartarethebusesat9:00a.m.?
A)70km B)10km C)140km D)50km

5.Twobusesleavethesamestationat7:00a.m.Onebustravelsnorthattherateof30kphandtheothertravelseastat
40kph.Howmanykmapartarethebusesat8:00a.m.?
A)70km B)10km C)140km D)50km

6.WhichofthefollowingistrueaboutthequadrilateralwithverticesA(0,0),B(2,1),C(3,4)andD(5,3)?
i)ADandBCareequal
ii)BDandACareequal
iii)ABandCDareequal

A)bothiandiii B)iionly C)bothiiandiii D)i,ii,andiii

7.Whatisthedistancebetween(5,8)and(10,0)?
A)17 B)13 C)23 D)0.5

B.Slopeofaline
y1 y2 y y1
a)TheslopeofthenonverticallinecontainingA(x1,y1)andB(x2,y2)is m or m 2 .
x1 x2 x2 x1
b)Theslopeofthelineparalleltothexaxisis0.
c)Theslopeofthelineparalleltotheyaxisisundefined.
d)Theslopeofthelinethatleanstotherightispositive.
e)Theslopeofthelinethatleanstotheleftisnegative.

C.TheEquationoftheline
Ingeneral,alinehasanequationoftheformax+by+c=0wherea,b,carerealnumbersandthataandb
arenotbothzero.

D.DifferentformsoftheEquationoftheline
Generalform:ax+by+c=0.
Slopeinterceptform:y=mx+b,wheremistheslopeandbistheyintercept.
Pointslopeform: y y1 m( x x1 ) where(x1,y1)isanypointontheline.
y2 y1
Twopointform: y y1 ( x x1 ) where(x1,y1)and(x2,y2)areanytwopointsontheline.
x2 x1
x y
Interceptform: 1 whereaisthexinterceptandbistheyintercept.
a b

Reminders:
Alinethatleanstotherighthaspositiveslope.Thesteepertheline,thehighertheslopeis.





pqr
Theslopesoflinesp,q,rareallpositive.Ofthethreeslopes,theslopeoflinepisthelowest,theslopeofristhe
highest.





Alinethatleanstothelefthasnegativeslope.Thesteepertheline,thelowertheslopeis.





t s u

Theslopesoflinest,s,uareallnegative.Ofthethreeslopes,tisthehighest,whileuhasthelowest(becausethevalues
arenegative.)

Exercises
St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 19
1.Whatistheslopeof 5x - 4 y + 12 = 0 ?
A)1.25 B)1.25 C)0.8 D)0.8

2.Whatistheslopeofx=9?
A)4 B)1 C)0 D)undefined

3.Whatistheslopeofy=12?
A)7 B)1 C)0 D)undefined

x y
4.Whatistheslopeof + = 1 ?
4 9
A) 0.4 B)2.25 C) 0.4 D)2.25

E.ParallelandPerpendicularlines
Giventwononverticallinespandqsothatphasslopem1andqhasslopem2.
Ifpandqareparallel,thenm1=m2.
Ifpandqareperpendiculartoeachother,thenm1m2=1.

F.Segmentdivision
GivensegmentABwithA(x1,y1)andB(x2,y2).
x1 x2 y1 y2
ThemidpointMofsegmentABis M ( , ) .
2 2
r AP r1
IfapointPdivides AB intheratio 1 sothat ,thenthecoordinatesofP(x,y)canbeobtainedusing
r2 PB r2
r x r2 x1 r y r2 y1
theformula x 1 2 and y 1 2 .
r1 r2 r1 r2
G.Distanceofapointfromaline

ThedistanceofapointA(x1,y1)fromthelineAx+By+C=0isgivenby
Ax1 By1 C
d .
A2 B 2
Exercises

1.Writeanequationinstandardformforthelinepassingthrough(2,3)and(3,4).
a.5xy=13 b.x5y=19 c.xy=5 d.x5y=17

2.Writeanequationinslopeinterceptformforthelinewithaslopeof3andayinterceptof28.
a.y=3x+28 b.y=0.5x+28 c.y=3x+28 d.y=3x+21

3.Writetheequationinstandardformforalinewithslopeof3andayinterceptof7.
a.3xy=7 b.3x+y=7 c.3x+y=7 d.3x+y=7

4.Whichofthefollowingbestdescribesthegraphsof2x3y=9and6x9y=18?
a.Parallel b.Perpendicularc.Coinciding d.Intersecting

5.Writethestandardequationofthelineparalleltothegraphofx2y6=0andpassingthrough(0,1).
a.x+2y=2 b.2xy=2 c.x2y=2 d.2x+y=2
6.Writetheequationofthelineperpendiculartothegraphofx=3andpassingthrough(4,1).
a.x4=0 b.y+1=0 c.x+1=0 d.y4=0
7.Forwhatvalueofdwillthegraphof6x+dy=6beperpendiculartothegraph2x6y=12?
a.0.5 b.2 c.4 d.5

III.ConicSection
Aconicsectionorsimplyconic,isdefinedasthegraphofaseconddegreeequationinxandy.

Intermsoflocusofpoints,aconicisdefinedasthepathofapoint,whichmovessothatitsdistancefromafixed
pointisinconstantratiotoitsdistancefromafixedline.Thefixedpointiscalledthefocusoftheconic,thefixedlineis
calledthedirectrixoftheconic,andtheconstantratioiscalledtheeccentricity,usuallydenotedbye.

Ife<1,theconicisanellipse.(Notethatacirclehase=0.)
Ife=1,theconicisaparabola.
Ife>1,theconicishyperbola.

A.TheCircle

1. Acircleisthesetofallpointsonaplanethatareequidistantfromafixedpointontheplane.Thefixedpointis
calledthecenter,andthedistancefromthecentertoanypointofthecircleiscalledtheradius.

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 20


2. Equationofacircle

a) generalform:x2+y2+Dx+Ey+F=0
b) centerradiusform:(xh)2+(yk)2=r2wherethecenterisat(h,k)andtheradiusisequaltor.

3. Linetangenttoacircle
Alinetangenttoacircletouchesthecircleatexactlyonepointcalledthepointoftangency.Thetangentlineis
perpendiculartotheradiusofthecircle,atthepointoftangency.

Exercises
y
Foritems12,usetheillustrationontheright. 2

1.5

1.WhichofthefollowingdoesNOTlieonthecircle? 1
a.(3,1) b.(3,0)
c.(2,1) d.(3,2) 0.5

-3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5


0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
x

2.Whatistheequationofthegraph? -0.5

a. y x 3 1
2
b. ( y 1) x 3 1
2
-1

c. ( y 1) x 3 1 d. ( y 1) x 3 1
2 2 -1.5

-2

B.TheParabola

1. Definition.Aparabolaisthesetofallpointsonaplanethatareequidistantfroma
fixedpointandafixedlineoftheplane.Thefixedpointiscalledthefocusandthefixedlineisthedirectrix.

2. EquationandGraphofaParabola

a) Theequationofaparabolawithvertexattheoriginandfocusat(a,0)isy2=4ax.Theparabolaopensto
therightifa>0andopenstotheleftifa<0.

b) Theequationofaparabolawithvertexattheoriginandfocusat(0,a)isx2 =4ay.Theparabolaopens
upwardifa>0andopensdownwardifa<0.

c) Theequationofaparabolawithvertexat(h,k)andfocusat(h+a,k)is(yk)2=4a(xh).
Theparabolaopenstotherightifa>0andopenstotheleftifa<0.

d) Theequationofaparabolawithvertexat(h,k)andfocusat(h,k+a)is(xh)2=4a(yk).

e) Theparabolaopensupwardifa>0andopensdownwardifa<0.

f) Standardform: (yk)2=4a(xh)or(xh)2=4a(yk)

g) Generalform: y2+Dx+Ey+F=0,orx2+Dx+Ey+F=0



3.PartsofaParabola

a) Thevertexisthepoint,midwaybetweenthefocusandthedirectrix.

b) Theaxisoftheparabolaisthelinecontainingthefocusandperpendiculartothedirectrix.Theparabolais
symmetricwithrespecttoitsaxis.

c) The latus rectum is the chord drawn through the focus and parallel to the directrix (and therefore
perpendiculartotheaxis)oftheparabola.

d) Intheparabolay2=4ax,thelengthoflatusrectumis4a,andtheendpointsofthelatusrectumare(a,2a)
and(a,2a).

Inthefigureattheright,thevertexoftheparabolaistheorigin,
thefocusisF(a,o),thedirectrixisthelinecontaining LL ' ,
theaxisisthexaxis,thelatusrectumisthelinecontaining CC ' .

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 21




16
Thegraphof x
2
y . Thegraphof(y2)2=8(x3).
3

C.Ellipse

1. AnellipseisthesetofallpointsPonaplanesuchthatthesumofthedistancesofPfromtwofixedpointsFandFon
theplaneisconstant.Eachfixedpointiscalledfocus(plural:foci).

2.EquationofanEllipse

a) Ifthecenterisattheorigin,theverticesareat(a,0),thefociareat(c,0),theendpointsoftheminoraxis
x2 y2
areat(0,b)and b a c ,thentheequationis 1 .
2 2 2

a2 b2
b) Ifthecenterisattheorigin,theverticesareat(0,a),thefociareat(0,c),theendpointsoftheminoraxis
x2 y2
areat(b,0)and b a c ,thentheequationis 1 .
2 2 2

b2 a 2
c) If the center is at (h, k), the distance between the vertices is 2a, the principal axis is horizontal and
( x h) 2 ( y k ) 2
b 2 a 2 c 2 ,thentheequationis 1 .
a2 b2
d) Ifthecenterisat(h,k),thedistancebetweentheverticesis2a,theprincipalaxisisverticaland
( y k ) 2 ( x h) 2
b a c ,thentheequationis
2 2 2
1 .
a2 b2






y

4. PartsofanEllipse 2 B(0,b 2
(c, ba ) (c, ba )
Forthetermsdescribedbelow,refertotheellipse
shownwithcenteratO,verticesatV(a,0)andV(a,0),
fociatF(c,0)andF(c,0),endpointsoftheminoraxis
V(- F(- O F(c,0 V(a,0 x
atB(0,b)andB(0,b),endpointsofonelatusrectum
b2 b2
2
(c, ba )
2
(c, ba )
atG(c, )andG(c, )andtheotherat B(0,-
a a
b2 b2
H(c, )andG(c, ).
a a

a) Thecenterofanellipseisthemidpointofthesegmentjoiningthetwofoci.Itistheintersectionoftheaxes
oftheellipse.Inthefigureabove,pointOisthecenter.
b) Theprincipalaxisoftheellipseisthelinecontainingthefociandintersectingtheellipseatitsvertices.The
majoraxisisasegmentoftheprincipalaxiswhoseendpointsaretheverticesoftheellipse.Inthefigure,
V 'V isthemajoraxisandhaslengthof2aunits.
c) Theminoraxisistheperpendicularbisectorofthemajoraxisandwhoseendpointsarebothontheellipse.
Inthefigure, B' B istheminoraxisandhaslength2bunits.
d) Thelatusrectumisthechordthroughafocusandperpendiculartothemajoraxis. G' G and H ' H arethe
2b 2
latusrectum,eachwithalengthof .
a

y y

(2,6)
(0, 3) (8,5)
(-6,4)
(-4, 9 ) (4, 9 )
5 5

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) (2,1)


(-5,0) (-4,0) (4,0) (5,0) (-8,1) 224-2515 (12,1) 22

O x O x
(4,- 9 )
(8,3)
(-4,- 9 ) 5
5
(0, -3) (2,-4)

x2 y2 ( x 2) 2 ( y 1) 2
Thegraphof 1 . Thegraphof 1 .
25 9 100 25

4.KindsofEllipses
a) Horizontalellipse.Anellipseishorizontalifitsprincipalaxisishorizontal.Thegraphsabovearebothhorizontal
ellipses.
b) Verticalellipse.Anellipseisverticalifitsprincipalaxisisvertical.

D.TheHyperbola

1. Ahyperbolaisthesetofpointsonaplanesuchthatthedifferenceofthedistancesofeachpointonthesetfromtwo
fixedpointsontheplaneisconstant.Eachofthefixedpointsiscalledfocus.
2. Equationofahyperbola
a) Ifthecenterisattheorigin,theverticesareat(a,0),thefociareat(c,0),theendpointsoftheminoraxisare
x2 y2
at(0,b)and b c a ,thentheequationis 1 .
2 2 2

a2 b2
b) Ifthecenterisattheorigin,theverticesareat(0,a),thefociareat(0,c),theendpointsoftheminoraxisare
y2 x2
at(b,0)and b c a ,thentheequationis 1 .
2 2 2

a 2 b2
c) Ifthecenterisat(h,k),thedistancebetweentheverticesis2a,theprincipalaxisishorizontaland b 2 c 2 a 2
( x h) 2 ( y k ) 2
,thentheequationis 1 .
a2 b2
d) Ifthecenterisat(h,k),thedistancebetweentheverticesis2a,theprincipalaxisisverticaland b 2 c 2 a 2 ,
( y k ) 2 ( x h) 2
thentheequationis 1
a2 b2

2. Partsofahyperbola

Forthetermsdescribedbelow,refertothehyperbolashownwhichhasitscenteratO,verticesatV(a,0)and
b2 b2
V(a,0),fociatF(c,0)andF(c,0)andendpointsofonelatusrectumatG(c, )andG(c, )andtheotherat
a a
b2 b2
H(c, )andH(c, ).
a a

a)Thehyperbolaconsistsoftwoseparatepartscalledbranches.

b)Thetwofixedpointsarecalledfoci.Inthefigure,thefociareat(c,0).

c)Thelinecontainingthetwofociiscalledtheprincipalaxis.Inthe
figure,theprincipalaxisisthexaxis.
d)Theverticesofahyperbolaarethepointsofintersectionofthe
hyperbolaandtheprincipalaxis.Inthefigure,theverticesareat(a,0).

e)Thesegmentwhoseendpointsaretheverticesiscalledthetransverseaxis.Inthefigure V 'V isthetransverseaxis.

f) The line segment with endpoints (0,b) and (0,b) where b c a is called the conjugate axis, and is a
2 2 2

perpendicularbisectorofthetransverseaxis.
g)Theintersectionofthetwoaxesisthecenterofthehyperbola.

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 23


h)Thechordthroughafocusandperpendiculartothetransverseaxisiscalledalatusrectum.Inthefigure, G' G isa

b2 b2 2b 2
latusrectumwhoseendpointsareG(c, )andG(c, )andhasalengthof .
a a a

3. TheAsymptotesofaHyperbola

Showninthefigureontherightisahyperbola
withtwolinesasextendeddiagonalsof the
rectangleshown.

Thesetwodiagonallinesaresaidtobetheasymptotesofthecurve,andarehelpfulinsketchingthegraphofa
x2 y2 b b
hyperbola.Theequationsoftheasymptotesassociatedwith 2
2 1 are y x and y x .Similarly,the
a b a a
2 2
y x a a
equationsoftheasymptotesassociatedwith 2 2 1 are y x and y x .
a b b b


y y

(6,9)


(-9,6) F(0,6) (9,6)

3y x 0

F(-6,0) (-3,0)O (3,0) F(6,0) x (0,3)

O x
(0,-3)
3y x 0
(6,-9)
F(0,-6)
x2 y2 y2 x2
Thegraphof 1 . Thegraphof 1 .
9 27 9 27

PRACTICEEXERCISES

Directions:Choosethebestanswerfromthechoicesgivenandwritethecorrespondingletterofyourchoice.

Foritems15,usetheillustrationontheright.
3
M
1.WhichofthefollowingarethecoordinatesofA? 2
a.(1,2) b.(2,1) c.(3,3) d.(2,3) x 1 A
2.WhatisthedistancebetweenpointsMandT? 3 2 1 01 2 3
1
a. 61 units b.6sq.units c. 51 units d.8units
H
3.Whichofthefollowingpointshasthecoordinates(3,1) 3
2
a.M b.A c.T d.H T
4.WhichofthefollowingistheareaofthetriangleformedwithverticesM,AandH? y
a.5sq.units b.10sq.units c.5units d.10units
5.WhichofthefollowingistheequationofthelinecontainingpointsAandT? O(0,b) V
a.y=2 b.x=2 c.y+2x=3 d.y2x+3=0 x
6.SupposethatanisoscelestrapezoidisplacedontheCartesianplaneasshown 0 D(a,0) E(b,0)
Ontheright,whichofthefollowingshouldbethecoordinatesofvertexV?
a.(a,b) b.(b+a,0) c.(ba,b)d.(b+a,b)
7.Thepoints(11,3),(3,8)and(8,2)areverticesofwhattriangle?
a.Isosceles b.Scalene c.Equilateral d.Right



8.Whatistheareaofthetrianglein#7?
a.40.5squnits b.41.8squnits c.42squnits d.46.8squnits
9.Whichofthefollowingsetsofpointslieonastraightline?
a.(2,3),(4,7),(5,8) b.(2,1),(3,2),(6,3) c.(1,4),(2,5),(7,2) d.(4,1),(5,2),(6,5)
3
10.Ifthepoint(9,2)dividesthesegmentofthelinefromP1(6,8)toP2(x2,y2)intheratior= ,givethecoordinatesofP2.
7
St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 24
a.(16,12) b.(16,15) c.(14,15) d.(12,12)
11.Givethefourthvertex,atthethirdquadrant,oftheparallelogramwhosethreeverticesare(1,5),(2,1)and(1,5).
a.(3,2) c.(3,4) c.(4,1) d.(2,1)
12.ThelinesegmentjoiningA(2,1)andB(3,3)isextendedtoC.IfBC=3AB,givethecoordinatesofC.
a.(17,12) b.(15,17) c.(18,15) d.(12,18)
0
13.ThelineL2makesanangleof60 withtheL1.IftheslopeofL1is1,givetheslopeofL2.
a.(3+20.5) b.(2+20.5) c.(2+30.5) d.(3+30.5)
0
14.Theanglefromthelinethrough(4,5)and(3,m)totheline(2,4)and(9,1)is135 .Givethevalueofm.
a.7 b.8 c.9 d.10
15.Whichequationrepresentsalineperpendiculartothegraphof2x+y=2?
a.y=0.5x2 b.y=2x+2 c.y=2x2 d.y=0.5x+2
16.Whichofthefollowingistheyinterceptofthegraph2x2y+8=0?
a.4 b.2 c.2 d.4
17.Whichofthefollowingmaybeagraphofxy=awhereaisapositiverealnumber?
a. y b. y c. y d. y

x x x x

18.Writeanequationinstandardformforalinewithaslopeof1passingthrough(2,1).
a. x+y=3 b.x+y=3 c.x+y=3 d.xy=3
b.
Foritems1922,usetheillustrationontheright. y

19.WhichofthefollowingarethecoordinatesofA? T 2

a.(1,1) b.(1,1) A 1.5

c.(1,1) d.(1,1) 1

20.WhatisthedistancebetweenpointsAandH?
0.5

a. 61 units b.6sq.units 0 x
-3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
c. 51 units d.8units -0.5

21.Whichofthefollowingpointshasthecoordinates(2,2)? -1
a.M b.A H
M
c.T d.H -1.5

-2

22.Whichofthefollowingistheequationofthegivengraph?
a. y x 2 . b. y x 2 .
c. y x 2 .
2

2
2
d. y x 2 2 .
23.WhichofthefollowingistheequationofthelinecontainingpointsMandT?
a.y=2 b.x=2 c.y2x2=0 d.y+2x+2=0
24.Whatistheshortestdistanceof x 8 y from x 3 ?
2

a.1unit b.2units c.3units d.8units


2 2
y x
25.Whichofthefollowingisafocusof 1 ?
12 4
a.(0,4) b.(4,0) c.(0,4) d.(4,0)
2 2
x y
26.Whatarethexinterceptsof 1 ?
4 9
a.none b. 2 c. 3 d. 4

27.Whichofthefollowingisagraphofahyperbola?
a. y
b. 15
y

15

10
10

5 5

0 x


x -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
-30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
-5

-5

-10 -10

-15

-15


y
c. d.
2 y
2

1.5
1.5

1
1

0.5
0.5

0 x
0 x
-3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
-3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
-0.5
-0.5

-1 -1

-1.5 -1.5

-2


-2




28.Whichofthefollowingisanequationofanellipsethathas10aslengthofthemajoraxisandhasfociwhichare4
unitsawayfromthecenter?

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 25


y2 x2 y2 x2 y2 x2 y2 x2
a. 1 b. 1 c. 1 d. 1
25 9 9 16 5 3 16 25

Foritems2931,considerthegraphontheright.
29.Whichofthefollowingistheequationof y
thegraph?
a. 100 y 25x 2 2500
2 10

b. 100 x 25 y 2500
2 2

c. 100 y 25x 2500


2 2
0 x

d. 100x 25 y 2500
2 2 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30

30.Whatarethexinterceptsofthegraph?
a.none b. 2 -10
c. 5 d. 10

31.Whatkindoffigureisshownonthegraph?
a.circle b.ellipse c.hyperbola d.Parabola

32.Whichofthefollowingisthecenterofthegraph
y
shownontheright?
a.(0,0) b.(0,10) 10
c.(10,0) c.(0,10)

33.Whichofthefollowingisafocusofthegraph
0 x
shownontheright? -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30
a.(0,0) b.(0,10)
c.(0,5) c.(0,10)
-10

34.Whatistheareaoftheshadedregion?
a.4units b.4squareunits
c.16units d.16squareunits

LICENSUREEXAMINATIONFORTEACHERS(LET)

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 26


RefresherCourse

ContentArea:MATHEMATICS
Focus:ADVANCEDALGEBRA
Preparedby:DaisydeBorjaMarcelino
Competencies:Showmasteryofthebasicterms,conceptsandequationsinAdvancedAlgebrainvolvingradicals,rational
exponents and functions.Solve, evaluate and manipulate symbolic andnumericalproblems in above areas by applying
fundamentalprinciplesandprocesses.

KEYIDEAS
SomeHelpfulTipsinAnsweringtheLET

1 Readthequestion/sortheitemscarefullyandunderstandwhattheysay.
2 Determinewhatis/arewantedorwhatis/areaskedfor.
3 Findoutwhatis/aregivenandwhichdataareneededtosolvetheproblem.
4 Reasonoutwhatprocesses(operations)toapplyandtheorderinwhichtheyaretobeapplied.
5 Summarizetheproblembymeansofanopennumbersentence.
6 Computecarefully.Checkeachstepinthecomputations.
7 Decidethereasonablenessoftheresult.
8 Checktheresultbyseeingtoitthattheresultsatisfiesalltheconditionsoftheproblem.

RATIONALEXPONENTS
n
Ifaisarealnumberandnisanypositiveinteger,thesymbol a denotesthenthpowerofa.Therealnumberais
calledthebaseandniscalledtheexponent.Insymbols,

a n a a a ... a .
nfactors

Examples: a) 3333 34 or81. b) 2m3 2m 2m 2m.
4
1

1 1 1 1
c) . d) 1.31.3 1.32 .
2 2 2 2 2
e) math mathmath .
e) 2 m m 2 m . 2
2

Notethatanybaseraisedtothepowerof1,isjustthebase.Moreover,anybaseraisedtothepowerof0is1,
while00isindeterminate.
Examples:a) 9 1. b) 4 4.
0 1
c)(m)1=m. d)z0=1.


e) h op e
2 3
0 0 1

1 .f) 38.23 1 . g) j 2 o 3 y 5 j 2 o 3 y 5 .h) m 0 a1 a .
1
4
1
4

LawsofExponents

Ifaandbarerealnumbersandmandnarepositiverealnumbers,thenthefollowingaretrue.
a a a
m n mn
. a n m
a nm .
m
If m n and a 0 ,then
a
n
a mn . abn a nb n .
a
n
am a an
If n m and a 0 ,then
1
nm . If b 0 ,then .
b bn
n
a a
an
If a 0 ,then a 0 1 .
an
Examples:a) 4 2 3
46. b) 2 2 2
3 2 3 2
25 32. c)(3x4)2=32x42.
32
2
1. 35 32 1 1
5 2
d) 3 e) 2 3 3 27.
3
f). 5
3 2 5 3 3 3 .
3 3 3 27
Exercises
1.Intheexpression8m5,5iscalledthe________.
A.base B.coefficient C.constant D.exponent
25 m 0

2
20 m n s 9 3 14 0


2.Evaluate .
5m 10s 6 n8m 10
0 0

C. m 20
2
A.5 B.23m12n4s2 D.undefined

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 27


1


1 1
( )4
3.Anthonywrote 3a 4b 4 = 3a + 4b 4 .Whichofthefollowingishismisconception?
A.Itispossibletofactorouttheexponent.
B.Itispossibletodistributeexponentsoverasum.
C.Theexponentsshouldbemultipliedwiththebase.
D.Thecoefficientinsidetheparenthesesshouldbeadded.
2
5r 4 25r 6
4.Is 3 equalto ? Whyorwhynot?
3s 9s 5
A.Yes,fortheexponentsinsidetheparenthesisandthenumericalcoefficientsshouldbeaddedto2.
B.No,fortheexponentsinsidetheparenthesisandthenumericalcoefficientsshouldbesubtractedfrom2.
C.Yes,fortheexponentsinsidetheparenthesisshouldbeaddedandthenumericalcoefficientsshouldbe
raisedto2.
D.No,fortheexponentinsidetheparenthesisshouldbemultipliedby2andthenumericalcoefficientsshould
beraisedto2.
x12
5.Explainwhy 3
isnotequaltox4?
x
A.Becausetheexponentsshouldbeadded.
B.Becausetheexponentsshouldbemultiplied.
C.Becausethenumeratorshouldbedividedbythedenominator.
D.Becausetheexponentofthenumeratorshouldbesubtractedbytheexponentofthedenominator.
6.Whichofthefollowingistheproductofx5y3zandx2y4z2?
A.2x102y122z2B.x10y12z2C.2x72y72z3 D.x7y7z3
7.Givetheproductof 5a and a 2a 11a.
3 5

A. 5a 10a 55a C. 5a 10a 55a


4 5 2 3 6

B. 5a 10a 55a D. 5a 10a 55a


4 6 2 3 5


3 5
8.Marlonclaimsthat 2 2 isequalto 2 .Ishecorrect?Whyorwhynot?
8

A.Yes,fortheexponentsinsidetheparenthesisandthenumericalcoefficientsshouldbeaddedto5.
B. No, for the exponents inside the parenthesis should be multiplied by 2 and the numerical coefficients
shouldberaisedto5.
C.No,fortheexponentsshouldbemultiplied.
D.Yes,fortheexponentsshouldbeadded.

Thementionedlawsofexponentsalsoholdwhenmandnarepositiverationalnumbers.
Examples:Thefollowingaretrueifthereisnozerodenominator.
12 12 1 1
23 53 2 5

7
31 3 .
m m m .
2 2 3 3 3
a) 3 3 3 b) m


2 5
2 1 1 5 3 2
53 p 7
c) 1
5 3 3
5 . 3
d) 3
p7 7
p 7 .
3 7
5 p
e e23 23 e0 1 .
2

e)
3

f) 3 x y
2 3 4
314 x 24 y 34 34 x 8 y12 .
e3
2

2
art 5 art 5 x 4 1 1 1
2 5y

g) . h) .
xy 5 x 4 x 4 4 x 4 x 2
2 11 y 11 y 5 y 6y 3y
xy
NegativeExponents
1
Ifaisanonzerorealnumberandnisanyrationalnumber,thenan= .
an
To simplify algebraic expressions with negative exponents is just to express the given expression into an
equivalentquantitywheretheexponentsbecomepositive.
Examples:Simplifythefollowingsuchthattheyonlyhavepositiveexponents.
1

3
2m 4
1
2
a) 3 b) 7 4
c)
1 3

c) 2m
1 1
1 1
Solution:a) 3 2
. b) 7 4
. 4 .
2m
1 3 1
2 4 4
3 7
Examples:Simplifythefollowingsuchthattheyonlyhavepositiveexponents.Assumenonzerobasesandnodenominator
iszero.

16 2 m 4 a t 3
a) 4 b) 3 c) 2 d) 3
4 m a t

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 28
16 2 m 4 at 3 m 4 g 3
32
1
e) f) g)
5
h) x 22
4 4 m 3 a 2 t 3 g 1h 3
Solution:
16 4 2
4
a) 4 = 4 4 1 .
2 2 4

m 4
b) 3 = m
4 3 1
m 43 m 1 .
4 4 4 m m
a 1 2 t 3
c) 2
= a a1 2 a 3 d) =1.
a t 3
16 2 m 4 at 3 4 4 m 3 aa 2t 3 4 4 m 3 a 3t 3 a 3
e) = 4 4 3 .
4 4 m 3 a 2t 3 16 2 m 4t 3 4 mt m
m 4 g 3 m 4 g 3 1 1 g 31h 3 g 4 h 3
f) 1 3 = 1 3 4 g 31 h3 = 4 .
g h 1 g h m m4 m
5
1 1 3
2

1 ( 5 )( ) ( 3)( )
5
g)
5
3 2
= 2
2
2 2
3
.
2

h) x 22 = 1
or
1
or 2
1
.
x 22
x 2x 2 x 4 x 4
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Notethat isequalto but 2 isnotequalto 2 .
x 2x 2 x 2 x 2 x 4x 4 x 4x 4
a
Whenevertheexponentofabaseisinrationalform whereb 0,theexpressioncanalwaysbeexpressedin
b
radicalform.

RADICALS
1
n n
If n is a positive integer and a is a real number for which a is defined, then the expression a is called a
1
n n
radical,and a = a .

n
Thesymbol isaradicalsign,thenumberaistheradicandandnistheindexoftheradical a .
3
Examples:a)Intheexpression 5 ,thenumber3iscalledtheindexand5istheradicand.
1
4 4
b)Theexpression 27 canbewrittenas 27 .
Whenaradicalnotationhasnoindex,itisunderstoodthatn=2orwearegoingtoextractthesquarerootsofthe
radicand.
1
Examples:a) 49 49. b) 3 2 2 3 3.
2

Simplifiedradicals

Anexpressionwithradicalsissimplifiedwhenallofthefollowingconditionsaresatisfied.
Exponentsoftheradicandandindexoftheradicalhavenocommonfactorexcept1.
Theradicandhasnofactorraisedtoapowergreaterthanorequaltotheindex.
Allindicatedoperationshavebeenperformed(ifpossible).
Nodenominatorcontainsaradical.
Theradicandhasnofractions.

m
Radicalnotationof a n

a
m
m n
Ifaisarealnumber,misanintegerand a isarealnumber,then a =
n n n
= a m .
Examples:Writeeachexponentialexpressionusingradicalnotation.
1 3 3
a) a 3 b) m 4 c) 5 2

5 or
1 3 3
3 2 3 3
3
Solution:a) a = a .
3
b) m = ( m ) . c) 5 = 5 =4 4 2 2
53 .

Examples:Writeeachradicalexpressionusingexponentialnotationandsimplify.
a) 22 b)
3
27 c)
3
x6
St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 29

1 1 6
1
Solution:a) 22 = 22 . 2
b) 27 = (27) =
3 3
33 3 3 . c)
3 6
x = x = x 2 .
3

Ifnisanevenpositiveinteger,then a = a = a andifnisanoddpositiveintegerthen
n
n n
a n = a .

Examples:Simplifyeachofthefollowingandgivealltheroots.
a) 625 b)
4
81 c) 169x 6 d) 3 27 x y
6 9

Solution:
a) 625 252 25 . b)
4
81 = 4 34 = 3.
c) 169x 6 = 132 x 3 = 13x .
2 3

d) 3 27 x y =
6 9 3
3 x y =3x y .
3 2 3 3 3 2 3

Forallrealnumbersaandb,andpositiveintegersmandnforwhichtheindicatedrootsarerealnumbers,the
followingaretrue.

( a )( b ) =
n n n
ab .
m n
a mn a .
n
a a
n n
wherebisnotequaltozero.
b b

Examples:Thefollowingaretrue.
a) 3 5 15. b) 4
81x 24 81x 8 81x . c) 12 x 6
x 3 12 .

Examples:Simplifyeachofthefollowing.
8 32 y 5
a) 3 b) 4
125 243
8 3 8 3 (2)3 2 2
Solution: a) 3 3 .
125 53 5 5 5

32 y 16 2 y y
= 4
5

4 4 4
2 2y y4 4

2 y 4 2 y
=
2y 4 2y
=
2 y 4 54 y
b) 4
243 81 3 4
34 3
34 3 3 3 3
.

OperationsonRadicalExpressions

AdditionandSubtraction
Radicalswiththesameradicandandthesameindexarecalledlikeradicals.Likeradicalsareaddedorsubtracted
byusingthedistributivepropertyofrealnumbers.Moreover,onlylikeradicalscanbecombined.
3
Examples:a)Givethesumof 7 ,3 3 7 ,2 3 7 and4 3 7 .
b)Evaluate10 15 +3 15 15 .
c)Ifthelengthsofthesidesofatriangleis 24 cm, 2 6 cmand4cm,giveitsperimeter.

3
Solution:a) 7 +3 3 7 +2 3 7 +4 3 7 =10 3 7 .
b)10 15 +3 15 15 =12 15 .
c)Givenatriangle,itsperimeterisdeterminedbyaddingthelengthsofitssides.Hence,

24 cm+ 2 6 +4cm= 4 6 cm+ 2 6 cm+4cm
=2 6 cm+ 2 6 cm+4cm= 4 6 cm+4cm.

MultiplicationofRadicals
Notethat
n
ab = n a n b allowsmultiplicationofradicalswiththesameindex.

Examples:Givetheproductofthefollowinginsimplestform.Takeonlythepositiveroots.

a) 6 8 9 10
b) 2 m ( m 3 m )
3 3 2 3 2
c)
(3 7 + 8 ) (3 7 8 )

Solution:a) 6 8 9 10 = 69 8 10 54 80 54 16 5 544 5 216 5 .

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 30


3

b) 2 m [ m 3 m ] = 2
3 2 3 2
m m 2 3
3 2 3
m 2 m 2 2 3 m3 (6) 3 m4

=
2m 6m 3 m .

c) (3 7 + 8 ) (3 7 8 ) = 9 7 2 82 = 97 8 =638=55.
Exercises
4
1.Intheexpression 3 5 ,5iscalledthe________.
A.base B.index C.radicand D.root
2
5
2.Write 3 asaradicalexpression.
A.
2
35 B. 5 32 C. 3 3 D. 2
5
3
3
3.Write 5 5 y asanexponentialexpression.

5 y 5 y 3 5
1 3
3 5
A. 5 y
B.
C.
5 5y3
3 5
D.
4.Thesidesofatrianglemeasure3 15 m,5 15 mand 15 m.Whatistheperimeterofthetriangle?
A.5 15 cm B.8 15 cm C.10 15 cm D.12 15 cm
5.Thesideofasquaremeasures4 3 m.Giveitsperimeter.

A.4 3 m B.8 3 m C.16 3 m D.20 3 m

FUNCTIONS
Arelationisasetoforderedpairs(x,y)suchthatforeveryfirstelementx,therecorrespondsatleastoney.The
setofallfirstelementsiscalledthedomainoftherelation,whereasthesetofsecondelementsisthecodomainofthe
relation.
Afunctionisarelationsuchthatforeveryfirstelementxoftheorderedpair(x,y),therecorrespondsaunique
secondelementy.Thesetofallfirstelementsiscalledthedomainofthefunction,whereasthesetofsecondelementsis
therangeofthefunction.
TestsforaFunction
Therearesometeststhatcandeterminewhetherarelationisafunctionornot.Wehaveafunctionifnotwo
pairsinthesetconsistingoforderedpairshavethesamefirstcomponents.

Examples:a)Therelation{(Mr.Cruz,Mark),(Mr.Cruz,Mary),(Mr.Gonzales,Art),(Mrs.Tan,Alice),(MissPeralta,Niko)}is
notafunctionbecausemorethanoneorderedpairhavethesamefirstcomponentMr.Cruz.
b)Therelation{(1,0),(0,1),(1,2),(2,3),(3,4)}hasnoorderedpairthathasthesamefirstcomponent.Thus,
itisafunction.Moreover,itsdomainistheset{1,0,1,2,3}anditsrangeis{0,1,2,3,4}.
c) Consider the relation {(3, 9), (2, 4), (1, 1), (0, 0),(1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9)}. This relation is considered a
functionbecauseithasnoorderedpairthathasthesamefirstcomponent.

Arelationmaybedescribedbyasetoforderedpairs.Afunctionisdescribedbyasetoforderedpairswithnotwo
pairshavingthesamefirstcomponents.
Example:Thetablebelowshowstherelationofthedistancetraveledbyacarforagivenlengthoftime.
d=rt
NumberofHours 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Distance 60 120 180 240 300 360 420 480 540 600

Itcanbeobservedthatthedistancetraveleddependsuponthenumberofhoursortime.Wesaythatdistanceis
afunctionoftime.Therelationcanbeexpressedasd=rtord=60tinthisparticularexample.

Example:Theareaofasquareisafunctionofthelengthofitsside.
A=s2
Side 1 2 3 4 5
Area 1 4 9 16 25

If a relation described by an equation or defined by a rule, a functional relationship exists if a change in the
independentvariablexcausesachangeinthedependentvariabley.

Anothermethodofshowingtherelationshipbetweentheelementsoftwosetsisbymeansofanarrowdiagram.

0 0
Example:Anarrowdiagramfortherelationy=8x,wherexisinset
ofwholenumbersfrom0to3,isshownontheright.
1 8

2
16


24

3
x

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0 2

Example:Anarrowdiagramfortherelation{(x,y)y=x2+2}is 1
shownontherightwherex=3,2,1,0,1,2,3andy=2,3,6,11. 1 3



2
6
2


3

3 11

Arelationdescribedbyanarrowdiagramisafunctionif:

1 thereexistsaonetoonecorrespondencebetweentheelementsofthetwosets
2 thereexistsamanytoonecorrespondencebetweentheelementsofthetwosets.

Another method of identifying a function from a mere relation is through its graph. A graph of a relation is a
functionifaverticallineisdrawnthroughthegraphwillintersectthegraphinnomorethanonepoint.
Themostfundamentalwaytographafunctionistoplotpoints.Oncethebehaviorofthegraphofthefunction
becomesfamiliar,graphingbecomeseasier.Notethatingraphingfunctions,weincludeallpossiblerealnumbersinthe
domain.
Wemaystartbycreatingatableofvaluesinordertofindoutthebehaviorofthefunction.Itisveryimportantto
choosedifferentnumberstogetaclearpictureofthegraph.Thatis,itishelpfultogenerateasmanypointspossible.
1
Example:Graph f x, y y 3x .
2
1
Solution:Wenotethat f x, y y 3x canbeexpressedintermsofslopeandm=3andintercept
2
b= 0.5 .Byplottingofpoints,weconsiderfirstatableofvalues.
X 2 1 0 1 2 3
f(x) 6.5 3.5 2.5 5.5 8.5
0.5

y
8

0 x
-14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

-2

-4

-6

-8



Notethatthewhenaverticallineisdrawnthroughthegraph,itwillintersectthegraphinnomorethanone
point.Hence,thegivenrelationisafunction.

Example:Ifwehavef(x)=x,thisfunctioniscalledanidentityfunctiondefinedbyf={(x,y)y=x}.
Letusgraphtheidentityfunctionbyassigningtoxthevalues0,1,2.Hence,thecorrespondingvaluesofyare0,
1and2respectively.Moreover,thelineisdeterminedbythefollowingpoints.
X 2 1 0 1 2 3
f(x) 2 1 0 1 2 3

y
8

Wenowhavethegraphontheright. 4

0 x

-14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2

-2
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

-4


-6

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-8

Iffisdefinedbyf={(x,y)y=b}wheretherangeofthefunctionfconsistsofonenumber,thenfisaconstant
functionwhosegraphisastraightlineparalleltothexaxis.

Example: Graphf(x)=4.

Solution:Wenowhavefirstatableofvalues.

x 2 1 0 1 2 3
f(x) 4 4 4 4 4 4

6 y

3

2

-7
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
x

-1

-2

-3

Nonexample:Graph y x .
2

Solution:Wenowhavefirstatableofvalues.

x 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
y 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 2 2


y
4

0 x

-3 -2 -1

-1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12


-2

-3

-4


Observethatthegraphofthesaidsetofpointsshowsthatifanyverticallinedrawnthroughthegraphintersects
thegraphatmorethanonepoint.Hence,itisnotafunction.

Thegraphofarelationshowsafunctionifanyverticallinedrawnthroughthegraphintersectsthegraphatno
morethanonepoint.

Nonexamples:Thegraphsbelowdonotdefinefunctions.
y
y
4 2.5

3 2

2
1.5

1
1

0
x
0.5

-8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 x

-1 -4.5 -4 -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

-0.5
-2
-1

-3
-1.5

-4

PRACTICEEXERCISES

Directions:Choosethebestanswerfromthechoicesgiven.Writethecorrespondingletterofyourchoice.

1.Intheexpression9m3,3iscalledthe________.
A.base B.coefficient C.constant D.exponent

1
3

2.Evaluate 7 7 7 7 ?

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2 4
2
A.7 B. 7 C. 7 7
D. 7 7
2
1 3
3.Whichofthefollowingisequalto m 2 n 2 ?


3 2 3
A.0 B.1 C. mn D. m n
3
4
4.Whichofthefollowingisequalto 2 ?
2 3 B. 3 2 4 C. 2 4
A.
4
D. 23
3
5.Givetheindexoftheexpression 34m .
A.1 B.2 C.3 D.34m
6.Intheexpression 888tm ,888tmiscalledthe__________.
A.Index B.Radicand C.Radicalsign D.Exponent
5
7.Whichofthefollowingisequalto ?
5
A.0 B.1 C. 5 D. 2 5
8.Thelengthofarectangleis 3 3 manditswidthis 2 2 m.Whichofthefollowingistheareaoftherectangle?
2
A.10m B. 5 6 m2 C. 9 6 m2 D. 6 6 m2

9. Rosalinda was asked to get the perimeter of a rectangle whose width is 2 5 mm and whose length is 5 5 mm.
Whichofthefollowingshouldbeheranswer?
A. 7 10 mmB.14 10 mm C.14 5 mm D. 10 5 mm
10.Isthesumof 2 , 3 ,and 7 equalto 42 ?Whyorwhynot?
A. No,becausetheindicesshouldbemultiplied.
B. No,becausethetermsshouldnotbecombinedforthesearenotlikeradicals.
C. Yes,becausetheradicandsshouldbeaddedandtheindicesshouldbecopied.
D. Yes,becausethetermshavenocoefficientandtheradicandsshouldbeadded.
3
11.Writeasanexponentialexpression: 3x 2 .
3x 33x 2
1
3x 3
2
2 3 2 3
A. 3 x B. C. D.
12.Thesidesofatrianglemeasure2 7 m,3 7 mand 28 m.Givetheperimeterofthetriangle.
A.5 7 m B.7 7 m C.9 7 m D.35 7 m
13.Thesideofasquaremeasures5 22 cm.Giveitsperimeter.
A.10 22 cm B.15 22 cm C.20 22 cm D.20 11 cm
14.Asecretarycantype324kwordsin32kminutes.Howmanywordscanshetypeinaminute?
23 k 23
1 1
A.322k B.326k C. D.
3 3
8x7 y 6
15.Simplify 3 .
27

A.
2 x y x
2 2 3
B.
2 x y 2 2 3
x
C.
8x3 y 3 x
D.
2 x y 2 3
x

3 3 27 3
3 4 3 5
16.Whichofthefollowingistheindexoftheexpression h o p e ?
A.1 B.2 C.3 D.4
3
17.Intheexpression 8m ,8miscalledthe__________.
A.Index B.Radicand C.Radicalsign D.Exponent
4
2

18.Whichofthefollowingisequalto 3 5 3 5 ?


6 6 6 8
10 10 5 25
A. 3 B. 6 C. 3 D. 3
4
5
3
19.Whichofthefollowingisequalto 4
?
5
3
4 8
5 5
A.0 B.1 C. 3 D. 3

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3
2 1
20.Evaluate x 3 y 3 .


5
2
A.0 B.1 C. x y 3
D. x y

21.Whichofthefollowingsetsoforderedpairsdescribesafunction?
A. {(1,4),(2,8),(2,20),(9,36),(3,12)}
B. {(24,6),(20,5),(16,4),(12,3)}
C. {(1,2),(1,3),(1,4),(2,3),(2,4)}
D. {(1,1),(1,1),(4,2),(4,2),(9,3),(9,3)}
22.WhichofthefollowingsetsoforderedpairsDOESNOTdescribeafunction?
A. {(1,4),(2,8),(5,20),(9,36),(5,12)}
B. {(3,2),(2,1),(1,0),(0,1)}
C. {(24,6),(20,5),(16,4),(12,3)}
D. {(1,1),(1,2),(1,4),(2,3),(2,4)}
23.Whichofthefollowingsetsoforderedpairsdescribesafunction?
A.{(0.5,4),(1,8),(1.5,20),(2,36),(1,12)}
B.{(4,6),(4,5),(16,4),(3,3)}
C.{(1,2),(1,3),(1,4),(2,3),(2,4)}
D.{(0.25,1),(0.5,1),(0.75,2),(1,2),(9,3),(9,3)}
24.WhichofthefollowingsetsoforderedpairsDOESNOTdescribeafunction?
A. {(1.5,1),(2,1),(2.5,1),(3,1),(3.5,1)}
B. {(3,2),(2,1),(1,0),(0,1)}
C. {(24,6),(20,5),(16,4),(12,3)}
D. {(9,1),(9,2),(9,4),(9,3),(9,4)}
25.Whichofthefollowingdescribesafunction?
A.

x 1 1 2 4 4 6 6
y 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
B.

x 1 3 5 7 9 11 13
y 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
C.

x 1 2 3 1 2 3 4
y 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
D.

x 1 2 3 4 5 1 2
y 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

26.Whichofthefollowingdescribesafunction?
A.

x 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
y 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
B.

x 1 1 2 2 3 3 4
y 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
C.

x 1 2 3 1 2 3 4
y 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
D.

x 1 2 3 4 5 1 2
y 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

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27.WhichofthefollowingarrowsormappingdiagramsDOESNOTspecifyafunction?

A.B.

1 6
2 9
2 7
1 4
3 8
0 0
4 9


C. D.
2 3 2
4
2

3 9 6 3
3

4 9
16 4
4

28.Whichofthefollowingarrowsormappingdiagramsspecifiesafunction?

A. B.

2 1
4 2 9 4
6 5

C. D.


4 1 1 8
2 4
9 4
2

0
C.16 7

29.WhichofthefollowingarrowsormappingdiagramsDOESNOTspecifyafunction?
A.B.

6 6
1 9
7 7
0 4
8 8
1 0
9 9


C. D.

2 4 2
3
2

3 9 9 3

3
4

12 4
4 16

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30.Whichofthefollowinggraphsisafunction?

A. C.
2
y
3 y

2.5

1.5 2

1
1.5


0.5

1
0 x
-3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5

-0.5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

0.5


0
-1 -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

-0.5
-1.5

-2
-1

-1.5

B. D.
y
2.5 3 y

2
2

1.5
1

0.5 0 x

0 x
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

-3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5

-0.5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
-1

-1 -2

-1.5 -3

31.WhichisNOTagraphofafunction?
A. B. C. D.

100 30 4 30
80 25 2 25
60
40 20 0 20
20 15 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 15

-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1
0
-20 0 1 2 3
4 5 6
10
-2

-4
10
-40 5 5
-60 -6
-80
-100
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0
-5
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 -8
0
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0
-5
1 2 3 4 5 6

-120

-10 -10 -10

32.WhichofthefollowingisNOTagraphofafunction?

A. y C.
2 2.5
y

1.5
1.5

1
0.5

0 x

0.5 -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

-0.5

0 x -1

-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5


-1.5

-0.5 -2

B. D.
y
1
3 y

0.5

-1.5 -1 -0.5
0
0 0.5 1 1.5
x
1

-0.5

-3 -2 -1
0
0 1 2 3
x

-1

-1

-1.5
-2

-2
-3

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33.Whichofthefollowinggraphsrepresentsafunction?

A. 3
y
C.
3 y

2
2

1
1

0 x
0 x
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

-1
-1

-2
-2

-3

-3


C.
3 y
D.
5
y

2

4

1

3

-3 -2 -1
0
0 1 2 3
x
2


-1
1

-2

x
-3 -2 -1
0
0 1 2 3

-3

34.Whichofthegraphsbelowbestrepresentsthefollowingscenario?Chokwasathomewhenhedecidedtovisithis
friend.Afterafewhours,hewasalreadyathisfriendshousewhichisafewkilometersawayfromhishome.Hestayed
thereforafewhoursandwentbackhome.

A. C.

Distance Distance

Time

Time

B. D.

Distance Distance

Time Time
35.Whichofthegraphsbelowbestrepresentsthefollowingscenario?Avelisrunningatasteadyrateandthencomesto
ahill,whichcauseshimtorunataslowerrate.Oncehereachesthetopofthehill,herunsdownthehillveryfast.Upon
reachingthebottomofthehill,heresumeshisoriginalpace.

A. B.

Speed Speed

Time

Time

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C. D.

Speed Speed

Time Time

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ContentArea:MATHEMATICS
Focus:ProbabilityandStatistics
Preparedby:DaisydeBorjaMarcelino
LET Competencies:

CountingTechniques

Experiment:anyactivitythatcanbedonerepeatedly(e.g.tossingacoin,rollingadie).

Samplespace:thesetofallpossibleoutcomesinanexperiment.
Example:Inrollingadie,thesamplespaceisS={1,2,3,4,5,6}.

Samplepoint:anelementofthesamplespace.
Example:Inrollingadie,thereare6samplepoints.

CountingSamplePoints

1. FundamentalPrincipleofCounting(FPC)
Ifachoiceconsistsofksteps,ofwhichthefirstcanbeperformedinn1ways,foreachofthesethesecondcanbe
performedinn2ways,foreachofthesethethirdcanbeperformedinn3ways,andforeachofthesethekth
canbemadeinnkways,thenthewholechoicecanbemadeinn1n2n3nkways.
Example:Inhowmanywayscantwodicefall? Ans.:66=36ways
2. Permutation
Permutationisanarrangementofobjectswhereintheorderisimportant.

a. LinearPermutation
Ifnobjectsaretobearrangedrobjectsatatime,thenthenumberofdistinctarrangementsisgivenby
!
nPr= , .
!
Example:Inhowmanywayscanthefirst,secondandthirdwinnersmaybechosenwith10contestants?
!
10P3= 10 9 8 720
!
b. CircularPermutation
Ifnobjectsaretobearrangedinacircularmanner,thenthenumberofdistinctarrangementsis(n1)!

Example:Inhowmanywayscan6peoplebearrangedaroundacirculartable?
Answer:(61)!=5!

c. PermutationwithRepetitions

Thenumberofpermutationsofnthingsofwhichn1areoneofakind,n2secondofakind,,nkofakthkindis
n!

n1!n2 !...nk !
Example:HowmanydifferentpermutationsarethereinthewordWAGAYWAYifalllettersaretobetaken?
8!
Answer:
2 !3 !2 !
3. Combination

Combinationisthearrangementofobjectsregardlessoforder.Inotherwords,theorderofarrangingtheobjectsisnot
important.Ifnobjectsaretobearrangedratatime,thenumberofdistinctcombinationsisgivenby:
!
nCr= , .
! !
Example:Inhowmanywayscanacommitteeof3bechosenfrom7persons?
7!
Answer:
3! 4 !
Probability

Probability:thelikelihoodofoccurrenceofanevent.
If E is any event, then the probability of an event denoted by P(E) has a value between 0 and 1, inclusive. In
symbols,
0P(E)1
IfP(E)=1,thenEissuretohappen.
IfP(E)=0,thenEisimpossibletohappen.
Moreover,iftheprobabilitythatEwillnothappenisP(E),thenP(E)+P(E)=1.

TheoreticalProbability
Theoretically,theprobabilityofaneventE,denotedbyP(E),isdefinedas
n( E )
P(E)=
n( S )
wheren(E)=numberoffavorableoutcomes
St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 40
n(S)=numberofpossibleoutcomes

Exercises

1.Acoinisflippedonce.

a. Howmanypossibleoutcomesarethere?
b. Whataretheseoutcomes?
c. Howmanyoftheseoutcomesconsistofafacefacingup?
d. Whatistheprobabilitythatatailfacesup?
2.Aspinnercanlandonanyofthenumbers1through12withequallikelihood.Whatistheprobabilitythatthespinner
landsona/an
a.oddnumber? b.numbergreaterthan12?
c.primenumber? d.numberdivisibleby3or4?
e.numberdivisibleby3and4? f.numberbetween3and9?

3.AboxcontainscardsprintedwiththelettersofthewordPHILIPPINES,sothatPisone3cards,Hisononecard,
andsoon.Acardisdrawnfromthebox.
a.Howmanypossibleoutcomesarethere?
b.Whataretheseoutcomes?
c.Aretheseoutcomesequallylikely?
d.Whatistheprobabilitythatthecarddrawnis
i.aP ii.aH
ii.aI iv.notaP

STATISTICS
Statisticsisthebranchofmathematicsusedtosummarizequantitiesofdataandhelpinvestigatorsdrawsound
conclusions.Itstwomainbranchesaredescriptivestatisticsandinferentialstatistics.
Asampleisaspecifiedsetofmeasurementsordata,whichisdrawnfromamuchlargerbodyofmeasurements
ordatacalledthepopulation.

KindsofSampling
1.Randomsamplingtechniquesareusedtoensurethateverymemberofthepopulationhasanequalchanceofbeing
included in the sample. A random sample is said to be representative of the entire population. The two methods of
randomsamplingarelotterymethodandtheuseofthetableofrandomnumbers.
2.Systematicsamplingisatechniquewhichselectseverynthelementofthepopulationforthesample,withthestarting
pointdeterminedatrandomfromthefirstnelements.
3.Stratifiedrandomsamplingisatechniqueofselectingsimplerandomsamplesfrommutuallyexclusivegroupingsor
strataofthepopulation.
GraphicalRepresentationsofData
Graphsareusedinmathematicstoshowrelationshipsbetweensetsofnumbers.Graphsareusefulinthefieldof
statisticsbecausetheycanshowtherelationshipsinasetofdata.
1.Histogramagraphicalpictureofafrequencydistributionconsistingofaseriesofverticalcolumnsorrectangles,each
drawnwithabaseequaltotheclassintervalandaheightcorrespondingtotheclassfrequency.Thebarsofahistogram
arejoinedtogether,thatis,therearenospacesbetweenbars.
2. Bar Chart uses rectangles or bars to represent discrete classes of data. The length of each bar corresponds to the
frequencyorpercentageofthegivenclassorcategory.Thecategoriesareinturnplacedineitherhorizontal
3.FrequencyPolygonaspecialtypeoflinegraph,whereeachclassfrequencyisplotteddirectlyabovethemidpointor
classmarkofitsclassintervalandlinesarethendrawntoconnectthepoints.
4.PieChartaneffectivewayofpresentingcategorized(qualitative)distributions,whereacircleisdividedintosectors
pieshapedpieceswhichareproportionalinsizetothecorrespondingfrequenciesorpercentages.
5.Pictogramknownaspicturegraphwherepicturesymbolsareusedtorepresentvalues.
MEASURESOFCENTRALTENDENCY

Ameasureofcentraltendencyisasingle,centralvaluethatsummarizesasetofnumericaldata.Itdescribesa
setofdatabylocatingthemiddleregionoftheset.
Measures Definition Howtofind Advantages Disadvantages
ofCentral
Tendency
Mean Thesumofthedata Ungroupeddata: Asingle,unique Notappropriatefor
dividedbythenumberof valuethatis skeweddistribution
data representativeofall asitisaffectedby
=
thescores extremescoresor

outliers
GroupedData:
Stablefromgroupto

group
=
Maybeusedin
further
computations
Median Themiddlenumberof Ungroupeddata: Morestablefrom Notnecessarily
thesetwhenthedataare grouptogroupthan representativeofall

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 41


arrangedinnumerical Themiddleforthe themode scores
order
Appropriatefor Unstablefromgroup

skeweddistribution togroup
GroupedData:



Cannotbeusedin
Mdn=L+ furtheranalyses

Mode Thenumberthatoccurs Ungroupeddata: Easytoobtain Notnecessarily
mostfrequentlyinthe Themostfrequentscore representativeofall
data scores
GroupedData:
Theclassmarkofthe Cannotbeusedin
classintervalwiththe furtheranalyses
highestfrequency
Example: The scores for five students on a quiz are 40, 20, 30, 25, and 15. To find the mean score for this group of
students,wefirstfindthesumofthescores:

40+20+30+25+15=130

Wethendividethesumby5,thenumberofscores:
130
26 .
5

Example:Determinethemedianforthesetofscores
82, 81, 80, 87, 20

Solution:WearrangethescoresinExample1inorderfrolowesttohighest:
20, 80, 81, 82, 87

Themiddlenumberinthisarrangementis81anditisthemedian.

Exercises

1. Themeanscoreonasetof10scoresis71.Whatisthesumofthe10testscores?

2. Themeanscoreonasetof13scoreis77.Whatisthesumofthe13testscores?

3. Themeanscoreonfourofasetoffivescoresis75.Thefifthscoreis90.Whatisthesumofthefivescores?
Whatisthemeanofthefivescores?

4. Twosetsofdataaregiven.Thefirstsetofdatahas10scoreswithameanof70,andthesecondsetofdatahas
20scoreswithameanof80.whatisthemeanforbothsetsofdatacombined?

MEASURESOFVARIABILITY

A measure of variation or variability describes how large the differences between the individual scores. The
commonmeasuresofvariabilityarerangeandstandarddeviation.

Measures Definition Howtofind Advantages Disadvantages


ofVariation

Range The difference between the Ungroupeddata: Easytocompute Unstable


highest score and the lowest R=HSLS
score Givesauniquevalue Not representative
GroupedData: ofthesetofdata
Easytounderstand
R = Upper Limit of
the Highest Class Not used in further
Interval Lower computations
Limit of the Lowest
ClassInterval
Standard The square root of the Ungroupeddata: Moststable Affectedbyextreme
deviation varianceofthesetofdata scores
Givesauniquevalue
S= More difficult to
GroupedData: Mostrepresentative compute and
understand
Used in further
S= computations

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Exercises

1.Onaquiz,thefollowingscoresweremadeinaclassof10students:72,83,86,97,90,70,65,71,80,86.Forthissetof
scores,givethe
a. mean b.median
c. mode d.range
e. midrange f.standarddeviation

2.Jao,Dhei,Nelfe,DadaandChedareallinthesamestatisticsclass.Theirscoresforthefirsttwoexamsintheclassare
listed in the accompanying table. The first exam had a mean of 84 and a standard deviation of 6, whereas the second
examhadameanof78andastandarddeviationof4.
__________________________________
Exam1 Exam2
__________________________________
Jao 84 78
Dhei 90 74
Nelfe 66 78
Dada 78 70
Ched 84 78
__________________________________

a. Whoimprovedonthesecondexam?
b. Whoimprovedthemostonthesecondexam?
c. Whodidnotimproveonthesecondexam?
d. Consideringbothexams,whodidthepoorest?
e. Whoperformedthesameonbothexams?

PRACTICEEXERCISES
1.Inapoliticalsciencesurvey,votersareclassifiedintosixincomecategoriesandfiveeducationcategories.Inhowmany
differentwayscanavoterbeclassified?
A.11 B.25 C.30 D.45
2.Thenumberofpermutationsofthewordprobabilitiesis
A.13 B.2!3! C.13! D.13!/(2!3!)
3.Thenumberofwayssevenvisitorscanbeseatedonaroundtableis
A.6! B.7! C.6!7! D.6!/2
4.Inacertaintown,40%ofthepeoplehavebrownhair,25%havebrowneyes,and15%havebothbrownhairandbrown
eyes.Apersonisselectedatrandomfromthetown.Ifhehasbrowneyes,whatistheprobabilitythathedoesnothave
brownhair?
A.3/8 B.2/5 C. D.noneofthese
5.Adieistossed.Ifthenumberisodd,whatistheprobabilitythatitisprime?
2 3 2 1
A. B. C. D.
3 4 5 3
6. An accounting professor can assign grades of A, B, C, D, or F to students examinations. In how many ways can the
professorassigngradestothreedifferentstudentexaminations?
A.120ways B.125ways C.25ways D.50ways
7.Abagcontains15redbeads,30whitebeads,20bluebeads,and7blackbeads.Ifoneofthebeadsasdrawnatrandom,
whatistheprobabilitythatitwillbewhiteorblue?
25 15 13 17
A. B. C. D.
36 42 40 52
8.Awholenumberischosenatrandomfromthewholenumbersfrom1to50.Whatistheprobabilitythatitisaneven
square?
A.0.07 B.0.06 C.0.02 D.0.09
9.Apairofdiceistossed.Ifthenumbersappearingaredifferent,findtheprobabilitythatthesumiseven.

1 2 2
A. B. C. D.noneofthese
2 3 5
10.Ifrepetitionsarenotpermitted,howmany3digitsnumberlessthan400canbeformedfromthedigits2,3,5,6,7
and9?
A.30 B.126 C.40 D.162
11.Inhowmanydifferentwayscanatruefalsetestbeanswerediftherearefiveitems,assumingthatthestudentgive
ananswerforeachitem.
2 5
A.5! B.2! C. 5 D. 2
12.Therearefivemusicalnumbersinaprogram.Thenumberofwaysthesenumberscanbepresentedis
D. 5! / 3!2!
5
A.5 B.5! C. 2
13.Thenumbersofpermutationsofthewordprobabilitiesis
A.13 B.13! C.2!3! D. 13! / 2!3!

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 43


14.Thenumberofwayssevenstudentscanbeseatedonaroundtableis
A.6! B.6!7! C.7! D.6!/2
15.Howmanydifferentsignals,eachconsistingof6flagshunginaverticalline,canbeformedfrom4identicalredflags
and2identicalblueflags?
A.6! B. 6 4 ! C.4!2! D.6! 4!2!
16.Theprobabilityofgettingablackheartis
A.0 B. 1 4 C.1 D. 1 52
17. In a certain town, 40% of the people have brown hair, 25% have brown eyes, and 15% have both brown hair and
browneyes.Apersonisselectedatrandomfromthetown.Ihehasbrowneyes,whatistheprobabilitythathedoesnot
havebrownhair?
A. 3 8 B. 1 2 C. 2 5 D.Noneofthese
Foritems1820:Thescoresof10studentsinaMathquizareasfollows:

Student A B C D E F G H I J
Score 18 32 10 15 27 18 23 28 29 30

18.Whatisthemedianscore?
A.18 B.20 C.23 D.25
19.Whatisthemodeofthescores?
A.18 B.20 C.23 D.25
20.Whatistherangeofscores?
A.18 B.22 C.23 D.25
21.Jojoaimstogetanaverageof90in5unittests.Theresultsofthefirstfourunittestsareasfollows:89,92,86,and
91.Whatshouldhisgradeinthefifthunitbeforhisaveragetobeatleast90?
A.91 B.92 C.93 D.94

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 44


LICENSUREEXAMINATIONFORTEACHERS(LET)

RefresherCourse

ContentArea:MATHEMATICS
Focus:Calculus
Preparedby:DaisydeBorjaMarcelino
LETCompetencies:

Solvefortherootsofagivenquadraticequation
Solveproblemsonquadraticequations
Determineanequationgivenasetofrootswhichareimaginary/complexnumbers
Performoperationsinvolvingexponentialandlogarithmicfunctions
Solveforthesolutionsetofagiveninequality
Determinetherthtermoftheexpansion(a+b)n
Solveproblemsinvolvingvariations
Determinethenumberofpositiveandnegativerootsofagivenpolynomial

Equations
Anequationthatcontainsatleastonevariableiscalledanopensentence.Equations b & c aboveareexamples
of open sentences. In equation b, only 1 makes the sentence true or satisfies the equation. However, more than one
numbermightsatisfyanequation.Forexample,+2and2satisfytheequation x 4 0 .Anynumberthatsatisfiesan
2

equationiscalledasolutionorroottotheequation.Thesetofnumbersfromwhichyoucanselectreplacementsforthe
variableiscalledthereplacementset.Thesetofallsolutionstoanequationiscalledthesolutionsettotheequation.To
solveanequationmeanstofindallofitssolutions.

QUADRATICEQUATION
Anequationoftheformax2+bx+c=0wherea 0,a,b,andcareconstants,isaquadraticequation.

ROOTSOFQUADRATICEQUATIONS
Tosolveaquadraticequationmeanstofindthevalueofx(unknown)thatwillsatisfythegivenequation.The
valuesofxthatwillmaketheequationtruearecalledtherootsorsolutionofthequadraticequation.

MethodsofFindingtheRootsofaQuadraticEquation

1.Factoring(Usethismethodifthequadraticequationisfactorable)

Example:Determinetherootsofx28x15=0

Solution:Factoringtheleftsideoftheequation,
(x5)(x3)=0

Equatingeachfactortozero,
(x5)=0 (x3)=0
x=5 x=3
2.QuadraticFormula
b b 2 4ac
Thequadraticformulais x
2a

BINOMIALFORMULA

Toobtainthetermsofthebinomialexpansion(a+b)n,weusethebinomialformula:

n 1 n ( n 1)a n 2 b 2 n ( n 1)( n 2)a n 3 b 3


(a+b)n= a na
n
b ... nab n 1 b n
2! 3!

THErthTERMOFTHEEXPANSION(a+b)n

n (n 1)(n 2)...(n r 2)a n r 1 b r 1


rthterm=
(r 1)!

EXPONENTIALFUNCTIONS

The exponential function f with base b is denoted by f(x)=bx,


where b > 0 , b 1, and x is any real number.

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 45


Propertiesoff(x)=bx

fhasthesetofrealnumbersasitsdomain.
fhasthesetofpositiverealnumbersasitsrange.
fhasagraphwithayinterceptof(0,1).
fisaonetoonefunction.
fhasagraphasymptotictothexaxis.
fisanincreasingfunctionifb>1andfisadecreasingfunctionif0<b<1.

Anexponentialfunctionhasaconstantbaseandavariableexponent.

TheNaturalExponentialFunction

Forallrealnumbersx,thefunctiondefinedby f ( x) e x iscalledthenaturalexponentialfunction.Notethate
isanirrationalnumberanditsaccuratevaluetoeightplacesis2.71828183.

EXPONENTIALEQUATIONS
Anequationwheretheunknownquantityappearsinanexponentiscalledanexponentialequation.

SOLVINGEXPONENTIALEQUATIONS
Tosolveanexponentialequationistofindthevalueoftheunknownquantityinthegivenequation.

LOGARITHMICFUNCTIONS

For x > 0, b > 0, and b 1, we have y = log a(x) if and


only if ay = x.

Note:
1.Ifthebaseofthelogarithmisnotindicateditisunderstoodthatthebaseis10.
2.Ifthebaseofthelogarithmisthenumbere,thenitiscalledanaturallogarithmanditiswrittenasf(x)=lnx.

Propertiesof f x logb x

fhasthesetofpositiverealnumbersasitsdomain.
fhasthesetofrealnumbersasitsrange.
fhasagraphwithaxinterceptof(1,0).
fisaonetoonefunction.
fhasagraphasymptotictotheyaxis.
fisanincreasingfunctionifb>1andfisadecreasingfunctionif0<b<1.

Remarks

Logarithmicfunctionsaretheinverseofexponentialfunctions.
Wecanusetherulesofexponentswithlogarithms.
Thetwomostcommonlogarithmsarecalledcommonlogarithmsandnaturallogarithms.Commonlogarithms
haveabaseof10,andnaturallogarithmshaveabaseofe.
Equationinexponentialformcanberewritteninlogarithmicform,andviceversa.

The exponential form of is .

The logarithmic form of is .

Example1:Theexponentialequation72=49maybewrittenintermsofalogarithmicequationaslog7(49)=2.

1 1
Example 2: The exponential equation 93 = 3
or may be written in terms of a logarithmic equation as log9
9 729
1
=3
729

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 46


BasicPropertiesofLogarithms

Property1:loga(1)=0becausea0=1.

Example1:Intheequation220=1,thebaseis22andtheexponentis0.Rememberthatalogarithmisanexponent,and
thecorrespondinglogarithmicequationislog22(1)=0,wherethe0istheexponent.

0
2 2
Example2:Intheequation =1,thebaseis andtheexponentis0.Rememberthatalogarithmisanexponent,
5 5
andthecorrespondinglogarithmicequationis log 2 1=0.
5

Property2:loga(a)=1becausea1=a

Example3:Intheequation71 =7,thebaseis7,theexponentis1,andtheansweris7.Sincealogarithmisanexponent,
andthecorrespondinglogarithmicequationislog77=1

Example4:Usetheexponentialequationm1=mtowritealogarithmicequation.Ifthebasemisgreaterthan0,thenlogm
(m)=1.

Property3:loga(a)x=xbecauseax=ax

Example5:Since92=92,wemaywritethelogarithmicequationwithbase9aslog992=2.

Example6:Sinceyouknowthat112=112,wemaywritethelogarithmicequationwithbase11aslog11112=2.

INEQUALITIES
Anyrelationexpressedusingthesymbols<,>,>or<iscalledaninequality.
Anabsoluteinequalityisaninequalitywhichisalwaystrue.Aconditionalinequalityisonewhichistrueonlyfor
certainvaluesofthevariableinvolved.
1.4>3isanabsoluteinequality
2.x>3isaconditionalinequality

PROPERTIESOFINEQUALITIES
Leta,b,c,&dberealnumbers.Thefollowinghold.
1.TrichotomyProperty
a>bora<bora=b
2.a>bifab>0
a<bifab<0
3.
a.Ifa>0andb>0,thena+b>0andab>0.
b.Ifa<0andb<0,thena+b<0andab>0

4.Transitivity

Ifa<bandb<cthena<c.

5.AdditionProperty

Ifa<bandc<d,thena+c<b+d

6.MultiplicationProperty

Ifa<bandc>0,thenac<bc
Ifa<bandc<0,thenac>bc

SOLVINGINEQUALITIES

Tosolveaninequalitymeanstofindthevalueoftheunknownthatwillmaketheinequalitytrue.

POLYNOMIALFUNCTION
Thefunctiondefinedbytheequation
f(x)=a0xn+a1xn1+a2xn2+...+an2x2+an1x+an

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 47


wherenisanonnegativeintegeranda0,a1,...,anareconstants,a0, 0 isapolynomialfunctioninxofdegreen.
Thezerosorrootsoff(x)arethenumbersthatwillmakef(x)=0.

TheNumberofPositiveandNegativeRootsofaPolynomialFunction
Iff(x)isapolynomialfunctionwithrealcoefficients,thenthefollowingaretrue.
Thenumberofpositiverealzerosoff(x)iseitherequaltothenumberofvariationsinsigninf(x),ortothatnumber
diminishedbyapositiveeveninteger.

Thenumberofnegativerealzerosoff(x)iseitherequaltothenumberofvariationsinsigninf(x),ortothatnumber
diminishedbyapositiveeveninteger.

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 48


LICENSUREEXAMINATIONFORTEACHERS(LET)

Refresher Course

ContentArea:MATHEMATICS
Focus:ARITHMETIC,NUMBERTHEORYANDBUSINESSMATH
Preparedby:DaisydeBorjaMarcelino
Competencies:

1.Simplifyingexpressionsinvolvingseriesofoperations
2.Solveproblemsinvolving
a.GFCandLCMF
b.primeandcomposite
c.divisibility
d.inverseandpartitiveproportions
e.compoundinterest
f.congruence
g.linearDiophantineEquation
3.ApplyEulersfunctionandtheorems,orFermatstheoreminsolvingproblem.


THENUMBERSYSTEM



















Example:Someexamplesofimaginarynumbersare: 25 , 49 , negative numbers ,3i,7i.

Example:Simplify:2(3+2i)5(46i)

Solution:2(3+2i)5(46i)=(6+4i)(2030i)=6+4i20+30i=16+34i.

Rationalnumbersarenumberswhichcanbeexpressedasquotientoftwointegers,orcanbeexpressedasfractionsin
2
simplestforms.Examplesare8,3,3.45,and .
3
Irrationalnumbersarenumberswhichcannotbeexpressedasfractionsinsimplestforms.Examplesare 3 ,4 7 ,,e
3
and .
3
Set of Natural/Counting numbers: {1, 2, 3, 4, }. This set contains the numbers that we use in counting; also called
naturalnumbers.
SetofWholeNumbers:{0,1,2,3,}.Thissetistheunionofthenumberzeroandthesetofcountingnumbers.

SetofIntegers:{,3,2,1,0,1,2,3,}.Thissetistheunionofthesetofcountingnumbers,theirnegatives,andzero

II. THE COUNTING NUMBERS



A.Divisibility.Anintegerisdivisiblebyacertaindivisor(alsoaninteger)ifitcanbedividedexactlybythatdivisor.Thatis,
theremainderiszeroafterthedivisionprocessiscompleted.
Toillustrate,theinteger12isdivisibleby1,2,3,4,6,and12.

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 49


Todeterminewhethertheintegerisdivisiblebyacertainintegerornot,youmayusethefollowingdivisibility
rules.

Anintegerisdivisibleby
a) 2ifitendswith0,2,4,6,or8.(Examples:134or12or12,330or4)
b) 3ifthesumofthedigitsisdivisibleby3.(Examples:132or18or12,330or45)
c) 4ifthelasttwodigitsformanumberwhichisdivisibleby4.(Examples:13,412or12,332)
d) 5ifitendswith0or5.(Examples:135or10or12,330or495)
e) 6ifitendswith0,2,4,6,8andthesumofthedigitsisdivisibleby3.(Examples:134or12)
f) 7ifthedifferenceobtainedaftersubtractingtwicethelastdigitfromthenumberformedbytheremainingdigits
isdivisibleby7.(Examples:14or364)
g) 8ifthelastthreedigitsformanumberwhichisdivisibleby8.(Examples:24160or5328)
h) 9ifthesumofthedigitsisdivisibleby9.(Examples:9,432or18,504or270)
i) 10ifitendswith0.(Examples:120or7,890or1,230)
j) 11ifthedifferencebetweenthesumofthedigitsontheevenpowersof10andthesumofthedigitsontheodd
powersof10isdivisibleby11.(Examples:2123or2816or94369or36465)
k) 12ifitisbothdivisibleby3and4.(Examples:413,412or112,332)
l) 15ifitisbothdivisibleby3and5.(Examples:150or350)

Remarks:Divisibilityrulesfortwoormorerelativelyprimenumbers(GCFis1)maybecombinedtoserveasadivisibility
rulefortheirproduct.

Example:Therulesfor3,4,and5maybecombinedtoserveastherulefortheirproductwhichis60since3,4,and5are
relativelyprime.

Exercises: Put a check mark on the space provided for, if the integer on the first column divides exactly the integer on the
top row.

456 36,720 800,112 456 36,720 800,112


2 10
3 11
4 12
5 14
6 24
7 32
8 45
9 77

Evennumbersarewholenumberswhichcanbedividedexactlybytwowholenumbers.

Oddnumbersarewholenumberswhichcannotbedividedexactlybytwowholenumbers.

Example:Ifn3isodd,whichofthefollowingistrue?
I.nisodd II.n2isodd III.n2+1isodd

A)IIonly C)Ionly
B)IandIIonly D)IandIIIonly

Example:Ifxisanoddintegerandyisaneveninteger,whichofthefollowingisanoddinteger?
2
A.2xy C. x + 3y
2
B. x + y - 1 D. x - 1
B. Factors and Multiples. In the number sentence 2 x 3 = 6, the numbers 2 and 3 are called factors, while 6 is their
product.Orwesay,2and3aredivisorsof6.Moreover,wesaythat6isamultipleof2and3.

Example:Howmanyfactorsdoes42have?
A)2 B)4 c)5 D)16
Answer:(C).Thefactorsof42=16are{1,2,4,8,16}.
Example:Whatarethemultiplesof6?
Answer:Themultiplesof12are{12,24,36,48,}

ExercisesFillintheblankswitheither7or42.
a. ______isafactorof______.
b. ______isdivisibleby______.
c. ______isadivisorof______.
d. ______isamultipleof______.
e. ______divides_______.

C.PrimeandCompositeNumbers

Primenumbersarecountingnumbersthathaveexactlytwofactorsinthesetofcountingnumbers:1anditself.

Compositenumbersarecountingnumbersthathavemorethantwofactorsinthesetofcountingnumbers.
St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 50

Thenumbers0and1arespecialnumbers.Theyareneitherprimenorcomposite.

Example:Whatisthesumofprimenumberslessthan15?
A)4 B)5 C)6 D)14
Answer:Thenumber2,3,5,7,11and13areprimenumberlessthan15.Hence,theanswerisC.

D.PrimeFactorization.Thisisaprocessofexpressinganumberasproductofprimefactors.

Example: Express24asproductofprimefactors.
Solution: 24=2x2x2x3=23x3or3x23.

FundamentalTheoremofArithmetic
Everycompositewholenumberscanbeexpressedastheproductofprimesinexactlyoneway(theorderofthe
factorsisdisregarded).

E.TheGreatestCommonFactor(GCF)

TheGCFoftwoormorenumbersisthelargestpossibledivisorofthegivennumbers.

Example:DeterminetheGCFof12and42.
Solution: 24=2x2x3
42=2x3x7
GCF:2x3=6

Example:Whatisthegreatestintegerthatcandividethenumbers18,24and36?
Solution: 18=3x3x2
24=3x2x2x2
36=3x3x2x2
GCF:3x2=6

F.LeastCommonMultiple(LCM).TheLCMoftwoormorenumbersisthesmallestpossiblenumberthatcanbedivided
bythegivennumbers.
Example:GivetheLCMof20and30.
Solution: 20=2x2x5=22x5
30=2x3x5
LCM:22x3x5=60.

Example:Whatisthesmallestintegerthatcanbedividedbythenumbers24,36and54?
Solution: 24=2x2x2x3=23x3
36=2x2x3x3=22x32
54=2x3x3x3=2x33
LCM:23x33=216
G.RelativelyPrime.TwonumbersarerelativelyprimeiftheirGCFis1.Thenumbersthemselvesmaynotbeprime.The
numbers12and49arerelativelyprime.

Example: Whichofthefollowingpairsarerelativelyprimetoeachother?
A)15and36 B)23and51 C)231and27 D)121and330

III.INTEGERS

Consecutiveintegersaretwoormoreintegers,writteninsequence,inwhicheachintegerafterthefirstis1morethan
theprecedinginteger.
Examples: 1,2,3,4,5,6
3,4,5,6,7,8

4,3,2,1,0,1,2,3
x,x+1,x+2,x+3,x+4,x+5

Theabsolutevalueofanumberx,denotedbyx,istheundirecteddistancebetweenxand0onthenumberline.

54321012345

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 51
Itisalsodefinedas

xifx0
x=xifx<0

Examples:
Evaluateeachofthefollowing.
a) 2=2 c)0=0

b) 7=7 d)15=15

A.Multiplication.Theproductoftwointegerswithlikesignsisapositivewhiletheproductoftwointegerswithunlike
signsisnegative.

Example: (4)x7=(28) or(4)(7)=(28) or(4)7=(28)


Example: (8)x(5)=40 or(8)(5)=40 or(8)(5)=40

B.Division.Thequotientoftwointegerswithlikesignsisapositivewhilethequotientoftwointegerswithunlikesignsis
negative.

Example: (72)(8)=9
Example: (123)3=41

C.Addition.Thesumoftwointegerswithlikesignsisthesumoftheirabsolutevalueswiththecommonsignprefixed
beforeit.

Thesumoftwointegerswithunlikesignsisthedifferenceoftheirabsolutevalueswiththesignoftheinteger
withthelargerabsolutevalueprefixedbeforethedifference.

Example:(3)+(23)=(26)
Example:(34)+12=(22)

D. Subtraction. Express subtraction statements as addition statements and follow the procedure in addition. (That is,
changethesignofthesubtrahendtoitsopposite,andproceedtoaddition.)
Example:(12)(3)=(12)+3=9

Exercise:Whatnumbershould
a) beaddedto(12)toyield26?
b) besubtractedfrom(2)toyield5?
c) bemultipliedby(4)toyield(36)?
d) bedividedby(2)toyield30?
E.PEMDAS.PEMDASstandsforParenthesisExponentMultiplicationDivisionAdditionSubtraction.

Whentwoormoreoperationsareinvolvedinasingleexpression,operationsareperformedintheorderofPE
MDAS. That is, we perform first the operation inside the parenthesis (or any grouping symbol), then followed by
determiningthepowerofthenumberwhichisraisedtoagivenexponent,thenfollowedbymultiplication/division,and
lastlybytheaddition/subtraction.
Shouldtherebemultiplicationanddivisiononly,performtheoperationfromlefttoright.
Shouldtherebeadditionandsubtractiononly,performtheoperationfromlefttoright.

Example: Simplify20+100(56332+12)

Solution: 20+100(56332+12)
=20+100(5639+12)
=20+100(57+12)
=20+100((2)+12)
=20+10010
=20+10
=30.

1.Twobellsringat5P.M.Fortherestoftheday,onebellringseveryhalfhourwhereastheotherringsevery45minutes.
Whenisthefirsttime,onthatsameday,thatbothbellsringatthesametimeagain?
a.6:30P.M. b.8:30P.M. c.8:45P.M. d.9:00P.M.

2.Whichistrue?
a.Thesetofprimefactorsof6is{1,2,3} c.Allprimenumbersareoddnumbers.
St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 52
b.Theproductofirrationalandrationalisirrational. d.3.14isarationalnumber.

3.Whichofthetwodigitnumbersbelowwheninsertedintheblankwillmake38__09divisibleby3?
a.98 b.84 c.34 d.60

4.Whichofthefollowingnumberisdivisibleby45?
a.300,000,000,450 b.600,000,000,045 c.100,200,600,090 d.400,450,000,000

5. On its anniversary, a certain store offers a free sandwich for every 4th customer and a free softdrink for every 6th
customer.After75customers,howmanyhadreceivedbothfreesandwichandsoftdrink?
a.30 b.18 c.12 d.6

IV.FRACTIONS

KindsofFractions

Astorelationbetweenthenumeratorandthedenominator
a. Properthenumeratorislessthanthedenominator
b. Improperthenumeratorisequaltoorgreaterthanthedenominator

Astorelationofthedenominatorsoftwoormorefractions
1 3 4
a. Similarthedenominatorsareequal.Examples:, ,
5 5 5
3 5 5
b. Dissimilarthedenominatorsarenotequal.Examples: , ,
4 8 6

Otherclasses
3 6 12
a. Equivalentfractionshavingthesamevalue.Examples: , , .
4 8 14
3 5
b. Mixedcomposedofawholenumberandaproperfraction.Examples: 2 , 5 .
4 8
RulesinvolvingZero
a. Zeronumeratorandnonzerodenominatorthevalueiszero
b. Zerodenominatornovalue,undefined
c. Zerovaluethenumeratoriszero

A.MultiplicationofFractions.Multiplynumeratorbynumeratoranddenominatorbydenominatortogetthenumerator
anddenominatorrespectivelyoftheproduct
12 5 60 2
Example: or .
25 6 150 5

B.DivisionofFractions.Multiplythesupposeddividendbythereciprocalofthesupposeddivisor.
36 6 36 10 360 12 2
Example: = or 2 .
25 10 25 6 150 5 5
1 2 19 3
Exercises:Evaluatethefollowing. a) 2 3 b) 2 5
4 5 21 20
1 7 5 1
c) 2 1 d) 3 1
3 18 15 6
D.ChangingDissimilarFractionstoSimilarFractions.DeterminetheLCMofthedenominators.ThenwiththesaidLCMas
thedenominator,expresseachfractiontoitsequivalent.

1 3 5
Example: Express , , tosimilarfractions.
3 4 6

1 4 4 3 3 9 5 2 10
Solution: = , = and =
3 4 12 4 3 12 6 2 12
4 9 10
Therefore,thesimilarfractionsare , and .
12 12 12

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 53


E.Additionoffractions.Convertthefractionstosimilarfractions.Thenaddthenumeratorstoobtainthenumeratorof
thesumandcopythedenominator.
1 3 5
Example: Evaluate + + .
3 4 6

Solution: TheLCMis12,soconverttheaddendstosimilarfractionswith24asthe
denominator.
1 3 5 4 9 10 23 11
+ + = + or 1 .
3 4 6 12 12 12 12 12

F.SubtractionofFractions.Convertthefractionstosimilarfractions.Thensubtractthe
numeratorstoobtainthenumeratorofthedifferenceandcopythedenominator.

7 1
Example:Whatnumbershouldbesubtractedfrom toobtain ?
12 2

Solution:Letthedesirednumberbex.Then,theequationisgivenby
7 1 7 1 7 6 1
x= x= = = .
12 2 12 2 12 12 12

G.FractionasPartofaWhole
3
Example:Whatis of28?
4
Solution:Letthedesirednumberbem.Then,theequationisgivenby
3 3 28 84
M= 28 21 .
4 4 1 4

Example:Whatpartof24is4?
Solution:Letthedesirednumberbeq.Then,theequationisgivenby
q24=4

4 1
q= or .
24 6
H.SimplifyingFractions
Afractionisinsimplestformifthenumeratorandthedenominatorarerelativelyprime(theirGCFis1).Thus,to
simplify fractions, multiply by the fraction whose numerator and denominator are the reciprocal of the GCF of the
numeratorandthedenominatorofthegivenfraction.

12 2 12 2 6 2
Example:Thesimplestformof is because .
18 3 18 3 6 3

I.OrderingFractions


Twofractionsareequivalentiftheircrossproductsareequal.Otherwise,thatfractionthenumeratorofwhich
wasusedtogetthegreaterofthetwocrossproductsisthelargerfraction.

Exercises

1.A100mwireiscutintotwopartssothatonepartisoftheother.Howlongistheshorterpieceofwire?
a.120m b.80m c.25m d.20m

2.Luisleftpanofacakeonthetable.Dadaateofit.Whatfractionofcakewasleft?
a.1/8 b.3/8 c. d.

n
3.If 21 and areequivalentfractions,whatisthevalueofn?
39 26
a.13 b.14 c.20 d.21
5 1
4.Mr.delaCruzowned ofabusiness.Hesold ofhisshareinthebusinessatacostofP1M.Whatisthetotalcost
8 5
ofthebusiness?
a.P6M b.P7M c.P8M d.P9M
5.Arrangethefractions5/8,4/5,3/4inincreasingorder.
a. 5/8,4/5,3/4 c.3/4,4/5,5/8
b. 4/5,3/4,5/8 d.4/5,5/8,3/4

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6.Whichofthesefractionshasthelargestvalue?
a.3/5 b.11/16 c.7/10 d.5/8
7.Markspenthismonthlysalaryasfollows:3/5forfoodandallowances,1/3forhischildseducationandhouserental.
IfhismonthlysalaryisP15,000,howmuchwouldheleftattheendofthemonth?
a.P1,000 b.P2,000 c.P5,000 d.P14,000

8.ChedyandDadarunforPresidentfortheirorganization.Chedygot1/3ofthevotes.IfDadagot300votes,howmany
studentsvotedforChedy?
a.900 b.200 c.150 d.100

V.DECIMALNUMBERS

A.TheDecimalNumbersandtheplacevaluechart

Theplacevaluechart

Hundred Thousands

Hundred Thousand

Ten Thousandths
Thousandths

Hundredths
Ten Thousand

Thousands

Hundreds


Tenths


Ones
Tens

1000001000010001001010.10.010.0010.00010.00001

Thenumber0.8isreadaseighttenthsand.214astwohundredfourteenthousandths.
Thenumber0.8isequalto.800.
Thenumber0.8isgreaterthan0.214.
Exercise:a)Arrangethefollowingdecimalnumbersinascendingorder:
0.5,0.343,0.142,0.5254

b)In2.3456,whatdigitisinthethousandthsplace?

B.AdditionandSubtractionofDecimalNumbers.Additionofdecimalsisdonebywritingtheminacolumnsothattheir
decimalpointsarealigned.Thusaligned,digitswiththesameplacevalueswouldbeinthesamecolumn,andtheaddends
(ortheminuendandthesubtrahend)areadded(orsubtracted)asiftheywerewholenumbers.
C.MultiplicationofDecimalNumbers.Tomultiplydecimals,multiplythenumbersasiftheywerewholeandsoplacethe
decimalpointintheresultastohaveasmanydecimalplacesinitasthereareinthefactorscombined.
D.DivisionofDecimalNumbers.

Todividea
i. decimalbyawholenumber,doasindividingwholenumbersbutwritingthedecimalpointdirectlyabovethatof
thedividend.
ii. numberbyadecimal,multiplybothdividendanddivisorbythatpoweroftensuchthatthedivisorbecomesthe
leastwholenumber,andthenproceedasin(i)above.

VI.CONVERSION

A.FractiontoDecimal.Dividethenumeratorbythedenominator.

Exercises:Convertthefollowingtodecimal:
a) 3/5=______
b) 5/6=______
c) 7/8=______

B.Decimaltofraction

a)Terminatingmultiplythenumberbyafraction(equaltoone)whosenumeratoranddenominatorisamultipleof10
suchthatthenumeratoroftheproductisawholenumber.

Example: Convert0.15tofraction.

100 15 3
Solution: 0.15 =
100 100 20

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 55


b)Repeatingdecimalnumber

Example: Convert 0.5 tofraction


Solution: Letn= 0.5 = 0.5555555.

10n= 5.5555555.
n= 0.5555555.

9n=5
5
n=
9
5
Hence, 0.5 isequalto .
9

Exercises

1.Jeepneyfaresarecomputedasfollows:P7.50forthefourkilometersplusP0.50foreveryadditionalkilometerthereof.
HowmuchshouldAupayforaridethatcovers10kilometers?
a.P8.00 b.P9.50 c.P10.00 d.P10.50
2.Whichofthefollowingis0.3of ?
a. b. c. d.
3.Whichofthefollowingisbetween3and4?
15
a. 5 b.3.5 c. d.
2
4.Evaluate14.8+3.95+.003.
a.5433 b.753 c.446 d.18.753
5.Carmenbought4kilogramsofriceatP31.45perkiloand6kilogramsofsaltatP22.35perkilo.IfshegaveaP1000bill
tothecashier,howmuchchangedidsheget?
a.P8.00 b.P9.50 c.P120.10 d.P740.10
6.Eachcapsuleofacertaincommercialvitaminscontains0.6mgofcalcium.Inhowmanypiecesofcapsulescan22.2mg
ofcalciumbedistributed?
a.8 b.37 c.50 d.105
7.Whichofthefollowingisequalto2.4545454545?
5 5 44 44
a. b.2 c. d.2
11 11 45 45

1 1 1
8.Theexpression + + isequalto_____________.
100 1000 25
a.0.0051 b.0.006 c.0.51 d.0.051
9.Whichofthesenumbersisgreaterthan?
a..04 b.(1/2)2 c.1/8 d.1/0.04

VII.PERCENT

PerCentliterallymeaningperhundred,itisonewayofwritingfractionsinwhichthedenominatorwhichisrequired
tobe100iswrittenas%,andreadaspercent.
3 75 1
Since1=100%hence =75%
4 100 4

A.CONVERSION
PercenttoDecimalNumber.Dividethenumberby100%.Notethat100%=1.

Example:Convertthefollowingtodecimal:
a) 35% c)8.37%
1 1
b) 6 % d) %
4 4

Solution: a)(35%)100%=0.35
b)(6%)100% (6.25%)100%=.0625
c) (8.37)100%=.0837
d) (1/4%)100% (0.25%)100%=.0025

DecimalNumberstoPercent.Multiplythedecimalnumberby100%.Notethat100%=1.

Example: Convertthefollowingtopercent.

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a) 0.25 b)0.143 c)2.03 d).005

Solution: a)0.25x100%=25% b)0.143x100%=14.3%


c)2.03x100%=203% d).005x100%=0.5%

Exercises:Fillintheblankssothattheentriesineachrowareequal.
Fraction Decimal Percent
A 4/7
B 160%
C 0.95
D 6/11
E %
B.Percentage.Percentageisapercentofagivennumber.Thegivennumberiscalledthebase.Thepercentiscalledthe
rate.

Formula:Percentage(P)=Base(B)xRate(R)

and

Example: Whatis50%of140?
Solution: N=0.50x140=70.00=70

Example: 36is10%ofwhatnumber?
36
Solution: 36=0.10 N N 360
0.10

Example: 22iswhatpercentof88?
Solution: 22=P 88
22
P 0.25 100% 25%
88
Example: Mr.Ballaranreceivesa10%increaseinhissalary.Withtheincrease,henowreceivesP22,000.How
muchishismonthlysalarybeforetheincrease?
Solution: presentsalary=previoussalary+increase
22,000=previoussalary+(10%ofprevioussalary)
22,000=previoussalary(1+.10)
220001.1=previoussalary
20,000 =previoussalary

C.Discount

ThediscussiononDISCOUNTisverysimilarwiththediscussiononPERCENTAGE.
OriginalPrice/MarkedPrice/Listprice astheBase
RateofDiscount astheRate
Discount asthePercentage
SellingPrice OriginalPriceminusDiscount

Example: AskirtwithanoriginalpriceofP250isbeingsoldat40%discount.Finditssellingprice.

Solution: S.P. =OriginalpriceDiscount


=250(0.40x250)
= 250100
= 150

Example: AnitemhasasellingpriceofP210.00.Ifthesellingpriceis70%oftheoriginalprice,whatisitsoriginal
price?
Solution: Sellingpriceis70%oftheoriginalprice
210=0.70O.P.
O.P.=2100.70=300.
Therefore,theoriginalpriceisP300.

Example: AshirtisbeingsoldatP199.95.IfitsoriginalpriceisP430,findtherateofdiscount.
Solution: Discount=O.P.S.P.
=430199.95=230.05
230.05
RateofDiscount= 100% 53.5%
430

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 57


D. Simple Interest
Interest(I)istheamountpaidfortheuseofmoneyorthemoneyearnedfordepositingthemoney.
Principal(P)isthemoneythatisborrowedordeposited.
Time(t)isthenumberofdays/months/yearsforwhichthemoneyisbeingborrowed/depositedandinterestis
calculated.

I=Prt,P= t= r=
Example: Give the simple
interest of P10,000 for three years
at5.5%peryear.
Solution: I=Prt
I=(10000)(.055)(3)
I=P1100.

Example: Determinetheamountoftheprincipaliftheinterestat10%perannumafter8monthsis
P3,600.
I 3600
Solution: I=Prt P = =45,000
rt (0.10)(8 / 12)

Compound Interest ( Final Amount = P[ 1 + r ]n )

Compound interest is different from simple interest because after the first interest calculation, the interest is added
to the principal, so interest is earned on previous interest in addition to the principal. Compound Interest rates may be
given as annual (1 time a year), semiannual (2 times a year), quarterly (4 times a year), monthly (12 times a year), and daily
(365 times a year).
Example: If P500is invested at 8% compounded semiannually, what will the final amount be after three years?
Final Amount = P[ 1 + r ]n = 500[ 1 + (8% / 2)]3 * 2 = 500[ 1 + 0.04 ]6
= 500[1.27]
= 635
Exercises

1.JohnboughtajacketforPhp850.00.Ifhewasgivenadiscountof15%,whatwastheoriginalprice?
a.P8,500.00 b.P1,000.00 c.P900.00 d.P765.00
2.Inabasket,thereare15santol,12balimbing,and3durian.Whatpercentofthefruitsaredurian?
a.10% b.12.5% c.12% d.15%
3.AcertainmobilephonemodelwassoldforP4,000in2000.Twoyearslater,thesamemobilephonemodelsoldfor
P2,800.Whatwasthepercentdecreaseoftheprice?
a.15% b.30% c.20% d.35%
4.If is50%ofalargerfigure,whichofthefollowingisthelargerfigure?
a. b. c. d.
5.Aseniorclassof50girlsand70boyssponsoredadance.If40%ofthegirlsand50%ofthe
boysattendedthedance,approximatelywhatpercentattended?
a44 b.46 c.42 d.40
1
6.Whichofthefollowingisequalto 2 % ?
2
5
a.2.5 b.0.25 c. d.0.025
2
7.SarahsearningP9,200amonthwillreceivea15%increasenextmonth.Howmuch
willhernewsalarybe?
a.P10,500 b.P10,530 c.P10,580 d.P10,560
8.Howmuchis37%of80%of24?
a.7.1 b.1.92 c.19.2 d.71
9.Accordingtothelatestsurvey,60%ofthecancerpatientsweresmokers.Iftherewere180smokingcancerpatients,
howmanycancerpatientsarethereinall?
a.90 b.108 c.240 d.300
10.Whichofthefollowingis70%of50?
a.7 b.17.5 c.35 d.71
11.Twentyfouris12%ofwhatnumber?
a.40 b.150 c.200 d.400
12.Thirtysixiswhatpercentof90?
a.32.4% b.40% c.45% d.76%
13.Inamathematicstestof40items,Mavicgot90%.HowmanyitemsdidMavicget?
a.7 b.28 c.36 d.360
14. Mr. Mabini receives a 10% increase in his salary. With the increase, he now receives P13,200. How much is his
monthlysalarybeforetheincrease?
a.P12000 b.P13,500 c.14,100 d.P14,520

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 58


15.Accordingtothelatestsurvey,60%ofthecancerpatientsweresmokers.Iftherewere180smokingcancerpatients,
howmanycancerpatientsarethereinall?
a.70 b.150 c.300 d.360

VIII.RATIOANDPROPORTION

Aratioisacomparisonoftwoormorequantities.

Aproportionisanumbersentencestatingtheequivalenceoftworatios.

Notethatinratio,wearecomparingquantitiesofthesameunitsandthattheratioisexpressedintermsofintegers.
Examples: a)Theratioof12daysto3weeksis12:21or4:7.
b)Theratioof3metersto180cmis300:180or5:3.
c)Theratioof2hoursto25minutesis120:25or24:5.
d)Theratioof1to4is1:3.

A.DirectProportion.Asonequantityincreases,theotherincreasesalso.

Example: Findthevalueofxif15:20=14:x.
Solution: Equatetheproductofthemeansandtheproductoftheextremes.Thensolveforx.Thus,

(15)(n)=(20)(14)

x
2014 = 18.6 or18 2 .
15 3

Example: Acartravelsatanaveragerateof260kmin5hours.Howfarcanitgoin8hours,
iftravelingatthesamerate?
Solution: 260:5=x:8 (5)x=(260)(8)

x
2608 =416.
5
Example:Iftheratioofteacherstostudentsinaschoolis1to18andthereare360students,howmanyteachersare
there?
Solution:Letxbethenumberofteachers,

1 x
or1:18=x:360
18 360
(18)x=(360)1
x=360/18=20teachers

B.InverseProportion.Asonequantityincreases,theotherdecreases.

Example: If the food is sufficient to feed 10 flood victims in 15 days, how many days would it last for 8 flood
victims?

Solution: Equatetheproductofthetermsinthefirstconditiontotheproductofthetermsin
thesecondcondition.Thus,wehave:

(10victims)(15days)=(x)(8victims)

x
1015 =18.75days
8

C.PartitiveProportion.Onequantityisbeingpartitionedintodifferentproportions.

Example: Awood120mlongiscutintheratio2:3:5.Determinethemeasureofeachpart.
2 120 24
Solution: = = 24 m
10 1 1

3 120 36
= = 36 m
10 1 1

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 59


5 120 60
= = 60 m
10 1 1

Example: A wire is cut into three equal parts. The resulting segments are then cut into 4, 6, and 8 equal parts
respectively.Ifeachoftheresultingsegmentshasanintegerlength,whatistheminimumlengthofthewire?
A) 24 B)48 C)72 D)96

Solution:Eachthirdofthewireiscutinto4,6and8partsrespectively,andalltheresultingsegmentshaveintegerlengths.
Thismeansthateachthirdofthewirehasalengththatisevenlydivisibleby4,6,and8.Thesmallestpositiveintegerthat
isdivisibleby4,6,and8is24,soeachthirdofthewirehasaminimumlengthof24.So,theminimumlengthofthe
wholewireisthreetimes24,or72.

Exercises
1.A300mribboniscutintofourpiecesintheratio1:2:3:4.Givethelengthoftheshortestpiece.2.Ifthereare18boys
and45girlsinthegym,whatistheratioofthegirlstotheboys?
a.2:5 b.2:3 c.5:2 d.3:7
2.Whatonenumbercanreplacexin2:x=x:32?
a.2 b.6 c.4 d.8
3.If5mencandoajobin12days,howlongwillittake10mentocompletethistask,assumingthattheyworkatthe
samerate?
a.20days b.6days c.2days d.0.06day
4.If3kgoforangescostasmuchas5kgofchicos,howmanykgoforangeswouldcostasmuchas60kgofchicos?
A.100 B.36 C.7.5 D.4
5.If2/5mminamaprepresents120km,howmanykmwillberepresentedby2mm?
A.600km B.300km C.96kmD.24km
6.InaMathematicsClub,theratioofboystogirlsis3:5.Ifthereare240members,howmanyaregirls?
A.90 B.144 C.150 D.450
7.Aphotographerwishestoenlargeapicture18cmlongand12cmwidesothatitwillbe
36cmwide.Howlongwilltheenlargedpicturebe?
A.54cm B.72cm C.24cm D.6cm
8.If8secretariescantype800pagesin5hours,howlongwouldittakefor12secretariesto
type800pagesatthesamerate?
A.71/2hours B.31/3hours C.10hours D.21/2hours

THETHEORYOFCONGRUENCES

Ifaandbareintegers,mapositiveintegerandm(ab),wesaythataiscongruenttobmodulom.In
symbols,wewritethisasab(modm).CONGRUENCEwasinventedbyKarlFriedrichGaussatthebeginningofthe
19thcenturyandisaconvenientstatementaboutdivisibility.

Thefollowingareequivalentandmaybeusedinterchangeably.
ab(modm).
m(ab)or(ab)isdivisiblebym.
a=b+mk,kZ.

Theorem: If a and b are integers and m a positive integer then a b (mod m) if and only if a and b leave the same
remainderupondivisionbym.

Letmbeapositiveinteger.Acollectionofmintegers {a , a ,..., a }iscalledacompleteresiduesystemmodulomif


1 2 n

everyintegerbmodulomiscongruenttoexactlyoneoftheelementsinthecollection.

PropertiesofCongruence
Congruenceisanequivalencerelationinthesetofintegers;thatis,congruenceisreflexive,symmetricandtransitivewith
respecttointegers.
Inthefollowing,leta,b,c,anddbeintegersandmapositiveinteger.
Ifab(modm)then
a+cb+c(modm).
acbc(modm).
arbr(modm)whererisapositiveinteger.

Ifab(modm)andcd(modm),then
a+c(b+d)(modm).
ac(bd)(modm).

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 60


m
Ifacbc(modm),then a b mod whered=(c,m).
d

Thefollowingaresomeapplicationsofcongruence.
a)Findingtheunitsdigit(orhundredsdigits)ofaverylargenumberwritteninexponentialform;and
b)Findingtheremainderwhenaverylargenumberisdividedbyanothernumber.

TwoofthemostprolificmathematiciansinNumberTheoryarePierredeFermatandLeonhardEuler.

FERMATSANDEULERSTHEOREMS

Theorem5.(FermatsLittleTheorem)LetpbeaprimenumberandaZ.Ifpdoesnotdividea,then
ap11(modp).

Theorem6.(FermatsSecondTheorem).LetpbeaprimenumberandaZ.Ifpandaarerelativelyprime,then
apa(modp).

DEFINITIONOF (m)

Letmbeapositiveintegergreaterthan1.Thenumberofpositiveintegerslessthanandrelativelyprimetomis
thevalueofEulerstotientor functionatmandisdenotedby (m) .

Remarks:Ifpisprime,then ( p ) =p1.

Theorem7.EulersTheorem:Ifnisapositiveintegerandthegreatestcommondivisorofaandnis1,then
a n 1mod n .

LINEARDIOPHANTINEEQUATIONS

An equation in one or more unknowns having integral solutions is called a Diophantine equation, in honor of
DiophantusofAlexandria.

Theorem8.Giventwointegersaandbwhere(a,b)=d.ThelinearDiophantineequation
ax+by=chasanintegralsolutionifandonlyifdc.

Theorem9.Iftheequationax+by=chasasolutionx=x0,y=y0,thenanyothersolutionscanbeexpressedinthe
form
b
x x0 t , tZ and
d
a
y y0 t , tZ.
d
Example:Todeterminetheintegralsolutionof24x+138y=18,wenotethatsince(24,138)=6and618.Thenweknow
thatithassolution.Wenowhavethefollowing.

138=5(24)+18
24=1(18)+6
18=6(3).
Observethat,
6 =241(18)
=24[1385(24)]
=(1)(138)+6(24)

Moreover,
18=3(6)
=3[(1)(138)+6(24)]
=(3)(138)+(18)(24)

Thus, y0=3 and x0=18



Hence,thesolutionoftheequationisoftheformy=3+23tandx=184twheretisaninteger.
ThereareproblemswhichcanbesolvedusinglinearDiophantineequationsasworkingequations.
The following steps may be used in solving word problems which involve linear Diophantine equations in two
unknowns/variables:
Step1.Representtheunknownvaluesusinganytwovariables.

Step2.Formtheequationusingtheconditiongivenintheproblem.

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 61


Step3.SolvetheresultinglinearDiophantineequation.

Step4.Determinethesolution/stotheproblemusingtheresultsinstep3.

Theorem:(WilsonsTheorem)Ifpisaprime,then(p1)! 1mod p .

Exercises

1.Whichofthefollowingistrue?
A. 34 3mod 5 B. 5
4
5mod 25 C. 308 0mod 11 D. 3 4mod 15
2.Mavicarguesthat 15 9mod 6 .Isshecorrect?Why?
A.Yes,because6divides159. C.No,because6doesnotdivide15+9.
B.Yes,because6divides15+9. D.No,because 15 9 61 .
3.Whichofthefollowingiscongruentto11modulo13?
A.7 B.5 C.2 D.4
4.Whichofthefollowingmustbethevalueofnif n 1 0 mod 7 ?
6

A.xisdivisibleby7 C.xisrelativelyprimewith7
B.xisprime D.xisanyintegergreaterthan7
105
5.Whatistheremainderwhen 5 isdividedby3?
A.1 B.2 C.3 D.5
100
6.Whatistheunitsdigitof 3 ?
A.1 B.3 C.5 D.9
7.Whatis 12 ?
A.1 B.4 C.6 D.11

SETAExercises.Choosetheletterofthebestanswer.

1.Whatisthesumofthefirstfourprimenumbers?
a.11 b.26 c.17 d.28
2.WhichofthefollowingisNOTtrueaboutthesumoftwoconsecutivepositiveoddintegers?
a.itiseven b.itisonlydivisibleby12
c.itisdivisibleby4 d.itisalwaysdivisibleby1
3.Inasequenceofstartsandstops,anelevatortravels fromthefirstfloortothefourthfloorandthentothesecond
floor.Fromthere,theelevatortravelstothethirdfloorandthentothefirstfloor.Ifthefloorsare3metersapart,how
farhastheelevatortraveled?
a.21m b.24m c.28m d.32m
4.Anorangelightblinksevery4seconds.Ablueoneblinksevery5secondswhilearedoneblinksevery6seconds.How
manytimeswilltheyblinktogetherintwohours?
a.once b.2times c.10times d.60times
5.Ifoneprimefactorof84is3,whataretheotherprimefactors?
a.2and3 b.2and7 c.3and5 d.4and7

6.Atelevisionshowreportsthefollowingtemperaturefor5cities:
Beijing London Chicago Philippines Moscow
0 0 0 0
2 C 6 C 0 C 30 C 90C
Whichcityisthecoldest?
a.Beijing b.Chicago c.London d.Moscow
7.Ifthesumofacertainnumberand7isdividedby4,thequotientis3.Whatisthenumber?
a.5 b.12 c.15 d.18
8.Whichofthefollowingnumbershasthelargestvalue?
a.22 b.10 c.75 d.3
9.Whichofthefollowingnumbershastheleastvalue?
a.22 b.10 c.75 d.3
10.Whatisthedifferenceintheelevationbetweenthetopofamountain51metersabovesealevelandalocation28
metersbelowsealevel.
a.23m b.33m c.79m d.89m
11.ApackofP50billsisnumberedfromRV628toRV663.Whatisthetotalvalueofthepackofbills,inpesos?
a.35 b.36 c.1750 d.1800
2 2 3
12.Simplify:[5813 53+2](4 2 )
a.15 b.4 c.6 d.151/4
2
13.Ifeachcontainercontains 5 kgofflour,howmanykgofflouraretherein12container?
3
b.68kg b.70kg c.72kg d.80kg

14.Eighteenis2/3ofwhatnumber?
St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 62
a.6 b.12 c.6 d.27
15.Whatpartofanhourhaspassedfrom2:48amto3:20am?
a.7/8 b.1/3 c.8/15 d.8/25
16.Claritaspentonesixthofhermoneyinonestore.Inthenextstore,shespentthreetimesasmuchasshespentinthe
firststore.Ifshehad80pesosleft,howmuchmoneydidshehavefromthestart?
a.240pesos b.252pesos c.300pesos d.360pesos
17.Philiphasobtainedthefollowinggrades:1.4,1.7,1.8and2.5.Whatmustbehisfifthgradesothathisaverageis1.7?
a.2.1 b.1.9 c.1.5 d.1.1
18.Outofthe20numbers,6were2.5s,4were3.25sandtherestwere2.2s.Givethearithmeticmeanofthenumbers.
a.2.5 b.2.65 c.10 d.22
19.RonboughtXnumberofnotebooksatP23.00each,Ypadpapersat18.45each,andZballpensatP8.25each.Ifhe
gaveanamountofP1000tothecashier,howmuchchangedidhereceive?
a. P434.25 c.1000[(23.00)(X)+(18.45)(Y)+(8.25)(Z)]
b. P334.25 d.noneofthese
20. A bag has a selling price of P60.00. If the selling price is 75% of the original price, what is its original price?
a.P80 b.P120 c.P200 d.P280
21.Mr.deBorja,astoreowner,advertisesapoloshirtoriginallysoldforP200forP170only.Whatrateofdiscountishe
giving?
a.P30 b.P15 c.30% d.15%
22.JaboughtanarticleforP400andsolditforP500.Whatrateofprofitdidsheenjoyinthatdeal?
a.P100 b.100% c.25% d.20%
23.Thepriceofanitemisincreasedby70%andthenofferedat40%discount.Whathappened
totheoriginalprice?
a.Thereisanincreaseof30%. c.Thereisanincreaseof2%.
b.Thereisanincreaseof28%. d.Thereisadecreaseof32%.
24.HowmuchshouldAllaninvestsothathismoneyearnsP2,250depositedat6%for9months?
a.P50,000 b.37,500 c.P135 d.P101.25
25.Dansellsarealestate.HereceivesamonthlysalaryofP10,000plusacommissionof1/5%ofhisnetsalesforthat
month.Findhisgrosspayforamonthduringwhichhisnetsaleisonemillionpesos.
a.P2,000 b.P12,000 c.P200,000 d.P210,000
26.Thereare20millionFilipinoswhoarequalifiedvoters.If25%ofthepopulationarequalifiedvoters,howmanyare
notqualifiedvoters?
a.80million b.60million c.15million d.5million
27.Threecavansofriceforafamilyofsixmemberslastfor5weeks.Atthisrate,howmanyweekswill4cavansofrice
lastafamilyof8members?
A.4 B.5 C.51/3 D.6
28.Iftheassembly,ratioofboystogirlsis1:4.Whatpercentoftheassemblyaretheboys?
A.10% B.20% C.25% D.80%
30
29.Whatistheremainderwhen 11 isdividedby31?
A.1 B.2 C.10 D.101
2061
30.Whichofthefollowingistheremainderwhen 5 isdividedby7?
A.1 B.2 C.3 D.6
31.Ifyistheremainderwhen47isdividedby6,whatistheremainderwhen19isdividedbyy?
A.1 B.2 C.4 D.5
32.Whichofthefollowingisavalueofzsuchthatthecongruence 3z 1mod 13 isNOTtrue?
A.9 B.22 C.30 D.48
33.Whatistheremainderwhen18!+2isdividedby19?
A.0 B.1 C.3 D.97
34. A certain number of sixes and nines are added to give a sum of 126. If the numbers of sixes and nines are
interchanged,thenewsumis114.Howmanyofeachwerethereaftertheswitch?
A.Tensixesand6nines B.FoursixesandTwelvenines
C.Sevensixesandninenines D.SixsixesandTennines

SET B Exercises. Choose the letter of the best answer.

1.Howmanyprimenumbersarelessthan37?
a.9 b.10 c.11 d.12
2.Inaseriesofcardgames.MarlonstartsoutwithP200andwinsatotalofP450.IfhelaterlosesP350,winsP60and
losesP150,howmuchcashdoesMarlonhave?
a.0 b.P150 c.P210 d.P300
3.Yourscoreinagameis6.Howmanypointsmustyouearntogetascoreof10?
a.6 b15 c.16 D.22
4.Arrangethefractions5/12,3/7,2/5indecreasingorder.
a. 2/5,5/12,3/7 c.3/7,5/12,2/5
b. 5/12,2/5,3/7 d.2/5,3/7,5/12
1 3
5.Edwin,DomsandLonweigh45kg.IfEdwinandDomsweigh 11 kgand 13 kg,respectively,whatistheweightof
5 4
Loninkilograms?

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 63


1 19 9 19
a. 20 b. 24 c. 42 d. 69
20 20 20 20
3
6.Whichofthefollowingshouldbemultipliedto 4 sothattheproductis57?
4
a.6 b.12 c.6 d.75
7.Whichofthefollowingisavalueofmif 15 1mod m ?
A.2 B.3 C.23 D.32
1
8.Alexworksonhisassignment 3 hoursaday,whatpartofthedaydoeshespenddoinghisassignment?
3
a.1/8 b.1/7 c.5/36 d. 15/28
9.Whatvalueofpwillsatisfytheequation0.2(2p+1470)=p?
a.294 b.490 c.560 d.1470
10.AblouseoriginallypricedatP600isbeingsoldatadiscountof30%.Howmuchwouldyoupayifyoubuythatblouse?
a.P30 b.P180 c.P420 d.P570
11.ApairofslipperswithasellingpriceofP120issoldat40%discount.Whatisitsoriginalprice?
a.P48 b.P72 c.P200 d.P300
12.Anitemisofferedat20%discount.Later,itisofferedat30%discount.IfthenewsellingpriceisP112,whatisthefirst
originalprice?
a.P162 b.P200 c.P224 d.P1866.67
13.Tohavea25%profit,thevendorshouldselltheitematP80.00.Howmuchishisprofit?
a.P20.00 b.P60.00 c.P16.00 d.P64.00
1
14.MindadepositedP50,000inabankthatpaysasimpleannualinterestof 14 %.Howmuch
5
moneywillshehaveinthebankafterfiveyears.
a.P85,500 b.P35,500 c.P36,250 d.P86,250
15.Theratioofcowsandcarabaosinthefieldis4:9.Ifthereare468cowsandcarabaosinthe
field,howmanyarecarabaos?
A.52 B.117 C.144 D.324
16.Intheclass,theratioofboystogirlsis6:5.Ifthereare90girls,howmanypersonsareintheclass?
A.75 B.108 C.165 D.198
17.Edwinpaintingawallat9:00a.m.andwasabletofinishpainting3/5ofitat10:30a.m.Continuingatthisrate,atwhat
timewillhefinish?
A.10:45a.m. B.11:30a.m. C.11:45a.m. D.12:15a.m.
200
18.Whatistheremainderwhen 4 isdividedby15?
A.1 B.1 C.2 D.4
19.Ifxisanypositiveinteger,then23x+1is_______divisibleby8.
A.Always B.Never C.Sometimes D.Equivalently
20.Whatis 29 ?
A.0 B.1 C.2 D.28
21.Whichofthefollowingistheremainderwhen 2 1 isdividedby7?
50

A.0 B.2 C.4 D.5


22.Whichofthefollowingisequivalenttothepairofcongruence x 1mod 4 and x 2mod 3 ?
A. x 1mod 12 B. x 2mod 12
C. x 3mod 12 D. x 5mod 12
23.WhichofthefollowingisNOTtrueifaisapositiveinteger?
C. a amod10
5
A.adivides a 5
B. a 5 divides a 1 . D.aand a 5 havethesameunitsdigit
24.Whichofthefollowinggivesaremainderof2whendividedby5andaremainderof12whendividedby
13?
A.22 B.38 C.77 D.92
25.Whatistheremainderupondividingthesum 2!4!6!... 2008!2010! by5?
A.1 B.2 C.3 D.4
26.Whatistheleastresidueif17109isamultipleof6?
A.1 B.2 C.3 D.5
27.Whichofthefollowinghasanintegralsolution?
A. 21x 13mod 77 B. 3 x 4mod 81
C. 3 x 5mod 36 D. 3 x 4mod 5
28.Howmanyintegralsolutionsdoes 18 x 21mod 24 have?
A.2 B.3 C.6 D.10

29.Whichofthefollowinghasasolutionifthevariablesarepositiveintegers?
A.5x+30y=18 B.8x+10y=15
C.22x+4y=28 D. 101x 37 y 3819

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 64


30.When16!isdividedby17,theremainderis______.
A.0 B.1 C.17 D.18
31.AJohnstranscriptshowsxnumberof3unitcoursesandynumberof5unitcoursesforatotalof64units.Whichof
thefollowingmayappearinthetranscript?
A.2xsand18ys B.13xsand5ys
C.11xsand3ys D.9xsand8ys

32.Whichofthefollowingisavalueofxif x 1 mod 8 ?
2

A.2 B.5 C.6 D.10
33.Whenstudentsinacertaincollegearegroupedby2s,3s,4s,5sor6satatime,thereremain,1,2,3,4,or5students
respectively.Whenthestudentsaregroupedby7s,noisstudentleft.Whatisthesmallestpossiblenumberofstudents
intheschool?

A.227 B.1,534 C.1,379 D.2,778

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 65


LICENSUREEXAMINATIONFORTEACHERS(LET)

Refresher Course

ContentArea:MATHEMATICS
Focus:PlaneandSolidGeometry
Preparedby:DaisydeBorjaMarcelino

Basic Ideas

Theundefinedterms,point,line,andplanearegeometricideasandtheyarevisuallyrepresentedbyatinydot,a
thinwire,andasmoothflatsurface,respectively.Pointsarelabeledbymeansofcapitalletters,linesbynaminganytwo
ofitspoints,andplanesbynamingatleastthreeofitspoints.Thesubsetsofalineareray,segment,andthelineitself.
Spaceisthesetofallpoints.


A
.
.
B
. A . B
. A
. B.
Line Ray Line segment

AB AB AB

Somepostulatesonpoints,linesandplanes:

The Distance Postulate.Toeverypairofdifferentpointstherecorrespondsauniquepositivenumber.



The Ruler Postulate.Thepointofalinecanbeplacedincorrespondencewiththerealnumbersinsuchawaythat
(1) toeverypointofthelinetherecorrespondsexactlyonerealnumber;
(2) toeveryrealnumbertherecorrespondsexactlyonepointoftheline;and
(3) thedistancebetweenanytwopointsistheabsolutevalueofthedifferenceofthecorrespondingnumbers.

The Ruler Placement Postulate.GiventwopointsPandQofaline,thecoordinatesystemcanbechoseninsuchawaythat
thecoordinateofPiszeroandthecoordinateofQispositive.

The Line Postulate. Foreverytwopointsthereisexactlyonelinethatcontainsbothpoints.

The Plane Postulate.Anythreepointslieinatleastoneplane,andanythreenoncollinearpointslieinexactlyoneplane.

ThePlaneSeparationPostulate.Givenalineandaplanecontainingit.Thepointsoftheplanethatdonotlieontheline
formtwosetssuchthat
(1) eachofthesetsisconvex,and
(2) ifPisinoneofthesetsandQisintheother,thenthesegment PQ intersectstheline.

TheSpaceSeparationPostulate.Thepointsofspacethatdonotlieinagivenplaneformtwosets,suchthat
(1) eachofthesetsisconvex,and
(2) ifPisinoneofthesetsandQisintheother,thenthesegment PQ intersectstheplane.

Thefollowingarealsotrue.
(a) Everyplanecontainsatleastthreenoncollinearpoints.
(b) Spacecontainsatleastfournoncoplanarpoints.
(c) Iftwopointsofalinelieinaplane,thenthelineliesinthesameplane.
(d) Iftwodifferentplanesintersectthen,theirintersectionisaline.


Sometheoremsonpoints,linesandplanes:

IfA,B,andCarethreedifferentpointsofthesameline,thenexactlyoneofthemisbetweentheothertwo.
ThePointPlottingTheorem.Let AB bearay,andletXbeapositivenumber.ThenthereisexactlyonepointPof AB
suchthat AP x .
Everysegmenthasexactlyonemidpoint.
Iftwodifferentlinesintersect,theirintersectioncontainsonlyonepoint.
Ifalineintersectsaplanenotcontainingit,thentheintersectioncontainsonlyonepoint.
Givenalineandapointnotontheline,thereisexactlyoneplanecontainingboth.
Giventwointersectinglines,thereisexactlyoneplanecontainingboth.
TheFirstMinimumTheorem.Theshortestsegmentjoiningapointtoalineistheperpendicularsegment.
Inagivenplane,throughagivenpointofagivenline,thereisoneandonlyonelineperpendiculartothegivenline.
ThePerpendicularBisectorTheorem.Theperpendicularbisectorofasegment,inaplane,isthesetofallpointsofthe
planethatareequidistantfromtheendpointsofthesegment.

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 66


Throughagivenexternalpointthereisatleastonelineperpendiculartoagivenline.
Throughagivenexternalpointthereisatmostonelineperpendiculartoagivenline.
IfMisbetweenAandConalineL,thenMandAareonthesamesideofanyotherlinethatcontainsC.
IfBandCareequidistantfromPandQ,theneverypointbetweenBandCisequidistantfrompandQ.
Ifalineisperpendiculartoeachoftwointersectinglinesattheirpointofintersection,thenitisperpendiculartothe
planethatcontainsthem.
Throughagivenpointofagivenlinetherepassesaplaneperpendiculartothegivenline.
Ifalineandaplaneareperpendicular,thentheplanecontainseverylineperpendiculartothegivenlineatitspointof
intersectionwiththegivenplan.
Throughagivenpointofagivenlinethereisonlyoneplaneperpendiculartotheline.
The Perpendicular Bisecting Plane Theorem. The perpendicular bisecting plane of a segment is the set of all points
equidistantfromtheendpointsofthesegment.
Twolinesperpendiculartothesameplanearecoplanar.
Throughagivenpointtherepassesoneandonlyoneplaneperpendiculartoagivenline.
Throughagivenpointtherepassesoneandonlyonelineperpendiculartoagivenplane.
TheSecondMinimumTheorem.Theshortestsegmenttoaplanefromanexternalpointistheperpendicularsegment.
Twoparallellineslieinexactlyoneplane.
Inaplanetwolinesareparalleliftheyarebothperpendiculartothesameline.
LetLbealineandletPbeapointonL.ThenthereisatleastonelinethroughP,paralleltoL.

Angle.Itisaunionoftwononcollinearraysthathaveacommonendpoint.

Anacuteanglemeasuresmorethan0obutlessthan90o.
Arightanglemeasuresexactly90o.
Anobtuseanglemeasuresmorethan90obutlessthan180o.
Twoanglesarecomplementaryifthesumoftheirmeasuresis90o.
Twoanglesaresupplementaryifthesumoftheirmeasuresis180o.
Twoanglesareadjacentiftheyhaveacommonvertex,commonsidebutnocommoninteriorpoints.
Twoanglesformalinearpairiftheyarebothadjacentandsupplementary.

Somepostulatesonangles:

TheAngleMeasurementPostulate.Toeveryangletherecorrespondsarealnumberbetween0and180.
TheAngleConstructionPostulate.Let AB bearayontheedgeofthehalfplaneH.foreverynumberrbetween0
and180thereisexactlyoneray AP ,withPinH,suchthat mPAB r .
TheAngleAdditionPostulate.IfDisintheinteriorof BAC ,then mBAC mBAD mDAC .
TheSupplementPostulate.Iftwoanglesformalinearpair,thentheyaresupplementary.

Thetransversallineisalineintersectingtwoormorecoplanarlinesatdifferentpoints

1 2 Interiorangles:3,4,5,6
3 4 Exteriorangles:1,2,7,8
5 6 Correspondingangles:1and5,2and6
78 3and7,4and8
Alternateinteriorangles:3and6,4and5
Alternateexteriorangles:1and8,2and7
Samesideinteriorangles:3and5,4and6

Sometheoremsonanglesandtransversallines:

Giventwolinescutbytransversal.Ifapairofalternateinterioranglesarecongruent,thenthelinesareparallel.
Giventwolinescutbytransversal.Ifapairofcorrespondinganglesarecongruent,thenapairofalternateinterior
anglesarecongruent.
Giventwolinescutbytransversal.Ifapairofcorrespondinganglesarecongruent,thenthelinesareparallel.
Giventwolinescutbytransversal.Ifapairofinterioranglesonthesamesideofthetransversalaresupplementary,
thelinesareparallel.
Iftwoparallellinescutbytransversal,eachpairofcorrespondinganglesarecongruent.
Inaplane,ifalineintersectsoneoftwoparallellinesinonlyonepoint,thenitintersectstheother.
Everyrightanglehasmeasure90,andeveryanglewithmeasure90isarightangle.
Iftwoanglesarecomplementary,thenbothareacute.
Anytworightanglesarecongruent.
Iftwoanglesarebothcongruentandsupplementary,theneachisarightangle.
TheSupplementTheorem.Supplementsofcongruentanglesarecongruent.
TheComplementTheorem.Complementsofcongruentanglesarecongruent.

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 67


TheVerticalAngleTheorem.Verticalanglesarecongruent.
Iftwointersectinglinesformonerightangle,thentheyformfourrightangles.
TheAngleBisectorTheorem.Everyanglehasexactlyonebisector.
The Isosceles Triangle Theorem. If two sides of a triangle are congruent, then the angles opposite these sides are
congruent.
Iftwoanglesofatrianglearecongruent,thenthesidesoppositethemarecongruent.
IfMisbetweenBandC,andAisanypointnoton BC ,thenMisintheinteriorof BAC .
TheExteriorAngleTheorem.Anexteriorangleofatriangleisgreaterthaneachofitsremoteinteriorangles.

Polygon.Itisaclosedplanefigurewiththreeormoresides,consistsofsegments(sides)thatmeetonlyattheirendpoints
(vertices)suchthateverysidecontainsonlytwovertices,andeveryvertexisonexactlytwosides.

NameofPolygon NumberofExactSides NameofPolygon NumberofExactsides


Triangle 3 nonagon 9
Quadrilateral 4 decagon 10
Pentagon 5 undecagon 11
Hexagon 6 dodecagon 12
Heptagon 7 pentadecagon 15
Octagon 8

Notes:a)Inatriangle,thesumofthelengthsoftwosidesisalwaysgreaterthanthelengthofthethirdside.
b)Inarighttrianglewithlegsx,yandhypotenusez:x2+y2=z2(Pythagoreantriple)
c)Thesumoftheinterioranglesofanngonis(n2)180o.Thesumoftheinterioranglesofatriangleis180o
whilethesumoftheinterioranglesofaquadrilateralis360o.

Apolygonisequilateralifthemeasuresofallitssidesareequal.
Apolygonisequiangularifthemeasuresofallitsanglesareequal.
Apolygonisregularifallitssidesandanglesarecorrespondinglycongruent.

Some postulatesonpolygons
TheSASPostulate.EverySAScorrespondenceisacongruence.
TheASAPostulate.EveryASAcorrespondenceisacongruence.
TheSSSPostulate.EverySSScorrespondenceisacongruence.
TheParallelPostulate.Throughagivenexternalpointthereisonlyoneparalleltoagivenline.
TheAreaPostulate.Toeverypolygonalregiontherecorrespondsauniquepositiverealnumber.
The Congruence Postulate. If two triangles are congruent, then the triangular regions determined by them have the
samearea.
TheAreaAdditionPostulate.Iftwopolygonalregionsintersectonlyinedgesandvertices(ordonotintersectatall),
thentheareaoftheirunionisthesumoftheirareas.
TheUnitPostulate.Theareaofasquareregionisthesquareofthelengthofitsedge.
TheUnitPostulate.Thevolumeofarectangularparallelepipedistheproductofthealtitudeandtheareaofthebase.
TheCavalierisPrinciple.Giventwosolidsandaplane.Supposethateveryplaneparalleltothegivenplane,intersecting
oneofthetwosolids,alsointersectstheother,andgivescrosssectionswiththesamearea.Thenthetwosolidshave
thesamevolume.
TheSAATheorem.EverySAAcorrespondenceisacongruence.
TheHypotenuseLegTheorem.Givenacorrespondencebetweentworighttriangles,ifthehypotenuseandonelegof
one of the triangles are congruent to the corresponding parts of the second triangle, then the correspondence is a
congruence.
Iftwosidesofatrianglearenotcongruent,thentheanglesoppositethemarenotcongruent,andthelargerangleis
oppositethelongerside.
Iftwoanglesofatrianglearenotcongruent,thenthesidesoppositethemarenotcongruent,andthelongersideis
oppositethelargerangle.
TheTriangleInequality.Thesumofthelengthofanytwosidesofatriangleisgreaterthanthelengthofthethirdside.
TheHingeTheorem.Iftwosidesofonetrianglearecongruent,respectively,totwosidesofasecondtriangle,andthe
includedangleofthefirsttriangleislargerthantheincludedangleofthesecond,thenthethirdsideofthefirsttriangle
islargerthantheincludedangleofthesecond.
TheConverseHingeTheorem.Iftwosidesofonetrianglearecongruentrespectivelytotwosidesofasecondtriangle,
and the thirdside of thefirst triangle is longer thanthethird side o the second, then the included angle of thefirst
triangleislargerthantheincludedangleofthesecond.
Foreverytriangle,thesumofthemeasuresoftheanglesis180.
Eachdiagonalseparatesaparallelogramintotwocongruenttriangles.
Inaparallelogram,anytwooppositesidesarecongruent.
Inaparallelogram,anytwooppositeanglesarecongruent.
Inaparallelogram,anytwoconsecutiveanglesaresupplementary.
Thediagonalsofaparallelogrambisecteachother.
St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 68


Exercises

1.Whichofthefollowinghasadefinitelength?
A) ray B)line C)angle D)linesegment
2.Aplaneisdeterminedby______________.
i.alineandapoint. ii.twointersectinglines.
iii.anythreepoints. iv.alineandapointnotonit.

A)iionly B)ivonly C)iiandiii D)iiandiv
3.InangleLON,whatisthevertex?
A) L B)O C)N D)cannotbedetermined

4.Theseshapesarearrangedinapattern.

Whichoftheseshapesarearrangedinthesamepattern?

A)

B)

C)

D)

5.Whichofthesetrianglescannotbeisosceles?
A) acute B)right C)obtuse D)scalene

6.Twoanglesthatarecomplementary_____________________.
i.areeachacute. ii.arecongruent.
iii.haveequalmeasures. iv.havemeasuresthataddupto900.
A)iionly B)ivonly C)iiandiii D)iandiv
7.Refertothefigureontheright.Given:m1=57andm3=80.Whatism5?
A) 43 B)63 C)137 D)180

8.AquadrilateralMUSTbeaparallelogramifithas________________________.
A)onepairofadjacentsidesequal B)onepairofparallelsides
C)twopairsofparallelsides C)twoadjacentanglesequal
9.NCTEisaparallelogram.IfmN=67,thenmT=_____.
A)113 B)90 C)67 D)23
10.Whichtwopropertiesoftherhombusdonotholdtrueforotherparallelograms?
A) Diagonalsareperpendicularandcongruent.
B) Diagonalsarecongruentandbisecteachother.
C) Diagonalsareperpendicularandbisecteachother.
D) Diagonalsareperpendicularandeachbisectstheanglesoftheparallelogram.
11.Thesupplementofanangleisthreetimesitsmeasure.Whatisthemeasureofitssupplement?
A) 22.5 B)45 C)67.5 D)135

12.Refertothefigureontheright.Iflinesrandsareparallel,
whichofthefollowingpairsofanglesarecongruent?

A)4and5 B)4and3 C)1and8 D)3and5

13.Theanglesofatriangleareintheratio2:3:5.Whatisthelargestangle?
A) 36 B)54 C)90 D)99
14.Ananglemeasures65.5.Whatisthemeasureofitssupplement?
A) 24.5 B)25.5 C)114.5 D)124.5
15.Whichreferstoapairoflinesthatintersectandform4rightangles?
A) parallellines B)perpendicularlines C)intersectinglines D)skewlines
16.Whichofthefollowingquadrilateralsbestdescribesasquare?
A)Itsdiagonalsareperpendiculartoeachother. B)Itisanequiangularrhombus.
C)Itsdiagonalsarecongruent. D)Ithasfourrightangles.
17.IfABCisanisoscelestrianglewitharightangleatB,then
A) isthehypotenuse. B)AC=BC
C)angleBCAmeasures45. D)AB=AC a
18.Whatisthemeasureofeachinteriorangleofaregularpentagon?
A) 108 B)140 C)180 D)540
19.Whatisthesumofthemeasuresoftheinterioranglesofaregularheptagon? m
A) 1260 B)1080 C)900 D)112.5 t h
St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 69


20.Intheadjoiningfigure,ifm=63andh=134,thenamustbeequalto_____.
A) 46 B)71 C)109 D)117

21.Whichofthefollowingstatementsistrueaboutparallellines?
A)Theyformarightangle. B)Theydonotintersectatall.
C)Theyareskew. D)Noneofthese.
22.Intheadjoiningfigure,thequadrilateralisaparallelogram.Whatisthevalueofx?
A) 150 B)75 C)60 D)50

23.Whichofthefollowingcanbelengthsofthesidesofatriangle?
A){3,4,9} B){5,5,10} C){12,6,8} D){3,18,20}
24.Themeasuresoftheexterioranglesofatriangleareintheratio2:3:4.Whatisthemeasureofthewidestangle?
A)40 B)80 C)160 D)170
G.Perimeter.Thedistancearoundapolygoniscalledaperimeter.Toobtainthis,wejustaddthelengthofallthesidesof
thepolygon.Inthecaseofequilateralpolygons,wejustmultiplythelengthofonesidetothenumberofsides.

Example: Determinetheperimeterofatrianglewithsides7,12,18.
Solution: P=7+12+18=37units.

Exercises: Completethetablebelow.

RegularPolygon LengthofaSide Perimeter


a)square 13cm
b) 7cm 56cm
c)nonagon 54cm
d) 9cm 45cm
e)heptagon 28cm

H.AreasofTrianglesandQuadrilaterals

a) triangle=(1/2)(base)(height)
b) rectangle=(length)(width)or(base)height)
c) square=(side)(side)or(1/2)(d1)(d2)
d) parallelogram=(base)height)
e) rhombus=(1/2)(d1)(d2)
f) trapezoid=(1/2)(upperbase+lowerbase)(height)

Example: Givetheareaofasquarewhoseperimeteris100m?
Solution: Sincetheperimeterofthesquareis100cm,theneachsidemeasures25m.Hence,itsareais(25m)2=
625m2.
Example: Determinetheareaofatrianglewhosebaseis10mmanditsaltitudeisthriceitsbase.
1 1
Solution: A= bh (10) [(3) (10)] 150 mm2.
2 2

Example: Givetheareaofarectanglewhosewidthis5cmanditslengthexceeds4timesthewidthby3.
Solution: A=lw =[4w+3](w)
=[(4)(5)+3](5)
=(23)(5)=115sq.cm.

Example: Determinetheareaofthetrapezoidwhosebasesare6cmand10m,whilethealtitudeis7m.

Solution: A=(1/2)(b1+b2)(height)=(1/2)(6+10)(7)=56m2

I.Circle.Thisisasetofpointsinaplane,equidistantfromafixedpoint.Thefixedpointis
calledthecenter,andthefixeddistanceisthelengthoftheradius.

Circumferenceisthedistancearoundthecircle.Formula:2r
Areaistheinteriorregionboundedbythecircle.Formula:r2
Termsrelatedtoacircle:
Centerthefixedpoint
Radiussegment(ordistance)drawnfromthecentertoanypointonthecircle
Chordsegmentwhoseendpointsareanytwopointsonthecircle

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 70


Diameterachordthatpassesthroughthecenter(thelongestchord)
Secantaline/ray/segmentthatcutsthecircleintwopoints
Tangentalinethattouchesthecircleinonlyonepoint

Note:Thediameteristwiceaslongastheradius.

Exercises:Inthefigureontheright,identifythefollowing:
center,radius,chord,diameter,secant,tangent.

Example: Determinethecircumferenceofacirclewithradius10mm.
Solution: C=2r=2(3.1416)(10cm)=62.832mm

Example: Givetheareaofthecircleifitscircumferenceis18m.
Solution: Sincethecircumferenceis18cm,thenitsradiusis9m.Hence,
A=r2=(3.1416)(9m)2=254.4696or254.47m2

Exercises

1.Completethetablebelow.
Radius Diameter Circumference(in) Area(in)
1.2cm
2. 6dm
3. 50m
4. 36km2
5.9m

2.Adiameterofacircleisalsoa________.
A)radius B)secant C)chord D)tangent
3.Whichofthefollowingsetsofnumberscanbesidesofarighttriangle?
A.4,5,6 B. 6 , 6 ,2 3 C. 3, 6 , 3 2 D.2,2,3
4.Thelengthandwidthofarectangleare(3x2)and(2x+1).Whatisitsperimeter?
A.5x1 B.10x2 C.6x2x2 D.6x2x+2

5.Theareaofasquareis32x.Whichofthefollowingcouldbethevalueofx?
A.2 B.6 C.3 D.4
6.Iftheareaofonecircleistwiceofanothercircle,whatistheratiooftheareainpercentofthesmallertolargercircle?
A.70% B.25% C.75% D.50%

J.VolumeofSolids.Itdescribeshowmuchspaceathreedimensionalfigureoccupies.

a) cube =(side)3
b) rectangularprism =(length)(width)(height)or(areaofthebase)(height)
c) pyramid =(1/3)(areaofthebase)(height)
d) sphere =(4/3)()(radius)3
e) cylinder =(radius)2(height)
f) cone =(1/3)(radius)2(height)

Example: Whatisthevolumeofacubewhoseedgeis4mm?
Solution: V=(side)3
=(4mm)3

=64mm3

Example: Thelengthofarectangularboxis20cm.Itswidthexceeds1/4ofthelengthby5
cm,whiletheheightis7cmlessthan1/2ofthelength.Whatisitsvolume?

Solution: Volume=(length)(width)(height)
1 1
=(20cm) 20cm 5cm 20cm 7cm
4 2
=(20 cm)(10cm)(3cm)=600cm3

Example: Theareaofthebaseofapyramidis48cm2whiletheheightis6cm.Whatisits
volume?

Solution: V=(1/3)(areaofthebase)(height)
=(1/3)(48cm2)(6cm)=96cu.cm.

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Example: Determinethevolume(in)ofaspherewhosediameteris12m.
Solution: V=(4/3)()(radius)3andsincediameteris12cm,thentheradiusis6m.
=(4/3)()(6cm)3=288m3

Example: Aconehasabasediameterof32cmanditsheightis3cmlessthan3/4ofthe
radius.Whatisitsvolume?

Solution: V=(1/3)(radius)2(height)
1 3
= (16cm)2 16cm 3cm
3 4
=768cm3

K.LateralandTotalSurfaceAreasofSolids.

Solids Lateralarea Totalsurfacearea


a)cube 4s2 6s2
b)rectangularprism (perimeterofthebase)xheight 2B+ph
c)pyramid 1/2(perimeterofthebase)slantheight B+1/2p(slantheight)
d)sphere None 4r2
e)cylinder (Circumferenceofthebase)(slantheight) 2r2+2r(slantheight)
f)cone 1/2(Circumferenceofthebase)(slantheight) r2+r(slantheight)

Exercise

1. Determinethe volume, lateral and surface area ofthe following:(All units are incm.) Express your answers in, if
possible.

edge = 2 mm
length=10cm, baseedge=10m
width=3cm, slantheight=13m
height=4cm altitude=12m

radius=5 radius=5 radius=5


height=12 slantheight=5
altitude=4

Volume(incm3) LateralArea(incm2) TotalSurfaceArea(incm2)


a)cube

b)rectangularprism

c)squarepyramid

d)sphere

e)cylinder

f)cone

PRACTICEEXERCISES

1. Whatwillhappentotheareaofacircleifitsradiusisdoubled?
a. Theareawillbedoubled. c.Theareawillbequadrupled.
b. Theareawillremainthesame. d.Theareawillbereducedtohalf.

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2. Whatisthereasonforyouranswerinitemnumber1?
a. Theareaofthecirclevariesdirectlytotheradius.
b. Theareaofthecirclevariesinverselytotheradius.
c. Theareaofthecirclevariesdirectlytothesquareofitsradius.
d. Theareaofthecirclevariesinverselytothesquareofitsradius.
3.Ifasideofsquaremeasures5mm,whichofthefollowingisitsperimeter?
a.20mm b.25mm c.20mm2 d.25mm2
2
4. Ifasquarehasanareaof144m ,whichofthefollowingisthemeasureofitsside?
a.12mm b.12cm c.1,200cm d.1.2m
5. If the base ofa triangle measures 20 centimeters and its height measures 1 inch, which of the following is its
area?
a.20cm b.25.4cm c.20cm2 d.25.4cm2
6. Astring1mmlongisusedtoformashapethatwouldgiveamaximumarea.Whatshapeisit?
a.square b.rectangle c.circle d.parallelogram
7. Ifthelengthofthesideofasquareisreducedtohalf,whatwillhappentoitsperimeter?
a. Itwillbetripled. c.Itwillbedoubled.
b. Itwillremainthesame. d.Itwillbereducedtohalf.
8. Theareaofanewcircleisninetimesitsoriginalarea.Whatmadethishappen?
a. Theradiuswastripled. c.Thevalueofwassquared.
b. Theradiuswasmultipliedby9. d.Theradiuswasreducedtohalf.
9. Aregularpolygonisinscribedinacircle.Supposeweincreasecontinuouslythenumberofitssides,whatdoyou
thinkwillhappen?
a. Theregularpolygonwithinfinitelymanysideswillneverexist.
b. Itisimpossibleforaregularpolygonwithinfinitelymanysidestobeinscribedinacircle.
c. Theperimeteroftheregularpolygonwillbegreaterthanthecircumferenceofthecircle.
d. Theperimeteroftheregularpolygonwillbeapproximatelyequaltothecircumferenceofthecircle.
10. Whichofthefollowingisthemostreasonableweightofanadultwoman?
a.12lbs b.120lbs c.1,200lbs d.12,000lbs
11. Whichofthefollowingisthenearestapproximationof10kilometers?
a.5miles b.10miles c.16miles d.20miles
12. Considerarectanglewithafixedperimeter.Assumethatweallowcontinuousvariationsofeitheritswidthof
length.WhichofthefollowingisNOTpossible?
a. Theareaofthenewrectanglewillbegreaterthantheoriginalarea.
b. Theareaofthenewrectanglewillbesmallerthantheoriginalarea.
c. Theareaoftheoriginalrectanglewillbeequaltotheareaofallnewrectanglesthatcanbeformed.
d. Theareaoftheoriginalrectanglewillbeequaltotheareaofsomenewrectanglesthatcanbeformed.
13. Whatisthereasonforyouranswerinitemnumber12?
a. Rectanglespossiblyhavethesameperimeterbutofdifferentarea.
b. Rectangleswiththesameperimeteralwayshavethesamearea.
c. Ifrectangleshavelargerperimeter,thentheirareaiswide.
d. Ifrectangleshavesmallperimeter,thentheirareaissmall.
14. A largest circle is to be made out of a square having sides of 20 cm. Approximate the materials that will be
wasted.
a. 400.00sq.cm b.314.00sq.cm c.86.00sq.cm d.22.80sq.cm
15. A circle with radius 12 cm and a rectangle with width 16 cm have equal areas. Which of the following is the
approximationofthelengthoftherectangle?
a. 4.19cm b.9.00cm c.4.71cm d.28.26cm
16. 2.Onehectareisequivalentto10,000squaremeters.Howmanyhectaresareinarectangularfieldwhichis750
mwideand800mlong?
A.120 B.56 C.60 D.40
17. Anaquariumis40cmhigh.Itslengthistwiceitsheight,whileitswidthishalfitsheight.Howmuchwateris
neededtofillintheaquariumincu.cm.?
A.64,000 B.32,000 C.16,000 D.8,000
18. Whatisthevolumeofacubeifonefacehasaperimeterof36cm?
A.729cu.cm. B.216cu.cm. C.46,656cu.cm D.5,832cu.cm
19. Howmuchwatercanbefilledwithaconewhosediameteris24cmandwhoseheightexceeds2/3oftheradius
by2cm?
A.480cu.cm. B.540cu.cm. C.660cu.cm. D.900cu.cm.

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LICENSUREEXAMINATIONFORTEACHERS(LET)

Refresher Course

ContentArea:MATHEMATICS
Focus:Algebra
Preparedby:DaisydeBorjaMarcelino
LET Competencies:

Solvefortherootsofagivenquadraticequation
Solveproblemsonquadraticequations
Determineanequationgivenasetofrootswhichareimaginary/complexnumbers
Performoperationsinvolvingexponentialandlogarithmicfunctions
Solveforthesolutionsetofagiveninequality
Determinetherthtermoftheexpansion(a+b)n
Solveproblemsinvolvingvariations
Determinethenumberofpositiveandnegativerootsofagivenpolynomial

Equations

Anequationthatcontainsatleastonevariableiscalledanopensentence.Equations b & c aboveareexamples


of open sentences. In equation b, only 1 makes the sentence true or satisfies the equation. However, more than one
numbermightsatisfyanequation.Forexample,+2and2satisfytheequation x 4 0 .Anynumberthatsatisfiesan
2

equationiscalledasolutionorroottotheequation.Thesetofnumbersfromwhichyoucanselectreplacementsforthe
variableiscalledthereplacementset.Thesetofallsolutionstoanequationiscalledthesolutionsettotheequation.To
solveanequationmeanstofindallofitssolutions.

QUADRATICEQUATION
Anequationoftheformax2+bx+c=0wherea 0,a,b,andcareconstants,isaquadraticequation.

ROOTSOFQUADRATICEQUATIONS
Tosolveaquadraticequationmeanstofindthevalueofx(unknown)thatwillsatisfythegivenequation.The
valuesofxthatwillmaketheequationtruearecalledtherootsorsolutionofthequadraticequation.

MethodsofFindingtheRootsofaQuadraticEquation

1.Factoring(Usethismethodifthequadraticequationisfactorable)

Example:Determinetherootsofx28x15=0

Solution:Factoringtheleftsideoftheequation,
(x5)(x3)=0

Equatingeachfactortozero,
(x5)=0 (x3)=0
x=5 x=3
2.QuadraticFormula
b b 2 4ac
Thequadraticformulais x
2a


BINOMIALFORMULA

Toobtainthetermsofthebinomialexpansion(a+b)n,weusethebinomialformula:

n 1 n ( n 1)a n 2 b 2 n ( n 1)( n 2)a n 3 b 3


(a+b)n= a na
n
b ... nab n 1 b n
2! 3!

THErthTERMOFTHEEXPANSION(a+b)n

n (n 1)(n 2)...(n r 2)a n r 1 b r 1


rthterm=
(r 1)!

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EXPONENTIALFUNCTIONS

The exponential function f with base b is denoted by f(x)=bx,


where b > 0 , b 1, and x is any real number.

Propertiesoff(x)=bx

fhasthesetofrealnumbersasitsdomain.
fhasthesetofpositiverealnumbersasitsrange.
fhasagraphwithayinterceptof(0,1).
fisaonetoonefunction.
fhasagraphasymptotictothexaxis.
fisanincreasingfunctionifb>1andfisadecreasingfunctionif0<b<1.

Anexponentialfunctionhasaconstantbaseandavariableexponent.

TheNaturalExponentialFunction

Forallrealnumbersx,thefunctiondefinedby f ( x) e x iscalledthenaturalexponentialfunction.Notethate
isanirrationalnumberanditsaccuratevaluetoeightplacesis2.71828183.

EXPONENTIALEQUATIONS
Anequationwheretheunknownquantityappearsinanexponentiscalledanexponentialequation.

SOLVINGEXPONENTIALEQUATIONS
Tosolveanexponentialequationistofindthevalueoftheunknownquantityinthegivenequation.

LOGARITHMICFUNCTIONS

For x > 0, b > 0, and b 1, we have y = log a(x) if and


only if ay = x.

Note:
1.Ifthebaseofthelogarithmisnotindicateditisunderstoodthatthebaseis10.
2.Ifthebaseofthelogarithmisthenumbere,thenitiscalledanaturallogarithmanditiswrittenasf(x)=lnx.

Propertiesof f x logb x

fhasthesetofpositiverealnumbersasitsdomain.
fhasthesetofrealnumbersasitsrange.
fhasagraphwithaxinterceptof(1,0).
fisaonetoonefunction.
fhasagraphasymptotictotheyaxis.
fisanincreasingfunctionifb>1andfisadecreasingfunctionif0<b<1.

Remarks

Logarithmicfunctionsaretheinverseofexponentialfunctions.
Wecanusetherulesofexponentswithlogarithms.
Thetwomostcommonlogarithmsarecalledcommonlogarithmsandnaturallogarithms.Commonlogarithms
haveabaseof10,andnaturallogarithmshaveabaseofe.
Equationinexponentialformcanberewritteninlogarithmicform,andviceversa.

The exponential form of is .

The logarithmic form of is .

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Example1:Theexponentialequation72=49maybewrittenintermsofalogarithmicequationaslog7(49)=2.

1 1
Example 2: The exponential equation 93 = 3
or may be written in terms of a logarithmic equation as log9
9 729
1
=3
729

BasicPropertiesofLogarithms

Property1:loga(1)=0becausea0=1.

Example1:Intheequation220=1,thebaseis22andtheexponentis0.Rememberthatalogarithmisanexponent,and
thecorrespondinglogarithmicequationislog22(1)=0,wherethe0istheexponent.

0
2 2
Example2:Intheequation =1,thebaseis andtheexponentis0.Rememberthatalogarithmisanexponent,
5 5
andthecorrespondinglogarithmicequationis log 2 1=0.
5

Property2:loga(a)=1becausea1=a

Example3:Intheequation71 =7,thebaseis7,theexponentis1,andtheansweris7.Sincealogarithmisanexponent,
andthecorrespondinglogarithmicequationislog77=1

Example4:Usetheexponentialequationm1=mtowritealogarithmicequation.Ifthebasemisgreaterthan0,thenlogm
(m)=1.

Property3:loga(a)x=xbecauseax=ax

Example5:Since92=92,wemaywritethelogarithmicequationwithbase9aslog992=2.

Example6:Sinceyouknowthat112=112,wemaywritethelogarithmicequationwithbase11aslog11112=2.

INEQUALITIES
Anyrelationexpressedusingthesymbols<,>,>or<iscalledaninequality.
Anabsoluteinequalityisaninequalitywhichisalwaystrue.Aconditionalinequalityisonewhichistrueonlyfor
certainvaluesofthevariableinvolved.
1.4>3isanabsoluteinequality
2.x>3isaconditionalinequality

PROPERTIESOFINEQUALITIES
Leta,b,c,&dberealnumbers.Thefollowinghold.
1.TrichotomyProperty
a>bora<bora=b
2.a>bifab>0
a<bifab<0
3.
a.Ifa>0andb>0,thena+b>0andab>0.
b.Ifa<0andb<0,thena+b<0andab>0

4.Transitivity

Ifa<bandb<cthena<c.

5.AdditionProperty

Ifa<bandc<d,thena+c<b+d

6.MultiplicationProperty

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 76
Ifa<bandc>0,thenac<bc
Ifa<bandc<0,thenac>bc
SOLVINGINEQUALITIES

Tosolveaninequalitymeanstofindthevalueoftheunknownthatwillmaketheinequalitytrue.

POLYNOMIALFUNCTION
Thefunctiondefinedbytheequation
f(x)=a0xn+a1xn1+a2xn2+...+an2x2+an1x+an

wherenisanonnegativeintegeranda0,a1,...,anareconstants,a0, 0 isapolynomialfunctioninxofdegreen.
Thezerosorrootsoff(x)arethenumbersthatwillmakef(x)=0.

TheNumberofPositiveandNegativeRootsofaPolynomialFunction
Iff(x)isapolynomialfunctionwithrealcoefficients,thenthefollowingaretrue.
Thenumberofpositiverealzerosoff(x)iseitherequaltothenumberofvariationsinsigninf(x),ortothatnumber
diminishedbyapositiveeveninteger.

Thenumberofnegativerealzerosoff(x)iseitherequaltothenumberofvariationsinsigninf(x),ortothatnumber
diminishedbyapositiveeveninteger.
LICENSUREEXAMINATIONFORTEACHERS(LET)

RefresherCourse

Majorship:MATHEMATICS
Preparedby:DaisydeBorjaMarcelino
FOCUS:MathematicalInvestigationandProblemSolving
LETCOMPETENCIES:
1.Citedifferencesbetweenproblemsolvingandmathematicalinvestigations.
2.Statepatternsobservedasconjectures.
3.Solvenonroutineproblems.

CONTENTUPDATE
I.ProblemSolving

Problemsolvingisdefinedasasetofactionstobedonetoperformthetaskortosolvetheproblem.Itisaprocessof
applyingacquiredknowledgetoaneworunfamiliarsituation.

I.PolyasProblemSolvingPrinciples

1.Understandtheproblem

Understandingthegivenproblemisaveryimportantprincipleinordertosolveitcorrectly.
Thefollowingquestionsmaybehelpfulintheanalysisofagivenproblem:
Doyouunderstandallthewordsusedinstatingtheproblem?
Whatareyouaskedtofindorshow?
Canyourestatetheprobleminyourownwords?
Couldyouworkoutsomenumericalexamplesthatwouldhelpmaketheproblemclear?
Couldyouthinkofapictureordiagramthatmighthelpyouunderstandtheproblem?
Isthereenoughinformationtoenableyoutofindasolution?
Isthereextraneousinformation?
Whatdoyoureallyneedtoknowtofindasolution?
Isthereyetanotherwaytostatetheproblem?
Whatdoeskeywordreallymean?

2.Deviseaplan

Thefollowingstrategiesmaybeofgreathelpasyoulearntheartofproblemsolving.
guessandcheck makeatable
makeanorderlylist useavariable
drawadiagram workbackward
lookforapa ern eliminatepossibili es

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3.Carryouttheplan

To carry out the plan you devised earlier be careful and be patient to make it work. If it doesnt work after
severaltrials,thendiscarditandtryanewstrategy.

4.Lookback

Lookingbackisanimportantstepindevelopingproblemsolvingskills.Onceyouhavesolvedtheproblemmake
itahabittogooveryoursolutionandpolishit.

II.MathematicalInvestigation

Amathematicalinvestigationofaproblemorofanopenendedsituationisasustainedexplorationof
theproblemorsituation.

StagesinaMathematicalInvestigation

1.GettingStarted
Attainingfamiliaritywiththesituationtobeinvestigated.
Producinginstances,maybestartingfromthesimplestorwhateverisinteresting.
Decidingonwhatisworthpursuing.
2.ExploringSystematically
Systematiclisting/drawing;
Organizingrelationshipsintablesorgraphs;and
Lookingforapatternorrelationship.

3.MakingConjecture
Makinggeneralstatementsaboutpatternsorrelationshipsobservedinthecasesconsidered.

Aconjectureisageneralizationobtainedinductively,whichhasnotbeenvalidatedorproventrue.

4.Testing/VerifyingConjectures
Checkingconsistencyofconjecturesusingexistingcases;
Predictingresultsforuntriedcasesforwhichdataareavailable.

5.Explaining/JustifyingConjecturesExplainingwhytheconjecturesmadewillworkforneworallcases

6.Reorganizing
Simplifying/generalizingtheapproach
Seeingtheconnectionamongtheconjectures

7.ElaboratingExtendingtheinvestigationbyconsideringotheraspectsoftheinvestigation

8.SummarizingInvolvesanaccountorsummary,writtenororal,ofwhathasbeenobtainedinstages27,withsome
referenceontheexperiencesinstage1.

MAJORSHIP:MODERNGEOMETRY

LETCOMPETENCIES:

1. GivecharacteristicsofnonEuclideangeometrywhicharenotfoundinPlaneEuclideanGeometry.
2. Defineandillustrateconceptsinlinearalgebra
3. Applypropertiesofmatricesinperformingmatrixoperations
4. Evaluatedeterminants
5. Performmodularclockarithmetic

MODERNGEOMETRY

NonEuclideangeometry
NonEuclidean Geometry is any geometry that is different from Euclidean geometry. The two most common non
Euclideangeometriesareellipticgeometryandhyperbolicgeometry.
A.HyperbolicGeometry

Hyperbolic geometry is known as saddle geometry or Lobachevskian geometry. It differs in many ways from Euclidean
geometry, often leading to quite counterintuitive results. Some of the remarkable consequences of this geometry's
unique fifth postulate include: Moreover, in this field, more than one distinct line through a particular point will not
intersectanothergivenline..

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1.Thesumofthethreeinterioranglesofatriangleisstrictlylessthan180.Moreover,theanglesumsoftwodistinct
trianglesarenotnecessarilythesame.

2.Twotriangleswiththesameinteriorangleshavethesamearea.

B.EllipticGeometry

InEllipticgeometrytherearenolinesthatwillnotintersect,

SometheoremsinEllipticGeometry

1. Theanglesumofanytriangleismorethan180o.

2. GiventwolinesperpendiculartolineCG.Bytheparallelpostulateforellipticgeometry,thesetwolinesmeetata
pointA.TheneverylinethroughAisperpendiculartolineCG.

C.ProjectiveGeometry

Projective geometry is the most general and least restrictive in the hierarchy of fundamental geometries. It is an
intrinsically nonmetric geometry, whose facts are independent of any metric structure. Under the projective
transformations,theincidencestructureandthecrossratioarepreserved.Inparticular,itformalizesoneofthecentral
principlesofperspectiveart:thatparallellinesmeetatapointcalledanidealpoint.Consequently,thefiveinitialaxioms
inEuclideanGeometryresultedtothefollowingaxioms.

1. Anytwodistinctpointsdetermineoneandonlyoneline.
2. Anytwodistinctcoplanarlinesintersectinoneandonlyonepoint.
3. Anylinenotinagivenplaneintersectstheplaneinoneandonlyonepoint.
4. Anytwodistinctplanesintersectinoneandonlyoneline.
5. Anythreenoncollinearpoints,alsoanylineandapointnotontheline,determineoneandonlyoneplane.

MATRICESANDMATRIXOPERATIONS

Definition

A matrix is defined as a rectangular array of elements. The entries, also called elements, may be real, complex or
functions.Ifthearrangementhasmrowsandncolumns,thenthematrixisofordermxn(readasmbyn).Amatrixis
enclosedbyapairofparameterssuchas()or[].Itisdenotedbyacapitalletter.

a11 a12 a1n


a a22 a2 n
A 21
aij

am1 am 2 amn

A=[aij]

TYPESOFMATRICES

1.TheROWMATRIX:Thismatrixhasonlyonerow.

Example:[1643]Thisisa1X4rowmatrix

2.TheCOLUMNMATRIX:Thismatrixhasonlyonecolumn.
10
2
Example: Thisis4x1columnmatrix
7

8

3.TheRECTANGULARMATRIX:Thishastwoormorerowswithtwoormorecolumns.

Example
2 3 5 2

8 1 4
Thisisa2X4matrix,becauseitcontainstworowsandfour
0

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8 11 22 0

7 6 95 10 Thisisa3X4matrix

0 45 49 68

4.TheSQUAREMATRIX:ThisisaspecialcaseofaRectangularMatrix;herethe
numberofrowsisequaltothenumberofcolumns.
1 3 2 4
a b c 5
1
f
1 3
Example:A= d e B=
8 1 1 1
g h i
8 5 3 1

HereAandBaresquarematricesoforder3and4respectively

5.TheDIAGONALMATRIX:Thisisasquarematrixwhereallitsnondiagonalelementsare0
Example:
5 0 0 0
8 0 0 0
92 0 6 0 0
(a) (b) 0 1 0 (c)
0 3 0
0 1 0 0 8
0

0 0 0 10
Thesearediagonalmatricesoforder2,3and4respectively.

6.TheSCALARMATRIX:Thisisadiagonalmatrixwherealltheelementsonitsleadingdiagonaltobottomrightareof
equalvalue.
Example:
6 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
2 0 6 0 0
(a) (b) 0 3 0 (c)
0 0
0 2 0 0 3
0 6

0 0 0 6
7.TheIDENTITYMATRIX:Thisisascalarmatrixwheretheelementsonitsleadingdiagonal(thediagonalrunningfrom
toplefttobottomright)are1andtherestareofvalue0
Example:
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
ThisisanidentitymatrixI4oforder4.
0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

PROPERTIESOFMATRIXADDITION

TheoremLetA,B,C,andDbematricesofthesamesize,mxn.

1.A+B=B+A (Commutativity)

2.A+(B+C)=(A+B)+C (Associativity)

3.ThereisauniquemxnmatrixOsuchthatA+0=AforanymxnmatrixA.ThematrixOiscalledthemxn
additiveidentityorzeromatrix.


4.ToeachmxnmatrixA,thereisauniquemxnmatrixDsuchthat

A+D=0

We write D as ( A), so that A + D = 0 can be written as A + (A) = 0. The matrix (A) is called the additive inverse or
negativeofA.

PROPERTIESOFMATRIXMULTIPLICATION

TheoremLetA,B,andCbematricesoftheappropriatesizes.

1.A(BC)=(AB)C (Associativity)

2.A(B+C)=AB+AC (RightDistributivity)

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3.(A+B)C=AC+BC (LeftDistributivity)

PROPERTIESOFMULTIPLICATIONBYASCALAR

TheoremLetAandBbematricesoftheappropriatesizes,andletrandsbescalars.

1.r(sA)=(rs)A(Associativity)

2.(r+s)A=rA+sA(DistributivityI)

3.r(A+B)=rA+rB(DistributivityII)

4.A(rB)=r(AB)=(rA)B

Definition LetA=[aij]beannxnmatrix.WedefinethedeterminantofA(writtendet(A)or A )by

detA= A = ( )a 1 j1 a 2 j2
... a n jn

wherethesummationrangesoverallpermutationsj1 j2jnofthesetS={1,2,n}.Thesignistakenas+
oraccordingtowhetherthe permutation j1j2jnisevenorodd.

SecondorderDeterminant

IfAisthesquarematrixofordertwo 1
a b1
thenthedeterminantofA,denotedby
a b2
2

eitherdetAor a1 b1 ,isdefinedby a1 b1 =a b a b
1 2 2 1
a2 b2 a2 b2

Example:
Computethedeterminant:

PROPERTIESOFDETERMINANT

1.Thedeterminantofamatrixanditstransposeareequal,thatis,det(AT)=det(A).

2.Iftworows(columns)ofAareequal,thendet(A)=0

3.Ifarow(column)ofAconsistsentirelyofzeros,thendet(A)=0

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4. The determinant of a diagonal matrix is the product of the entries on its main diagonal.

5.IfmatrixA=[aij]isupper(lower)triangular,thendet(A)=a11a22ann;thatis
Thedeterminantofatriangularmatrixistheproductoftheelementsonthemaindiagonal.

6.IfamultipleofonerowofAisaddedtoanotherrowtoproduceamatrixB,
thendetB=detA.

7.IftworowsofAareinterchangedtoproduceB,thendetB=detA.

8.IfonerowofAismultipliedbyktoproduceB,thendetB=kdetA.

9.Thedeterminantofaproductoftwomatricesistheproductoftheirdeterminants;Thatis,det(AB)=det(A)det(B)

MODULARCLOCKARTITHMETIC

Clock(ormodular)arithmeticisarithmeticyoudoonaclockinsteadofanumberline.Ona12hourclock,thereareonly
twelve numbers in the whole number system. However, every number has lots of different names. For example, the
numberbefore1is0,so12=0ona12hourclock

Inclockarithmetic,youcanadd,subtract,andmultiply,youcandividebysomenumbers.

AdditionandSubtraction

Additionandsubtractionworkthesameasonnumberline.Forexample,toadd9and7,startat0,count9alongtheline,
andthencount7more.Youareat16.Ifyoucountona12hourclock,youwillbeat4.

Toaddnegativenumbers,usetheminus()signtochangedirection.Tosubtractonaclock,firstfindstandard(positive)
namesforthetwonumbers,countclockwiseforthefirstone,andcountcounterclockwiseforthesecond.

In ordinary arithmetic, the additive inverse of 4 is 4. In mod 12 arithmetic, the additive inverse of 4 is 8. In
eithersystem,thesumofanumberanditsadditiveinverseiszero.
Rowscorrespondingtoadditiveinversesareoppositesofoneanother,saveforthenumber0.

AdditionMod12(12hourclock)

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 82


13 The educational theory, in response to
St.LouisReviewCenter,Inc. progressivism, which concerns with the revival of
3RDFlr.LaSuerteBldg.,RizalAve.,San effortinthedirectionofteachingthefundamental
PabloCity toolsoflearningasthemostindispensabletypeof
Tel.no.(049)5622239/09296884348 education
a. Essentialism c.Philosophicalanalysis
POSTTESTSOCIALSCIENCES b. Perennialism d.Socialtraditionalism
14 This philosophy believes that the schools should
L.E.TAPRIL2010 originate policies and progress which would bring
aboutreformofthesocialorder
1 What branch of philosophy is closely related to a. reconstructionism c.
education because it is concerned with human Existentialism
knowledgeingeneralandthecriteriaoftruth? b. Progressivism d.
a. Metaphysics c.Epistemology Perennialism
b. Logic d.Ethics 15 Thisisthelogicalconclusionifwearetoapplythe
2 This is the philosophical study of the universe and philosophyofmartinBubertoeducation
everythinginit a. Education will be characterize by imposition
a. Cosmology c.Metaphysics andrules
b. Ethics d.Axiology b. Education will be characterize by mutual
3 What philosophy posits that a social teacher is a unfoldingofpersons
revered person, central to the educative process c. Educationwillbecharacterizebypretensions
and therefore must be excellent mentally and d. Education will be characterize by self
morallyinpersonallyconductandconviction? motivation
a. Realism c.Essentialism 16 Manasanembodiedspiritmeans
b. Idealism d.Progressivism a. Manisabodyandsoul
4 Whatwouldtheaimofarealisteducationlikelybe? b. Manisarationalanimal
a. Contribute to the development of mind and c. Manisatotally,uniquecoreorcenter,source
self wellspringofinitiativeandmeaning
b. Provide students with the knowledge he will d. Manissubjective
needtosurviveinthenaturalworld 17 Man as an embodied sprit implies that education
c. Give students insights into their traditions and should
adaptingstudentstosociety a. Developtheintellect/mind
d. Meet the need of a growing child rather than b. Developmansindividuality
emphasizethesubjectmatter c. Developessentialphysicalandintellectualskills
5 This philosophy emphasizes the teaching of d. Developthetotalman
controversial issues to prepare students for a 18 human beings are living in a human world implies
progressivestructuringofthesocialorder that
a. Progressivism c.Reconstructionism a. Education must help man give meaning to his
b. Socialtraditionalismd.SocialExperimentalism worldofothers
6 Thephilosophywhosecriterionoftruthisseeing b. Educationmustdevelopskillstosurviveinthis
isbelieving world
a. Essentialism c.Progressivism c. Educationmustberelevanttothisworld
b. Nativerealism d.Existentialism d. Education must be in the context of societal
7 This is the systematic consistent explanation of all needs
thefactsofexperience.Itstechnicaltermisreason 19 This philosophy contends that the intellectual
whichisconsideredasthebestcriterionoftruth facultyofmanishigherthatthephysicalfaculties
a. Pragmatism c.Correspondence a. Idealism c.Existentialism
b.Consistency d.Coherence b. Realism d.LogicalPositivism
8 This philosophy contends that truth is universal an 20 The philosophical study of the essence and nature
unchangingandthereforeagoodeducationisalso ofman
universalandconstant a. Rationalpsychology
a. Perennialism c.Existentialism b. Epistemology
b. Progressivism d.Essentialism c. Philosophyofhumanperson
9 Which philosophy has for its curriculum a body d. SocialPhilosophy
intellectual subject matter that are conceptual on 21 Thebranchofphilosophythatstudiesthemorality
subject, essential for the realization of mental and ofhumanacts
moraldevelopment? a. Aesthetics c.Ethics
a. Realism c.Existentialism b. Cosmology d.Theodicy
b. Idealism d.Pragmatism 22 Thisisthephilosophicalstudyofhumanknowledge
10 AbranchofPhilosophythatstudiesthemoralityof andthecriteriaoftruth
humanaction a. Axiology c.Logic
a. Epistemology c.Ethics b. Epistemology d.Metaphysics
b. Metaphysics d.Cosmology 23 This contemporary philosophical theme in
11 The area of Philosophy that specifically deals with education contendsthat education must involve in
theproblemofhumanvalues itsprocessesthetotalhumanbeinghissubjectivity,
a. criteriology c.Theodicy therational,thematerialandtheemotionalaspect
b. Epistemology d.Axiology formanisaunityandnotaduality
12 Theaimofthisphilosophyistoreducestatements a. Genuinedialogue
abouteducationtoempiricalterms b. Manasabeingintheworld
a. Reconstructionism c.Philosophical c. Manasanembodiedspirit
analysis d. Thesocialsandtheinterhumanbeing
b. Existentialism d. Social
traditionalism
St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 83
24 This philosophy proclaims the spiritual nature and 36 It is a systematic consistent explanation of all the
the universe. It holds that the good, the true and facts of experience. Its technical name is reason.
thebeautifularepermanentlypartofthestructure Thisisbelievedtobetheultimatecriterionoftruth
ofanunchanginguniverse a. Coherence c.NaveRealism
a. Existentialism c.Materialism b. Consistency d.Pragmatism
b. Idealism d.Realism 37 This educational philosophy encourages
25 Thisphilosophypositstheknowabilityoftheworld accumulation of knowledge and thinking and must
andeverythinginitsastheyareinthemselvesand apply criteria for moral evaluation. Suggested
theirexistenceindependentofhumanmind methods are questioning and discussion, lecture
a. Existentialism c.Materialism andtheproject,whetherdonesinglyoringroup
b. Idealism d.Realism a. Existentialism c.Materialism
26 Thecentralaimofeducationshouldbetodevelop b. Idealism d.Pragmatism
thepowerofthoughtthiswouldlikelybetheaim 38 This theory views education as a recurring process
ofwhateducationalpractitioner? based on eternal truths; thus, the schools
a. Existentialism c.Progressivist curriculumshouldemphasizetherecurrentthemes
b. Perennialist d.Reconstructivist ofhumanlife
27 Thiseducationaltheoryisbasedonthephilosophy a. Perennialism c.Progressivism
groundedonexperienceandtheinteractionofthe b. Pragmatism d.Reconstructionism
person with his environment. It posits that 39 Thephilosophicalstudyofhumanmind
education must use past experiences to direct a. Axiologyc.Metaphysics
futureexperiences b. Epistemology d.Rationalpsychology
a. Existentialism c.Realism 40 The philosophical study of being, its nature and
b. Idealism d.progressivism essence
28 This philosophy is a way of viewing and thinking a. Axiology c.Metaphysics
aboutlifeintheworldsothatpriorityisgiveninto b. Epistemology d. Rational
individualism and subjectivity. It believes that Psychology
human beings are the creator of their own 41 Asociologistwouldbemostinterestedinstudying
experiences a. Artifactsofthefastcivilization
a. Existentialism c.Realism b. Groupbehavior
b. Idealism d.Reconstruction c. Psychologicalproblems
29 This emerging social values in education stresses d. Economicinstitution
thatmanexistthroughtheotherandforothersfor 42 Interrelated social structures that fit together to
hebecomesactuatedthroughrelations formanintegratedwhole
a. ExistentialDialogue c.Socialization a. Structuralfunctionalism
b. Personalization d.Vigilance b. Conflicttheory
30 To what particular concept must education be c. SymbolicInteractionism
basedaccordingtocontemporaryphilosophy? d. DisruptiveFunctionalism
a. Existentialdialogue 43 Developmentofselfandadaptationofindividualto
b. SocialChange society
c. Supremacyofthehumanperson a. Structuralfunctionalism
d. Synergy b. Conflicttheory
31 Thisemergingsocialvalueineducationstressesthe c. SymbolicInteractionism
importance if the weexperience ad the d. DisruptiveFunctionism
convergingoftheworlds 44 WhichisNOTamethodinsociologicalinquiry
a. Authenticbeing c.Personalization a. Experimentalstudy c.Intuitivestudy
b. Existentialdialogue d.Synergy b. LongitudinalStudy d. Expost Facto
32 The essentialist would likely have this as the study
ultimateaimofeducation 45 Which of the following give some difficulties to a
a. To fit man to perform, justly, skillfully and sociologicalresearcher?
magnanimousinalltimesinpeaceandwar a. Complexityofphenomena
b. Todevelopthepowerofthought.Tosearchfor b. Constantchange
andisseminatethetruth c. Unpredictabilityofbehavior
c. Togiveallpupilsinsightintotheirtraditions d. Alloftheabove
d. Tomeettheneedsofthegrowingchild 46 Aclusterofbehaviorpatternsrelatedtothegeneral
33 The philosophical belief that reality is precisely cultureofasocietyandyetdistinguishablefromit
what as it appear to be and adheres to the belief a. Subculture c.Norm
thatseeingisbelieving b. Cultureshock d.mores
a. Coherence c.NaveRealism 47 Which group would most likely have a counter
b. Consistency d.Pragmatism culture?
34 Itisbeliefthatwhenanideaagreeswithitsobject, a. Musician c.Singers
it is proof of its truth. However, it is definition of b. Drugsusers d.Dancers
truthnotacriteria 48 The complex whole which includes knowledge,
a. Coherence c.NaveRealism beliefs, arts moral, laws, customs and other
b. Consistency d.Correspondence capabilities and habits acquired by man as a
35 Thebeliefthattheultimatecriterionoftruthisifan memberofthesociety
ideaworksthenitistrue a. Norm c.Culture
a. Coherence c.NaveRealism b. Folkways d.Mores
b. Consistency d.Pragmatism 49 Whenoneconsiderthecultureofanothergroupas
inferiortohisown,thisconnotes
a. Ethnocentrism c.Assimilation
b. Culturalrelativism d.Acculturation

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 84


50 The rightness or wrongness of what one does 64 Which of the following statements is NOT true
dependonwhereheisdoingit aboutFilipinofamiliestoday?
a. Culturalintegration c.Culturalrelativism a. Maleauthorityhasdeclined
b. Culturallag d.Culturaltraits b. Divisionoflaborhaschanged
51 The culture that includes undesirable behavior of c. Separationhasbecomemorecommon
the member of society. Formally condemned but d. Hasceasetobesocializationunitinsociety
widelypracticed 65 WhichofthefollowingisNOTanethicalissuethat
a. Realculture c.Subculture mustbeconfrontedwhendoingsocialresearch?
b. Idealculture d.Counterculture a. Arethesubjectsbeingpaidenough?
52 The process by which a member learns the norms b. Whatdegreeofrisk,painorharmisinvolved?
ofthegroup c. To what extent are the subjects being
a. Accommodationc.Compartmentalization deceived?
b. Aggregation d.Socialization d. Will there be disclosure of confidential or
53 Aroleorstatusassignedaccordingtohereditytraits personallyharmfulinformation?
without regard to individual preference, ability or 66 In most instances of participant observation the
performance researchers:
a. Achieved c.Attached a. Hidetheirtrueidentity
b. Ascribed d.Applied b. Donothidetheirtrueidentity
54 Anachievedpositioninasociety c. Paytheirinformantsforinformation
a. Heirtothethrone c.Movieactor d. Actsastherapisttothesubject
b. Presidentialson d.Firstlady 67 A research technique in which the investigators
55 Referstothedifficultypeoplehaveinmeetingtheir entertotheactivitiesofthegroupatthesametime
roleobligations theystudythegroupsbehavioris
a. Roleconflict c.Rolestrain a. Participantsobservation
b. Roleset d.Roleambiguity b. Asemistructured(openended)Interview
56 Whenasupervisoristaskedtoreportunsatisfactory c. Astructuredinterview
performance of her coworkers who are also her d. Adatadiscussion
friends.Shemayexperience 68 Participantobservation:
a. Roleplay c.Rolestrain a. Aresearchtoolusedtofollowuponexpected
b. Roleconflict d.Roleambiguity findings
57 Social control imposed on social deviants to b. Aresearchinterviewinwhichtheinvestigators
maintain ashalistofquestions,butisfreetovarythem
a. Socialstigma c.Socialorder or make up new ones that become important
b. Socialstrata d.Socialmobility duringthecourseoftheinterview
58 WhichofthefollowingisNOTtrue? c. Aresearchtechniqueinwhichtheinvestigators
a. The deviant behavior of one generation may enter into activities of the group at the same
becomethenormofthenext timetheystudythegroupsbehavior
b. Allformsofdeviantarebad d. A research interview determined entirely in
c. Deviant behavior is one way of adapting a advanceandfollowedrigidly
culturetoasocialchange 69 A research interview determined entirely in
d. Some deviation are due to the failure of the advanceandfollowedrigidlyis:
socialization process to integrate the cultural a. Participantsobservation
normsintoindividualspersonality b. Asemistructured(openended)interview
59 A teenager in a good neighborhood of stable c. Astructuredinterview
families and conventional people who rejects d. Adatadiscussion
middleclassnormsandbecomeadelinquentisan 70 Aresearchinterviewinwhichtheinvestigatorsask
exampleof alistofquestions,butisfreetovarythemormake
a. Individualdeviation c.Counterdeviation up new ones that become important during the
b. Groupdeviation d.Relativedeviation courseinterview,thatis
60 Acaseofcompulsivedrugaddictisanexampleifa a. Participantobservation
a. Primarydeviant c.Tertiarydeviant b. Asemistructured(openended)interview
b. Secondarydeviant d.Alloftheabove c. Structuredinterview
61 WhichisNOTacharacteristicofasocialgroup? d. Adatadiscussion
a. Physicalcollectionofpeople 71 Aconversationbetweentwoormoreindividualsin
b. Shares a common purpose and conscious of whichonepartyattemptstogaininformationfrom
eachother others(s)byaskingofquestionsisknownas;
c. Sharesomecommoncharacteristics a. Asurveyc.Participantobservation
d. Memberinteractwithoneanother b. Aninterview d.Hypothesistesting
62 Which is NOT a characteristic of the relationship 72 Sociological and anthropological be misused
amongmembersofaprimarygroup? becauseit:
a. Personal c.Segmental a. Ishardtounderstand
b. Informal d.Sentimental b. Is often used selectively by groups or
63 Which is an example of members if a primary individualstosupportcertainmotives
group? c. Isoftenambiguous
a. Peergroup c. School d. Hasfewapplicants
administration 73 Asurveybytheirnatureusually
b. Family d.Neighbors a. Arecrosssectional
b. Arelongitudinal
c. Involvesecondarymethodology
d. Involveparticipantsobservation

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 85


74 Acrosssectionalstudyis 85 Ifapescanbetaughttouselanguage,itdeniesthe
a. A research technique in which investigators viewsthat:
enter into activities of the group at the same a. Onlyhumancanthink
timetheystudythegroupsbehavior b. Onlyhumanhaveculture
b. Research examines a population at a given c. Apesdonothavehistorytopasson
pointinatime d. Apesarestupid
c. Research which examines a population, or 86 Whichofthefollowingstatementsaboutcultureis
portion thereof, is questioned in order to nottrue?
revealspecificfactsaboutitself a. Every social group must have a culture on its
d. Research that investigates a population at owninordertofunction
severalintervalsoverrelativelyalongperiodof b. Every individual participates in a number of
time differentculture
75 Research that investigates a population at several c. Meeting the social expectation of several
intervals over a relatively long period of time is culturesisoftensourceoftree
called d. Families do not have their own culture but
a. Acrosssectionalstudy c. Secondary insteadreflectthecultureofthelargersociety
Analysis 87 Promisedtomakethiscountrygreatagain.Ruled
b. Aresidualanalysis d. Longitudinal forabouttwentyyears
research a. DiosdadoMacapagal c.RamonMagsaysay
76 Surveyareusedwhen: b. FerdinandMarcos d.CarlosGarcia
a. Other measure do not produce statistical 88 The form of government established by Aguinaldo
significance waschangefromdictatorialto:
b. Thefindingsofthestudymustberepeatable a. Democratic c.Republic
c. It is desirable to discover he contribution and b. Sociologist d.Revolutionary
interrelations of certain variables among large 89 Which provides he Tagalog shall be the official
numberofpeople languageoftherepublic?
d. Procedures having crosscultural applications a. Constitutionof1935 c.BiyaknaBato
needed b. Makabula d.Malolos
77 Aresearchmethodiswhichapopulation,orportion 90 Which of the following were the greatest naval
thereof, is questioned in order to reveal specific battlesinhistoryduringJapaneseoccupationofthe
factsitselfisknownas: Philippines?
a. Asurvey c.Experiments a. BattleofLeytegulf c.Claveri
b. Participantobservation d.Residualanalysis b. SurigaoStrait d.DelaTorre
78 WhichofthefollowingisNOToneofthethreemain 91 Themostculturedofthereformist,wroteasocio
methodsofresearchusedbysociologists? historical novel based on facts he gathered in the
a. Asurvey c.Experiments Philippines
b. Participantsobservation d.Residualanalysis a. MarceloH.DelPilar c.MarianoPonce
79 Astatisticaltechniquetomakeallsignificantgroups b. JoseRizal d. Jose Ma.
inassocietyrepresentedinasampleproportionto Paganiban
theirnumbersinthelargesocietyisknownas: 92 The editor of La Solaridad and a great orator, he
a. Randomsampling initiatedthereformmovement
b. Astratifiedrandomsample a. MarceloH.DelPilar c.EmilioJacinto
c. Sampling b. JoseRizal d. Graciano Lopez
d. Randomizedresponse Jaena
80 Thegoalindesigningaresearchprojectshouldbe: 93 The generation of the spirits was common among
a. Toproveapoint ancient Filipinos. Memories of their dead relatives
b. To provide a collection for all necessary and were kept alive through craved idol. This practice
sufficientdatatotestthestatedhypothesis wascalled
c. To selectively isolate the variables in order to a. Cultofthedead c.NatureWorship
prove the hypotheses are either correct or b. Massofthedeadd.Divination
incorrect 94 Thepracticeofhavingsurnameswasstartedduring
d. To prove hypothesis false. If they cannot Spanishregimethroughtheorderof
provenfalse,theymustbetrue a. Gov.GenJaudenes c.Gov.GenClaveria
81 Anindependentvariableis b. Gov.GenDelaTorre d.Gov.GenPolavejia
a. A testable statements about the relationship 95 AspromisedbyGen.McArthurhewouldreturnto
betweentwoormoreempiricalvariables liberatetheFilipinosafterhecouldtraintroops,in
b. Anythingthatcanbechange Australia. The Leyte landing signified the liberation
c. A variable that changes for reason that have of the Philippines, was well as the return of the
nothingtodowithanothervariable commonwealth government. Who was the
d. Avariablethatchangesinresponsetochanges commonwealth president who came with Mc
inanothervariable Arthur?
82 Whichofthefollowingisnotasign? a. Romulo c.Osmea
a. Aclenchedfirst c.Aflag b. Roxas d.Quezon
b. Aknockonthedoor d.Yawning 96 Men and women of precolonial times had
83 Themostimportantsymbolsare weakness for personal adornment. A side from
a. Action c.Actions jewels, tattooing of the body was common. In the
b. Words d.Behavior Visayastattooedmenwerecalled
84 The principal means through which culture is a. Umalohokan c.Abi
transmittedfromgenerationtogenerationis b. Pintados d.Plista
a. Actions c.Language
b. Diffusion d.Behaviors

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 86


97 Memories of brutality which was so in human 42 a 92 d
duringtheJapaneseregimewerealwaysassociated 43 c 93 a
withaparticularJapanesegroupcalled 44 c 94 c
a. Kalibapi c.Kamikaze 45 d 95 d
b. Kempetai d.Samurai 46 c 96 a
98 MembershipintheKatipunancomeingrades:first
47 b 97 b
(katipons);second(kawal);andthird(bayani).Each
48 c 98 b
grade designed as well as password so they could
maintain their secrecy of the movement. The 49 a 99 b
passwordforthekawalgradewas? 50 c 100 a
a. Rizal c.Kawal
b. Gomburza d.Sundalo
99 Precolonial trade in the Philippines was
prosperous.Businesstransactionsmadeuseof:
a. Moneysystem c.Creditsystem
b. Bartersystem d.BankingSystem
100 Theuseofmagiccharmswasverycommonamong
preSpanish Filipinos. One of these is the anting
antingoragimatwhichismeantto:
a. Insureamanagainstaweaponofeverykind
b. Madeamanlovabletoallladies
c. Madeamaninvisible
d. Madehimwalkinstormorseawithoutgetting
wet
* * * * * T H E E N D * * * * *

WORKHARD,DREAMHARDER
Socialscience

1 C 51 a

2 A 52 d

3 B 53 b
4 B 54 c
5 C 55 c
6 B 56 b
7 D 57 c
8 A 58 b
9 A 59 a
10 C 60 a
11 D 61 a
12 C 62 c

13 A 63 c

14 A 64 d

15 B 65 a
16 C 66 a
17 D 67 a
18 A 68 c
19 A 69 c
20 C 70 b
21 C 71 b
22 B 72 b
23 C 73 c
24 B 74 b

25 d 75 d

26 b 76 c

27 d 77 a
28 a 78 d
29 c 79 b
30 c 80 b
31 d 81 c
32 a 82 c
33 c 83 d
34 c 84 d
35 d 85 b

36 a 86 d

37 b 87 b

38 a 88 d
39 d 89 a
40 c 90 a
41 b 91 b
St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 87
POSTTESTSOCIALSCIENCES 114 Thisphilosophybelievesthattheschoolsshould
originatepoliciesandprogresswhichwouldbring
L.E.TAPRIL2010 aboutreformofthesocialorder
a. reconstructionism c.Existentialism
101 Whatbranchofphilosophyiscloselyrelatedto b. Progressivism d.Perennialism
educationbecauseitisconcernedwithhuman 115 Thisisthelogicalconclusionifwearetoapplythe
knowledgeingeneralandthecriteriaoftruth? philosophyofmartinBubertoeducation
a. Metaphysics c.Epistemology a. Educationwillbecharacterizebyimposition
b. Logic d.Ethics andrules
102 Thisisthephilosophicalstudyoftheuniverseand b. Educationwillbecharacterizebymutual
everythinginit unfoldingofpersons
a. Cosmology c.Metaphysics c. Educationwillbecharacterizebypretensions
b. Ethics d.Axiology d. Educationwillbecharacterizebyself
103 Whatphilosophypositsthatasocialteacherisa motivation
reveredperson,centraltotheeducativeprocess 116 Manasanembodiedspiritmeans
andthereforemustbeexcellentmentallyand a. Manisabodyandsoul
morallyinpersonallyconductandconviction? b. Manisarationalanimal
a. Realism c.Essentialism c. Manisatotally,uniquecoreorcenter,source
b. Idealism d.Progressivism wellspringofinitiativeandmeaning
104 Whatwouldtheaimofarealisteducationlikelybe? d. Manissubjective
a. Contributetothedevelopmentofmindand 117 Manasanembodiedspritimpliesthateducation
self should
b. Providestudentswiththeknowledgehewill a. Developtheintellect/mind
needtosurviveinthenaturalworld b. Developmansindividuality
c. Givestudentsinsightsintotheirtraditionsand c. Developessentialphysicalandintellectualskills
adaptingstudentstosociety d. Developthetotalman
d. Meettheneedofagrowingchildratherthan 118 humanbeingsarelivinginahumanworldimplies
emphasizethesubjectmatter that
105 Thisphilosophyemphasizestheteachingof a. Educationmusthelpmangivemeaningtohis
controversialissuestopreparestudentsfora worldofothers
progressivestructuringofthesocialorder b. Educationmustdevelopskillstosurviveinthis
a. Progressivism c.Reconstructionism world
b. Socialtraditionalismd.SocialExperimentalism c. Educationmustberelevanttothisworld
106 Thephilosophywhosecriterionoftruthisseeing d. Educationmustbeinthecontextofsocietal
isbelieving needs
a. Essentialism c.Progressivism 119 Thisphilosophycontendsthattheintellectual
b. Nativerealism d.Existentialism facultyofmanishigherthatthephysicalfaculties
107 Thisisthesystematicconsistentexplanationofall a. Idealism c.Existentialism
thefactsofexperience.Itstechnicaltermisreason b. Realism d.LogicalPositivism
whichisconsideredasthebestcriterionoftruth 120 Thephilosophicalstudyoftheessenceandnature
a. Pragmatism c.Correspondence ofman
b.Consistency d.Coherence a. Rationalpsychology
108 Thisphilosophycontendsthattruthisuniversalan b. Epistemology
unchangingandthereforeagoodeducationisalso c. Philosophyofhumanperson
universalandconstant d. SocialPhilosophy
a. Perennialism c.Existentialism 121 Thebranchofphilosophythatstudiesthemorality
b. Progressivism d.Essentialism ofhumanacts
109 Whichphilosophyhasforitscurriculumabody a. Aesthetics c.Ethics
intellectualsubjectmatterthatareconceptualon b. Cosmology d.Theodicy
subject,essentialfortherealizationofmentaland 122 Thisisthephilosophicalstudyofhumanknowledge
moraldevelopment? andthecriteriaoftruth
a. Realism c.Existentialism a. Axiology c.Logic
b. Idealism d.Pragmatism b. Epistemology d.Metaphysics
110 AbranchofPhilosophythatstudiesthemoralityof 123 Thiscontemporaryphilosophicalthemein
humanaction educationcontendsthateducationmustinvolvein
a. Epistemology c.Ethics itsprocessesthetotalhumanbeinghissubjectivity,
b. Metaphysics d.Cosmology therational,thematerialandtheemotionalaspect
111 TheareaofPhilosophythatspecificallydealswith formanisaunityandnotaduality
theproblemofhumanvalues a. Genuinedialogue
a. criteriology c.Theodicy b. Manasabeingintheworld
b. Epistemology d.Axiology c. Manasanembodiedspirit
112 Theaimofthisphilosophyistoreducestatements d. Thesocialsandtheinterhumanbeing
abouteducationtoempiricalterms 124 Thisphilosophyproclaimsthespiritualnatureand
a. Reconstructionismc.Philosophicalanalysis theuniverse.Itholdsthatthegood,thetrueand
b. Existentialism d.Socialtraditionalism thebeautifularepermanentlypartofthestructure
113 Theeducationaltheory,inresponseto ofanunchanginguniverse
progressivism,whichconcernswiththerevivalof a. Existentialism c.Materialism
effortinthedirectionofteachingthefundamental b. Idealism d.Realism
toolsoflearningasthemostindispensabletypeof
education
a. Essentialism c.Philosophicalanalysis
b. Perennialism d.Socialtraditionalism

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 88


125 Thisphilosophypositstheknowabilityoftheworld 137 Thiseducationalphilosophyencourages
andeverythinginitsastheyareinthemselvesand accumulationofknowledgeandthinkingandmust
theirexistenceindependentofhumanmind applycriteriaformoralevaluation.Suggested
a. Existentialism c.Materialism methodsarequestioninganddiscussion,lecture
b. Idealism d.Realism andtheproject,whetherdonesinglyoringroup
126 Thecentralaimofeducationshouldbetodevelop a. Existentialism c.Materialism
thepowerofthoughtthiswouldlikelybetheaim b. Idealism d.Pragmatism
ofwhateducationalpractitioner? 138 Thistheoryviewseducationasarecurringprocess
a. Existentialism c.Progressivist basedoneternaltruths;thus,theschools
b. Perennialist d.Reconstructivist curriculumshouldemphasizetherecurrentthemes
127 Thiseducationaltheoryisbasedonthephilosophy ofhumanlife
groundedonexperienceandtheinteractionofthe a. Perennialism c.Progressivism
personwithhisenvironment.Itpositsthat b. Pragmatism d.Reconstructionism
educationmustusepastexperiencestodirect 139 Thephilosophicalstudyofhumanmind
futureexperiences a. Axiologyc.Metaphysics
a. Existentialism c.Realism b. Epistemology d.Rationalpsychology
b. Idealism d.progressivism 140 Thephilosophicalstudyofbeing,itsnatureand
128 Thisphilosophyisawayofviewingandthinking essence
aboutlifeintheworldsothatpriorityisgiveninto a. Axiology c.Metaphysics
individualismandsubjectivity.Itbelievesthat b. Epistemology d.Rational
humanbeingsarethecreatoroftheirown Psychology
experiences 141 Asociologistwouldbemostinterestedinstudying
a. Existentialism c.Realism a. Artifactsofthefastcivilization
b. Idealism d.Reconstruction b. Groupbehavior
129 Thisemergingsocialvaluesineducationstresses c. Psychologicalproblems
thatmanexistthroughtheotherandforothersfor d. Economicinstitution
hebecomesactuatedthroughrelations 142 Interrelatedsocialstructuresthatfittogetherto
a. ExistentialDialogue c.Socialization formanintegratedwhole
b. Personalization d.Vigilance a. Structuralfunctionalism
130 Towhatparticularconceptmusteducationbe b. Conflicttheory
basedaccordingtocontemporaryphilosophy? c. SymbolicInteractionism
a. Existentialdialogue d. DisruptiveFunctionalism
b. SocialChange 143 Developmentofselfandadaptationofindividualto
c. Supremacyofthehumanperson society
d. Synergy a. Structuralfunctionalism
131 Thisemergingsocialvalueineducationstressesthe b. Conflicttheory
importanceiftheweexperienceadthe c. SymbolicInteractionism
convergingoftheworlds d. DisruptiveFunctionism
a. Authenticbeing c.Personalization 144 WhichisNOTamethodinsociologicalinquiry
b. Existentialdialogue d.Synergy a. Experimentalstudy c.Intuitivestudy
132 Theessentialistwouldlikelyhavethisasthe b. LongitudinalStudy d.ExpostFacto
ultimateaimofeducation study
a. Tofitmantoperform,justly,skillfullyand 145 Whichofthefollowinggivesomedifficultiestoa
magnanimousinalltimesinpeaceandwar sociologicalresearcher?
b. Todevelopthepowerofthought.Tosearchfor a. Complexityofphenomena
andisseminatethetruth b. Constantchange
c. Togiveallpupilsinsightintotheirtraditions c. Unpredictabilityofbehavior
d. Tomeettheneedsofthegrowingchild d. Alloftheabove
133 Thephilosophicalbeliefthatrealityisprecisely 146 Aclusterofbehaviorpatternsrelatedtothegeneral
whatasitappeartobeandadherestothebelief cultureofasocietyandyetdistinguishablefromit
thatseeingisbelieving a. Subculture c.Norm
a. Coherence c.NaveRealism b. Cultureshock d.mores
b. Consistency d.Pragmatism 147 Whichgroupwouldmostlikelyhaveacounter
134 Itisbeliefthatwhenanideaagreeswithitsobject, culture?
itisproofofitstruth.However,itisdefinitionof a. Musician c.Singers
truthnotacriteria b. Drugsusers d.Dancers
a. Coherence c.NaveRealism 148 Thecomplexwholewhichincludesknowledge,
b. Consistency d.Correspondence beliefs,artsmoral,laws,customsandother
135 Thebeliefthattheultimatecriterionoftruthisifan capabilitiesandhabitsacquiredbymanasa
ideaworksthenitistrue memberofthesociety
a. Coherence c.NaveRealism a. Norm c.Culture
b. Consistency d.Pragmatism b. Folkways d.Mores
136 Itisasystematicconsistentexplanationofallthe 149 Whenoneconsiderthecultureofanothergroupas
factsofexperience.Itstechnicalnameisreason. inferiortohisown,thisconnotes
Thisisbelievedtobetheultimatecriterionoftruth a. Ethnocentrism c.Assimilation
a. Coherence c.NaveRealism b. Culturalrelativism d.Acculturation
b. Consistency d.Pragmatism 150 Therightnessorwrongnessofwhatonedoes
dependonwhereheisdoingit
a. Culturalintegration c.Culturalrelativism
b. Culturallag d.Culturaltraits

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 89


151 Theculturethatincludesundesirablebehaviorof 165 WhichofthefollowingisNOTanethicalissuethat
thememberofsociety.Formallycondemnedbut mustbeconfrontedwhendoingsocialresearch?
widelypracticed a. Arethesubjectsbeingpaidenough?
a. Realculture c.Subculture b. Whatdegreeofrisk,painorharmisinvolved?
b. Idealculture d.Counterculture c. Towhatextentarethesubjectsbeing
152 Theprocessbywhichamemberlearnsthenorms deceived?
ofthegroup d. Willtherebedisclosureofconfidentialor
a. Accommodationc.Compartmentalization personallyharmfulinformation?
b. Aggregation d.Socialization 166 Inmostinstancesofparticipantobservationthe
153 Aroleorstatusassignedaccordingtohereditytraits researchers:
withoutregardtoindividualpreference,abilityor a. Hidetheirtrueidentity
performance b. Donothidetheirtrueidentity
a. Achieved c.Attached c. Paytheirinformantsforinformation
b. Ascribed d.Applied d. Actsastherapisttothesubject
154 Anachievedpositioninasociety 167 Aresearchtechniqueinwhichtheinvestigators
a. Heirtothethrone c.Movieactor entertotheactivitiesofthegroupatthesametime
b. Presidentialson d.Firstlady theystudythegroupsbehavioris
155 Referstothedifficultypeoplehaveinmeetingtheir a. Participantsobservation
roleobligations b. Asemistructured(openended)Interview
a. Roleconflict c.Rolestrain c. Astructuredinterview
b. Roleset d.Roleambiguity d. Adatadiscussion
156 Whenasupervisoristaskedtoreportunsatisfactory 168 Participantobservation:
performanceofhercoworkerswhoarealsoher a. Aresearchtoolusedtofollowuponexpected
friends.Shemayexperience findings
a. Roleplay c.Rolestrain b. Aresearchinterviewinwhichtheinvestigators
b. Roleconflict d.Roleambiguity ashalistofquestions,butisfreetovarythem
157 Socialcontrolimposedonsocialdeviantsto ormakeupnewonesthatbecomeimportant
maintain duringthecourseoftheinterview
a. Socialstigma c.Socialorder c. Aresearchtechniqueinwhichtheinvestigators
b. Socialstrata d.Socialmobility enterintoactivitiesofthegroupatthesame
158 WhichofthefollowingisNOTtrue? timetheystudythegroupsbehavior
a. Thedeviantbehaviorofonegenerationmay d. Aresearchinterviewdeterminedentirelyin
becomethenormofthenext advanceandfollowedrigidly
b. Allformsofdeviantarebad 169 Aresearchinterviewdeterminedentirelyin
c. Deviantbehaviorisonewayofadaptinga advanceandfollowedrigidlyis:
culturetoasocialchange a. Participantsobservation
d. Somedeviationareduetothefailureofthe b. Asemistructured(openended)interview
socializationprocesstointegratethecultural c. Astructuredinterview
normsintoindividualspersonality d. Adatadiscussion
159 Ateenagerinagoodneighborhoodofstable 170 Aresearchinterviewinwhichtheinvestigatorsask
familiesandconventionalpeoplewhorejects alistofquestions,butisfreetovarythemormake
middleclassnormsandbecomeadelinquentisan upnewonesthatbecomeimportantduringthe
exampleof courseinterview,thatis
a. Individualdeviation c.Counterdeviation a. Participantobservation
b. Groupdeviation d.Relativedeviation b. Asemistructured(openended)interview
160 Acaseofcompulsivedrugaddictisanexampleifa c. Structuredinterview
a. Primarydeviant c.Tertiarydeviant d. Adatadiscussion
b. Secondarydeviant d.Alloftheabove 171 Aconversationbetweentwoormoreindividualsin
161 WhichisNOTacharacteristicofasocialgroup? whichonepartyattemptstogaininformationfrom
a. Physicalcollectionofpeople others(s)byaskingofquestionsisknownas;
b. Sharesacommonpurposeandconsciousof a. Asurveyc.Participantobservation
eachother b. Aninterview d.Hypothesistesting
c. Sharesomecommoncharacteristics 172 Sociologicalandanthropologicalbemisused
d. Memberinteractwithoneanother becauseit:
162 WhichisNOTacharacteristicoftherelationship a. Ishardtounderstand
amongmembersofaprimarygroup? b. Isoftenusedselectivelybygroupsor
a. Personal c.Segmental individualstosupportcertainmotives
b. Informal d.Sentimental c. Isoftenambiguous
163 Whichisanexampleofmembersifaprimary d. Hasfewapplicants
group? 173 Asurveybytheirnatureusually
a. Peergroup c.School a. Arecrosssectional
administration b. Arelongitudinal
b. Family d.Neighbors c. Involvesecondarymethodology
164 WhichofthefollowingstatementsisNOTtrue d. Involveparticipantsobservation
aboutFilipinofamiliestoday?
a. Maleauthorityhasdeclined
b. Divisionoflaborhaschanged
c. Separationhasbecomemorecommon
d. Hasceasetobesocializationunitinsociety


St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 90


174 Acrosssectionalstudyis 185 Ifapescanbetaughttouselanguage,itdeniesthe
a. Aresearchtechniqueinwhichinvestigators viewsthat:
enterintoactivitiesofthegroupatthesame a. Onlyhumancanthink
timetheystudythegroupsbehavior b. Onlyhumanhaveculture
b. Researchexaminesapopulationatagiven c. Apesdonothavehistorytopasson
pointinatime d. Apesarestupid
c. Researchwhichexaminesapopulation,or 186 Whichofthefollowingstatementsaboutcultureis
portionthereof,isquestionedinorderto nottrue?
revealspecificfactsaboutitself a. Everysocialgroupmusthaveacultureonits
d. Researchthatinvestigatesapopulationat owninordertofunction
severalintervalsoverrelativelyalongperiodof b. Everyindividualparticipatesinanumberof
time differentculture
175 Researchthatinvestigatesapopulationatseveral c. Meetingthesocialexpectationofseveral
intervalsoverarelativelylongperiodoftimeis culturesisoftensourceoftree
called d. Familiesdonothavetheirownculturebut
a. Acrosssectionalstudy c.Secondary insteadreflectthecultureofthelargersociety
Analysis 187 Promisedtomakethiscountrygreatagain.Ruled
b. Aresidualanalysis d.Longitudinal forabouttwentyyears
research a. DiosdadoMacapagal c.RamonMagsaysay
176 Surveyareusedwhen: b. FerdinandMarcos d.CarlosGarcia
a. Othermeasuredonotproducestatistical 188 TheformofgovernmentestablishedbyAguinaldo
significance waschangefromdictatorialto:
b. Thefindingsofthestudymustberepeatable a. Democratic c.Republic
c. Itisdesirabletodiscoverhecontributionand b. Sociologist d.Revolutionary
interrelationsofcertainvariablesamonglarge 189 WhichprovidesheTagalogshallbetheofficial
numberofpeople languageoftherepublic?
d. Procedureshavingcrossculturalapplications a. Constitutionof1935 c.BiyaknaBato
needed b. Makabula d.Malolos
177 Aresearchmethodiswhichapopulation,orportion 190 Whichofthefollowingwerethegreatestnaval
thereof,isquestionedinordertorevealspecific battlesinhistoryduringJapaneseoccupationofthe
factsitselfisknownas: Philippines?
a. Asurvey c.Experiments a. BattleofLeytegulf c.Claveri
b. Participantobservation d.Residualanalysis b. SurigaoStrait d.DelaTorre
178 WhichofthefollowingisNOToneofthethreemain 191 Themostculturedofthereformist,wroteasocio
methodsofresearchusedbysociologists? historicalnovelbasedonfactshegatheredinthe
a. Asurvey c.Experiments Philippines
b. Participantsobservation d.Residualanalysis a. MarceloH.DelPilar c.MarianoPonce
179 Astatisticaltechniquetomakeallsignificantgroups b. JoseRizal d.JoseMa.
inassocietyrepresentedinasampleproportionto Paganiban
theirnumbersinthelargesocietyisknownas: 192 TheeditorofLaSolaridadandagreatorator,he
a. Randomsampling initiatedthereformmovement
b. Astratifiedrandomsample a. MarceloH.DelPilar c.EmilioJacinto
c. Sampling b. JoseRizal d.GracianoLopez
d. Randomizedresponse Jaena
180 Thegoalindesigningaresearchprojectshouldbe: 193 Thegenerationofthespiritswascommonamong
a. Toproveapoint ancientFilipinos.Memoriesoftheirdeadrelatives
b. Toprovideacollectionforallnecessaryand werekeptalivethroughcravedidol.Thispractice
sufficientdatatotestthestatedhypothesis wascalled
c. Toselectivelyisolatethevariablesinorderto a. Cultofthedead c.NatureWorship
provethehypothesesareeithercorrector b. Massofthedeadd.Divination
incorrect 194 Thepracticeofhavingsurnameswasstartedduring
d. Toprovehypothesisfalse.Iftheycannot Spanishregimethroughtheorderof
provenfalse,theymustbetrue a. Gov.GenJaudenes c.Gov.GenClaveria
181 Anindependentvariableis b. Gov.GenDelaTorre d.Gov.GenPolavejia
a. Atestablestatementsabouttherelationship 195 AspromisedbyGen.McArthurhewouldreturnto
betweentwoormoreempiricalvariables liberatetheFilipinosafterhecouldtraintroops,in
b. Anythingthatcanbechange Australia.TheLeytelandingsignifiedtheliberation
c. Avariablethatchangesforreasonthathave ofthePhilippines,waswellasthereturnofthe
nothingtodowithanothervariable commonwealthgovernment.Whowasthe
d. Avariablethatchangesinresponsetochanges commonwealthpresidentwhocamewithMc
inanothervariable Arthur?
182 Whichofthefollowingisnotasign? a. Romulo c.Osmea
a. Aclenchedfirst c.Aflag b. Roxas d.Quezon
b. Aknockonthedoor d.Yawning 196 Menandwomenofprecolonialtimeshad
183 Themostimportantsymbolsare weaknessforpersonaladornment.Asidefrom
a. Action c.Actions jewels,tattooingofthebodywascommon.Inthe
b. Words d.Behavior Visayastattooedmenwerecalled
184 Theprincipalmeansthroughwhichcultureis a. Umalohokan c.Abi
transmittedfromgenerationtogenerationis b. Pintados d.Plista
a. Actions c.Language
b. Diffusion d.Behaviors

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 91


197 Memoriesofbrutalitywhichwassoinhuman 42 a 92 d
duringtheJapaneseregimewerealwaysassociated 43 c 93 a
withaparticularJapanesegroupcalled 44 c 94 c
a. Kalibapi c.Kamikaze 45 d 95 d
b. Kempetai d.Samurai 46 c 96 a
198 MembershipintheKatipunancomeingrades:first
47 b 97 b
(katipons);second(kawal);andthird(bayani).Each
48 c 98 b
gradedesignedaswellaspasswordsotheycould
maintaintheirsecrecyofthemovement.The 49 a 99 b
passwordforthekawalgradewas? 50 c 100 a
a. Rizal c.Kawal
b. Gomburza d.Sundalo
199 PrecolonialtradeinthePhilippineswas
prosperous.Businesstransactionsmadeuseof:
a. Moneysystem c.Creditsystem
b. Bartersystem d.BankingSystem
200 Theuseofmagiccharmswasverycommonamong
preSpanishFilipinos.Oneoftheseistheanting
antingoragimatwhichismeantto:
a. Insureamanagainstaweaponofeverykind
b. Madeamanlovabletoallladies
c. Madeamaninvisible
d. Madehimwalkinstormorseawithoutgetting
wet
* * * * * T H E E N D * * * * *

WORKHARD,DREAMHARDER
Socialscience

1 c 51 a

2 a 52 d

3 b 53 b
4 b 54 c
5 c 55 c
6 b 56 b
7 d 57 c
8 a 58 b
9 a 59 a
10 c 60 a
11 d 61 a
12 c 62 c

13 a 63 c

14 a 64 d

15 b 65 a
16 c 66 a
17 d 67 a
18 a 68 c
19 a 69 c
20 c 70 b
21 c 71 b
22 b 72 b
23 c 73 c
24 b 74 b

25 d 75 d

26 b 76 c

27 d 77 a
28 a 78 d
29 c 79 b
30 c 80 b
31 d 81 c
32 a 82 c
33 c 83 d
34 c 84 d
35 d 85 b

36 a 86 d

37 b 87 b

38 a 88 d
39 d 89 a
40 c 90 a
41 b 91 b
St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 92
PRINCIPLESANDSTRATEGIESOFTEACHING 14. Itiscontrolbyenforcingobedienceororderly
POSTTESTSEPTEMBER2010 conductortrainingthatcorrectsandstrengthens?
a. Management c.Techniques
1. Ithasreferencetowhatteachersdoinplanning, b. Discipline d.Strategies
implementingandevaluatinginstruction. 15. Whenstudentsareaskedtorespondtoincomplete
a. Teaching c.Teachingstrategies statementsorquestionsthatarepresentedinoral/
b. Curriculum d.Instruction writtenform
2. Theorderlyprocessdirectinglearnerstodevelop a. OpenendedStatement
theirskillsandhabitssothattheywillbeassisted b. Closeprocedure
inacquiringknowledgeandattitudes. c. PACStrategy
a. InstructionalMedia d. StructuredActivity
b. InstructionalMethod 16. Thesearealltheexperiencewhichchildrenhave
c. TeachingTechniques underthedirectionofaschool
d. InstructionalSystem a. Curriculum c.Learning
3. FacialExpression,writingontheboard,andoral b. Instruction d.Socialization
expressionoftheteacherisanexampleof 17. Thesubjectsmater,notthechildisimportantin
a. TeachingBehavior thistypeofcurriculum
b. TechnicalSkillsofteachers a. Correlatedcurriculum
c. Instruction b. Subjectcenteredcurriculum
d. InstructionalSystem c. Experiencecurriculum
4. Learningtodraw,driveacar,playtennis,cookand d. Fusedcurriculum
typeapoemoftentaughtinisanexampleof 18. Thechildinsteadofthesubjectmatteris
a. CognitiveLearning c.VerbalLearning importantinthiskindofcurriculum
b. MotorSkillLearning d.SocialLearning a. Correlatedcurriculum
5. Respondingtotelephonecalls,writingonesname, b. Corecurriculum
readingabookorallyisanexample c. Experiencecurriculum
a. CognitiveLearning c.VerbalLearning d. Fusedcurriculum
b. Motorskilllearning d.SerialLearning 19. Itisaunifiedcurriculumwheresubjectmatters
6. Aprocesswhereinthepupilsattentionand fromdifferentsubjectfieldaretreatedunitaryof
interestarearousedanddirectedtoadefinite thesamecurriculum
purpose. a. Corecurriculum
a. Learning c.Method b. IntegratedCurriculum
b. Motivation d.Principle c. Broadfieldcurriculum
7. Containsastatementofresultstobeaccomplished d. Fusedcurriculum
andspecificmeansbywhichtheseresultsaretobe 20. Teachersinitiative,imagination,puppetshows,
attainedunderdirectionandguidance. play,readingandanimatedcartoonscanbe
a. Method c.Technique examplesofenrichingthecurriculumunderthese
b. LessonPlan d.Principle resources
8. Couldbethemeansofdevelopinggoodstudy a. SpecializingResources
habitsandindependenceinworkaswellas b. CreativeResources
preparingthepupilsforthejobtobedone c. HumanResources
a. Review c.Assignment d. ReadingResources
b. Drill d.Recitation 21. Acurriculumconsideredbasicsforallstudents,
9. Theactofrepeatingfrommemorytherecitingof thatallmustgetthem
alessonandoftendescribedasasessionlesson a. Broadfieldcurriculum
hearing b. Corecurriculum
a. Review c.Assignment c. IntegratedCurriculum
b. Recitation d.Drill d. ExperienceCurriculum
10. Ateachingproceduredealingwithfirsthand 22. Thewholebodyofexperienceutilizedbythe
experiencespertainingtomaterialobtainedfrom schooltoattaintheaimsofeducation
experimentation a. Psychology c.Socialization
a. DemonstrationMethod b. Curriculum d.Methods
b. LaboratoryMethod 23. Formaleducationstartswhenthechild
c. DiscoveryMethod a. beginstotalk
d. DeductiveMethod b. reachestheageofsixyearsold
11. Startswithgeneralizationandprinciplesorfrom c. firstentersschool
generaltoparticular d. beginstobeinquisitive
a. InductiveMethod c.ClassicalMethod 24. Thataspectofcurriculumthathastodowiththe
b. DeductiveMethod d.ProblemMethod preservationofthebestinourculture,customs
12. Studentsenactsituationsthatariseindailyliving, andtraditionshasbeenborrowedfrom
wherevaluesmaybeclarified,insightsare a. Sociology c.Psychology
developedanddecisionmakingispracticed b. Sociometry d.Ethics
a. SimulationGame c.Demonstration 25. Thecurriculummusttakeintoconsiderationthe
b. RolePlaying d.InquiryProcess a. aimofeducation
13. Encouragingstudentstosearchforandsee b. learningprocess
relationshipsthatarenotobvious;alsoitstretches c. motivesandincentives
theintellectofstudents d. instincts
a. OpenendedQuestions 26. Thecurriculumis
b. RecallQuestions a. allembracing c.allpower
c. ExplanatoryQuestions b. encompassing d.selective
d. DescriptiveQuestion

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 93


27. Inthetraditionalschool,thefocusofattentionwas 39. Teachingmethodwhichproceedsfromthedetails
onthe ofalessontowardsthegeneralizationiscalled:
a. child c.method a. Inductive c.problemsolving
b. subjectmatter d.book b. deductive d.debate
28. Curriculumobjectsareformulatedinthelightof 40. Ateachingmethodwhichproceedsfroma
our generalization,principleorruleis:
a. pasthistory a. inductive c.project
b. educationalpolicyandphilosophy b. deductive d.process
c. experienceasanation 41. TherecentapproachinteachingSocialStudiesis
d. needsinschool called
29. Whichofthefollowingquestionsencourages a. discovery c.process
reflectivethinking? b. conceptual d.formaleducation
a. Whatarethepartsofacompleteflower? 42. Amethodofteachingwhichaptlyappliesto
b. Whatdoweusetoobservematter? lessonsneedingexperimentsiscalled:
c. Inwhatwayscanhelphiscommunity a. problemsolvingc.observation
d. Whyaremachinemadegoodscheaperthan b. laboratory d.demonstration
thosemadebyhands? 43. Whattypeoflessonispresentedwhereinthe
30. Thesuccessofthepupilsinformulating learnermeetsthelearningexperiencethrough
generalizationgreatlydependson: understanding,analysis,andgeneralizationsof
a. theinterestofthepupils factspresented?
b. thedevicesused a. review c.developmental
c. thesubjectsmatter b. drill d.deductive
d. theteachersskillfulquestioning 44. Whatlessonispresentedwhentheteachertakes
31. Intheinquirymethod,theinitiationphasecallsfor upthepreviouslearningexperiencesofthe
theteachertosetthestagefor: learnersinarecognizedpatternofpresentation?
a. findingsolutionstoproblem a. Drill
b. raisingofproblems b. developmental
c. gatheringdata c. review
d. formulatinggeneralization d. discussionprocedure
32. Methodisdependentupon: 45. Alessonwhichaimstofocalizeskillstomakethem
a. classroomtechniques fixedtothepointofmasteryis
b. teachersexpectation a. problemtype c.review
c. theoreticalassumptions b. drill d.experimental
d. availabletextbooks 46. Thelawofexerciseisaptlyappliedina
33. Toleadthestudentstothedesiredbehavior, a. reviewlesson c.drilllesson
methodmustbeimplementedthrough: b. assignment d.checkup
a. selectedtechnique 47. Atypeofreviewwhichpresentsthesumtotalof
b. thecurriculum allactivitiespreviouslypresented
c. thediscussionoftheteacher a. integrated c.daily
d. carefulobservation b. cumulative d.drill
34. Whichisnottrueregardingtheprojectmethod? 48. Whatrecenttechniqueoteachingcallsforacting
a. Manyworthwhileprojectsareimpossible outofasituationwheretheparticipantsaimto
becauseofthematerialsneeded uncoveraproblemofgreatimportancetothe
b. Theprojectmethodshouldbeused class?
occasionallybutnotregularly a. panel c.roleplaying
c. Thepupilortheclassshouldcarrythechief b. debateform d.lectureform
responsibilityofplanningtheproject 49. Whattechniqueofinservicetrainingforteachers
d. Theprojectmethodisadaptabletoallunitsin involvestheidentificationandsolutionofcommon
thecurriculum problemsbythem,thruliveinsessions,
35. Thelaboratorymethodisalsocalled: conferences,andspeechesofconsultants?
a. theresearchmethods a. buzzsession c.seminar
b. thedeductivemethod b. workshop d.professionalmeeting
c. thedevelopmentmethod 50. Thenonverbalsymbolsusedtomaximizelearning
d. theproblemmethod arereferredtoas
36. Intheunitmethod,actuallearningtakesplacein: a. Instructionaldevices
a. orientingthepupils b. Classroomstechniques
b. collecting,discoveringandrecordingdata c. Fieldtrips
c. summarizingtheunit d. Educationalmedia
d. organizingtheunitorstudy 51. Graphicmaterialwhichareeyecatchingandwhich
37. Astatementofobjectives,learningexperienceand useslogansandtopicspresentedinboldletterings
themeansofattainingresultsofteachingiscalled andstrongcolorstoserveasremindersof
a. procedure c.outcomes standardsand/orimportanteventsarecalled
b. lessonplan d.strategy a. poster c.projector
38. Teachingaidswhichtheteacherusestomake b. filmstrips d.objects
learningmeaningful,productiveandinterestingis 52. Whatcontemporaryaidtoteachingutilizes
knownas: carefullyplannedmaterialswhereeachstepof
a. device learningrequiresrepetitionandpracticeuntilsuch
b. technique stepisthoroughlylearned?
c. method a. programmedinstruction
d. learningcontinuum b. Keypunching
c. EducationalTelevision
d. Educationalhardware

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 94


53. TheStimulusResponsetheoryoflearningwhich 64. Whatteachingmethodhelpsthelearnersdraw
involvestheassociationbetweenaconditioned generalizationfromadisciplinewiththeendin
stimulusandaresponsethrutherepeated viewofapplyingthesamesimilarsituationsinthe
presentationofthestimuluswasadvocatedby future?
whom? a. discoveryapproach
a. EdwardThorndike c.BurrhusSkinner b. processapproach
b. IvanPavlov d.WolfgangKohler c. conceptualapproach
54. Whatplanofpromotingpupilsiscommittedto d. problemsolvingapproach
encouragingthelearnerstoprogressfromgradeto 65. Whichsubjectsisintheelementaryandsecondary
gradewithoutneedlessrepetition schoollevelsmostlyconcernedwiththestudyof
a. nongradedscheme societalproblemsandissueswhicharesignificant
b. individualized tothelearnersasmemberofsociety?
c. heterogeneousgrouping a. ModernMathematics
d. acceleration b. SocialStudies
55. Differentiatedassignments,tutorialandremedial c. Filipino
worktowouldbefailuresarenotconsideredin d. CharacterEducation
theindividualizedInstructionScheme 66. Whichoftheseareconsideredwithtwoessential
a. Yes c.Maybe dimensionofscienceteaching?
b. No d.Sometimes a. observingandinferring
56. Apartofadailylessonwhichservesasacarry b. seeingandobserving
overforthenextdayofwhathasbeenpresented c. readingandresearching
isthe d. knowledgeandperformance
a. review 67. Whichoftheseisnotaprocessinscience
b. drill teaching?
c. assignmentoragreement a. Measurement
d. lessonproper b. Communicationskill
57. Agoodlearningenvironmentisone c. Controllingvariables
a. freefromdistraction c.disturbingnoise d. Noneofthese
b. averdecorated d.dilapidated 68. Oftheprocessinvolveinthemodernapproachto
58. Theproperhandlingofthephysicalconditionad scienceinstruction,whichoneutilizesthemost
instructionalmaterialsintheclassroomtoeffect numberofscientificprocesses.
learningrefersto a. prediction c.inference
a. teachingmethod b. experimentation d.hypothesis
b. Classroommanagement 69. Givethemaindifferenceofthesetwoobjectives:
c. Disciplinegrouping toteachtheimportanceofpropernutrition
d. Guidanceoriented forgoodhealth
59. Whatreferstotheprocessodirectingimmediate togivetheimportanceofpropernutritionfor
personaldesires,interestsorwishesforthe goodhealth
purposeofachievinganeffectiveaction? a. Thefirstobjectiveisgeneralwhilethesecond
a. discipline c.supervision isspecific.
b. teaching d.management b. Thefirstobjectiveishardtodowhilethe
60. Whatcharacteristicsaneffectivetypeof secondiseasy
discipline? c. Thefirstobjectiveneedsalongertimewhile
a. vital,sympathetic,humane theseconddoesnt
b. formalandstrict d. Thefirstobjectiveisteacherbehaviorwhile
c. inhibited thesecondpupilbehavior.
d. imposed 70. Whichoftheobjectivesbelowshowovert
61. Whichoftheseisnotaqualityofagoodteacher? behavior?
a. masteryothesubjectmatter a. Toappreciatethevalueofdemocracy.
b. broadbackgroundofliberaleducation b. Tounderstandtheimportanceofa
c. aimstoenrichhimselfthruteaching constitution
d. understandthenatureofthelearners c. Torecitehepreambleoftheconstitution
62. Whichoftheseisagoodpersonalqualificationofa d. Toshowlovetoonescountry
teacher? 71. Thebasisbywhichcontentisoutlinedand
a. resourceful,creativeandintelligent institutionalproceduresaredevelopedisthe:
b. rich,capriciousandluxurious a. lessonplan c.objectives
c. complaining,demandingandscornful b. basictext d.instructionalmaterials
d. materialistic 72. AnobjectiveMUSTspecify:
63. Whichoftheseisincludedamongtheprofessional a. Whatthelearnermustdoorsay.
ethicsoschoolteachers? b. Whattheteachermustdoorsay
a. professionaljealousy c. Whatprojectsaretobeaccomplished
b. integrity d. Whatthelearnermustunderstand
c. engaginginbusinessprejudicialtohis 73. Giventenphotographsofbiologicalcells,the
teachingduties pupilswillbeabletoidentifysixofthemasplant
d. gossipmongering oranimalcells.Theunderlinedphraseisa:
a. terminalbehavior
b. standardoracceptableperformance
c. conditionforlearning
d. anaccomplishmenttoberealized.

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 95


74. TomakestatementasanobjectiveinanEnglish 89. Whichofthefollowingstatementsiscorrect?
Lessonthatis: a. Methodisprobablymoreimportantincollege
a. specific c.correct thanintheelementary
b. vague d.noneoftheabove b. Methodismoreimportantintheelementary
75. Whatisthemostfittingconditionoflearningfor thaninhighschoolorcollege
thisbehavior:toconcludethatplantsneed c. Methodismoreimportantincollegethanin
sunlightinordertolive? highschool
a. withthemustofmaterials d. Methodislessimportantthanalessonplan
b. givenasetofpictures 90. Whatencouragesthechildtothink,rationalizeand
c. afterreadingthebook makeproperdecisions?
d. realistic a. drill
76. Whichofthefollowingisnotacriterionofawell b. Appreciationlesson
formulatedobjective? c. Memorization
a. attainable c.interesting d. Problemorientedstrategies
b. observable d.realistic 91. Thefollowingexceptonearethefactorsthat
77. Whichtaskbelowisnotinthepsychomotor determinethechoiceofamethod.Whichisthe
domain? exception?
a. imitation c.manipulation a. natureothelearners
b. evaluation d.articulation b. schoolequipmentandfacilities
78. Thegrowthofattitudesorvaluesisinthe: c. educationalbackgroundoftheteacher
a. cognitivedomain d. Subjectmatter
b. psychomotordomain 92. Howwellateachertellsastorydependson:
c. affectivedomain a. Techniques c.themethodused
d. behavioraldomain b. theplot d.classroom
79. Thedomainsofbehaviordonotcomeinisolation. 93. Whichofthefollowingstatementsiscorrect?
Thisstatementsis: a. Methodissynonymouswithtechnique
a. True c.False b. Adeviceisateachingmethod
b. Acceptable d.Partlytrue c. Methodcanbestandardized
80. Willapersondoitfreelywithoutanytypeof d. Thereisnosinglebestmethod
coercion?Thisis: 94. Whenateacherreviewsalesson,sheisutilizing
a. acognitivequestion thelawof:
b. anaffectivequestion a. Readiness c.effect
c. apsychomotorquestion b. exercise d.multipleresponse
d. abehavioralquestion 95. Inwhichsituationisthelawofreadinessbest
81. Todevelopappreciationofpoetryisa: applied?
a. generalaim c.natureaim a. Theteachergivestheaimsofthelessonstobe
b. specificaim d.seriousaim takenup
82. Whichaimbelowdoesnotbelongtothegroup? b. Theteacherannounceshesubjectmatterat
a. Toenumeratetheusesofcommongarden thestartoftheperiod
tools c. Theteacherwaitsorthechildrentobeready
b. Toexpressopinionpolitely beforeteachingherlesson
c. Toexplainthesignificanceofthestory d. Theteacherpresentsasong,relatedtothe
d. Toidentifythepartsofaflower. lesson
83. Whichobjectivebelowisnotrealistic? 96. Whichoftheglowingisnotanamintheinductive
a. Torespectplacesofworship method
b. Tosingthenationalanthemcorrectly a. Todelayjudgmentsuntiltruthisgiven
c. Togivetheimportanceofcleanliness b. Toenablepupilsdiscoverimportanttruthsfor
d. Tocitewaystoshowloveonescountry themselves.
84. Whichobjectivebelowisnotspecific? c. Tohelpstudent/pupiltocarryoutan
a. Todescribesomeoffarmingprocedures investigationbythemselvesindependentof
b. Todefinetermscomprehensively theteacher
c. Topaytaxpromptly d. Tomakerelationshipofideascleartopupils
d. Toknowthelifecycleofamoth. 97. Intheinductivemethod,whatdoesthechilddo
85. Whatphrasebelowisastandardofperformance? duringthecomparisonandabstractionstep?
a. Solvetheproblemcorrectlywithin10minutes a. Recallsinformationanddirectshimselftothe
b. Identifyandsketchthecurve activitiestobeaccomplished
c. Withtheuseofaruler b. Perceivesthecommonelementpresentinthe
d. Afterseveralexamples casesgiven
86. Avisibleactivityshows: c. Appliestheprincipleslearnedtoother
a. overtbehavior problemsorexercises
b. covertbehavior d. Drawconclusioninhisownwords
c. confidentbehavior 98. Thedeductivemethodusesthefollowingsteps:
d. artificialbehavior a. statementoftheproblem,generalization,
87. Whichinfinitebelowisnotbehavioral? inference,verification
a. todescribe c.tocompare b. statementoftheproblem,inference,
b. toselect d.Tobelieve generalization,verification
88. Whichobjectivebelowneedsimprovement c. inference,statementoftheproblem,
a. Toprepareaseedbox generalization,verification
b. Todevelopskillinembroidery d. inference,statementoftheproblem,
c. Toplananoonmeal verification,generalization
d. Tomakeanapron

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 96


99. Inreality,thetypeofstudymethodis:
a. aninductiveprocedure
b. adeductiveprocedure
c. atraditionalmethod
d. aquestionandanswermethod
100. TheHerbartianformalstepscorrespondstothe
stepsof:
a. theinductivemethod
b. teachinganappropriatelesson
c. thedeductivemethod
d. theprojectmethod



Athingbecomeswastedwhenyoufailtotake
advantageofit

Principleandstrategies
1 c 51 a
2 b 52 a

3 a 53 b

4 b 54 a

5 c 55 c
6 b 56 a
7 b 57 a
8 c 58 b
9 b 59 c
10 b 60 c
11 b 61 a
12 b 62 a
13 a 63 b

14 b 64 b

15 a 65 b

16 a 66 a
17 b 67 d
18 c 68 b
19 b 69 d
20 b 70 c
21 b 71 c
22 b 72 a
23 c 73 c
24 a 74 b
25 b 75 d

26 a 76 d

27 b 77 b

28 b 78 c
29 d 79 a
30 d 80 b
31 b 81 a
32 c 82 b
33 a 83 a
34 d 84 d
35 a 85 a
36 b 86 a


37 b 87 d

38 a 88 b

39 a 89 b

40 b 90 d
41 a 91 c
42 b 92 a
43 c 93 d
44 c 94 b
45 c 95 d
46 b 96 a
47 b 97 b
48 c 98 a


49 a 99 a

50 b 100 a

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 97
PROFESSIONALEDUCATION 8. WhatdoestheacronymEFAimplyforschools?
PreboardEXAM a. Theacceptanceofexclusiveschoolsforboys
April2010 andforgirls.
b. Thestressonthesuperiorityofformal
MULTIPLECHOICE educationoverthatofalternativelearning
1. Youareverymuchinterestedinaquality system.
professionaldevelopmentprogramforteachers. c. Practiceofinclusiveeducation
Whatcharacteristicshouldyoulookfor? d. Theconcentrationonformaleducationsystem
a. Prescribebytopeducationalteachers 9. Thewideacceptanceofbottomupmanagement
b. Dependentontheavailabilityoffunds stylehasinfluencedschoolstopracticewhich
c. Requiredforrenewalofprofessionallicense managementpractice?
d. Responsivetoidentifiedteachersneeds. a. Exclusionofpoliticiansfromthepoolofguest
2. Toensurehighstandardsofteacherspersonaland speakersduringgraduationexercises.
professionaldevelopment,whichofthefollowing b. Prescriptionofwhatoughttobedonefromthe
measuresmustbeimplemented? CenterOffice.
I. Aschoolheadplanstheprofessional c. Involvementofstudents,parents,teachers,
developmentofhis/herteachers. andcommunityinschoolplanning
II. Everyteacherformulateshis/herown d. Allowingschoolstodowhattheythinkisbest
professionaldevelopmentplan 10. Largeclasssizeincongestedcitiesisacommon
III. Theimplementationofwhatisleanedina probleminourpublicschools.Whichmeasure/s
trainingmustbemonitored. haveschoolstakentooffsettheeffectsoflarge
a. Ionly IIandIII class?
b. IandIII d.IIonly I. Thedeploymentofmoreteachers
3. Asacommunityleader,whichofthefollowing II. Theimplementationof1:1pupiltextbook
shouldateacherNOTdo? ratio
a. Supporteffortofthecommunitytoimprove III. Theconductofmorningandafternoon
theirstatusinlife. sessions
b. Makeherselfalooftoensurethatherdecisions a. I,IIandIII c.IIIonly
willnotbeinfluencedbuthecommunity b. IandII d.IIonly
politics. 11. ThefailureofindependentstudywithmostFilipino
c. Solicitdonationfromphilanthropistsinthe studentsmaybeattributedtostudents
community. a. unpreparednessfroschooling
d. Playanactivepartintheactivitiesofthe b. ambivalence
community. c. highdegreeofindependence
4. Inahighlypluralisticsociety,whattypeoflearning d. highdegreeofindependenceonauthority
environmentistheresponsibilityoftheteacher? 12. Theschoolingincidentsinschoolcampusesabroad
I. Safe havemadeschooltorethinkthecurriculum.Which
II. Genderbiased isbelievedtocounteractsuchincidentsandsois
III. Secure beingintroducedinschools?
a. IandII c.IIonly I. Inclusionofsocioemotionalteaching
b. I,IIandIII d.IandIII II. Theemphasisontheconceptofcompetition
5. Ateacherissaidtobetrusteeoftheculturaland againstselfandnotagainstothers
educationalheritageofthenationandisunder III. Focusonacademicachievementand
obligationtotransmittolearnerssuchheritage. productivity
Whichpracticemakestheteacherfulfillsuch a. IandIII c.IandII
obligation? b. IIandIII d.I,IIandIII
a. Useinteractiveteachingstrategies. 13. WidespreadabuseofMotherEarthprompted
b. Usethelatesteducationaltechnology. schoolstoteachsustainabledevelopment.which
c. Observecontinuingprofessionaleducation onedoesthisproveaboutschools?
d. Asaclass,studythelifeofFilipinoheroes. a. Thecurriculaofschoolsarecenteredon
6. Whichactionsshowthatpoliticalfactorsaffect MotherEarth.
schoolsasagentsofchange? b. Schoolscaneasilyintegratesustained
I. ThestrengtheningoftheteachingofEnglishin developmentintheircurriculum.
Philippinesschool. c. Sustaineddevelopmentcannotbeeffectively
II. Theintroductionofmandatedsubjectssuchas taughtintheclassroom.
Rizalinthecurriculum d. Environmentfactorsinfluencetheschoolasan
III. Thepracticeofmainstreaming agentofchange.
IV. TheturnoverofdaycarecentersforDSWDto 14. AfathertellshisdaughterYouareawoman.You
DepEdforsupervision. aremeantforthehomeandsoforyou,goingto
a. IandIII c.IIandIII schoolisnotnecessary.IsthefatherCORRECT?
b. IandII d.IIandIV a. Itdependsontheplacewhenthedaughterand
7. Formoreefficientandeffectivemanagementof thefatherlive.
schoolasagentsofchange,oneproposalisforthe b. Yes,womenaremeanttobeamotheronly.
DepEdtoclusterremotestandaloneschoolsunder c. No.todaywomencantakeonthejobsofmen.
oneleadschoolhead.Whichfactorhasthe d. No,thereisgenderequalityineducation.
strongestinfluenceonthisproposal?
a. Psychological c.Geographical
b. Historical d.Social

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 98


15. Istherealegalbasisforincreasingtheteachers 24. Whichviolate(s)theprincipleofrespect?
startingsalarytoP18,000anmonths? I. TeacherAtellsherstudentsthatwhatTeacher
a. No,itisagifttoteachersfromCongress Btaughtiswrong.
b. Yes,R.A7836 II. Toretaliate,TeacherBadvisesstudentsnotto
c. No,itissimplyanactofbenevolencefrom enrollinTeacherAsclass.
PresidentGMA III. TeacherCsecretlygiveswaytoaspecialfavor
d. Yes,thePhil.Constitution (e.g.add2pointstograde)requestedby
16. AsprovidedfortheEducationalActof1982,how studentAwhoisvyingforhonors.
aretheinstitutionsoflearningencouragetoset a. IIandIII c.IandII
higherstandardsofequalityovertheminimum b. I,IIandIII d.IandIII
standardsrequiredforstaterecognition? 25. Whichis/areinaccordancewiththeprincipleof
a. GrantingofSpecialPermit pedagogicalcompetence?
b. Academicfreedom I. Communicationofobjectivesofthecourseto
c. ContinuingProfessionalEducation students
d. Voluntaryaccreditation II. Awarenessofalternativeinstructionstrategies
17. Despiteofoppositionfromsomeschoolofficial, III. Selectionofappropriatemethodsofinstruction
DepEdhascontinuouslyenforcedthenocollection a. IandIII c.IIIonly
offeespolicyduringenrolmentperiodinpublic b. I,IIandIII d.IIandIII
schools.InthispolicyinaccordancewithEFAgoals? 26. Withadeaththreatoverhishead,TeacherDis
a. No,itviolatesthemandateofequality directedtopassanundeservingstudent.Whichwill
education autilitarianistdo?
b. Yes,itsomewhateliminatesgenderdisparities a. Passthestudent,whysufferthethreat?
c. Yes,itsupportsequitableaccesstobasic b. Dontpasshim;livebyyourprincipleofjustice.
education Youwillgetreward,ifnotinthislife,inthe
d. No.itdoesnotsupportparentofadult next.
education c. Passthestudent.Thatwillbeofusetothe
18. Specializationisknowingmoreandmoreabout student,hisparentsandyou.
lessandless.Hence,itisbettertobeageneralist, d. Dontpasshim.Yousurelywillnotlike
claimsTeacherF.WhichPhilosophydoesTeacherF. someonetogiveyouadeaththreatinotherto
subscribeto? pass.
a. Existentialism c.Essentialism 27. TeacherAknowsoftheillegalactivitiesofa
b. Perennialism d.Progressivism neighborbutkeepsquietinordernottobe
19. Menciusbelievedthatallpeopleareborngood. involvedinanyinvestigation.Whichfoundational
Thisthoughtontheinnategoodnessofpeople principleofmoralitydoesTeacherAfailtoapply?
makesiteasierto ourpupils. a. Theenddoesnotjustifythemeans
a. teach c.like b. Theendjustifiesthemeans
b. Respect d.motivate c. Alwaysdowhatisright
20. Thespecializationrequiresofeveryprofessional d. Betweentwoevils,dothelesserevil
teacherforhim/hertobecompetentisinlinewith 28. Toearnunitsforpromotion,ateacherpaysherfee
whichpillaroflearning? butdoesnotattendclassatall.Doesthisconstitute
a. Learningtoknow professionalgrowth?
b. Learningtobe a. Notimmediatelybutyesafterpromotion
c. Learningtolivetogether b. Itdependsontheschoolsheisenrolledin
d. Learningtodo c. No,itissimplyearningMAunitsforpromotion
21. Whichpillaroflearningisaimedatthewholistic d. Yes,justenrollinginanMAprogramisalready
developmentofmanandhiscompletefulfillment? professionalgrowth
a. Learningtobe 29. Ifateacherasksmorehigherorderquestions,he
b. Learningtoknow hastoaskmorequestions.
c. Learningtolivetogether a. fact c.convergent
d. Learningtodo b. close d.concept
22. Materialdevelopmentattheexpenseofhuman 30. Misdemeanorhasarippleeffect.Thisimpliesthat
developmentpointstotheneedtodomorein asaclassroommanager,ateacher
school. a. reinforcespositivebehavior
a. Learningtodo b. respondstomisbehaviorpromptly
b. Learningtoknow c. isconsistentinherclassroommanagement
c. Learningtolivetogether practice
d. Learningtobe d. count1to10beforeshedealswitha
23. Astudentcomplainstoyouabouthisfailinggrade. misbehavingstudent
Whenyourecomputedyoufoundoutthatyou 31. BasedonEdgarDalesConeofExperience,which
committedanerrorinthisgradecomputation.Your activityisfarthestfromtherealthing?
decisionisnotaccepttheerroneouscomputation a. Watchingdemo c.Videodisc
beforethestudentandsoleavethefailinggradeas b. Attendingexhibitd.Viewingimages
isforfearthatyoumaylosecredibility.Isthis 32. ThestudentsofTeacherYscananelectronic
morallyright? encyclopedia,viewafilmonsubject,orlookat
a. No,thereasonfornotacceptingtheerror relatedtopicsatthetouchofabuttonrighttherein
beforethestudentsinflimsy. theclassroom.Whichdevice/sdesteacherYsclass
b. No,theenddoesnotjustifythemeans have?
c. Yes,theendjustifiesthemeans a. Teachingmachines
d. Yes,asateacheryoumustmaintainyour b. CD
credibility c. Videodisc
d. Videotapedlesson
St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 99
33. WhichisanINAPPROPIATEwaytomanageofftask 43. Thetaskofsettinguproutineactivitiesforeffective
behavior? classroommanagementisataskthatateacher
a. Redirectachildsattentiontotaskandcheck shouldundertake
hisprogresstomakesureheiscontinuingwork a. assoonasthestudentshaveadjustedtotheir
b. Makeeyecontacttocommunicatewhatyou schedules
wishtocommunicate b. ontheveryfirstdayofschool
c. Moveclosertothechildtomakehimfeelyour c. everydayatthestartofthesession
presence d. everyhomeroomday
d. Stopyourclassactivitytocorrectachildwhois 44. TeacherSusesthelowprofileclassroomcontrol
nolongerontask techniquemostofthetime.whatdoesthisimply?
34. Tobeaneffectiveclassroommanager,ateacher a. Sheisreactiveinherdisciplinaryorientation
mustbefriendlybutmustatthesametimebe b. Shemanagespupilspersonalities
. c. Shereactsseverelytoamisbehavingstudent
a. confident c.analytical d. Shestopsmisbehavingwithoutdisrupting
b. businesslike d.buddybuddy lessonflow
35. Whichsoftwareisneededwhenonewantsto 45. Whenteachertriestoelicitclarificationona
performautomaticcalculationsonnumericaldata? studentresponseorsolicitsadditionalinformation,
a. Database whichoftheseshouldbeuse?
b. SpreadsheetProgram a. Directing c.Structuring
c. MicrosoftWord b. Probing d.Crossexamining
d. MicrosoftPowerpoint 46. Whichprioritycriterionshouldguideateacherin
36. Whichofthefollowingquestionsmustbe thechoiceofinstructionaldevices?
consideredinevaluatingteachermadematerials? a. Novelty c.Attractiveness
a. Inthematerialnew? b. Cost d.Appropriateness
b. Doesthematerialsimulateindividualism? 47. WhichlearningactivityisMOSTappropriateifa
c. Isthematerialexpensive? teachersfocusisattitudinalchange?
37. Kouninclaimsthatwithitnessisoneofthe a. Fieldtrip c.Roleplay
characteristicsofaneffectiveclassroommanager. b. Exhibit d.Game
Whatisonesignofwithitness? 48. TeacherHstrivestodrawparticipationofevery
a. Givingattentiontostudentswhoarehaving studentintoherclassroomdiscussion.Whichof
difficultywithschoolwork thesestudentneedsisshetryingtoaddress?The
b. Seeingonlyaportionoftheclassbut needto .
intensively a. shoeonesoralabilitiestotherestoftheclass
c. Knowingwhereinstructionalmaterialsarekept b. feelsignificantandbepartofagroup
d. Awareofwhatshappeninginallpartsofthe c. geteverythingandbepartofagroup
classroom d. becreative
38. Whichoftheseisoneofthewaysbywhichthe 49. Insteadofteachergivingthiscommentastudent
internetenablespeopletobrowsedocuments response.Youreonthewrongtrack!,what
connectedbyhypertextlinks? shouldbeteacherdo?
a. URL a. Changethequestiontoaneasierone
b. Browser b. Redirectthequestionbycallinganother
c. Welcomepage studenttorecite
d. WorldWideWeb c. Probetoredirecttheresponseintoamore
39. Whichcharacteristicsmustbeprimaryconsidered productivearea
asachoiceofinstructionalaids? d. Pause,askthequestion,lecture,thenaskthe
a. Stimulateandmaintainstudentsinterests questionagain
b. Suitedtothelessonobjectives 50. Ifcurriculumisdesignedfollowingthetraditional
c. UpdatedandrelevanttoFilipinosetting approach,whichfeature(s)apply(ies)?
d. Newandskillfullymade I. Theaimsofthecurriculumaresetby
40. Youcanexhibitreferentpoweronthefirstdayof professionalsandexperts
schoolby II. Interestedgroups(teachers,students,
a. tellingthemtheimportanceofgoodgrades communities)areassumedtoagreewiththe
b. givingyourstudentsasenseofbelongingness aimsofthecurriculum
andacceptance III. Consensusbuildinginnotnecessary
c. makingthemfeelyouknowwhatyouare a. IIIonly c.I,II
takingabout b. I,II,III d.I,III
d. remindingyourstudentsyourauthorityover 51. Iwantmystudenttodeveloptheabilitytolookata
themagainandagain problemfromvariousperspectives.Which
41. Iwouldliketouseamodeltoemphasizeparticular approachwillbeMOSTfit?
part.WhichofthesewouldbeMOSTappropriate? a. Behavioristapproach
a. Regalia c.Stimulation b. ComputerbasedEducation
b. Audiorecording d.Mockup c. Modularapproach
42. Whatmustateacherdotoensureorderly d. Cognitiveapproach
transitionsbetweenactivities?
a. Allowtimeforthestudentstosocializein
betweenactivities
b. Havethematerialsreadyatthestartofthe
activity
c. Assignfewerexercisetofilltheallottedtime
d. Waitforstudentswholagbehind

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52. OnesapproachtoteachingisinfluencedbyHoward 59. Whenmoresensesarestimulated,teachingand
GardnersMITheory.Whatishe/shechallengedto learningbecomemoreeffective.Whatisan
do? applicationofthisprinciple?
I. Tocomeupwith9differentwaysof a. Appealtostudentssenseofimagination
approachinglessontocatertothe9multiple b. Usemultisensoryaids
intelligence c. Makeyourstudentstouchtheinstructional
II. Todevelopallstudentsskillinallnine material
intelligences d. Useaudiovisualaidsbecausetheeyesandthe
III. Toprovideworthwhileactivitiesthat erasarethemostimportantsensesinlearning.
acknowledgeindividualdifferenceinchildren 60. Whichisaclassroomapplicationofthetheoryof
a. I,IIandIII c.IIonly operantconditioning?
b. II,III d.IIIonly a. Helpstudentseetheconnectednessoffacts,
53. Ifmyapproachtomylessonisbehaviorist,what concepts,andprinciples
featureswilldominatemylesson? b. Createaclassroomatmospherethatelicits
I. Copyingnotes III.Lecturing relaxation
II. Reasoning IV.Demonstration c. Reinforceagoodbehaviortoincreasethe
a. III,IV c.I,II,III,IV likelihoodthatthelearnerwillrepeatthe
b. I,III,IV d.II,III,IV response
54. Youpracticeinclusiveeducation.Whichofthese d. Makestudentslearnbyoperating
appliestoyou? manipulatives
I. Youaccepteverystudentasfullandvalued Readthefollowingteacherstudentsituation
memberoftheclassandschoolcommunity 61. TEACHER:Whyistheprocesscalled
II. Yourspecialattentionisonlearnerswith photosynthesis?
specificlearningorsocialneeds STUDENT:Idontknow
III. Youraddresstheneedsoftheclassasawhole Whichquestioningtechniqueshouldbethe
withinthecontextofthelearnerswithspecific teacheruse?
learningorsocialneeds a. Clarification c.Prompting
a. IIonly c.Ionly b. Multipleresponse d.Conceptreview
b. IandII d.IandIII 62. Hereisthetestitem.
55. Schoolcurriculumreflectstheworldseconomic Fromthedatapresentedinthetable,from
andpoliticalintegrationandindustrialization.What generalizationsthataresupportedbythe
doesthispointincurriculumdevelopment? data.
a. Thetrendtowardstheclassicalapproachto Underwhattypeofquestiondoesthis
curriculumdevelopment itemfall?
b. Thetrendtowardtheglobalizationand a. Convergent c.Application
localization b. Evaluative d.Divergent
c. Thetrendtowardparticipatorycurriculum 63. Iwanttoteachconcepts,patternsandabstractions.
development WhichmethodwillbeMOSTappropriate?
d. Theshiftintheparadigmofcurriculum a. Discovery c.Directinstruction
developmentfromaprocessorientedtoa b. Indirectinstruction d.Problemsolving
productorientedone 64. TeacherAteachesEnglishasaSecondLanguage.
56. Youchoosecooperativelearningasateaching Sheusesvocabularycards,fillintheblanks
approach.Whatthoughtisimpressedonyour sentences,dialogues,dictationandwriting
students? exercisesinteachingalessonaboutgrocery
a. Interactionisamust,butnotnecessarilyface shopping.Basedonthisinformation,whichofthe
tofaceinteraction followingisavalidconclusion?
b. Studentssuccessdependsonthesuccessof a. Theteacherwantstomakeherteachingeasier
thegroup byhavinglestalk
c. Studentsindividualityevaluatehoweffectively b. Theteacheremphasizingreadingandwriting
theirgroupworked. skills
d. Theaccountabilityforlearningisonthegroup c. Theteacheristeachinginavarietyofways
notontheindividual becausenotallstudentslearninthesame
57. Whatprincipleisviolatedbyoverusingthe manner
chalkboard,asthoughitistheonlyeducation d. TheteacherisapplyingBloomshierarchyof
technologyavailable? cognitivelearning
a. Isolateduse c.Variety 65. TeacherAanexperiencedteacher,doesdaily
b. Flexibility d.Uniformity reviewofpastlessonsinorderto
58. WhichstatementappliesaCORRECTLYtoEdgar a. introduceanewlesson
DalesConeofExperience b. reflectonhowhepresentedtheprevious
a. Thefartheryouarefromthebase,themore lessons
directthelearningexperiencebecomes. c. providehispupilswithasenseofcontinuity
b. Thefartheryouarefromthebottom,themore d. determinewhoamonghispupilsarestudying
directthelearningexperiencebecomes. 66. Icombinedseveralsubjectareasinordertofocus
c. Thecloseryouarefromthebase,themore onasingleconceptforinterdisciplinaryteaching.
indirectthelearningexperiencebecomes WhichstrategydidIuse?
d. Thecloseryouarefromthebase,themore a. Readingwritingactivity
directthelearningexperiencebecomes b. Thematicintroduction
c. Unitmethod
d. Problemcenteredlearning

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 101


67. Toteachthedemocraticprocesstothepupils,Biag 76. TeacherRwantstodevelophisstudentscreativity.
ElementarySchooldecidedthattheelectionofclass WhichtypeofquestionswillbeMOSTappropriate?
officersshallbepatternedafterlocalelections. a. Synthesisquestions
Therearequalificationssetforcandidates,limited b. Factquestions
periodforcampaignandrulesforpostingcampaign c. Whatif.questions
materials,etc.Whichofthefollowingdidtheschool d. Analysisquestions
use? 77. Inmyattempttodevelopcreativethinkingskills,I
a. Symposium c.Poleplaying wanttotestfluencyofideas.Whichactivityformy
b. Simulation d.Philips66 studentswillbeMOSTappropriate?
68. Whichareeffectivemethodsinteachingstudent a. Solvethismathproblem
criticalreadingskills? b. Listanimalscoveredwithhairin1minute
I. Interpreteditorial c. Solvethispuzzle
II. Readandinterpretthreedifferentmovie d. Comparepictures1and2.Wherearethe
reviews differences?
III. Readapositionpaperanddeduceunderlying 78. Youwantyourstudentstoanswerthequestionsat
assumptionsofthepositionpapers theendofareadinglesson.WhatdidIlearn
a. IIandIII c.IandII did?,Whatstillpuzzleme?,WhatdidIenjoy,
b. IandIII d.I,IIandIII hateaccomplishintheclasstoday?,HowdidI
69. Hereisatestitem learnfromthelesson?.Whichofthefollowingare
Theimprovementofbasiceducationshould youaskingthemtodo?
bethetoppriorityofthePhilippine a. Workonanassignment
government.Defendorrefutethisposition. b. Makejournalentry
Underwhattypeofquestiondoesthis c. Workonadrill
testitemfall? d. Applywhattheylearned
a. Lowlevel c.Analysis 79. Afterreadinganessay.TeacherBwantstohelp
b. Evaluative d.Convergent sharpenherstudentsabilitytointerpret.Whichof
70. WhenIteach,Ioftenengageinbrainstorming. theseactivitieswillbemostappropriate?
WhichdoIavoid? a. Drawingconclusions
a. Breakdownbarriers b. Makinginferences
b. Increasecreativity c. Gettingthemainidea
c. Generatemanyideas d. Listingfactsseparatelyfromopinion
d. Selectivelyinvolvespupils
71. TeacherSteachesalessoninwhichstudentsmust Readthefollowingthenanswerthequestion
recognizethatisthesame0.25.Theyusethis 80. Amanandhissonaredrivinginacar.Thecar
relationshiptodeterminethat0.15and0.20are crashesintoatree,killingthefatherandseriously
slightlylessthan.Whichofthefollowing injuryhisson.Atthehospital,theboyneedsto
concept/sis/arebeingtaught? havesurgery.Lookingattheboy,thedoctorsays
a. Numerationskills (tellingthetruth),Icannotoperateonhim.Heis
b. Placevalueofdecimals myson.Howcanthisbe?
c. Numerationskillsofdecimalsandrelationships ASWER:Thedoctoristheboysmother.
betweenfractionsanddecimals Theabovebraintwisterhelpsdevelop
d. Relationshipbetweenfractionanddecimals criticalreadingskills.Whichactivitywasused?
72. Whatisthebestwaytodevelopmathconcept? a. Comparing
a. Solvingproblemsusingmultipleapproaches b. Classifying
b. Solvingproblemsbylookingforcorrectanswer c. Inferringmeaning
c. Learningmathasappliedtosituations,suchas d. Lookingforcauseandeffect
beingatoolofscience 81. Researchsaysthatmasteryexperiencesincrease
d. solvingproblemsbyapplyinglearnedformulas confidenceandwillingnesstotrysimilarormore
73. Afterthereadingofaselectionintheclass,which challengingtasksasreading.Whatdoesthisimply
oftheseactivitiescanenhancestudentscreativity. forchildrensreadingperformance?
I. Readerstheater a. Childrenwhohavenotmasteredthebasicskills
II. Readingaloud aremorelikelytobemotivatedtoreadinorder
III. Silentreading togainmasteryoverbasicskills.
a. IandII c.Ionly b. Childrenwhohavemasteredbasicskillsare
b. IIonly d.IIIonly morelikelytobelessmotivatedtoread
74. TeacherC,aReadingteacher,advisedheclassto becausetheygetfedupwithtoomuchreading.
readbetweenthelines.Whatdoesshewanther c. Childrenwhohaveahighsenseofself
pupilstodo? confidencearenotnecessarilythosewhocan
a. Makeaneducatedguess read
b. Determinewhatismeantbywhatisstated d. Childrenwhohavegainedmasteryoverbasic
c. Applytheinformationread skillsaremoremotivatedtoread
d. Describethecharactersinthestory 82. Thevaluethatstudentsputonreadingiscriticalto
75. Tonurturestudentscreativity,whichactivity theirsuccess.Inwhatway/scanteachersinculcate
shouldateacherAVOID? hisvalueforreading?
a. Askhatifquestions I. Sharingtheexcitementofreadaloud
b. Askdivergentthinkingquestions II. Showingtheirpassionforreading
c. Emphasizetheneedtogiverightanswers III. Beingrewardedtodemonstratethevalueof
d. Beopentooutofthisworldideas reading
a. IIandIII c.I,IIandIII
b. IandII d.IIonly

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 102


83. Brunerstheoryonintellectualdevelopmentmoves 92. TeacherHbeginsalessonontumbling,
fromenactivetoiconicandsymbolicstages. demonstratingfrontandbacksomersaultsinslow
ApplyingBrunerstheory.Howwouldyouteach? motionandphysicallyguidinghisstudentsthrough
a. Beinteractiveinapproach thecorrectmovements.Ashisstudentsbecome
b. Beginwiththeabstract moreskillful,hestandsbackfromthemanand
c. Beginwiththeconcrete givesverbalfeedbackabouthowtoimprove.With
d. dodirectinstruction Vygotskystheoryinmind,whatdidTeacherHdo?
84. Apersonwhohaspainfulexperiencesatthe a. Apprenticeship
dentistsofficemaybecomefearfulatthemere b. Guidedparticipation
sightofthedentistsofficebuilding.Whichtheory c. Peerinteraction
canexplainthis? d. Scaffolding
a. Generalization 93. WhatdoesGagneshierarchytheoryproposefor
b. OperantConditioning effectiveinstruction?
c. Attributiontheory a. Beconcernedwiththesocioemotionalclimate
d. Classicalconditioning intheclassroom
85. Whichis/arethebasicassumption/sof b. Teachbeginningwiththeconcrete
behaviorists? c. Sequenceinstruction
I. Themindofnewbornchildisablankstate. d. Rewardgoodbehavior
II. allbehaviorsaredeterminedbyenvironmental 94. WilliamGlasserscontroltheorystatesthat
events behaviorininspiredbywhatsatisfiesapersons
III. Thechildhasacertaindegreeoffreedomnot wantatanygiventime.Whatthenmustateacher
toallowhimselftobeshapedbyhis dotomotivatestudentstolearn?
environment. a. Maketeachingleaninginteractive
a. IIIonly c.IIonly b. Avoidgivingassignments
b. IandII d.IandII c. Organizeacurriculuminaspiralmanner
86. Ifastudentisencouragetodevelophimselftothe d. Makeschoolworkrelevanttostudentsbasic
fullestandmustsatisfyhishierarchyofneeds,the humanneeds.
highestneedstosatisfyaccordingtoMaslowis 95. Socexhibitfearresponsetofreelyroamingdogsbut
. doesnotshowfearwhenadogisonaleashor
a. psychologicalneed c.belongingness confinedtoapen.Whichconditioningprocessis
b. selfactualizationd.safetyneeds illustrated?
87. InaSocialstudiesclass.TeacherIpresentsa a. extinction c.acquisition
morallyambiguoussituationandasksstudentwhat b. generalization d.discrimination
theywoulddo.OnwhosetheoryisTeacherIs 96. BasedonFreudstheory,whichoperate/swhena
techniquebased? studentstrikesaclassmatesattheheightofanger?
a. Bandura c.Kohberg a. Ego c.IdandEgointeract
b. Piaget d.Bruner b. Id d.Superego
88. TeacherFisconvincedthatwhateverastudent 97. Bernadetteenjoyedtherollercoasterwhenheand
performsadesiredbehavior,providereinforcement herfamilywenttoEnchantedKingdom.Themere
andsoonthestudentlearnstoperformthe sightofarollercoastergetsherexcited.Which
behavioronhisown.OnwhichprincipleisTeacher theoryexplainsBernadettesbehavior?
Fsconvictionbased? a. Operantconditioning
a. Environmentalism c.Cognitivism b. Sociallearningtheory
b. Behaviorism d.Constructivism c. Attributiontheory
89. Bandurassociallearningtheory,statesthat d. Pavlovianconditioning
childrenoftenimitatethosewho 98. AccordingtoFrued,withwhichshouldonebe
I. havesubstantialinfluenceovertheirlives concernedifhe/shehastodevelopinthestudents
II. belongtheirpeergroup acorrectsenseofrightandwrong?
III. belongtootherraces I. SuperegoII.EgoIII.Id
IV. aresuccessfulandseemadmired a. IandII c.I
a. IVonly c.IandII b. II d.III
b. IandIV d.IIandIV 99. Whensmallchildrencallanimalsdog,what
90. AccordingtoErikson,whatyearsarecriticalforthe processisillustratedonPiagetscognitive
developmentofselfconfidence? developmenttheory?
a. Highschoolyears a. reversion c.accommodation
b. Collegeyears b. assimilation d.conservation
c. Preschoolyears 100.Researchersfoundthatwhenachildisengagedina
d. Elementaryschoolyears learningexperienceanumberofareasofthebrain
91. WhichofthefollowingdoesNOTdescribethe aresimultaneouslyactivated.Whichofthe
developmentofchildrenaged11to13? followingis/areimplication/softhisresearch
a. Theyexhibitincreasedobjectivityinthinking finding?
b. Theyshiftfromimpulsivitytoadaptiveability I. Makeuseoffieldtrips,guestspeakers
c. SexdifferenceinIQbecomemoreevident II. Domulticulturalunitsofstudy
d. Theyshowabstractthinkingandjudgment III. Sticktotheleftbrainandrightbrain
approach
a. IandIII c.IandII
b. Ionly d.IIonly

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 103


101.Whichappropriateteachingpracticeflowsfromthis 108.Withassessmentofaffectivelearninginmind,
researchfindingonthebrain:Thebrains whichdoesNOTbelongtothegroup?
emotionalcenteristiedintoitsabilitytolearn. a. Clozetest c.Reflectivewriting
a. Establishthedisciplineofbeingjudgmentalin b. Moraldilemma d.Diaryentry
attitude 109.Iwanttoteststudentssynthesizingskills.Which
b. Comeupwithhighlycompetitivegameswhere hasthehighestdiagnosticvalue?
winnerswillfeelhappy a. multiplechoicetest c.Essaytest
c. Tellthestudentstoparticipateinclass b. Performancetestd.Completiontest
activitiesorelsewontreceivepluspointsin 110.
classrecitation is an example of a leafy
d. Createalearningenvironmentthatencourages vegetable.
studentstoexploretheirfeelingandideas Whyisthistestitempoor?
freely I. Thetestitemdoesnotposeaproblemtothe
102.ResearchonPiagetiantasksindicatesthatthinking examinee
becomesmorelogicalandabstractaschildren II. Therearevarietyofpossiblecorrectanswer
reachtheformaloperationsstage.Whatisan tothisitem
educationalimplicationofthisfinding? III. thelanguageusedinthequestionisnot
a. Engagechildreninanalogicalreasoningasearly precise
aspreschooltotrainthemforhigherorder IV. Theblankisnearthebeginningofasentence
thinkingskills(HOTS) A. IandIII
b. Learnerswhoarenotcapableoflogical B. IIandIV
reasoningfromages8to11lagbehindintheir C. IandIV
cognitivedevelopment D. IandII
c. Letchildrenbechildren 111.
d. Expecthypotheticalreasoningforlearners What
follows is a multiple choice type of
between12to15yearsofage test.
103.Researchsays:Peopletendtoattributetheir Some test items .
successestointernalcausesandtheirfailuresto a. are too difficult
externalcauses.Basedonthisfinding,whatshould b. are objective
betaughttostudentsforthemtobegenuinely c. are poorly constructed
motivatedtosucceed?
d. have multiple defensible answers
a. Tellthemtheresearchfindingwhenapplied
willmakethemgenuinelymotivated
b. Convincethemthatgenuinemotivationisthe Whatmakesthemultiplechoicetypeoftest
onlyfactorthatmattersforapersonto poor?
succeed a. Theoptionsarenotgrammaticallyconnected
c. Makethemrealizethatfailureisapartoflife tothestem
d. Makethemrealizethatbothsuccessand b. Thestemfailstopresentaproblem
failurearemoreafunctionofinternalcauses. c. Therearegrammaticalclues
104.Whichcharacterize/salearningenvironmentthat d. Theoptionsarenotparallel
promotesfairnessamonglearnersofvarious 112.Ifateacherwantstomeasureherstudentsability
cultures,familybackgroundandgender? todiscriminate,whichoftheseisanappropriate
I. Inclusive typeoftestitemasimpliedbythedirection?
II. Exclusive a. OutlinetheChapteronTheCell.
III. Gendersensitive b. Summarizethelessonyesterday.
a. Ionly c.IandIII c. Groupthefollowingitemsaccordingto
b. IIIonly d.IIandIII shape.
105.Whichofthefollowingstepsshouldbecompleted d. Stateasetofprinciplethatcanexplainthe
firstinplanninganachievementtest? followingevents.
a. Definetheinstructionalobjective 113.Atestitemhasadifficultindexof0.89anda
b. Setupatableofspecialization discriminationindexof0.44.Whatshouldthe
c. Selectthetypesoftestitemstouse teacherdo?
d. Decideonthelengthofthetest a. Rejecttheitem
106.ThecomputedrfroscoresinMathandSciencein b. Retaintheitem
0.92.Whatdoesthismean? c. Makeitabonusitem
a. MathscoreispositiverelatedtoSciencescore d. Makeitabonusitemandrejectit
b. ThehighertheMathscore,thelowerthe 114.Whichformofassessmentisconsistentwiththe
Sciencescore sayingTheproofofthepuddingisintheeating.
c. MathscoreisnotinanywayrelatedtoScience a. Contrived c.Traditional
score b. Authentic d.Indirect
d. Sciencescoreisslightlyrelatedtomathscore 115.
107.WhichtypesoftestismostappropriateifTeacherY Who is best admired for outstanding
wantstomeasurestudentsabilitytoorganize contribution to world peace?
thoughtsandideas? a. Kissinger c. Kennedy
a. Shortanswertypeoftest b. Clinton d. Mother Teresa
b. Extendedresponseessay
c. Modifiedalternativeresponse WhatisWRONGwiththisitem?
d. Limitedresponseessay a. Itemisoverlyspecific
b. Contentistrivial
c. Testitemisoptionbased
d. Thereisacuetotherightanswer

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 104


116.Studentsscorewereasfollows:82,83,84,86,88, 123.Ifthescoresofyourtestfollowanegativelyskewed
84,83,85.Thescore86isthe. scoredistribution,whatshouldyoudo?
a. mode c.median Findout ?
b. average d.mean a. whyyouritemswereeasy
117.Whichtextformwouldyouchooseifyouwantto b. whymostofthescoresarehigh
haveavalidandreliabletestbasedonthetable c. whymostofthescoresarelow
below? d. whysomepupilsscoredhigh
TestForm ValidityIndex ReliabilityIndex 124.PrincipalAistalkingaboutgradingonthecurvein
A .47 .68 afacultymeeting.Whatdoesthisexpressionrefer
B .87 .57 to?
C .20 .86 a. Astudentmarkcompareshisachievementto
D .40 .41 hiseffort.
E .63 .07 b. Astudentsgradeormarkdependsonhowhis
achievementcompareswiththeachievement
a. Aonly c.AandD ofotherstudentsinaclass.
b. Bonly d.BandE c. Astudentsgradedetermineswhetherornota
118.AmathematicianstestwasgiventoallGradeV studentattainsadefinedstandardof
pupilstodeterminethecontestantsfortheMath achievement
QuizBee.Whichstatisticalmeasureshouldbeused d. Astudentmarktellshowcloselyheisachieving
toidentifythetop15? tohispotential.
a. Meanpercentagescore 125.Whichtestsdeterminewhetherstudentsaccept
b. QuartileDeviation responsibilityfortheirownbehaviororpasson
c. PercentileRank responsibilityfortheirownbehaviortoother
d. PercentageScore people?
119.Nelliesscoreiswithinx1SD.Towhichofthe a. Thematictests
followinggroupsdoesshebelong? b. Sentencecompletiontests
a. Belowaverage c. Stylistictest
b. Average d. Locusofcontroltests
c. NeedsImprovement 126.Whichoftheoneweaknessofselfsupporting
d. Aboveaverage personalitychecklists?
120.Usetheinboxbelowtoanswerthequestionthat a. Manypersonalitymeasureshavebuiltinlie
follows: scales
PercentageGradesforFinalExamination b. Theylackstability
c. Theymaynotgettrueinformationbecause
individualscanhideordisguisefeelings
d. Theyhavepoorinternalconsistency
40 70 80 90 127.Whichofthesecanmeasureawarenessofvalues?
100 a. Sociogram
WhichofthefollowingstatementisTRUE b. Moraldilemmas
abouttheplotofgradesabove? c. Projectivetechniques
a. Themedianisascoreof80andtherangeis d. Ratingscales
60. 128.Markingonanormativebasismeansthat
b. Themedianisascoreof70andtherangeis a. thenormaldistributioncurveshouldbe
60. followed
c. Themedianisascoreof80andtherangeis b. someshouldfall
20. c. somegethighmarks
d. Themedianisascoreof70andtherangeis d. thegradingisbasedonapresentcriteria
20. 129.Whichprocessenhancesthecomparabilityof
121.WhichcanbesaidofAriellewhoobtainedascore grades?
of75outof100itemsinaGrammarobjectivetest? a. Usingatablespecifications
a. Sheperformedbetterthan25%ofher b. Determiningthelevelofdifficultyofthetests
classmates c. GivingmoreHOTS(higherorderthinkingskills)
b. Sheanswered75itemsinthetestcorrectly d. Constructingdepartmentalizedexaminations
c. Herratingis75 foreachsubjectarea.
d. Sheanswered75%ofthetestitemscorrectly SITUATIONAL
122.ThecriterionofsuccessinTeacherDsobjectiveis
thatthepupilsmustbeabletospell90%ofthe Situation1
Inafacultymeeting,theprincipletoldhis
wordscorrectly.Anaand24othersintheclass teacher:Weneedtoimproveourschool
spelledonly40outof50wordscorrectlywhilethe performanceintheNationalAchievementTest.What

restscored45andabove.ThismeansthatTeacher shouldwedo?
D Theteachergavevariedanswersasfollows:
a. attainedherlessonobjective 1.
Letsgiveincentivesandrewardstostudents
b. didnotattainherlessonobjectivebecauseof whogetaratingof85%
thepupilslackofattention 2. Letsteachthemtoacceptcomplete
c. failedtoattainherlessonobjectiveasfarasthe responsibilityfortheirperformance
25pupilsareconcerned 3. Letsmaketheschoolenvironment
d. attainedherlessonobjectivebecauseofher
conduciveforlearning
effectivespellingdrill
4. Letsmakeuseoftheexperimentalmethods

ofteaching

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 105
130.Whichresponse/scome/sfromabehaviorist? 139.Onwhichassumption/sistheprincipalsaction
a. #2and#4 c.#3and#4 anchored?
b. #1and#2 d.#1and#3 I. Studentslearnbypersonallyconstructing
131.Onwhicheducationalphilosophyisresponse#1 meaningofwhatistaught.
anchored? II. Studentsareconstructandreconstruct
a. Existentialism c.Progressivism meaningbasedonexperiences
b. Essentialism d.Bahaviorism III. Studentsderivemeaningfromthemeaning
132.Ifyoulearnedtowardaprogressivistphilosophy, thattheteachergives
withwhichresponsewouldyouagree? a. IIonly c.I,II,andIII
a. #2b.#3c.#4d.#1 b. IandII d.Ionly
140.WhichmaterialswillherteachersLEASTprefers?
a. Controversialissues
Situation
2- One principle in the utilization of b. Openendedtopics
technology
of the classroom is appropriateness c. Unquestionablelaws
of material or activity.
d. Problemorcases
141.Whichconcept/softhelearnerwillPrincipalENOT
133.TeacherCwantshisstudentstomastertheconcept accept?
ofsocialjustice.Whichseriesofactivitieswillbe I. Emptyvesse!
mosteffective? II. Tabularasa
a. Pretestteachingposttest III. Candletobelighted
b. Pretestteachingposttestreteachingfor a. IIIonly c.IIonly
unlearnedconceptsposttest b. Ionly d.IandII
c. Reviewpretestteachingposttest
d. Teachingposttest Situation 5- Study the matching type of test then
134.TeacherAlikestoshowhowthelaunchingof answer
the 3 questions that follow:
spaceshipstakesplace.Whichofthefollowing Column A Column B
materialsavailableismostfit? 1. equilateral
triangle A. With 3 equal sides
a. Model c.Replica 2. right triangle B. With 5 equal sides
b. Mockup d.Realia 3. octagon C. Has 90- degree
135.TeacherBlikestoconcretizetheabstractconcepts angle
ofanatom.Shecameupwithaconcrete
4. pentagon D. Means many
presentationoftheatombyusingwireandplastic
5. heptagon
E. with 7 sides
balls.HowwouldyouclassifyTeacherBsvisual
aids? 6. poly F. with 8 sides
a. Chart c.Model
b. Replica d.Realia 142.Howcanyoumaketheitemshomogeneous?
a. IncreasethenumberofitemsinColumnB
Situation
3- After reading and paraphrasing b. Allitemsshouldbeonpolygons
Robert
frosts Stopping by the Wood on a c. Removethewordtriangleinitems#1and#2in
snowy Evening. Mr. Sales asked the class to columnA
share any insight derived from the poem. d. ThewordgonmustbeincludedincolumnB
143.Whatisthemaindefectofthismatchingtest?
136.Theclasswasaskedtosharetheirinsightsabout a. thematchingtypeisanimperfecttype
thepoem.Theabilitytocomeupwithaninsight b. theitemsareNOThomogeneous
stemsfromtheabilityto c. theitemsquiteeasy
a. analyzethepartsofawhole d. anobviouspatternisfollowedintheanswering
b. evaluatetheworthinessofathing 144.Whichshouldbedonetoimprovethematching
c. relateandorganizethingsandideas typeoftest?
d. comprehendthesubjectthatisbeingstudied a. CapitalizetheitemsinColumnA
137.Toasktheclassanyinsightderivedfromthepoem b. ItemsinColumnAandBshouldbeexchanged
isbasedonthetheoryof c. Drop#6iteminColumnA
a. realism c.conditioning d. TheiteminColumnAshouldbeincreased
b. behaviorism d.constructivism
138.OnwhichassumptionaboutthelearnerisMr. Situation 6- Below the template for Scoring
Marquezsactofaskingtheclasstosharetheir Rubric.
insightbased?
a. Learnersarelikeemptyreceptacleswaitingto 5-Demonstrate complete understanding of the
befilledup problem. All requirements of task are included in
b. Learnersaremeanttointeractwithone response
another 4-Demonstrate considerable understanding of
c. Learnershavemultipleintelligenceandvaried the problem. All requirements of task are
learningstyles included
d. Learnersareproducersofknowledgenotonly 3- Demonstrate partial understanding of the
passiverecipientsofinformation problem. Most requirements of task are included
2- Demonstrate little understanding of the
Situation 4- Principal E wants her teachers problem. Many requirements of task are missing
to
apply constructivism in teaching 1- Demonstrate no understanding of the
problem
0-No response/task not attempted

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 106


145.Whichoftheseis/areessentialinconstructinga
scoringrubric? 1 C 51 D 101 D
I. Descriptionofcriteriatoserveasstandard
2 B 52 B 102 D
II. Cleardescriptionsofperformanceateach
level 3 C 53 B 103 C
III. Levelsofachievement(mastery) 4 D 54 D 104 C
IV. Ratingscheme 5 D 55 D 105 A
a. I,II,III c.I,II,III,IV
6 D 56 C 106 A
b. I,II d.Ionly
146.WhichstatementisTRUEoftherubric? 7 C 57 C 107 B
a. Itisdevelopmental 8 C 58 D 108 A
b. Itisanalytical 9 C 59 B 109 B
c. Itisbothholisticanddevelopmental
10 A 60 C 110 D
d. Itisholistic
147.WhichisTRUEofthescoringrubric? 11 D 61 A 111 B
I. Itdescribescriteriaoflevelsofachievement 12 D 62 B 112 C
II. Ithasaratingscheme 13 B 63 A 113 B
III. Itlimititselfto4levelsofachievement
14 D 64 D 114 B
a. IandII
b. IandIII 15 D 65 C 115 D
c. IIandIII 16 C 66 B 116 D
d. I,IIandIII 17 C 67 B 117 A

18 C 68 D 118 C
Situation
7- Study the table on item
analysis for non-attractiveness and non- 19 A 69 C 119 D
plausibility
of distracters based on the 20 A 70 D 120 A
results
of a try-out test in Science. The 21 A 71 D 121 B
letter marked with a asterisk is the correct
answer. 22 A 72 C 122 C

23 B 73 C 123 B
Item No. 1 A B C D E 24 B 74 B 124 B
Upper 27% 10 4 1 1 0 25 B 75 C 125 D
Lower 27% 6 5 2 2 0
26 C 76 C 126 C

148.Thetableshowsthatthetestitemanalyzed 27 C 77 B 127 B
. 28 C 78 C 128 D
a. hasapositivediscriminationindex 29 D 79 B 129 D
b. hasanegativediscriminationindex
30 B 80 D 130 B
c. isextremelyeasy
d. isextremelydifficult 31 D 81 D 131 D
149.Basedonthetable,whichisthemosteffective 32 A 82 C 132 B
distracter? 33 D 83 A 133 B
a. OptionD
34 B 84 D 134 D
b. OptionA
c. OptionC 35 B 85 C 135 B
d. OptionB 36 C 86 B 136 A
150.Basedonthetable,whichgroupgotmorecorrect 37 D 87 C 137 D
answer?
38 A 88 D 138 B
a. Uppergroup
b. Itcannotbedetermined 39 B 89 C 139 B
c. Lowergroup 40 C 90 D 140 C
d. Dataarenotsufficienttogiveananswer 41 D 91 C 141 A
42 B 92 B 142 B

43 C 93 C 143 B
44 A 94 D 144 C
Whenyougetrightdowntotherootofthemeaningof 45 B 95 D 145 C
theword"succeed,"youfindthatitsimplymeansto
46 D 96 B 146 C
followthrough.
47 C 97 A 147 A
48 B 98 C 148 D
49 B 99 D 149 D

50 B 100 C 150 C


St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 107
GENERALSCIENCE 15. Whatisaeathaze?
a. Areflectioncausedbypollutantsintheair
POSTTEST b. Adistortedimageresultingfromthebendingo
MultipleChoices: sunslightraysbychangesinairtemperature
c. Amovementowarmairoveravastexpanseof
1. Thesearelivingthingsthatusesunlight, land
chlorophyll,waterandcarbondioxidetoproduce d. Causedbyextremelyhightemperaturecommon
food. indessertareas
a. Autotrophs c.Heterotrops 16. Whatsortofrockformationdotheworldsgreatest
b. Consumers d.Foodchain mountainrangesconsistof?
2. Itisdescribeasthelifelineofthebody.ITisthe a. Magma c.Folderuptions
bodyspickupanddeliverysystem. b. Chalkdeposit d.Slipformation
a. Blood c.circulatorysystem 17. Whatistheforethatwearsdownmountains?
b. nervoussystem d.heart a. Earthquake c.Volcaniceruptions
3. Itcarriestheoxygenrichbloodtothehead,arms, b. Erosion d.Deforestation
chestanddowntothewaistandthelegs. 18. Howarevolcanicislandformed?
a. heart c.aorta a. Collisionoftwooceanicplates
b. ventricles d.arteries b. Coolingoflavabyseawater
4. Theyarethetransmittersofmessagefromthe c. Volcaniceruptions
differentpartsofthebodytothebrainandvice d. Accumulationofcorals
versa. 19. WhentheTheoryofplateTectonicswasgenerally
a. spinalcord c.brain accepted?
b. neuronsornervecells d.arteries a. 1900s c.1950s
5. Whichpartofthebraincontrolsthefollowing b. 1930s d.1980s
activities:breathing,bloodpressure,heartrate, 20. Theweatheringawayofrocksbywater,windand
alertness. ice.
a. brainstem c.cerebrum a. Denudation c.Volcanicrock
b. hypothalamus d.spinalcord b. Erosion d.Metamorphicrock
6. Referstoasequenceoforganisminacommunity 21. Howdohormoneswork?
thatconstitutesafeedingchain. a. Byreleasingadrenaline
a. photosynthesis c.consumers b. Bycontrollingcellchemistry
b. ecosystem d.foodchain c. Byregulatingwaterloss
7. Isagroupofinteractingplants,animalsandhuman d. Bycontrollingbloodpressure
inaparticulararea. 22. Namethemaleandfemalesexhormones
a. ecologicalcommunity c.livingorganism a. Spermcell&Ovum c.Chromosomes
b. environment d.food b. Testosterone d.Red&whiteblood
chain cells
8. Excessivepresenceofcarbondioxideintheair, 23. Theunitofmeasurementofenergyinagivenan
trappingheatneartheearthssurfacecausingarise mountoffood
intemperatureintheenvironment. a. Pound c.Olfactorysystem
a. ElNino c.Deforestation b. Kilo d.calorie
b. GreenhouseEffect d.Weather 24. Nitrogencompoundsknownasthebuildingblocks
disturbance ofproteins
9. TheEarthsshieldagainstsunsharmfulradiation. 25. Thegrowthofrootstowardswaterisanexample
a. Atmosphere c.Ozonelayer of?
b. Air d.Forest a. Chemotropism c.Hydrotropism
10. Theuseofproductcontaining______is b. Geotropism d.Phototropism
discouragedbecausetheycontributetothe 26. DNAmeans
depletionof_____. a. Datanurturinganalysis c.Deoxyribonucleic
a. Chlorofluorocarbonsolarradiation acid
b. Gasozonelayer b. Deoxytribonucleicacid d.Deotrixylnucleic
c. Ozonelayerair acid
d. Chlorofluorocarbonozonelayer 27. Whatarethethreeproductsofoxygenwhenithas
11. Whatcauseshighandlowtides? beenburned?
a. Earthsrotationonitsaxis a. Water,carbondioxideandair
b. Moonsgravitationalpull b. Energy,waterandcarbondioxide
c. Sunssolarenergy c. Energy,carbonandoxide
d. Earthsgravitationalpull d. Energy,airandwater
12. Howiscoralatoolformed? 28. Infloweringplants,fertilizationhappensinthe?
a. Volcaniceruption a. Pollentube c.Ovules
b. Coralsgrowingaroundavolcanicisland b. Stamen d.Pollengrain
c. Underwaterbedrockformations 29. Thedevelopmentofeggwithoutfertilization
d. Earthquake a. Mitosis c.Spermatogenesis
13. Whatisalongshoredrift? b. Parthenogenesisd.Mitochondria
a. Movementosandandshinglesalongthecoast 30. Whichofthefollowingisasourceofenergyneeded
b. Sandbars forphotosynthesis?
c. Accumulationosadattherivermouth a. Water c.Light
d. Islandformedbyvolcaniceruptions b. Soil d.Fertilizer
14. Howdoesanocclusionform? 31. Chemistryisprimarilyconcernedwiththe
a. Coldairmovingupfromtheground compositionandchangesof?
b. Coldfrontpushingwarmairupoftheground a. Nature c.Man
c. Unbalanceelectricalreactionintheair b. Matter d.Earth
d. Coldandwarmairmixingintheatmosphere
St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 108
32. Ascientifictheoryis 45. Whenaforceisappliedtoabody,severaleffects
a. Ahypothesisnotyetsubjectedtoexperimental arepossible.Whichoneofthefollowingeffect
test CANToccur?
b. Anideathatcorrectlypredicttheresult a. thebodyrotates
c. Animagination b. thebodychangesdirection
d. Aguess c. thebodyincreaseitsmass
33. Whichofthefollowingunitsofmeasureis d. thebodychangesshape
equivalenttocubiccentimeter? 46. Itisthereluctanceoftheobjecttochangeeither
a. Milligram c.Millimeter itsstateofrestoruniformmotioninastraightline
b. Milliliter d.Centiliter a. Force c.Inertia
34. WhichofthefollowingisNOTacompound? b. Friction d.Motion
a. aceticacid c.magnesium 47. Thislawstatesthatenergycannotbecreatednor
b. alcohol d.ZincOxide destroyedbutonlychangesfromoneformto
35. Theeasiertheatomtoreceiveelectronsis another
measuredbyits? a. Energylaw
a. Elecrtonegativity c.Numberofshells b. KineticTheoryofMatter
b. Atomicradius d.Valenceelectrons c. LawofConservationEnergy
36. Thewillingnessoanatomtoreceiveelectronis d. Noneoftheabove
measuredbyits? 48. Thislawstatesthatmatterismadeupofalarge
a. Electronegativity c.Atomicsize numberofmoleculeswhichareincontinuous
b. Ionizationpotential d.Electronaffinity motion
37. Amoleculeissaidtobepolarordipoleif? a. BoylessLaw c.LawofConservationEnergy
a. Itspositiveandnegativechargesareatdifferent b. KineticTheory d.Noneoftheabove
places 49. Thelowestpossibletemperaturethatasubstance
b. Itpossessespolarbonds canreach
c. Itspolarbondhaveunsymmetricalcharge a. Freezingpoint c.Steampoint
distribution b. AbsoluteZero d.Threshold
d. Alloftheabove 50. Itistheamountofheatrequiredtoraisethe
38. WhichofthefollowingisNOTaphysicalpropertyof temperatureofkg.ofasubstancebydegreeC
water? a. Calorie c.Specificheatcapacity
a. freezingpointat0degreeC b. Watt d.Joule
b. boilingpointat100degreesC 51. Therelationshipofgiveandtakeoflivingorganism
c. itsheatoffusionat80cal/g. inthebiosphereisabalanceofnature
d. itsdensityat4degreesat1lb/cu.Ft called________.
39. Whichofthefollowingstatementsistrue? a. universalrelationship
a. Molecularweightdoesnotinfluenceboilingand b. symbioticrelationship
meltingpointofasubstance c. spontaneousrelationship
b. Boilingandmeltingpointtendtoincreasewith d. abiogeneticrelationship
molecularweight 52. Processofremovingexcessodorinwater.
c. Boilingandmeltingpointtendtodecreasewith a. sedimentation c.distillation
molecularweight b. chlorination d.aeration
d. Noneotheabove 53. WhichofthefollowingstatementisCORRECT?
40. AMoleistheamountofsubstanceoramassofa a. Asaltitudeincreases,atmosphericpressures
substancethatcontains? corresponding
a. 6.02x1023particles c.6.02x1023 b. Throughouttheavailablespace,gastendsto
particles contract
b. 60.2x1023particles d.60.2x1023 c. Equalchancesarealwaysgiventoallinlife
particles d. Shadowisformedwhenacoloredobjectis
41. Itisthemeasureoftheamountofmatterinan projectedagainstthewall
object 54. Theearthrotatesonitsaxisfromwesttoeast.This
a. Weight c.Volume causesthesunto_______?
b. Mass d.Quantity a. appearwithafieryorangecolor
42. Itisthedistancetraveledbythebodyperunittime b. causetheappearanceofsolareclipse
andtellhowfastorslowthebodymoves c. riseroomtheeastandsetsinthewest
a. Velocity c.Acceleration d. emitsolarradiation
b. Speed d.Noneoftheabove 55. Oneoftheseplanetshasthegreatestgravitational
43. Therateofchangeofthedistancetraveledperunit pull.Whichoneisit?
timeinastateddirection a. Mars b.Earthc.Mercuryd.Jupiter
a. Velocity c.Acceleration 56. Itisthelawwhichexplainswhyonecanpullapiece
b. Speed d.Noneoftheabove withouttoppingaglassinaquickmotion.
44. Thislawstatesthattheforceactinguponanobject a. energyinmotion c.lawofinertia
isequaltotheproductothemassandacceleration b. gravity d.force
oftheobject 57. WhichofthefollowingisNOTasourceofenergy?
a. Newtons2ndlawofmotion a. water c.geothermalheat
b. Newtons3rdlawofmotion b. nuclear d.inertiaatrest
c. Newtons1stlawofmotion 58. Whichinstrumentwilloneusetoconvert
d. Noneoftheamount mechanicalenergytoelectricalenergy?
a. rotor b.generator c.motord.circuit



St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 109


59. Sunsenergyisgeneratedby? 76. ItisasegmentofDNAmoleculewhichcontrolsthe
a. nuclearfission appearanceofagiventrait
b. sunenactingwithgravity a. Chromosomes c.Gametes
c. nuclearfusionreaction b. Genes d.Zygotes
d. reactionwithmagneticfield 77. Groupofsimilarcellsperformingsimilarfunctions
60. Applicationofenergyiscalled_______? together
a. work c.kinetics a. Organs b.Systemc.Nucleus d.Tissue
b. inertia d.simulation 78. Thediffusionofwaterthroughasemipermeable
61. Thefallingofanyformofwaterfromtheairtothe membrane
earthssurface a. osmosis c.
a. Condensation c.Watervapor Transfusion
b. Precipitation d.Rainwater b. permeability d.Capillary
62. Thepartoftheatmospherethatfiltersthe 79. Itshowsthecomplexfoodrelationshipoforganism
ultravioletraysofthesun inagivenareaandthecyclicflowoffoodthrough
a. stratosphere c.Ozonelayer organisms
b. Troposphere d.Ionosphere a. Foodchain c.Foodpyramid
63. Thepointintheearthsorbitnearesttothesun b. Foodweb d.Biologicalcycle
a. Solstice c.Aphelion 80. WhichofthefollowingdoesNOToccurtoboth
b. Eclipse d.Perihelion respirationandfermentation?
64. Apropertyofmineralswhichgivesoffraysoflight a. energyisreleased
whenexposedtoultravioletlight. b. sugarisbrokendown
a. Luminescence c.Radiation c. carbondioxideisproduced
b. Phosphorescenced.Fluorescence d. alcoholisformed
65. Whichprocessinvolveschemicalweathering? 81. Energyremovalisbestillustratedin
a. Carbonation c.Hydration a. boilingofliquidsubstances
b. Oxidation d.Alloftheabove b. changingwatertoice
66. Howlongdoesittakefortheearthtocompleteone c. changingwatertostem
rotation d. noneoftheabove
a. 365days c.24hours 82. Referstothemaximumamountofsolute
b. 30days d.12hours expressedingramsthatcanbedissolvedin100
67. Whatistheprincipalfunctionofgravityinthe gramsofwaterataspecifictemperature
universe? a. Solubility c.Molarity
a. Provisionforenergy b. Stability d.Molality
b. Keepsthestarsandotherheavenlybodiesin 83. Compoundswiththesamemolecularformulabut
orbit withdifferentstructuralformulas
c. Causesmovementinspace a. Cellulose c.Polymers
d. Partofuniversaldesign b. Isomers d.Monomers
68. Whatdoesthewordmonsoonmean? 84. Themostpenetratingtypeofradiationgivenofby
a. Moonwillsooncome c.Seasons radioactiveelements
b. Rains d.Wet a. Alphaparticle c.Gammaparticle
weather b. Betaparticle d.Noneoftheabove
69. Itsdiscoveryenablegeologisttodaterocks 85. Thebasicunitforexpressingthemasseso
accurately individualatoms
a. layering c. a. Atomicnumber c.Nucleus
Radioactivity b. Atomicmassunit d.Atomicweight
b. Evolutionarystaging d.Carbon 86. Asubstancethatspeedsupachemicalreaction
dating withoutitselfundergoingachemicalchange
70. Itoccurswhentheearthisbetweenthesunandthe a. catalyst c.Electrolytes
moon,withtheearthsshadowcastoverthemoon. b. Enhancer d.Ionizer
a. Totaleclipse c.Eclipse 87. Thetemperatureatwhichthevaporpressureof
b. Lunareclipse d.PartialEclipse theliquidisequaltothepressureofthe
71. Maleandfemalereproductivepartofaflower surroundingsatmosphere
a. Pollengrainsandovulesc.Pollengrainsand a. Meltingpoint c.BoilingPoint
pistil b. Criticalpoint d.Noneoftheabove
b. Stamenandpistild.Stamenandovules 88. thewarmingoftheearthssurfaceduetoan
72. Inthehumanbody,thecellthatmostnearly increaseinatmosphericcarbondioxide
resemblesaonecelledanimals a. Greenhouseeffect c.Atmospheric
a. RedBloodcell c.Nervecell pressure
b. WhiteBloodcell d.Antibodies b. Ozone d.ElNino
73. Themainenergysourceofaplanteatinganimals phenomena
a. Glucose b.Starchc.Cellulosed.Glycogen 89. Describetheforceofgravityonanobject
74. Thesearecellularsecretionswhichhelpregulate a. mass c.capacity
thebreakdownandbuildupofvarioussubstancein b. weight d.pressure
thebody 90. Whengaseousmoleculesarecompressed,they
a. Enzymes c.Plasma tendto?
b. AminoAcids d.Hormones a. increaseinvolumec.repeleachother
75. Itistheenergysourceofthecellwhichitusesfor b. decreaseinvolumed.attractandliquefy
growing,reproducingandotheractivities 91. Itistheunionoftwolightnucleustoformaheavier
a. AdenosineTriphosphate c. nucleus,resultinginamassdefectandreleaseof
Chloroplast energy
b. AminoAcids d.Sunlight a. Radiation c.NuclearFusion
b. NuclearFission d.Radioactivity

St. Louis Review Center-Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 110


92. Whichofthefollowingstatementsisa
characteristicofanelectronicspectrum?
a. Theyalltravelatthesamespeedinfirespace
b. Theexhibitdiffractionandinterference
phenomena
c. Theyfollowthelawsofrefractionandreflection scienceandhealth
d. Alloftheabove 1 a 51 b
93. ThetermRADARisderivedfromthephrase? 2 c 52 d
a. RadiationDetectionandRanging 3 d 53 a
b. RadiationDiffusionandRanging
4 b 54 c
c. RadioDiffractionandResolution
5 a 55 d
d. RadiationDiffractionandResolution
94. Amaterialwhoseabilitytoconductelectricitylies 6 d 56 c
betweenthoseofconductorsandinsulators 7 a 57 d
a. IntegratedCircuits c.Semiconductors 8 b 58 b
b. SiliconChips d.Insulators 9 c 59 c
95. LASERisderivedfromthephrase? 10 d 60 a
a. LightAmplificationbyStimulatedEmissionof 11 b 61 b
Radiation 12 b 62 c
b. LightApplicationbySimulatedEmissionof 13 a 63 d
Radiation 14 b 64 b
c. LightAmplificationbySimulatedEjectionof 15 b 65 d
Radiation
16 c 66 c
d. Noneoftheabove
17 b 67 b
96. Whatisthecolorofatransparentsubstance?
a. Thecolorofthelightitabsorbs 18 a 68 c
b. Thecoloroflightitreflects 19 c 69 c
c. Thecoloroflightittransmit 20 b 70 b
d. Thecoloroflightitrefracts 21 b 71 b
97. Whatisarotatingelectromagneticcalled? 22 b 72 b
a. Motor b.Rotorc.Phasord.Sensor 23 d 73 c
98. Whathappenswiththecentripetalforcewhensped 24 d 74 d
isdoubled? 25 c 75 a
a. remainsthesamec.triples 26 c 76 b
b. forceisincrease4x d.forceisdoubled 27 b 77 d
99. Whatisanelectrochemicalcellinwhichthe
28 c 78 a
reactingmaterialscanberenewedbytheuseo
29 b 79 b
reversecurrent
a. Storagecell c.Fuelcell 30 c 80 d
b. Primarycells d.Chemicalcell 31 b 81 b
100. Whatwillmakeanobjectmoveinacircular 32 a 82 a
path? 33 b 83 b
a. Centralforce c.Frictionalforce 34 c 84 c
b. Gravitational d.Electromagnetic 35 d 85 b
force 36 d 86 a
37 b 87 c
* * * * * T H E E N D * * * * * 38 b 88 a

39 b 89 b
WORKHARD,DREAMHARDER
40 c 90 a

41 b 91 c

42 b 92 d
43 c 93 a
44 a 94 c
45 c 95 a
46 d 96 c
47 b 97 b
48 b 98 d
49 b 99 a
50 c 100 a












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