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CONTENTS:
Chapter

PIPING: Uses, and Plant Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. I


PIPE, FITTINGS, FLANGES, REINFORCEMENTS: In-line Equipment and Support Equipment . . . . . .2
VALVES, PUMPS, COMPRESSORS, and Types of Process Equipment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
ORGANIZATION OF WORK: Job Responsibilities, Drawingoffice Equipment and Procedures. . . . . . . .4
DRAFTING: PROCESS AND PIPING DRAWINGS including Drawing Symbols,
Showing Dimensions, Showing Instrumentation, and Bills of Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..5
DESIGN 0 F PIPING SYSTEMS: lncluding Arrangement, Supporting, Insulation,
Heating, Venting and Draining of Piping, Vessels and Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..6
STANDARDS AND CODES: for Piping Systems, Pipe, Pipe Supports, Flanges,
Gaskets, Fittings, Valves, Traps, Pumps, Vessels,
Heat Exchangers, Symbols and Screwthreads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
ABBREVIATIONS: for Piping Drawings and Industrial Chemicals. ............................. .8
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The deslynlng and b u ~ l d ~ nofg an industrial plant is a complex undertaking.
Except for the larger ~ndustrialconcerns, who may maintain their own design
staffs, the design and construction of plants and related facilities is usually
undertaken by spec~al~st companies.

The Guide describes in 4.1 the organization and responsibilities of design


engineering, with sl~ecialreference to the duties of individuals engaged in the
development of piping designs for plants.
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WELDED & SCREWED JOINTS 2.2.1
Ill(! Al~icr~cart
Ni~tlor~al Standards Instltutc? I r a ~~nlrotli~r;r?tl
scvc!~alschr!d~ll(?s
for plpo rnildc front various plsstlcs. 1hc;sct ANSl stnritlartls iirtd otlicrs for Lirtcs NPS 2 artd largrlr arc i~su;~llytlii t t.wcl(lcti, this l~oirto tllc most
plastic olpe are Iistcri 111 table 7.5. ccor~orriic It?;~kproofway of joi~tiiiq largi!r-d~ai~lc?trtr ~ ) i l l i r ~ g\JsilalIy
. stich
lirtc?s arc stll~c;oritraclcil lo a pipiri!] f i r 1 1 1 lc;il or for IIII!I;II)Iicirtioii iri sctctiorts
GLASS All-gI;tss pipirl!j is cisrxl for its cltc?rrlic:;il rr?slstnrjr:r!, cIr:ar~lirir?ssarttf tcrrrictf 's~~ools',tljc?o tri~r~sytortr?tJ to Ilit! sit(!. 1irir:s NI'S and sir~;lIlcr
trarisltitrcncy. C,l;~sspipe is not s\lt)jcct to 'cr;17irlq' oftcri foilrid in glass-liric!tl are i ~ s i ~ a l leither
y screwed or sockt?t-weltletl,arid arc? riormally ficld.rur~by
pip(! artd vcsscls subject to rttpeatcd ttit?rrrtal stresses. Pipe, fittings, arid tiard- t t ~ epiping coritractor fror~irfraw~nqs.1 ic!ld-ruri 2nd sliop fat,r~cati!d [~i[tirig
wiire are availatllc both for process pipiric~and for drainage. Corning Glass are discclssed in 5.2.9.
Works offers a Pyrex 'Conical' system for process lines in 1, I % , 2, 3, 4
; ~ r l t l 6-inch sires (ID) wltti 450 F as the rn;tximuc~l operating temperature,
SOCKET-WELDED JOINTS 2.2.2
and pressure rariycs 0-65 PSIA ( 1 in. ~ I I : I 3I in.), 0-50 PSlA (4 in.) arid
0-35 PSlA (6in.). Glass cocks, strairlers and therrnowells are available. Pipe Like screwed plplng, socket wrltflriq IS uscrl for llries of sriiallc!r slros, but
fittings and eq~.lipnlent are joined by flange assemblies which hear on the has ttie advantage that absericc of Icak~riq17 assured t h ~ sIS a valr~ablefactor
thickened coriical ends of pipe ler~gthsand fittings. Corning also offers a wlien flammable, toxic, or radloactlve fl~rldsare brlng conveyed-ttic use of
Pyrex Acid-Waste Drainline systern in I % , 2, 3, 4 and 6-inch sizes (ID) with socket-welded joints is not restr~ctedto such flu~tfs,Itowever.
bcaded ends joined by Teflon-gasketed nylon compressiorl couplings. Both
Corning systems are made from the same borosilicate glass. BOLTED-FLANGE JOINTS 2.2.3

Flanges are expensive and for the most part are used to mate with flanged
LININGS & COATINGS Lining or coating carbon-steel pipe with a material vcssels, equipment, valves, and for process lines wliiclt niay require periodic
able to witttstand chemical attack permits its use to carry corrosive fluids. cleaning.
Lengths of lined pipeand fittings arc joined by flanges, and elbows, tees, etc.,
are available already flanged. Linings (rubber, for example) can be applied Flanged joints are made by bolting together two flanges wi tti a gasket between
after fabricating the piping, but plpe is often pre-lined, and manufacturers thern to provide a seal. Refer to 2.6 for standard forged-steel flanges and
give instructions for making joints. Linings of various rubbers, plastics, metals gaskets.
and vitreous (glassy) materials are available. Polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene
and copolyrrlers are the most common coating materials. Carbon-steel pipe FITTINGS 2.2.4
zinc-coated by immersion into molter) zinc (hot-dip galvanized) is used for
conveying drinking water, iristrurnent air and various other fluids. Rubber Fitt~ngspermit a change In direct~onof piping, a change In tllarnetcr of plpe,
lin~ngis oftcri rlscd to liandle abrasive fluids. nr a ttraricti to be rnadc frorri tlie r i i ; ~ ~ rrill1
i of [ I I ~ P Tlicy arc forrnod from
plate o r p~po,mach~riedfrorrt torged blanks, cast, or moldccl frc~niplast~cs
TEMPERATURE & PRESSURE LIMITS 2.1.5
Chart 2.1 shows the ratings of butt-welding fittings usc?dw ~ t l tpipe of VI rlous '

Carbon steels lose strength at high temperatures. Electric-resistance-welded schedule numbers and manufacturers' wr?iglits. For dimcrisioris of butt-
pipe is not considered satisfactory for service above 750 F, and furnace-butt- welding fittings and flanges, see tables D-1 thru D-6, and tables F-1 thru
welded pipe above about 650 F. For higher temperatures, pipe made from F-7. Drafting symbols are given in charts 5.3 t h r i ~5.5.
stainless steels or other allovs should be considered.
Threaded fittings have Pressure Class designations of. 2000, 3000 and 6000.
PI css~~reratings for s tee1 pipe at different temperatures are calculated Socket-welrfiny fittirigs have Presst~reClass designations of: 3000, 6000 aitd
ai:cnrtfing to the ANSl 631 Code for Pressure Piping (detailed i n 9000. How these Presstirc Class tic!sigrtatior.is relate tcj schedule rll~nlbersand
table 7.2). ANSl 831 gives s tressltcmperature values f o r t h e various manttfacturers' weights for pipe is shown in table 2.2.
steels from which pipe is fabricated.
C O R R E L A T I O N O F CLASS O F T H R E A D E D T A B L E 2.2
& SOCKET-WELDING F I T T I N G S
M E T H O D S F O R JOINING PIPE 2.2 W I T H SCHEDULES/WEIGHTS O F PlPE

The joints used for most carbon-steel and stainless-steel pipe are:
BUTT-WELDED a . . . . . . . . . . . . SEE 2.3 PlPE D E S I G N A T I O N SCHIM F R ' S
SOCKET-WELDED SEE 2.4
Pressure Class
m . . . . . . . . . . . .

2000 3000 6000 9000


SCREWED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEE 2.5
TABLES
Threaded fittings 80lXS 160 XXS
B O L T E D FLANGE . . . . . . . . SEE 2.3.1, 2.4.1 & 2.5.1 .,- - .-
- .
2.1 & 2.2
Socketed fittings 80lXS 1 60 X XS
B O L T E D QUICK COUPLINGS . . . . . . . . .SEE 2.8.2
Sectioils 2.1.3 thru 2.2.4 have shown that there is a wide variety of
differently-rated pipe, fittings and materials f r o m w h i c h t o make a choice.
Charts 2.1 t h r u 2.3 show h o w various weights of pipe, fittings and valves
can be c o r n b ~ n e dIn a pipirlg system.

COMPONENTS FOR BUTT-WELDED


PIPING SYSTEMS
END PREPARATION OF PIPE, & METHOD OF
WHERE USED: f o r inost process, u t i l i t y and service piping JOINING T O BEVEL ENDED PIPE, FITTIN(,
F L A N G E V A L V E OR EOUIPMENT
ADVANTAGE OF JOINT: Most practicable w a y of joining larger pipes and
fittings w h i c h offers reliable, leakproof joints
DISADVANTAGE
OF JOINT: Intruding w e l d metal m a y affect f l o w
HOW JOINT IS MADE: The end of the pipe is beveled as shown i n
chart 2.1. Fittings are similarly beveled b y
the manufacturer. T h e t w o parts are aligned, WEIGHT OF PIPE & FITTINGS N C R M A L L Y
USED CHOICE OF OTHER M A T t R l A L S OR
properly gapped, tack welded, and then a cont- I i E A V I t R WEIGHT PlPE & FITTINGS WILL
DEPEND ON PRESSURE TFMPERATURE &/OR
inuous weld is made t o conlplete the joint THE CORROSION ALLOWANCE R E O U l R t D
NPS 2 A N D LARGER PIPE IS USUALLY OR
D E R L D TO ASTM A 53 Grdde 8 SEE 2 1 4
Chart 2.1 shows the ratings o f pipe, fittings and valves that are c o m m o n l y U N D E R STEELS

combined or m a y b e used together. I t is a guide only, and n o t a substitute


f o r a project specification.

FITTINGS, BENDS, MITERS & FLANGES


FOR BUTT-WELDED SYSTEMS LARGER VALVES ACCORDING T O SYSTEM PRESSURE

Refer t o tables 0 , F and W-1 for dimensions a n d weights of fittings and


flanges.

ELBOWS or 'ELLS' make 90- or 45-degree changes I n direction of the r u n


of plpe T h e elbows n o r n ~ a l l yused are 'long r a d ~ u s '(LR) with centerilne
radlus of curvdture equal t o 1Y2 tlmes the nonilnal pipe size for NPS 314 and 'See 5 3 5 under 'D~mensrontng SI)OOIS'
t A 'backlng rlng' sornetlrnes terrned a ' c h ~ l lrlng' -may be l n s e r t ~ dbetween any b u t t w e l d ~ n gl o i n (
1drger S I L ~ S'Short
. 1 3 d l l l ~ '(Sfq) C ~ ~ O W~ Sl t ~h e l l t ~ r l irlald~~ u sof C U ~ V ~ ~ U ~ C prlor t o weldlng Prevent~nqweld spatter and spikes ( ~ c ~ c l c so' )f w e l d nietal lrorn l o r n l ~ n qIIISI~IP
rlie pipe dirr~rrywcLltJ~rig,1t1e rlrlcj dlso wrvtls as dn d l ~ q r ~ ~ n e' InIt ~N o r m a l l y u l e d for severe XNILI?,
equdl t o the 11011lll)d~ P I ~ CSIIC clre also ava~lablc.90-dec~reeL R ~ ~ I O Wwith S b u t stloold be coris~dt~red lor orocess Ilulds such as tlbrous s u s ~ ~ e n s ~ o rwtiurc
is weld 1c1cle5COUI~I
result I n t n a t e r l ~ lcollect~riydt lolnts arid choklrlg 11nes See 2 1 1
a stroiyht e x t e r ~ s ~ oatn one e:id ('long tdngec~t') dre st111 dvtl~lilbleI n ST0
weight, i f required.

REDUCING ELBOW rilakes a 90-dt?grt?echarigc iri d ~ r e c t l o nw l t h change i n BACKING RING FIGURE 2.1
Irnu slzt? R e d u c ~ n gelbows have centerline radius of curvature 1% tlmes the
F L A T TYPE
n u r r i ~ n a sire
l of the p ~ p et o be attached t o the larger end.
R E T U R N changes direction of f l o w t h r u 180 degrees, and is used t o
cor~struct heating coils, vents o n tanks, etc.
BENDS are rndde frorri stral!]t~t pipe Coirirrlon b e r t d ~ n gr3d11are 3 dntl 5
tlrnes the pipe sire (3R and !,I I)ertds, wilere R = nornlilai ptpu sire--
n o r r l ~ n d ldldr~leter, not rad~us).3R bends are avarlablu frorn stock L a g e r
rddlus bends can be custorn rnade, preferably b y h o t bcridlng Orlly s e ~ ~ i ~ l c s s
or electr~c-res~stdnce weltfed plpe IS suitable f o r bcrldrng
ELBOWS 81 RETUHNS FIGURE 2.2 SWAGE is c!rliployc?d 10 corjrlcct I)~rtt-wc?l(ir?d
pipirig to sniilllt!r scrtlwcd nr
sc~ckct-wc!l(lc?d~ ~ i p i l i qIrl. hrltt-wc?ld(:ci li~ios, rlscd ;IS i11i itIt~!rrlntivc! to tlie
30" L O N G - R A D I U S reducer wlic?rj grr?atc?r red~lctiorlsi n lirle sirt? arc? rc:cluirr:d. flc!lular swi~gc:s
ELCIOW i n corice~itric or ecceri tric for 111 givc i ~ t t r u jtt clli~~l!l(? of line sizc, as do
reducers. Ttlr? 'ventnri' swage allows srrioottler flow. flefcr 1 0 tattle 2.3 for
specifying swages f o r joirling t o socket-welding itcr~is,and t o table 2.4 for
spr?cifyingswages for joining t o screwed piping. For oftset, see 'ffedticer'.

SWAGES, or SWAGED NIPPLES FIGURE 2.4

CONCENTRIC

4s0 ELBOW LONG-RADIUS


(LR) RETURN

ECCENTRIC V E N T U R I TYPE

3 x NPS
-,
REDUCING
ELBOW
SHORT-RADIUS MITERED ELBOWS are fabricated as required frorn pipe-they are n o t
RETURN
fittings. The use o f miters t o make changes i n direction is practically
restricted t o low-pressure lines 10-inch and larger if the pressure drop is
unimportant; f o r these uses regular elbows w o u l d be costlier. A 2-piece,
90-degree miter has four t o six times the hydraulic resistance of the corres-
ponding regular long-radius elbow, and should be used w i t h caution. A 3-piece
90-degree miter has about double the resistance to f l o w of t h e regular l o n g
radius elbow-refer t o table F-10. Constructions for 3-, 4-, and 5-piece miters
are shown i n tables M-2.
! I
(Of larger p i p e )
FIGUREZ
i
-- - -- - --- -- - 3-PIECE & 2-PIECE M I T E S - FIGURE 2.5
2.1 -2.5
REDUCER (or I N C R E A S E R ) joirls a larger pipe t o a smaller one. T h e t w o 3-PIECE MITER 2 PIECE M I T E R - - -
available types, concentric a n d eccentric, are shown. T h e eccentric reducer
is used when i t is necessary t o keep either the top or the b o t t o m of the line
level-offset equals Y2 x (larger I D minus smaller I D ) .
REDUCERS FIGURE 2.3

CONCENTRIC ECCENTRIC

I
I
I
1 1112 T I M E S N P S 1 5 t i E ?-PIECE M I T E R H A 5 H I G t i
+-.- --- -- - -i FLOW RESISTANCE (See TABLE F-10)
(71
The following five flange types are used for butt-welded lines. The different R E D U C I N G FLANGE Suitable for changing line size, but should not be
flaiige fac~ngsavailable are discussed in 2.6. used i f abrupt transition would create undesirable turbulence, as at pump
connections. Available to order in welding-neck arid eccentric types, and
usually from stock in slip-on type. Spec~fyby nominal pipe sizes, stating
WELDING-NECK FLANGE, R E G U L A R 81 L O N G Regular welding-neck the size of the larger pipe first. Example: a slip-on reducing flange to connect
flanges are used with butt-welding fittings. Long welding-neck flanges a NPS 4 pipe to a Class 150 NPS 6 line-size flange is specified.
arc primarily used for vessel and equipment nozzles, rarely for pipe. Suitable RED FLG NPS 6 x 4 Class 150 SO
wttcrt' extreriic terripcrature, stiear, impact and vibratory stresses apply. Regu-
For a welding-neck reducing flange, correct bore is obtained by giving the
lar~tyof the t ~ o r c IS r ~ ~ a ~ i i t a ~ Refer
n c d . to tables F for bore d~ametersof pipe schedule number or manufacturers' weight of the pipe to be welded
these 1lariyes. on.

WELDING-NECK FLANGE FIGURE 2.6


R E D U C I N G SLIP-ON FLANGE
F I G U R E 2.8

SLIP-ON F L A N G E is properly used to flange pipe. Slip-on flanges can be


used with long-tangent elbows, reducers, and swages(not usual practice).
The internal weld is slightly more subject to corrosion than the butt weld.
The flange has poor resistance toshock and vibration. I t introduces irregularity E X P A N D E R FLANGE Application as tor welding-neck tlange-see above.
in the bore. I t is cheaper to buy than the welding-neck flange, but is costlier Increases pipe size to first or second larger size. Alternative to using reducer
to assemble. I t is easier to align than the welding-neck flange. Calculated and welding-neck flange. Useful for connecting to valves, compressors and
strengths under internal pressure are about one third that of the corresponding pumps. Pressure ratings and dimensions are in accord with ANSI 816.5.
welding-neck flanyes. The pipe or fitting is set back from the face of the
flange a distance equal to the wall thickness -0" + 1/16".
E X P A N D E R (or INCREASER) FLANGE F I G U R E 2.9

SLIP-ON FLANGE FIGURE 2.7


- -----
LAPJOINT, or 'VAN STONE', FLANGE Economical if costly pipe such SPECIFYING SIZE OF BUTT-WELDING REDUCING TEES
as stainless steel is used, as the flange can be of carbon steel arid only the lap-
joint stub end need be of the line material. A stub end must be used in a lap
jo~nt,and the cost of the two items must be considered. If !lot11 stub arid
flange are of the same material they w ~ l be l more expensive than a wcld~ny-
neck flange. Useful where alignrnent of bolt holes is difficult, as with spools
to be attached to flanged nozzles of vessels. BUTT-WELDING TEES FIGURE 2.12

LAP-JOINT FLANGE (with Stub-end) FIGURE 2.10

A. /---- STUB E N D

STRAIGHT BUTT-WELDING TEE REDUCING BUTT-WELDING TEE

BUTT-WELDING FITTINGS FOR BRANCHING


FROM BUTT-WELDED SYSTEMS

The next four branching fittings are made by Bonney Forge,


STUB-IN Term for a branch pipe weltled directly into the side of the rnain These fittings offer an alternate means of connecting into the niain run, and
pipe run--it is not a fitting. This is the corrlrnoncst and least experlsive rnelhod do not require reinforcement. They are preshaped to the curvature of the run
of welding a full-size or reducing branch for pipe 2-inch and larger. A stub-in pipe.
can be reinforced by means set out in 2.1 1.

STUB-I N FIGURE 2.11 WELDOLET makes a 90-degree branch, fu II - s i x or reducing, on straight


pipe. Closer manifolding is possible than witti tees. Flat-basedweldolets are
available for connecting to pipe caps and vessel heads
FIGURES
WELDOLET FIGURE 2.13
i
2.6-2.1 3
- .

BUTT-WELDING TEES, STRAIGHT or REDUCING, are employed to make


90-degree branches from the main run of pipe. Straight tees, with branch
the same size as the run, are readily available. Reducing tees have branch
smaller than the run. Bullhead tees have branch larger than the run, and are
very seldom used but can be made to special order. None of these tees
requires reinforcement. Reducing tees are ordered as follows:-
BUTT-WELDING ELBOLET makes a reducing tangent branch on long-radius BUTT-WELDING CROSS F I G U R E 2.17
and short-radius elbows.

ELBOLET BUTT-WELDING LATROLET


F I G U R E 2.14 F I G U R E 2.15

LATERAL, STRAIGHT or REDUCING, permits odd-angled entry into the


pipe run where low resistance to flow is important. Straight laterals with
BuTT-WELDING LATROLET makes a 45-degreereducing branch on straight branch bore equal to run bore are available in STD and XS weights. Reductng
-.A,. laterals and laterals at angles other than 45 degrees are usually available only
IJ' IJe.
to special order. ~einforcementis required where i t is necessary to restore
the strength of the joint to the full strength of the pipe. Reducing laterals
SWEEPOLET makes a 9O-degree reducing branch from the main run of pipe. are ordered similarly to butt-welding tees, except that the angle between
Primarily developed for high-yield pipe used in oil and gas transmission lines. branch and run is also stated.
Provides good flow pattern, and optimum stress distribution.
LATERAL F I G U R E 2.18

SWEEPOLET F I G U R E 2.16

SHAPED NIPPLE Now rarely used, but can be obtained from stock in 90-
and 45-degree angles, and in any size and angle, including offset, to special
order. The run is field-cut, using the nipple as template. Needs reiriforcenient
if i t is necessary to bring the strength of the joint up to the full strength
of the pipe.

SHAPED NIPPLE FIGURE 2.19

The next three fittings are usually used for special designs:

CROSS, STRAIGHT or REDUCING Straight crosses are ilsually stock items.


Fluduci~lgcrosscs may no! be read~lyava~laljle.For economy, d v c ~ ~ l c l l )i111d
~/ity
to mlrllrrilze the number of ~temsIn Iriventory, ~t IS preferred to use tees, t!tc.,
and not crosses, except where space is restricted, as In marlrle piplng or 're
varnp' work. Rcinforccrnent IS not needed.
1101
CDO PJ
gq z z sq g
R

0G.;g N s
3
-. g o ! 2 ?-.
v, <
3
a,%kg (D

-+
.-.
c. 5c . rsa T-z
, z
m
% -.g z = z
CLg p 2 -.
za' -'
0
FITTINGS & FLANGES FOR 2.4.1 UNION is used primarily for maintenance and installation purposes. This is a
SOCKET-WELDED SYSTEMS
screwed joint designed for use with socket-welded piping systems. See ex-
planation in 2.5.1 of uses given under 'threaded union'. Union should be
Dimensions of fittings and flanges are given in tables 0-8 and F-1 thru F-6. screwed tight before the ends are welded, to minimize warping of the seat.

___1C)__
SOCKET-WELDING U N I O N F I G U R E 2.24
FULL-COUPLING (termed 'COUPLING) joins pipe to pipe, or to a nipple,
swage, etc.
FULL-COUPLING F I G U R E 2.21

SWAGED NIPPLES According to type, these allow joining: (1) Socket-


REDUCER joins two different diameters of pipe.
ended items of different sizes-this type of swaged nipple has both ends
plain (PEE) for insertion into socket ends. (2) A socket-ended item to a larger
REDUCER FIGURE 2.22
butt-welding pipe or fitting-this type of swaged nipple has the larger end bev-
eled (BLE) and the smaller end plain (PSE) for insertion into a socket-ended
item. A swaged nipple is also referred to as a 'swage' (pronounced 'swedge')
abbreviated on drawings as 'SWG' or 'SWG NIPP'. When ordering a swage,
state the weight designations of the pipes to be joined. For example, NPS 2
(SCH 40) x NPS 1 (SCH 80). Examples of the differer~tend terminations
that may be specified are as follows:-

SPECIFYING SIZE & E N D F I N I S H T A B L E 2.3


O F SOCKET-WELDING SWAGES
REDUCER INSERT A reducing fitting used for connecting a small pipe to a
larger fitting. Socket-ended reducer inserts can be made in any reduction by
boring standard forged blanks.

SOCKET-WELDING REDUCING INSERTS F I G U R E 2.23

SW = Socket weld~ng BW = B u t t welding


.'IIIIIKE I.'1.47'10NS:

SOCKET-ENDED
F l T T l N G , FLANGE,
OH EQUIPMENT
SWAGE (PBE) F I G U R E 2.25

TliRLC FORMS
Ot RCLlUCttl
INhLRT.

I$O l i H l t \ l L kL11>14 ( O M ~ A N Y I
ELBOWS rr~;lko $10 or 4'3.do!]rc!c ~l\illl!]~!~
of diroclion tho run o f oipc, SOCKET-WELDING TEE

SOCKET-WELDING ELBOWS F I G U R E 2.26

SOCKET--WELDING F L A N G E Regular type is available from stock. neduc- LATERAL makes full-size 45-degree branch from tilt? rriairi run of pipe.
i ~ i gtypo is available to order. For example, a reducing flange to connect
a NPS 1 pipe to a Class 150 NPS 1'/2 line-size flange is specified: SOCKET-WELDING L A T E R A L F I G U R E 2.29

SOCKET-WELDING F L A N G E F I G U R E 2.27

CROSS Remarks for butt-welding cross apply-see 2.3.2. Reducing crosses


are custom-fabricated by boring standard forged blanks.

SOCKET-WELDING CROSS F I G U R E 2.30

FITTINGS FOR B R A N C H I N G F R O M
'FIGURE
SOCKET-WELDED SYSTEMS
: 2.21 -2.3(
BRANCH F R O M SOCKET-WELDED R U N

TEE, STRAIGHT or REDUCING, makes 90-degree branch from the main


run of pipe. Reducrng tees are custom-fabricated by boring standard forged
blanks.
SPECIFYING SIZE O F SOCKET-WELDING TEES

REDUCING ON BRANCH

TABLE
2.3
F I T T I N G S FOR SOCKET-WELDED B R A N C H SOCKET-WELDING L A T R O L E T makes a 45-degree reducing branch on
F R O M VESSEL OR BUTT-WELDED M A I N R U N straight pipe.

HALF-COUPLING The full-coupling is not used for branching or for ves- SOCKET-WELDING L A T R O L E T F I G U R E 2.34
sel connections, as the half-coupling is the same length and is stronger. The
half-coi~plingperrnits SO-degree entry into a larger pipe or vessel wall. The
sockolet is more practicable as shaping is necessary with the coupling.
SOCKET-WELDING HALF-COUPLING F I G U R E 2.31

N l P O L E T A variant of the sockolet, having integral plain nipple. Primarily


developed for small valved connections-see figure 6.47.
The next four fittings are made by Bonney Forge and offer an alternate method
of erltering the main pipe run. They have the advantage that the beveled F I G U R E 2.35

welding ends are shaped to the curvature of the run pipe. Reinforcement
for the ltutt-welded piping or vessel is not required.

SOCKOLET makes a 90-degree branch, full-size or reducing, on straight pipe.


Flat-based sockolets are available for branch connections on pipe caps and
and vessel heads.
SOCKOLET FIGURE 2.32

STUB-IN See comments in 2.3.2. Not preferred for lines under 2-inch due to
risk of weld metal entering line and restricting flow.

CLOSURE 2.4.4

SOCKET-WELDING ELBOLET makes a reducing tangent branch on long- SOCKET-WELDING CAP seals plain-ended pipe
radius and short-radius elbows.
SOCKET-WELDING CAP F I G U R E 2.36
SOCKET-WELDING ELBOLET FIGURE 2.33
C O M P O N E N T S F O R SCREWED 2.5 SCREWED PIPING C H A R T 2.3
PIPING S Y S T E M S

Chart 2.3 sliows tlie ratings o f pipe, fittirlgs ; t r ~ t l v;~lv~!st11;1r i i r c ! cornrnorily


WHERE USED: For liries cor~vr!yir~g
sc?rvict?s,arld for srriailur process corr~birit:d, or rilay bc c~scd togc!tllc?c TI](?cll;~rt 1s a ! / ~ ~ i t !or~ly,
c o r ~ r j!lot ;I

piping substitute for a project specific:atior~.


ADVANTAGES: (1) Eas~lyrnade frorn plpe arrd flttrrlgs or1 slte
(2) Mlnirn17t:s fire halard when install~ngprplrlg in
areas where fla~nniable gases or lrqu~ds are
present

DISADVANTAGES: (1)" Use not permitted by ANSI 831.1-1989, if


severe erosion, crevice corrosion, shock, or
vtbration is anticipated, nor at temperatures I l i l f i f A l l f N l , A l . f MI N1
rr c,

over 925 F. (Also see footnote table F-9)


E N D PREPARATION OF PIPE, A N D
(2) Possible leakage of joint M E T H O D OF JOINING T O F I T T I N G .
FLANGE, V A L V E OR EQUIPMENT
(3) * Seal welding may be required-see footnote to
chart 2.3
(4) Strength of the pipe is reduced, as forming the
screwthread reduces the wall thickness

I
* T h e s e r e m a r k s a p p l y t o systems u s i n g f o r g e d - s t e e l f l t t l n g s . M A X I M O M L I N E SIZE N O R M A L L Y NPS 1 Z
TtIREADED

F I T T I N G S & F L A N G E S FOR
SCREWED SYSTEMS I A V A I L A B I L I T Y OF F O R G E D STEEL
THREADED FITTINGS I NI'S 118 t o NP!

Screwed piping is piping assembled from threaded pipe and fittings

Threaded malleable-iron and cast-iron fittingsare exterisivcly used for plumb-


F I T T I N G S WHICH
Irlq iri buildlrigs In industrial applications, Class 150 and 300 galvanized A R F COMPATIBLE
malleable-iron f~ttingsand similarly rated valves are used for dririkrng water
arid air lines. Dimensions of malleable-iron fittings are given in table 0-11.

Irt process piping, forged-steel fittings are preferred over cast-iron and
MOST COMMON C O M B I N A T I O N T t l F M I N I M U M C L A S S
rrralleable-iron fittings (although their pressureltemperatt~reratings may be FOR FITTINGS P R E F E R R k D I N MOST INSTANCFS FOli
stlitable), for their greater mechanical strengtll. To simplify material specifica- M E C H A N I C A L STI~C-NCJTH15 3000 CIIOICE 01 M A T F f i l A I
OR H E A V I E I I WFIGI-IT PIF'F & F I T T I N G W I I L I l r P F ND O N
tioils, drafting, checking, purchasing arid warehousing, the overall economics PRESSURE TEMPtRATIJflk AN[) /Of1 COI3I1O'~ION
are in favor of utilizing as few different types of threaded fittings as possible. ALLOWANCE R F O U I R E D PIPE NPS 1 ' ~A N 0 S M A L L I H I S
U S U A L L Y O R D E R E D TO ASTM 5 l ' t C I f I C A T I O N A lOb
Iiirncr~sior~s of forged-steel threaded fittings are given in table 0-9. Gradr B R t F L R TO 2 1 4 U N I I F R S l r F L S

FULL-COUPLING (termed 'COUPLING') joins pipe or items with threaded


erlds. CON7 R O L V A L V F S
U S I J A I IY 3(X) ( S E E J 1 101

FULL-COUPLING F I G U R E 2.37 (RATING)


CLASS V A L V E S OTI4Efi T I t A N
CONTROL VALVES

' A N S I 831 1 0 states that seal welding shall n o t b e consldered t o contribute t o the strength o f the
lolnt
SEAL WELDING APPLICATIONS

On p l o t . On all screwed connecttons w ~ t h battery


~n I ~ m ~w
t si t h the exceptlor1 o f lllpfng carrytng alr or
other inert gas, and water
O f f p l o t : On screwed lines f o r h y d r o c a r b o n service and f o r lines conveyiflg ddnqerous, roxtc, corrosive
or valuable flulds
REDUCING COUPLING, or REDUCER, joins threaded pipes of different U N I O N makes a joint which permits easy installation, removal or replacement
slres Can br? rrl~tlcIn any reduction by boring and tapping standard forged of lengths of pipe, valves or vessels in screwed piping systems. Examples.
blanks to remove a valve it must have at least one adjacent union, and to rcrnovc
piping from a vessel with threaded connections, each outlet frorri tile vessel
REDUCING COUPLING F I G U R E 2.38 should have one union between valve and vessel. Ground-faced joints are
preferred, although other facings are available.

THREADED UNION F I G U R E 2.40

NIPPLES join unions, valves, strainers, fittings, etc. Basically a short length
of pipe either fully threaded (close nipple) or threaded both ends (TEE), or
plain one end and threaded one end (POE-TOE). Available in various lengths
-refer to table D-1 1. Nipples can be obtained with a Victaulic groove at orie
end.

NIPPLES FOR THREADED ITEMS FIGURE 2.39


PIPE-TO-TUBE CONNECTOR For joining threaded pipe to tube. Figure 2.41
(a) CLOSE N I P P L E (b) L O N G or S H O R T (c) N I P P L E (POE-TOE) shows a conriector fitted to specially-flared tube. Other types are available.
N I P P L E (TEE)

PIPE-TO-TUBE CONNECTOR F I G U R E 2.41

(d) T A N K NIPPLE
Wall of
Gasket vossei
,Locknut

NPT ' (-"


*.\,

H E X A G O N BUSHING A reducing fitting used for conriectiny a srnalIi!r pipc


into a larger threaded fitting or riozzle. Has many applications to instrurncnt
connections. Reducing fittings can be rnade in any reduction by bc~rir~rl ;~rirj
tapping standard forged blanks. Normally not used for high-pressure servlcc.

H E X A G O N BUSHING F I G U R E 2.42

T A N K NIPPLE IS usc!(f for lr~aklciga scrr?wc?tfc(~nllO(;tlo~l to a no11~)rr!ssuli!


vc!ssr!l or torik III low prossure service. Overall It!nqt11 IS usu,~lly l j ~ricllc!swltlr
a star,d,lrd p111o~ l l r c ! ~at~ deach t!nd On ont! t!rlcl only, (tic tdper p ~ ~ c
tt~rcl,~cir t i ~ l s1r1to,I ANSI lock r l t l t thread
A

.- 2.
% g
C D '
LATERAL makes full-sire 45-degree branch from the main run of pipe. The next four fittings for branching are made by Bonny Forge. These fittings
offer a means of joining screwed piping to a welded run, and for making
THREADED LATERAL FIGURE 2.47 instrument connections. The advantages are that the welding end does not
require reinforcement and that the erids are shaped to the curvature of the
run pipe.

THREDOLET makes a 90-degree branch, full or reducing, on stra~ghtplpe.


Flat-based thredolets are available for branch connections on p ~ p ccaps and
vcssel heads.

THREDOLET F I G U R E 2.50

CROSS Remarks for butt-welding cross apply - see 2.3.2. Reducing crosses
are made by boring and tapping standard forged blanks.

T H R E A D E D CROSS FIGURE 2.48

THREADED ELBOLET makes reducing tangent branch on long-radius and


short radius elbows.

THREADED ELBOLET F I G U R E 2.51

FITTINGS FOR SCREWED BRANCH


FROM VESSEL OR BUTT-WELDED MAIN RUN

HALF-COUPLING can he used to make 90-degree threaded connectiorls to


p~pesfor ~ristrurnents,or for vessel nozzles. Weld~ngheat rnay cause ern-
brlttler~ientof the ttiredds of this short fitting. Requires shap~ng

T H R E A D E D H A L F C O U P L I N G 81 F U L L C O U P L I N G FIGURE 2.49
THREADED LATROLET makes a 45-degree reducing branch on astraight pipe.

T H R E A D E D LATROLET F I G U R E 2.52
A,

FULL-COUPLING Superior to half-coupling. Also requires shaping for corl-


necting to pipe.
TANK NIPPLE See 2.5.1, figure 2.39(d)
Tt1READED N I P O L E T /\ vnriilrit of tlit? tllreclolct w i t h lntcqr;~l tlirc?;ldcd PlPE T H R E A D S
r i ~ ~ p l rP! r ~ r r i a r ~ l tlc?vcloped

THREADED NIPOLET
y l o r slnall vnlvc!d coclnoct~ons-st!c f ~ r l tr ir fi 47.

F I G U R E 2.53
2e55
Startrlarti A N S I I A S M t " H 1 20.1 cic!fi~~c!r;qc!lic!ral p[lrposc? i~ipc!tlirc?;~tis ~i~y)orc!ti
artti str;ti!$lt tlirr?;ttls for j~il)c!(itrltl filtirt!ls, tttc ) , f or tlict siii~c!rioiiiir~nlplltr!
12: I : :
silt, 1\11! 11~1itl)crof tllrearis pr?r iiir:li IS ttio sailtc! for stri~icjl~t;11i(1 t,~i)r!ictl
tlircittls. Most pill(! joirtts art? riiadc ~lsiri!ithe taporttd tlirr!;id forlri.

Tapered arid stralqlit tlircads w i l l rnatr Taprrltoprr arid t d p ~ ~ / s t r o ~ t(1)otIi


lI~t
types) l o ~ r i t sare srlf seal~ngw i t h the' ~ i s e(II pipe d o l ) ~( a cornpoc~ritlsprtlnd
on the tlircad$ which lubricates arid scnls tIi(! l o ~ n ot n assrr~ibly),or p l a s t ~ c
tape (Teflori) 1ape 1s wrapped arouritj ttic! t?x!errtnl ttireitd t)c?forr!thc: joirit IS
asserrthled A stralght/stralght scrcwcd l o ~ r i !rcclrrlres lockriuts a n d gaskets t o
ensure sealing - see fiq 2 39 ( d l .

Standard A N S l 01.20.3 defines 'dryseal' threads. Dryseal threads seal against


line pressure w i t h o u t the use of pipe dope or tape. 1tle seal is obtained b y
using a m o d i f i e d thread f o r m of sharp crest and flat root. This callses inter-
ference (metal-to-metal contact) between the engaged threads, a n d prevents
leakage through the spiral cavity o f matin!] threads.

STUB-IN See comments i n 2.3.2. N o t preferred for branching f r o m pipe Symbols used for specifying threads:
smaller than NPS 2 as weld metal m a y restrict flow. N = American National Standard Thread Form, P = Pipe, T = Taper,
C = Coupling, F = Fuel & Oil, kI = Hose coupling, I = Intermediate,
L = Locknut, M = Mechancal, R = Railing fittings, S = Straight
CLOSURES 2.5.4
ANSl 81.20.1: PlPE THREADS, G E N E R A L PURPOSE
CAP seals the threaded end of pipe.
Taper Pipe Thread NPT
THREADED CAP FIGURE 2.54
- Rigid mechanical j o i n t f o r Railings N PT R
Straight Pipe Thread:
- Internal, i n Pipe Couplings N PSC
- Free-fitting, Mechanical Joints f o r Fixtures NPSM
- Loose-fitting, Mechanical Joints w i t h Locknuts NPSL
- Loose-fitting, Mechanical Joints f o r Hose Couplings NPSH

A N S l B1.20.3: DRYSEAL PlPE T H R E A D S

BARSTOCK P L U G seals the threaded end o f a fitting. Also termed 'round- FIGURE:
Taper Pipe Thread:
iiead plug: - Dryseal Standard NPTF 2.47-2.55
- Dryseal SAE Short ( N P T F type, shortened b y one thread) PTF-SAE S t i O R T
BARSTOCK PLUG ( I N TEE) FIGURE 2.55
Straight Pipe Thread (internal only)
- Dryseal, Fuel (for use iri soft/ductile materials) N PS F
- Dryseal, Intermediate (for use i n tlardlbrittle materials) NPSl

(NPTF is the o n l y t y p e that erisurcs sealing against line pressure. I f there


is n o o b ~ e c t i o nt o its use, pipe dope m a y be used w i t h all threads t o irrlprove
sealing, and lessen galling of the threads.)

Specify pipe threads by : NPS - Threads per inch - Thread type


Example: 3-8NPT
FLANGE FACINGS, BOLTS & GASKETS 2.6 RING-JOINT FACING is a more expensive facing, and considered the most
efficient for high-temperatureand high-pressure service. Both flanges o f a pair
are alike. The ring-joint facing is not prone to damage in handling as tlie sur-
2.6.1 faces in contact with the gasket are recessed. Use of facings of this type rriay
FLANGE FACINGS & FINISHES
increase as hollow r~ietalO-rings gain acceptance for process chemical seals.

Maiiy fac~riys for Ilarrgcs are offered by flange manufacturers, including LAPJOINT FLANGE is shaped to accommodate the stub end. The cornbin-
vdrlous ' t o r ~ g i ~and
e grouve' types wtirctt must be used In pairs. However, ation of flange and stub end presents similar geometry to the raised-face
oitly four typos of f d c ~ ~ are
i g w ~ d e l yused, and these are shown in frgure flange and can be used where severe bending stresses will rtot occur. Advant-
2 SG ages of this flange are stated In 2.3.1.

Tht? raised face is used for about 80% of all flanges. The ring-joint facing,
c:r~lployedwith either an oval-section or octagon-section gasket, is used mainly The term 'finish' refers to the type of surface produced by machining the
in the petrochccnical industry. flange face whictl corltacts the gasket. Two principal types of finish are pro-
duced, the 'serrated' and 'smooth'.
THE MOST-USED FLANGE FACINGS FIGURE 2.56

FLAT-FACE
Forged-steel flanges with raised-face are usually machined to give a 'serrated-
RAISED-FACE
concentric' groove, or a 'serrated-spiral' groove finish t o the raised-face of the
A
flange. The serrated-spiral finish is the more common and may be termed the
'stock' or 'starrdard finish' available from suppliers.

The pitch of the groove and the surface finish vary depending on the size and
class of the flange. For raised-face steel flanges, the pitch varies frorri 24 to 40
per inch. It is rnade using a cutting tool having a minimum radius at the tip of
0.06-inch. Ttre rnaxirriurn roughness of surface finish is 125-500 rnicroinches.
L A P JOINT
R I N G JOINT
'Smooth' finish is usually specially-ordered, and is available in two qualities.
r'(31 (1) A fine machiried finish leaving no definite tool marks. (2) A 'mirror-finish',
primarily intended for use without gaskets.

BOLT HOLES IN FLANGES 2.6.2

Bolt holes in flanges are equally spaced. Specifying the number of holes, dia-
meter of the bolt circle and hole size sets the bolting configuration. Nilrnber
of bolt holes per flange is given in tables F.
Flanges are pos~t~oned so that bolts straddle vertical and horizontal center
Tlie RAISED FACE IS 1/16 ~ n c l lhiqh for Classes 150 and 300 flanges, and
l~rles Ttr~sIS the norrnal position of bolt holes on all flanged Iturns
114 ~rictit~i!ltr for all otticr cldsses Class 250 cast-iron flanges and flarigctl
fltt111y5also t)dvu the 1116-IIICII ra~sedface.
BOLTS FOR FLANGES 2.6.3

Suppliers' catalogs give 'length t l t r i ~/tub' ditnensions which include the Two typos of bolting are ava~lable the studbolt uslng two nuts, aruJ lhc
0.06-inch raised face on flanges in Classes 150 and 300, but exclude the macltrne bolt tlsrnq one nut. Both bolt~ngsare illustrateti in f~qtlre7 5 7
0.25-ihch raised face o/t flanges 11' 1 Classes 400 t l j r l ~2500. Tables F Studbolt tlrreclti leriyttis attd diameters are glverl in tables F.
i n c l ~ ~the
~ f eraised face for all flange Classes.
b
Studbolts have larguly displaced regular bolts for bolting flanged prplng lolrlts
Three advarltiigcs of LISII~!]studtlolts arc
FLAT FACE Most conlirlon ~iscsare for rnating with non-steel flarl!lc!s on
(1) is rrlort! c,~silyrcmovccl if corrodcd
TI\(: st~~ell)olt
, for Ill;lllrly wit11 CI~ISS I%!) cast-ii0ii V;I~V(!S iltld i i i l i i l ! ] ~ .
~ I S~IIILI
l)otfit!!; of ~ I ~ J ~ I Ic!lc,
!'.la t facetf flai~!lt!si ~ r c ! us[?(!wi t t i a gasket whosc outer diarnetcr ecluals Iliat of (2) Corifi~s~ori
wit11 ottlcr I ~ o l t sat the site IS avolded
t i t i 1111s rc!cl~icosttic rlarr!jtir of cracking a cast-iron, brorlcc or jil;stic (3) St~rt1l)oltsIII ttrc less frerlucntly used sizes and materials cdrl 1)c ro,~rlrly
Ilair~c!wtrr!il t t i t t ij:;se!r~~lilyis tigtltcriecl. rrr,lifo trorir rot~rltlstock
M A C H I N E D O L T & N U T , and S T U D B O L T 81 N U T S F I G U R E 2.57 G A S K E T CkiARACTERISTICS T A B L E 2.5

- - -- -- - --- -- - --- -
SQUARE-HEAD MAXIMUM MAXIMUM TP F A C T O R AVAIIABI k
M A C t i l N t 001.1 Tmmprrs~utma Pterm~r TMIC K W S
S
(0- f I PSI) (INCH( SI
- -- - - - ., ---
t i C X NCJT tiEX N U T tiCX N U 1 I 'I c x n ~ 111) 1/10 111.' 1 1 1 I 1
WqiIl-t,All

1 0 (XX) I l > d 1 ' 1 ) I 11, 1 1 ' 1 1

UNIFIED INCH SCREW THREADS (UN AND UNR THREAD FORM) [JNR
~ritllratesrotinded rant contour, (jnrj a~[)llt>s
to exterrlal threads orily Fldt, or
rr~~inrltldroot is optlonal wltti the UN thread There are four Uriif~edScrew
Sptral w o u n d Most u w t l tht( knc,sr
Tt~rc~~t-lsUnlflrd Coarse (UNCI UNCH), Urilfied F ~ n e(UNFIUNFR), Unlfled SSITcllon Ctirrn~cals f o r ~ f l l r d~l < l t l r l < !
Most gaskrts 15 0 175
Fxtra f ~ n e(UNF FIUNEFR) and Unlfled Selected (UNSIUNSR), wlth three CSIAslwrtos
Corrosive Allrrnaltve qdtkrl
tliiiknt.ss (1
cla~sesof f ~ tl A , 2 A and 3A for external threads, 1 B, 28, and 38 for Internal SSICerani~c H o t gases

threads (Class 3 lias the least clearance ) The standard IS ANSI 8 1 1 whlch
incorporates a metric transiatlon

UNC (Class 2 rriedium fit bolt and nut) is used for bolts and studbolts iri
pipirig, and specified in the following order:
I N S U L A T I N G G A S K E T SET

DOUBLE INSULATING SET


- F I G U R E 2.58

ILE INSULATING SET

Diar~ieter- Threads per inch - Thread - Class of fit. STEEL WASHER


INSULATING WASHER

Example: BOLT: '/z - 13 UNC 2A


INSULATING GASKET
NUT: '/2 - 13 UNC 28 INSULATING SLEEVE

INSULATING W A S H E R
GASKETS 2.6.4 S T E E L WASHER

Gaskets are used to make a fluid-resistant seal between t w o surfaces. The


comrnon gasket patterns for pipe flanges are the full-face and ring types, for
use with flat-faced and raised-face flanges respectively. Refer to figure 2.56.
Widely-~~sed materials for gaskets are compressed asbestos (1116-inch thick)
and asbestos-filled metal ('spiral-wound', 0.175-inch thick). The filled-metal
gasket is especially useful if maintenance requires repeated uncoupling of T E M P O R A R Y CLOSURES FOR L I N E S
flanges, as the gasket separates cleanly and is often reusable.
Clioicc of gasket is decided by:
(1) Tornperature, pressure and corrosive nature of the conveyed fluid IN-LINE CLOSURES

(2) W1icthc;r rnalntenance or operation requires repeated uncoupllrig A completely leak proof Int!dns of stopping flow In Ilric? 1s Ilccrssary ~n~ ~ ~ p l r i q
(3) Codele~ivironrnentalrequlrernents that may apply systcms when (1) A ctiar~qe~ r process
i material to flow 111 thr l ~ r l r1s t o t~r
( 4 ) Cost rnadc and cross coritar~~lri;~tlori
IS to hc! avoldcd (2) I'er~odicrriairitcridr~ceis

Garlock Incorporated's pr~blication'Engineered gasketirlg products' provides to be carr~cdout, arid a ha7ard would be presented by flarnr~iablc andlor
iriformation on the suitatlility of gaskct materials for different applications. toxlc matertal passtng a valvr!
Tables 2.5 gives some characteristics of gaskets, t o aid selection.
The valves described in 3.1 may not offer complete secr~rityagainst leakage,
I t rnay be required that adjacent parts of a line are electrically insulated frorn and one of the following methods of temporary closure can be ~ ~ s c d .Line-
one another, and this rnay be effected by inserting a flanged joint fitted blind valve, line blind (including sptlcial types-for use witti ring-joint fl;~nges),
with an insulating gaskct set between the parts. A gasket electrically irisn- spectacle plate (so-called from its shape), 'double t~lockarld bIet:d1, arid blind
TABLE
latcs tlie flange faces, and sleeves and washers insulate the bolts from one flanges replacing a rcrnovable spool. The last three closurcs are illIistratetl iri
or both flanges, as illustrated in figure 2.58.
2.5
figtires 2.59 thru 2.61.
1211
SPECTACLE PLATE & LINE BLIND FIGURE 2.59 Figure 2.60 shows the bleed ring connected to a bleed valve-see 3.1.1 1. The
use of a tapped valve rather than a bleed ring should be considered, as it is
SPECTACLE LINE
PLAT E BLIND a more economic arrangement, and usually can be specified merely by adding
,.--Jack screw a suffix to the valve ordering number.
Jack,.w
e-rcs

A line-blind valve is not illustrated as construction varies. This type of


valve incorporates a spectacle plate sandwiched between two flanges which
may be expanded or tightened (by some easy means), allowing the spectacle
plate to be reversed. Constant-length line-blind valves are also available,
made to ANSI dimensions for run length.
Jack screwH

Table 2.6 compares the advantages of the four in-line temporary closures:

IN-LINE CLOSURES TABLE 2.6


Jack s c r e w
CLOSURE 'OUBLE
SIDE VIEW:

\
LlNE BLIND
BLOCK, &
I t should be noted VALVE
CRITERION LlNE BLIND BLEED
t h a t jack screws may
sleze I n corrosive
condltlons RELATIVE M E D I U M EXPENSE,
LEAST
OVERALL DEPENDING ON FREQUENCY
COST
EXPENSIVE EXPENSIVE
OF CHANGEOVER
MANHOURS
FOR DOUBLE NEGLIGIBLE 1 to 3 NEGLIGIBLE 2 to6
DOUBLE-BLOCK-AND-BLEED FIGURE 2.60
CHANGEOVER

INITIAL FAIRLY LOW VERY HIGH


COST HIGH HIGH

'BLOCK' VALVE
--', / / 'BLOCK' VALVE
CERTAINTY
OF SHUT OFF
VISUAL
COMPLETE COMPLETE DOUBTFUL

YES, BUT
COMPLETE
-
YES YES YES
INDICATION? SUSPECT

CLOSURES FOR PIPE ENDS & VESSEL OPENINGS 2.7.2


VALVES IS LESS EXPENSIVE Temporary bolted closures include blind flanges using flat gaskets or ring
BLEED CONNECTION THAN EMPLOYING A
BLEED RING joints, T-bolt closures, welded-on closures with hinged doors - including the
boltless manhole cover (Robert Jenkins, England) and closures primarily in-
REMOVABLE SPOOL FIGURE 2.61
tended for vessels, such as the Lanape range (Bonney Forge) which may also
be used with pipe of large diameter. The blind flange is mostly used ~ ~ i tat t
view to future expansion of the piping system, or for cleaning, inspection, etc.
Hinged closures are often installed on vessels; infrequently on pipe.

QUICK CONNECTORS & COUPLINGS 2.8


QUICK CONNECTORS 2.8.1

(It s t beposslbleto Two forms of connector specifically designed for temporary usu are:
nrove o n e o r b o t h o f t h e
adjacent flanges a w a y ( 1 ) Lever type with double lever clamping, such as Evertite 'Standard' and
f frorn the spool t o effect
removal--this Is especially
V~ctaulic'Snap Joint'. (2) Screw type with captive nut - 'hose connector'.
l r r ~ p o r t a nw
t l t h ring-jolnt
I flanges) Typical use is for conncctii~gtemporarily to tank cars, trucks or process vcs-
sels. Inter-t~adcsagret?ments permit plant operators to attach arid uncouple
I t a lint: is to bo tt?rllporarily closed down with double-block-and-bIced,both thcse boltless conriectors. Certain temporary conriectors have t ~ u ~ l t -valvr!~.
in
valvtjs arc closctf, ;~rldthe fluid between drawn off with the bleed valve. The Evcrtite manufactures a double shut-off connector for liqu~ds,and Sctlratfcr
t)lr!ecf valvt?is t t x r l left open t o sttow whether the otttcr valves arc tightly sttut. a valved conrtector for air li~lcs.
S E Z Z 2
a _
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SLIDING-SLEEVE-AND-ANCHOR SUPPORT F I G U R E 2.66 STRAINERS 2.10.3 -
Inserted in lines immediately upstream of sensitive equipment, strainers
collect solid particles in the approximate size range 0.02-0.5 inch, which can
be separated by passing the fluid bearing them thru the strainer's screen.
Typical locations for strainers are before a control valve, pump, turbine, or
traps on steam systems. 20-mesh strainers are used for steam, water, and heavy
or medium oils. 40-mesh is suitable for steam, air, other gases, and light oils.
The commonest strainer is the illustrated wye type where the screen is cylin-
dric and retains the particles within. This type of strainer is easily disrnant-
led. Some strainerscan be fitted with a valve to facilitate blowing out collect-
ed material without shutting the line down-see f~gure6.9, for example.
Jacketed strainers are available.

FLEXIBLE PIPING 2.9.2


SEPARATOR F I G U R E 2.67

For filling and emptying railcars, tankers, etc., thru rigid pipe, it is necessary
to design articulated piping, using 'sw~veling'joints, or 'ball' joints (the latter
is a 'universal' joint). Flexible hose has many uses especially where there is
a rieed for temporary connections, or where vibration or movement occurs. WET STEAM D R I E R STEAM

Chemical-resistant and/or armored hoses are available in regular or jacketed


forms (see f~gure6.39).

SEPARATORS, STRAINERS, SCREENS & DRIPLEGS 2.10

COLLECTING UNWANTED MATERIAL FROM THE FLOW 2.10.1

Devices are included in process and service lines to separate and collect un-
desirable solid or liquid material. P~pescale, loose weld metal, unreacted or
decomposed process material, precipitates, lubricants, oils, or water may harm
either equip~rlentor the process. M O V E D WATER
PIPED T O T R A P
Common forms of line-installed separator are illustrated in figures 2.67 and
2 68. Other more elaborate separators nleiltioncd in 3.3.3 arc available, but
STRAINER F I G U R E 2.68
ttlcse fall morc itlto the category of process equiprnc:r\t, norrr~allysclectt!tl by
the process eri!lint!cr
Air and sorrlc ottlrlr gases in liquid-bearing lines are normally self-collecting at
piping high points and at the remote ends ot headers, and are vented by drs.
charge valves -- see 3.1.9.

SEPARATORS 2.10.2

These permancot devices are used to collect droplets from a gaseous stream,
for example, to collect oil droplets from compressed dir, or condensate drop-
lets trorlt we1 sttlarn. F~gure2.67 shows a separator in wh~chdroplats In the
stream collcct in chevroned grooves in the barrier and drain to the snlnll well.
Collectcd liqurd IS disctlarged via a trap-see 3 1.9 and 6.10.7.
SCREENS 2.10.4 REINFORCEMENTS

Simple temporary strainers made from perforated sheet metal and/or wire
BRANCH CONNECTIONS
mesh arc used for startup operations on the suction side of purnps arid comp-
pressors, especially where there is a long ruli of piping before the unit that
'Reinforcement' is the add~tionof extra rnetal at a branch corirltxtion rrladc
may contain weld spatter or material inadvertently left in the pipe. After
from a pipe or vessel wall.The added metal cornpc!rtsates for the structr~ral
startup, the screen usually is removed.
weakening due to the hole.
I t may be necessary to arrange for a srnall removable spool to accomrnodate
Stub-ins may be reinforced w ~ t hrr?qular or wraparound sntfdlrts, as stiown
the screen. I t is irriportant that the flow in suction lines should riot be
in figure 2.71. R~ngsrnade from platestock are rised to reinforce branches
restricted. Cone-shaped screens are therefor preferred, with cylindric
made with welded laterals and butt-weltled corlnections to vessels. Small
types as second choice. Flat screerls arelbetter reserved fortlow-sucti~n~heads
welded connectioris may be reirlforced by add~rigextra weld metal to the
SCREEN BETWEEN FLANGES F I G U R E 2.69
joint.
Reinforcing pieces are usually provided with a siriall hole to vent gases
produced by welding; these gases would otherwise be trapped. A vent hole
also serves to indicate any leakage frorrl the joint.

STRAIGHT PIPE

USUAL D l RECTION
If a butt weld joining two sections of straight pipe is subject to unusual
OF FLOW THRU external stress, it may be reinforced by the addition of a 'sleeve' (formed
T H E SCREEN
from two units, each resembling the lower member in figure 2.71 (b)).
The code applicable to the piping should be consulted for reinforcement
requirements. Backing rings are not considered to be reinforcements-see the
footnote to chart 2.1.

R E I N F O R C I N G SADDLES F I G U R E 2.71
DRIPLEG CONSTRUCTION F I G U R E 2.70
(a) R E G U L A R S A D D L E

VENT HOLE

T R A P PIPING
CONNECTION
(b) W R A P A R O U N D S A D D L E

BLOWDOWN
CONNECTION VENT HOLES
(In saddle o n l y )

Often made from pipe and fittings, the dripleg is an inexpensive means of
collecting condensate. Figure 2.70 shows a dripleg fitted to a horizontal pipe.
Removal of condensate from steam lines is discussed in 6.10. Recommended
sizes for driplegs are given in table 6.10.
(COURTESY STkCL C I T Y D I V I S I O N M I D L A N D ROSSCORP)

1 1. CONSTANT L O A D TYPE
I
(COURTESY STEEL CITY DIVISION M l D t AND R 0 S 5 CORPI

'KINDORF SYSTEM'
I
INDICATOR-
LOAD
2. V A R I A B L E L O A D TYPE

- C O L D SETTING
& HYDROSTATIC
TEST STOP

'TRAVEL
STOP
1 (COURTESY U N I O N CARUIDE)

ICOURTESY U N I S T R U T CORPORATION)

(COURTESY V 0 K E S . B E R G E N G E N V R l N G L T D )

I
1
COLD SETTING
& HYDROSTATIC
TEST STOP ---

CEMENT
HARDWARE FOR SUPPORTING PIPING 2.12 SLIDE PLATE A slide plate support is illustrated in figure 2.72A. Figure
2.728 shows applications of 'Ucar' graphite slide plates which are offered by
Union Carbide Inc. The two plates used in a support are made from or
Symbols for drafting various types of support are shown in chart 5.7. For faced with a material of low friction able to withstand mechanical stress
designing support systems, see 6.2. and temperature changes. Plates are often made from graphite blocks. Steel
plates with a teflon facing are available and may be welded to steel.
PIPE SUPPORTS 2.12.1
Spring hangers or supports allow variations in the length of pipe due to
Pipe supports shi)uld be as simple as conditions allow. Stock items are used changes in temperature, and are often used for vertical lines. Refer to 6.2.5
where practicable, especially for piping held from above. To support piping figure 6.16. There are two types of spring hanger or support:
from below, supports are usually made to suit from platestock, pipe, and
pieces of structural steel. 'CONSTANT LOAD' HANGER This device consists of a coil spring and
lever mechanism in a housing. Movement of the piping, within limits, will
A selection of available hardware for supporting is illustrated in figures 2.72A not change the spring force holding up the piping; thus, no additional forces
and 0. will be introduced to the piping system.

'VARIABLE SPRING' HANGER, and SUPPORT These devices conslst of a


TERMS FOR SUPPORTS 2.12.2
coil spring in a housing. The weight of the piping rests on the spring in com-
pression. The spring permits a limited amount of thermal movement. A
sUppoRT The weight o f piping is usually carried On supports made from
variablespring hanger holding up a vertical linewill reduce its lifting force as
structural steel, or steel and concrete. (The term 'support' is also used in
the line expands toward it. A variable spring support would increase its lift-

-
reference to hangers.)
ing force as the line expands toward it. Both place a load on the piping system.
HANGER Device which suspends piping (usually a single line) from struc- Where this is undesirable, a constant-load hanger can be used instead.
tural steel, concrete or wood. Hangers are usually adjustable for height.

ANCHOR A rigid support which prevents transmission of movement (thermal,


vibratory, etc.) along piping. Construction rnay be from steel plate, brackets, HYDRAULIC DAMPENER, SHOCK, SNUBBER, or SWAY SUPPRESSOR
flanges, rods, etc. Attachment of an anchor to pipe should preferably encircle One end of the unit is attached to piping and the other to structural steel or
the pipe and be welded all around as this gives a better distribution of stress concrete. The unit expands or contracts to absorb slow movement of piping,
in the pipe wall. but is rigid to rapid movement.

TIE An arrangement of one or more rods, bars, etc., to restrain movement SWAY BRACE, or SWAY ARRESTOR, is essentially a helical spring in a
of piping. housing which is fitted between piping and a rigid structure. Its function
is to buffer vibration and sway.
DUMMY LEG An extension piece (of pipe or rolled steel section) welded
to an elbow in order to support the line-see figure 2.72A and table 6.3.
WELDING TO PIPE 2.12.3
The following hardware is used where mechanical and/or thermal movement
is a problem: If the applicable code permits, lugs may be welded to pipe. Figure 2.72A
illustrates some comnion arrangements using welded lugs, roiled steel sections
and pipe, for:-
GUIDE A means of allowing a pipe to move along its length, but not
sideways.
(1) Fixing hangors to structural steel, etc.
SHOE A metal piece attached to the underside of a pipe which rests on sup- (2) Attaching to pipe
porting steel. Primarily used to reduce wear from sliding for lines subject to (3) Supporting pipe
crlrtvcntucit Pt:rrnits insillatioil to b(! applied to pipe.
Wcldirig supports to prclinod pipe will usually spa11tlic lining, and tliercfor
SADDLE A wc!ldcd attactirnent for pipe rctlrliring insulation, arid stlbjcct lugs, etc., must t)c wc!ldccj to pipe arld fitt~rigsbefore the liriirlg is applied
to lorigitiid~nalor roll~ngmovernent (resulting frorn ternpc!rature cl~arigcs Welrliriy of supports arid lugs to pipes arid vesscls to be stress-rc!l~r?ved
sl)ot~ld
other than climatic). Saddles may be used with grrides as shown in 6.2.8. bo clone before ticat treatment.
1281
L
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272 -0
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5525
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A critical factor for valves used for process chemicals is the lubrication of the Flanged valves use gaskets to seal against the line flanges. Butterfly valves may
stem. Care has to be taken in the selection of packing, gland design, and extend the resilient seat to also serve as line gaskets. The pressure-sealbonnet
choice and application of lubricant. As an option the bonnet may include a joint utilizes the pressure of the conveyed fluids to tighten the seal - see
'lantern ring' whicti serves two purposes - either to act as a collection point 'Pressure seal' under 'Bonnet', this section.
to drairi off any hazardous seepages, or as a point where lubricant can be
injected. M A N U A L OPERATORS
LANTERN RING
H A N D L E V E R is used to actuate the stems of small butterfly 3 r d rotary-/)all
valves, and sinall cocks. Wrench operation is used for cocks and srriall plug
valves.

H A N D L E V E R S O N SMALL V A L V E S
W R E N C H USED
A S OPERATOR
COCK ON C O C K

BODY

Selection of material to fabricate the interior of the valve body is important


with a valve used for process ctiemicals. There is often a choice with regard
to the body and trim, and some valves may be obtained with the entire
HANDWHEEL is the most common means for rotating the stem on the
interior of the body lined with corrosion-resistant material.
majority of popular smaller valves such as the gate, globe and diaphragm
Valves are connected to pipe, fittings or vessels by their body ends, which may types. Additional operating torque for gate and globe valves is offered by
be flanged, screwed, butt- or socket-welding, or finished for hose,Victaulic 'hammerblow' or 'impact' handwheels which may be substituted for normal
coupling, etc. Jacketed valves are also available-see 6.8.2. handwheels if easier operation is needed but where gearing is unnecessary.
HAMMER-BLOW H A N D W H E E L
SEAL

In most stem-operated valves, whether the stem has rotary or lineal move-
ment, packlrlg or seals are used between stem and bonnet (or body). If high
H A M M E R A C T I O N IS P R O V I D E D
vacuuni or corrosrve, flarrimable or toxic fluid is to be handled, the disc or B Y TWO LUGS CAST O N UNDER-
stern may be sealed by a metal bellows, or by a flexible diaphragm (the latter SIDE OF HANDWHEEL.WHICH H I T
A N V I L PROJECTING BETWEEN
is termed 'packless' construction). A gasket is used as a seal between a bolted
bonnet and valve body.
BE LLOWS-SEAL V A L V E

'PACKLESS' V A L V E
CHAIN operator IS used where a handwheel would be out of reach The stern
IS fitted w ~ t ha cha~nwheelor wrench (for lever-operated valves) and the loop
of the clialn IS brought w ~ t h i n3 f t of work~rlgfloor level. Urilvers,~llype
cha~nwheels which attach to the regular handwheel have bceri bldrrietl for
accidents 111corrostve atmospheres where an infrequently-optlratud v ~ l v uhds
stuck, [tie attdchirlg bolts have been known to fail. T h ~ sproblem does not
arise w ~ t hthe chainwheel that replaces the regular valve tidrldwhnt!l

GEAR operator is used to reduce theoperating torque For rnanuol opt?ratlon,


corisists of a tiandwt~ecl-operatedgear tram actuating the valve stcr~i As a
qurde, gt?dr operators shoultf be considered for valves of tlie lullowrriq srzm
and classes 125, 150, and 300, 14-lnch and larqer, 400 arid GOO, II ~ r r r~) ~hl ( j
larqer, 900 and 1500, 6-inch and larger, 2500,4 inch arld larger
1321
SPUR-GEAR OPERATOR BEVEL-GEAR OPERATOR gearing-these motors are cor~imonlypiston-and-cylinder radial types. (3) A
double-acting vane with limited rotary rriovemerit in a sector casing, actuating
the stem directly. (4) Squeeze type (refer to 'Srlueeze valve').
QUICK-ACTING OPERATORS FOR N O N - R O T A R Y V A L V E S
(Manually-operated valves)

Quick-act~ng operators are used with gate arid !~lobt?valves. TWO stcln
movements are employed.-
(1) Rotating stem, rotated by a lever
(2) Sliding stem, in which the stern is ralsed and lowered b y lever
QUICK-ACTING LEVERS ON VALVES
( 1 ) Rotating stem o n globe valve ( 2 ) Slldiny stern o n gate valve

POWERED OPERATORS

Electric, pneumatic or hydraulic operation is used: ( 1 ) Where a valve is


remote from the main working area. (2) If the required frequency of opera-
tion would need unreasonable human effort. (3) If rapid opening and/or
closing of a valve is required.
ELECTRIC MOTOR The valve stem is moved by the electric motor, thru
reducing gears.
SOLENOID may be used with fast-acting check valves, and with on/off valves
in light-duty instrumentation applications. Steam and air whistles are examples of the use of sliding-stem quick-acting
operators with globe valves.
ELECTRIC MOTOR OPERATOR PNEUMATIC OPE RATOR
SELECTING O N f O F F & R E G U L A T I N G V A L V E S

The suitability of a valve for a particular service is decided b y its niatcrials of


construction in relation to the conveyed fluid as well as its mechanical des~gn.
Referring to the descriptions in 3.1.2, the steps in selection arc to choose
(1) Material(s) of construction. (2)The disc type. (3) Stem type. (4) Means
of operating the stem - the 'operator'. (5) Bonnet type. (6) Body ends -
welding, flanged, ctc. (7) Delivery time (8)Pr~ce (9) Warranty of perform-
ance for severe conditions.
Chart 3.2 is a guide to valve selection, arid indicates valves which rnay be
chosen for a given service. The chart should be read from left to right. First,
ascertain whether a liquid, gas or powder is to be tiandled b y the valve. Next,
consider the nature of thc fluid-whet tit!^ it is foodstuffs or drugs to be
handled hygienically, chemicals that are corrosive, or whether the fluid is
substantially neutral or non-corrosive.
Next consider the function of ttic valve - simple open-or-closed operation
('on/offf), or regulating for coritrol or for dosing. These factors decided,the
chart will then indicate types of valves whicti should perform satisfactorily in
P N E U M A T I C & H Y D R A U L I C OPERATORS may be used where flammable
the required service.
vapor is likely to be present. They take the following forms: ( 1 ) Cylinder
with double-act~ngpiston driven by air, water, oil, or other liquid which If the publication is available, rt?fr?rcnceshould also be made to the Crane
usually actuates the stem directly. (2) Air motor which actuates the stern thru Company's 'Clioos~ngthe r ~ g t ivalve'
t
1331
CHART 3.2

( 1 ) Determine type of conveyed fluid-l~quld, gas slurry, or


011 N o natural rubber)

(2)Deterrnlne nature of f l u ~ d
Substantially neutral-not noticeably acld or alkal~ne,
such ds various O I ~ S ,drink~ngwater, n~trogen,gas, dlr,etc
r Corros~ve-markedly ac~d,alkaline, or otherwise chern~
GATE ANTI CORROSIVE' (OS&Yl ( B e l l o m m a l l
PLUG G A T E ANTJ CORROSIVE',IOS&YJ
YR; ; ; ; BALL ANTI CORROSIVE. (LIOC~) 'Hygtenrc'-materials for the food, drug, cosmetrc or
ON/OFF ANTI CORROSlVE'.~Lubrtutd),(Llned~ other ~ndustrles
CORROSIVE DIAPHRAGM ANTI CORROSIVE'.(LI~~I
BUTTERFLY ANTI CORROSIVE',(Ltned) r Slurry-suspension of solid p a r t ~ c l e s~na llquld can have
(ALKALINE
ACID E ~ 1C ANTI CORR IOS&YI 1D1a h r w m 01 B~IIW %all
a n abraslve effect on valves, etc Non abrasive slurrles
GLOBE
DIAPHRAGM ANTI CORROSIVE^ ( i m d P such as w o o d - p u l p slurries can choke valve mechan~srns
BUTTERFLY ANTI CORROSIVE*,(LI~I
PLUG GATE ANTI CORROSIVE'.(OS&Y1 (3) Deternllne operation
.
LI'UID HYGIENIC
(BEVERAGES
BUTTERFLY
DIAPHRAGM
SPECIAL D l S C t WHITE SEAT
S A N I T A R Y LINING. WHITE D I A P H R A G M I
r
r
'On/off'-fully open or fully closed
Regulating-including close regulation (throttlrng)
BUTTERFLY SPECIAL DISC? WHITE SEAT t
F O O D end DIAPHRAGM S A N I T A R Y LINING. WHITE D I A P H R A G M t
DRUGS) REGULATING SaUEEZE WHITE F L E X I B L E TUBE 2 (4) Look into other factors affect~ngc h o ~ c e
PINCH WHITE FLEXIBLE TUBE t r Pressure and temperature of conveyed fluid
-
ROTARY B A L L ABRASION RESISTANT L I N I N G Method of operatrng stem-consider c i o s r n g t t m e
BUTTERFLY ABRASION RESIST DISC RESILIENT SEAT
ABRASION RESISTANT L I N I N G
ON,OFF FpUTRAGM L U B R I C A T E D (LIP&)
PINCH NONE
SQUEEZE C E N T R A L SEAT r Ava~lab~lity
SLURRY
BUTTERFLY ABRASION RESIST DISC, RESILIENT SEAT
DIAPHRAGM LINED'
REGULATING SQUEEZE NONE
PINCH NONE
GATE SINGLE SEAT NOTCHED DISC
GATE SINGLE SEAT K N I F E EDGED DISC N O T C H E D
FIBROUS ONlOFF & DIAPHRAGM NONE DISC
SUSPENSIONS REGULATING SQUEEZE NONE
PINCH NONE

GATE NONE
GLOBE I C o m p o s ~ t ~ oDnt r ) (Plug Type D t r )
ON/OFF ROTARY B A L L NONE
PLUG NONE [ U n w ~ t a b l efor steam serv~cel
OIAPtiRAGM NONE [Unruttable for seam m r v ~ c e l
NEUT H A L A

( A I R STEAM EIC) GLOBE NONE


NEEDLE NONE [Small flowr only]
REGULATING BUTTERFLY NONE
DIAPHRAGM NONE [ U n r u ~ t a b l efor rteam tewlcel
GATE SINGLE SEAT
. -..- .- -- -

GAS LOIiROSIVC
ON'OFF
BUTTERFLY
ROTARY B A L L
DIAPHRAGM
PLUG
ANTI
ANTl
ANTI
ANTI
CORROSIVE:
CORROSIVE
CORROSIVE:
CORROSIVE
( A ( 113 V A P O f i 5 -- ~ -- - -
L t { I O t I I N L EIL I BUTTERFLY A N T I COHROSIVE'
REGULATING E:zEFE
DIAPHRAGM
A N T I CORROSIVC'
CORROSIVE'
A N T I CORROSIVE'
[Small llows only l
(OS&YI

. - - - - - - - ,, -

GATE BELLOWS SEAL


ON'OFF DIAPHRAGM or BELLOWS SEAL
VAC1IL)M
E k ? i i Y BALL NONE
BUTTERFLY RESILIENT SEAT
-
ABtiA5IVL 'INCH NONE
I'OWLIF H ONlOFF &
( C E N T R A L SEATI
FitLULATINb
$ ~ ~ ~ O CNONEK
-- ----
I5ILIC.A EIL )

SOLID
.

uBtti;A~i~c. PlNcti NONE


POWOtH ONiOFF & GATt SINGLE SEAT

*
i(,tiAl'ttlf L
1ALL IIL)
REbULATING SQUEEZE
SPIRAL SOCK
(CENTRAL SEATI
NONt
1
ANGLE VALVE This IS a globe valve wlth body ends at r ~ g hangles,
t saving N E E D L E V A L V E is a small valve used for flow control and for dosing
the use of d 90 dcgrce elbow tiowever, the angles of piplng are often subject I~quldsand yascs. Res~stanccto flow is prec~selycontrolled by a relat~vely
[(I higl~erstrc~sc!s t l l l ~ r t strdrqllt ruris, w111ct1rrlust be cons~deredwtttl tltls large seat area and the ddlclstment afforded by fine threadlrig of the stern.
lyl)t' Of V ~ ~ V U
NEEDLE V A L V E
GLOBE V A L V E S

REGULAR-DISC GLOBE V A L V E Unsuitable for close regulation as disc


and seat have narrow (almost line) contact. SQUEEZE V A L V E is well-suited to regulating the flow of difficult liquids,
PLUG-TYPE DISC GLOBE V A L V E Used for severe regulating service with slurries and powders. Maximum closure is about 80%, which lirnits the range
gritty liquids, such as boiler feedwater, and for blow-off service. Less subject of regulation, urlless the variation of this type of valve with a central
to wear urider close regulatior~than the regular-seatedvalve. core (seat) is used, offering full closure.

WYE-BODY GLOBE V A L V E has in-line ports and stem emerging at about PINCH V A L V E Also suited to regulating flow of difficult liquids, slurries and
45 degrees; hence the 'Y'. Preferred for erosive fluids due to smoother flow powders. Complete closure is possible but tends to rapidly wear the flexible
pattern. tube, unless of special design.
M E - B O D Y GLOBE V A L V E (Incorporating composition disc)
V A L V E S FOR BOTH REGULATING & O N f O F F SERVICE 3.1.6

ROTARY-BALL V A L V E Advantages are low operating torque, availability


in large sizes, compactness, rotary 90-degree stem movement, and 'in-line'
if" replaceability of ail wearing parts in some designs. Possible disadvantages are
that fluid is trapped witttin the body (and within the disc or1 closi~re),artd
that corr~perisationfor wear is effected only by resilient material bchirid the
st!ats: ttic latter problern is avoided in the sirigle-seat 'eccentric' versiorl, wtlicli
has the ball slightly offset so that it presses into the seat, on closure.
Principal uses are for water, oils, slurries, gases and vacuum. Valve is available
with a ball having a shaped port for regulation.
ROTARY-BALL V A L V E
COMPOSITION-DISC GLOBE V A L V E Suitable for coarse regulation and
tigtlt shutoff. He~~lact!abtecorriposition-disc constri~ctiorlis similar to that of
a faucet. Grit will intbcd in ttiu soft disc preventing scat darnage and ensuring
qootl closure. Closo rcgol;~tir~gwill rapidly rlacr~agr!the seat.

DOCIBLE-DISC GLOBE V A L V E fcaturcs tW0 discs bedrillr~O t l S ( ! ( ) X t i l ( ! S(!dts


sp(~ccddpdrt or1 a single shaft, which frees the operator frorn stresses st?t (10 by
the coriveyed f l u ~ dpressing ~ r l t otltc valve. Principle IS used oil coritrol valves
and pressure rcgul,~tors lor stt:arn ail0 othcr gases. Tight shutoff IS not
crlsirri?tl
G P
1
CD =
0
a. hc
= E-.
=
2
'7 7
0 ;7;'
in
CD 0
%
CD
=a
z
'
CD
;5
2
CD
" g. C
D

3
C
D
a
r-t
0
u
2
2.
,-+
--..
-
0
3
2
-.
-
13
'".
a
r!
CO
+
aY,
-.
3
0
CD
3

w
- 2 5
r)
-.
3 233g:P
cj
--='-TO
i"J
0
0 g zcrx
::
3 . $ X
=aJ
2 E2; <
-
sL,-,g
5 "=2 <
-< CD rn
0)

9 " "
2.
h a C.
< G'U
2 - =
2 0
2 mx
225
- am-
= C-m
Zzi,+
in
jc .j2o
- 2 ('J

'
( 0 Z;;'
11
c-l 0
C: -'

2 = T =
s 5 2
cD
0.2
G-F3
T3
" 2 0
o-&%
2 - 2
2g z.
g 3 3
OJ. u
zi '
VALVES FOR SWITCHING FLOW 3.1.8 B A L L F L O A T V A L V E These automatic valves are used: ( 1 ) As air traps -
to remove water from air systems. (2) To remove air from liquid systems
MULTIPORT V A L V E Used largely on hydraulic and pneumatic control cir- and act as vacuum breakers or breather valves. (3) To control liquid level
cults and sornctirnes used directly in process piping, these valves have rotary- in tanks. They are not intended to remove condensate.
ball or plug-type discs with one or more ports arranged to switch flow.
BALL FLOAT VALVE BLOWOFF VALVE
D I V E R T I N G V A L V E Two types of 'diverting' valve are made Both switch
(For first use above)
flow frorri a line Into one of two outlets. One type is of wye pattern with a
hinged d~scat the junction which closes one of the two outlets, and is used F R O M DRIPLEG

to handle powders and otller solids. The second type handles liquid only, and
hds no rnoving parts-flow IS switched by two pneumatic control lines. I t is
availdble in sues to 6-lr~ctl.

V A L V E S FOR DISCHARGING 3.1.9

These valves allow removal of fluid from within a piping system either to WATER
RELEASED
atmosphere, to a drain, or to another piping system or vessel at a lower
pressure. Operatioil is often automatic. Relief and safety valves, steam traps,
and rupture discs are included i n this section. Pressure-relieving valves are
usually spring loaded, as those worked by lever and weight can be easily BLOWOFF V A L V E A variety of globe valve conforming with boiler code
rendered inoperative by personnel. The first three valves are operated by requirements and especially designed for boiler blowoff service. Sorrietimes
system pressure, and are usually mounted directly onto the piping or vessel suitable also for blowdown service. Wye-pattern and angle types often used.
to be protected, in a vertical, upright position. Refer to the governing code Used to remove air and other gases from boilers, etc. Manually-operated.
for the application of these valves, including the need for an external lifting
FLUSH-BOTTOM T A N K V A L V E Usually a globe type, designed to mini-
device (handlever, etc.).
mize pocketing, primarily for conveniently discharging liquid from the low
__ICIC_
point of a tank.
SAFETY V A L V E A rapid-opening (popping action) full-flow valve for air
and other gases. FLUSH-BOTTOM TANK VALVE (GLOBE TYPE)

RELIEF V A L V E Intended to relieve excess pressure in liquids, in situations


where full-flow discharge is not required, when release of a small volume of
liquid would rapidly lower pressure. Mounting is shown in figure 6.4.

SAFETY VALVE RELIEF VALVE

EXTERNAL V I SECTIONAL V I E W

RUPTURE DISC A safety device designed to burst at a certain excess prcssuru


and rapidly discharge gas or liquid frorn a system. Usually rrirtde in tht! forrn
of a rt?placcablcrn(:t,~Idisc held between flanges. Disc rrlay also be of grapll~tc
or, for luwcst burstirig pressures, plastic filr-rl
SAMPLING V A L V E A valve, usually of nct!dlo ar globr! (laltc!rn, ~)lacoti111;I
brij~lcliline for tlic purpose of drawirlg off si,rr~l)lesof f)rocc?ss~ ~ ~ i l t r ?ttiru rinl
SAFETY.RELIEF VALVE f7eliuves cxt:ess pressure of ei tiler !]as or lititlid thcl brallcli. Strllipliric~trorll vcry high prt!ssurt! lillf!s is best (lorit! lliru i J cjo~rt)ll!
wtlicti rl~iiys~dtlclilyduvclol) a v a ~ o rpl\asc: duo to ra~lidaild u~lr:orrtrollt!tl vijlvod collcctirlg vcsscl. A cooliri!~arran!jc!rr\c!llt rliay tlr! rio(!d~?(f lor ~i111il)li11!]
lic;ili~\!j11oi1i(;lit!~~~ic;il
rciit:\io~iiii l i ~ ~ ~ ~ i VI?SSCIS.
~ ~ ~ l iHt:lc!r
~ t l 10 ~ i (;.'I.
~ !11y1r(! lrt1111liigli I ( ! ~ l l ~ ~ ~ li~ic:s.
!ri~It~i~~
1 ll1l
TRAP Art nut!lrnn!ic vnlvc for: f l ) Discharging cor!dc!mtc, air n!!d gnscs SC,HEMATIC FOR A CONTROL V A L V E ARRANGEMENT F l G U R E 3.4

frorri stearn lirlc!s wittiout releasing stcarn. ( 2 ) Discliarging water frorri air
lines wittiou t rt!lcasiri!l air-see 'f3all float vi~lvc',this sc!ction.

INVERTED.BUCKE7 TRAP

57 E A M A N D
CONDENSATE
F R O M DUlPLCl

CONTROL V A L V E SENSING ELEMENT


PERIODIC DISCI4ARGE (Prlrnary element)
OF C O N D E N S A T E

UNCLASSIFIED V A L V E S & TERMS 3.1.11


CONTROL V A L V E S & PRESSURE REGULATORS 3.1.10
With few exceptions, the followirlg are not special valve types different frorn
CONTROL V A L V E S
those previously discussed, but are terms used to describe valves by service
Control valves at~tomaticallyregulate pressure and/or flow rate, and are avail- or function.
able for any pressure. If different plant systems operate up to, and at pressure/
BARSTOCK V A L V E Any valve having a body machined from solid metal
temperature conibinations that require Class 300 valves, sometimes (where
(barstock). Usually needle or globe type.
the design permits), all control valves chosen will be Class 300 for interchange-
BlBB A small valve with turned-down end, like a faucet.
ability. However, if none of the systems exceeds the ratings for Class 150
valves, this is not necessary. The control valve is usually chosen to be snialler BLEED V A L V E Small valve provided for drawing off fluid.
than line size to avoid throttling and consequent rapid wear of the seat. BLOCK V A L V E An on/off valve, nearly always a gate valve, placed ill lines at
battery limits.
Globe-pattern valves are normally used for control, and their ends are usually
flanged for ease of maintenance. The disc is moved by a hydraulic, pneumatic, BLOWDOWN V A L V E Usually refers to a plug-type disc globe valve used
electrical, or mechanical operator. for removing sludge and sedimentary matter frorn, the b o t t o n ~of boiler
drums, vessels, driplegs, etc.
Figure 3.4 shows schematically how a control valve can be used to control BREATHER V A L V E A special self-acting valve installed on storage tanks,
rate of flow in a line. Flow rate is related to the pressure drop across the etc., to release vapor or gas on slight increase of internal pressure (in the
'sensing element' (an orifice plate in this instance-see 6.7.5). The 'controller' region of 1/2 to 3 ounces per square inch).
receives the pressure signals, compares them with the pressure drop for the
BYPASS V A L V E Any valve placed in a bypass arranged around another
desired flow and, if the actual flow is different, adjusts the control valve to
valve or equipment-see 6.1.3 r~rider 'If there is no P&ID and figures
. . . . I
irxrease or decrease the flow.
6.6 thru 6.1 1 .
Cornparable arrangements t o figure 3.4 can be devised to control any DIAPHRAGM V A L V E Exarnplcs of true diaphragm valves, where the dia-
of numerotls process variables- temperature, pressure, level and flow rate phragm closesoff the flow, are shown in chart 3.1. These forms of diaphragm
are the most common controlled variables. valve are popular for regulating the flow of slurries and corrosive fluids and for
Control valves may be self-operating, and not require the addition of a vacuum. The term 'diaphragm valve' is also applied to valves which have a
controller, sensing element, etc. Pressure regulators are a common example diaphragm seal between stem arid body, but these are better referred to as
'
of this type of valve, and chart 3.1 shows the principles of operation of a 'diaphragm seal' or 'packless' valves-see 3.1.2, under 'Seal'.
pressure regulator. D R A I N V A L V E A valve used for the purpose of draining liquids fron? a lirie
or vessel. Selection of a drain valve, and the rnethod of attachment, is
PRESSURE R E G U L A T O R Control valve of globe type which adjusts influenced by the undesirability of pocketing the material being draincd-
downstream pressure of liquid or gas (including steam or vapors) to a lower this is important witti slurries and liquids which are subject t o (1) Solidifi-
desired value ('se t pressure'). cation on cooling or polyrnerizatiori. (2) Decomposition.
BACK-PRESSURE REGULATOR Control valve used to maintain upstream DRIP V A L V E A drain valve f ~ t t e dto the bottorn of a dripleg to permit
pressure in a system. blowdown.
[39l
FLAP V A L V E A riorl-rcturrl valve having a hinged disc or rubber o r PUMPS & COMPRESSORS
le;itht!r flap, usiid f o r low-prcssurc lines.
HEADER V A L V E A ~ Ilsolatirl!] valve installed irl a b r a n c h where i t joins
PUMPS
a t~cader.
HOSE V A L V E A !)at(! or glotje valve having o n e o f its ends externally DRIVERS
tI~rc:;itf~xl t o onc of llro host: t t ~ r e a dstandards i n use i n t h e U S A . These valves
arc used for vt!lr~cular and firewater colirrections. Electric m o t o r s are the m o s t f r e q u e n t l y used drivers. Larger p u r n p s m a y b e
ISOLATING V A L V E A n o r l / o f f vdlvc ~ s o l ~ t ~a nplece
g of eqillpmerlt o r a driven b y steam-, gas-, or diesel-engines, o r b y turbines.
jlrcic uis froiri piplrig
KNIFE-EDGE V A L V E A single-dlsc single-seat gate valve ( s l ~ d egate) w ~ t h
'HEADS' (PRESSURES) IN PUMP P I P I N G F I G U R E 3.5
,I k ~ r ~ cdgcd
fc tl~sc.
M I X I N G V A L V E regulates t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t w o i n f l o w s t o p r o d u c e a
controlled o u t f l o w
N O N - R E T U R N V A L V E A n y t y p e o f stop-check valve-see 3.1.7.
PAPER-STOCK V A L V E A single-disc single-seat gate valve (slide gate) w i t h
knife-edged o r n o t c h e d disc used t o regulate flow of paper slurry or o t h e r
fibrous slurry.
PRIMARY VALVE See ' R o o t valve', ttlis section.
REGULATING VALVE A n y valve used t o adjust f l o w .
ROOT V A L V E ( 1 ) A valve used t o isolate a pressure e k m e n t or i n s t r u m e n t
f r o m a line or vessel. (2)A valve placed a t the beginning of a b r a n c h f r o m
a header.
SAMPLING V A L V E S m a l l valve p r o v i d e d f o r drawing o f f f l u ~ d .See 3.1.9.
SHUTOFF V A L V E A n o n / o f f valve placed i n lines t o o r f r o m equipment,
f o r [he purpose of stopping a n d starting f l o w .
SLURRY V A L V E A knife-edge valve used t o c o n t r o l f l o w of non-abrasive
slurries.
NOTES
SPI RAL-SOCK V A L V E A valve used t o c o n t r o l f l o w o f powders b y means o f
a twistable fabric t u b e o r sock.
The total head, H, which must be provided by the purnp tn the arrangement shown, i s -
STOP V A L V E A n on/off valve, usually a globe valve.
THROTTLING VALVE A n y valve used t o closely regulate f l o w i n ttie
Heads may be expressed erttier all in absolute unlts or all In gaqe unlts, but not In r n ~ x e dunits Ttie
jost.ol~c;rr oosi ti or^. vdrtous head teriris trl 1111sequdtlon are, wlth reference to t h e tllustrat~on-

hd = total d ~ ~ ~ h dhedd
rye
V A C U U M BREAKER A specldl self actlng valve, o r a n y valve s u ~ t a b l efor
h, = total suctton head
V~I(,LIUIII SCIVI~U, ~ p e r d t e dn l a n u a l l y o r a u t o m a t ~ c a l l y , tnst,lllcd t o ddrlilt gds H,, = s t a t l c hedd ( d i f f e r e n t ~ d l ) = D S -
( I J S ~ ~~ ~I II~ I~~ I S O ~ I I ! I I C dlr) 1(1t0J V ~ C U U I Tor~ l o w pressure spdctf S u ~ hV ~ I V C S hld = trlcttor~tledd loss In dlschdfge plplng, ~ n c l u d ~ ne gx t t loss (as l ~ q u t dd~scharyesInto vussc~l e l c )
and loss d t Incredst,r located d l purnp outlet'
dre ~ r ~ s t d l l codn tllgli polrits of plplrlg or vessels t o per1Ti1t dldlfllllg, a n d
ht, = fr~cllonhedd loss In suctlon plptng, lncludlng entrance loss (as l ~ q u l denters I ~ n efrom headet.
sonietliiles t o prevent s l p t ~ o n ~ n g etc J and loss a t reducer located a t pump ~ n l e t '
Pd = pressure head attove liquid level tn dtscharge vessel or header
UNLOADING VALVE See 3.2.2, under 'Unloading', and figure 6.23. P, = pressuie head above ltqutd level in s u c t ~ o nheader or vessel

QUICK-ACTING V A L V E A n y o n / o f f valve rapidly operable, either h y m a n -


NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD (NPSH)
I J ~ II;VOF,
I soriri!], or b y piston, solenoid o r lever w i t h tlcat-fusible l i r ~ krnloasing tl -
'Nt'SIi' IS d e f ~ t ~ e11y S - /I!, + P, . - t',,, , wtrere
a w c i y h t wlricti iri f a l l i n ~ joperates tlir? valve. Quick-ar:ting valvc!s art: dc!sirat)lc Pv,, = V~N): p r e s u t e of l t ( ~ 1 1 1 ~at1 te1npt:tdture o f I I ~ U I aLt ~suctton ticddt!r, e t c V a l ~ rIIfessures
i ~ t o$ ] l v c f ~III ,lbiul~~rc U~III~
irr I~riescorrvcyiriyfliilr~rnablcliquids. Ulisuitablc for water or for l i q u i d sorvicc?
i n gtlneial w i t h o u t a custliotling dcvice (hydraulic accumulator, 'pulsation pot'
or ' s t ; ~ r r t l l ~ ~ p cto' ) protect pipiri!] f r o m shock. See 3.1.2, ~ ~ r i r l e'Quick-aotiri!]
r 'Table F 10 y ~ v e sentrdnce loss, e x i t loss, tiow reststance ot reducers anti swagcss,e ~ .cc x y ~ r c ~ s w i l
e r ~ l of ()ti)e
to c c ~ u t v ~ ~ llerir)tl~,,
L ) [ ) I : ~ ~ I ~ ~ I I Slor IIOI~r o t i l l y v:1lves',
RASlC F O I I M OF
"""""";A~ ' .---
I""""""'
i -- .--
ioltl'lN1
( A M 01 * I ' , I O N

\WIN(sINl, V A N 1
S l A H AN!)
l,IllSl I N 1
TlIIPlf S(lllW
-

--
s w ,
IV
--- ..- - ...-..
-.

IIAlIlAl
HAM
,
llf I II'IIOCAlINl~

t
.- -- --
.-.- .- -- .
OIAFIIIIAI,M
-.- -
I . ...

-
N
--
5INI;Il
V

Sl I 4 I W
-
1
M I ' ~ C 1I I A N I ( \ t j \
- -- ... .. .- -.. .- -
.- .-
R l f ~ l &181
l
-..--

M I C I I A N I W , SHOWN
SCIIIMAIICALLY
I F L O W IS F R O M
L t f T 10 R I D H T I

( L O W I l A T t AT
CONSTANT D n l V E SPEED
U N I I O I I M I1 I O l A L I l l AU U N 1 . 1 4 A N l ~ ~ D SUM1 VARlAIlON
I I J N I F O R M AT C O N \ T A N T D H l V C SPEED

OISCHARGE PRFSSURt LOW TO M f D l I l M

, =, CL C A N L I O I J I O S

1
! 2;
:; OILS
VlSCOlJS t l O l J l D 5

:$ SlURRIES

TYPES OF PUMP VELOCITY HEAD


A pump is a dt:v~ce for rnov~nqa f l t j ~ dfrom onc place to ariothcr t h ~ uplpes
01 rhCtnnels. Chart 3 3, a selection qu~defor pumps, puts varloos typos of
Usually the liquid being pumped is stationary before entering the suction
pump used ~ndustrlallyInto five cataqorles, based or\ operatlriq pr~nctple.In piping, and some power is absorbed in accelerating it to the suction line
CHART
cornrnon reference, the ternis centr~lugal, rotary, screw, and reclprocat~nq velocity. This causes a small 'velocity head' loss (usually about 1 ft) and
are used Chart 3.3 IS not compreheris~ve pumps ut1l171rig othr?r priric~ples may be found from table 3.2, which is applicable to liquid of any density, 3.3
are 111 use About nine out of ten pumps used ~n ~ndustryare of the centrl- if the velocity head is read as feet of the liquid concerned.
fugal type.
The follow~nq~ n f o r r n a t ~ oISn glven to enable an est~rnate to be made of VELOCITY & VELOCITY HEAD T A B L E 3.2
rc!qu~red total head, pump s ~ l e , cap~lcily, arid ho~scpower tor planti~rig
purposes. Data In the Guide permit estlmat~ngpunip requliernents for water ( VELOCITY (Ftlrec) 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 15 \
systems. VELOCITY HEAD (Ft.) 0.25 0.39 0 5G 0.76 0 99 1 26 1 55 2 24 3 50

PUMP 'TOTAL HEAD'


Flow rate, liquid velocity and cross-sectional area (at right angles to flow)
A pump Imparts energy to the pumped I ~ q u i dThis energy IS able to raise the
are related by the formulas:
l ~ q u ~tod a height, or 'head'. The 'total hcad' of a pump (In 11) IS the energy
FIGURE
(In f t Ib) Imparted by the purrip to each pound of I ~ q u ~In
0 ~ 1 r t of the total hcad IS used l o overcomc? f r ~ c t ~ o
d p ~ p e dsystems,
Innthe plplng, w h ~ c hresults Flow rate in cubic feet per sccorld = ( v ) ( a )/(144) , 3.5
r r i o prr:ssurc dl op (or 'headloss'). FlowrateinUSgalloris~~errninutc? = (3,11G9)(v)(;1)
For a centrifugal pump, the same total head can be imparted to all liquids of
where: v = liquid velocity in feet per second
corriparable viscosity, and is independent of the liquid's density: Ihe required
driving power increases with density. Figure 3.3 relates the total liead provid. a = cross-sectional arm iri squart! inctit!~(table P-1)
ed by the pump to the headlosses in the pumped system.
POWER CALCULATIONS
PRESSURE & 'HEAD'
In US customary units, pressure ( p ) in PSI is related to head ( h ) in ft: If S.G. = specific gravity of the purnped liquid, H = total head in feet of the
p [PSI] = (d)(h)l(144) = (S.G.)(h)l(2.31), where d is liquid density iri Ib/ft3, pumped liquid, and p = pressure drop in PSI, then:
arid S.G. is specific gravity. Atmospheric pressure at sea level is equal to
14.7 PSIA, the pressure generated by a 34-ft heighl of water. TABLE
(GPM)(H)(S.G.) -
-
( G P-
- M)(p)
Hydraulic horsepower = 3.2
3960 1714
The mechanical efficiency, e, of a pump is defined as the hydraulic horse- TYPES OF COMPRES%OR
power (power transferred to the pumped liquid) divided by the brake horse-
power (power applied to tlrc driv~ngshaft of the pump). RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR Air or other gas is pressttrized i n cylinders
by reciprocating pistons. If the compressor is lubricated, the outflow may
If the purnp is driver1 by an electric motor which has a mechanical effi-
be contaminated by oil. If an oil-free outflow is required, the pistons may
cit!ncy el, the electricity demand is:
be fitted with graphite or teflon piston rings. Flow is pulsating.
G M . - (GPM)(p) R O T A R Y SCREW COMPRESSOR Air or other gas enters pockets formed
Kilowatt (KW) = -
(531O)(ef(em) (2299)(e)(em) between mating rotors and a casing wall. The pockets rotate away from
the inlet, taking the gas toward the discharge end. The rotors do not touch
Oftrri, estini~ltesof brdke horsepower, electricity demand, etc., must be made each other or the casing wall. Outflow is uncontaminated in the 'dry type'
w ~ ( i ) o u proper
t knowledge of the efficienctes.To obtain estimates, the mcch- of machine, in which power is applied to both rotors thru external timing
dr~~r,dleffrcicncy of d contrrfugal pump may be assumed t o be 60% and that gears. I n the 'wet type', power is applied to one rotor, and both rotors are
of ari clectrlc nlotor 80%. separated by an oil film, which contaminates the discharge. Flow is uniform.
R O T A R Y V A N E COMPRESSOR resembles the rotary vane pump shown in
COMPRESSORS, BLOWERS & F A N S 3.2.2 chart 3.3. Variation in the volume enclosed by adjacent vanes as they rotate
produces compression. Ample lubrication is required, which rnay introduce
REFERENCES
contamination. Flow is uniform.
'Compressed air and gas data'. Editor Gibbs C.W. (Ingersoll-Rand)
ROTARY LOBE COMPRESSOR consists of two synchronized lobed rotors
'Air receivers'. Section 1910.169 of the Code of Federal Regulations; CFR
Occupatlorlal Safety and Health Adnrinistration (OSHA) turning within a casing, in the same way as the pump shown i n chart 3.3
(under 'spurgear' type). The rotors do not touch each other or t h e casing.
No lubrication is used within the casing,and the outflow is not contaminated.
Flow is uniform. This machine is often referred to as a 'blower'.
Cur~~pressors are used to supply high-pressure air for plant use, to pressurize
refrigerant vapors for cooling systems, to liquefy gases, etc. They are rated D Y N A M I C COMPRESSORS resemble gas turbines acting in reverse. Both
by their maxlmum output pressure and the number of cub~cfeet per minute axial-flow mact-iines and centrifugal machines (with radial flow) are available.
of a gas ttar~dledat a specified speed or power, stated at 'standard corrd~tions', Centrifugal compressors commonly have either one or two stagcs. Axial
60 F and 14.7 PSlA (not at compressed volume). 60 F is accepted as standard compressors have at least two stages, but seldom more than 16 stages.
temperaturr? by the gas industry. The outflow is not contaminated. Flow is uniform.

The term 'compressor' is usually reserved for machines developing high press- L I Q U I D R I N G COMPRESSOR This type of compressor consists of a single
ures in closed systems, and the terms 'blower' and 'fan' for machines working multi-bladed rotor which turns within a casing of approximately eiliptic cross
at low pressures in open-ended systerns. section. A controlled volume of liquid in the casing is thrown to the casing
wall with rotation of the vanes. This liquid serves both to compress and to
COMPRESSOR PRESSURE RANGES TABLE 3.3 seal. Inlet and outlet ports located i n the hub comm~~nicate
with the pockets
formed between the varies and the liquid ring. These compressors have special
advantages: wet gases and liquid carryover including hydrocarbons which are
troublesome with other cornpressors are easily handled. Additiorral cooling is
seldom required. Condensible vapor car1 bc recovered by using liquid sirnilar
1 thru 15 PSIG to that in the ring. Flow is uniform.
Up t o 1 PSlG (about 30 i r i . water)
EQUIPMENT FOR COMPRESSORS

INTERCOOLER A heat exchanger used for cooling compressed gas between


COMPRESSING I N STAGES stages. Air must out he cooled beI11w the dew point (at the tlighor 1)ressure)
as rrioisturc w ~ l irltcrfere
l w ~ t hlubrication and cause wear in the r~extstage.
GJWS (111~111ditlg air) car) be cornpressed in orte or rrlorc operations terr~\c?tl
AFTERCOOLER A ticat exchanger used for cool~rlggas after cornprcsslon IS
's~;~!jc!s'. t ; ~ r ; t ~stagr! can I~andlca practicablr: increase ill prtlssurc t~clorc
corriplcted. If air is t~cirlgcornpresscd, chilling perrrlrts rernoval of rr~uchof
tc!ii\[)t!ratilrc increast! due to the conlpressiorl rlect!ssitates coulirl<l tl~t!girs.
the rrtoisture.
Coolirig bc!twct:r\ stages is offectcd by passing the gas ttiru all ir~tc!rcoc~ler.
St;lcji~r!j perrr~iis hi!jh ~~ressurcs,and lower discharge ternpcraturt;s, with DAMPENER or SNUBBER; V O L U M E BOTTLE or SURGE D R U M Reclp-
rt!tlt~ccitl strcti;sris oil (ltu coiil[)ressor. roualin!] cor~~pct?ssors
crcatc pulsations in ttlu air or gas wllict~[nay c a w thc?
tllsctiargr? atidlor srrctiori p ~ p i n gto resonate arid damage the compressor or C o M P n E s s o R CHARACTERISTICS T A B L E 3.4

~ t svalves. A darript!ricr, or snubber, is a t);3ffled vesst!l wtilch srnoc~tl~s pulsa-


tlorls Iri flow. A volurrie I ~ o t t l eor sllrge drljni has tlie same purpose?, l ~ u lacks
t
COMPRESSOR TYPE
I);lfll(!s. Tllcsr! tlr!v~cc!s ill(! riot riorr~iillly1)art of tlir! corrll)rr!ssor II~~(:~;I~JI!,
:iricl
ilrc? rtltcn boright se[)aratc?ly( w ~ t ttliei corrlpressor maker's rccor~~rrientfat~ons).
1-arqc cornpressors niay retjuire an arraiigernerit of 'choke tubes' (restrictior~s)
,111d'bottles' (vessels), conforming to a theoretical design arid located near the
cornpressor's outlet, upstream of the aftercooler.
1IN!locat~onof the following four iteriis of equipment is shown in figure 6.23
SEPARATOR (normally used only with air compressors) A water Separator ROTARYVANE 125 OIL 4 150 to 6,000
is often provided following the aftercooler, and, sometimes, also at tlie intake
ROTARY LOBE 30 NONE 50,000
to a compressor tiavirig a long suction line, if water is likely to collect in
tlie line. Eacti separator is provided with a drain to allow continuous removal ROTARY SCREW 125 NONE1 4 30 to 150
NON LUQEDILUQED 01L
of water.
LIQUID RING 75" WATER 1.6 to 2 2 20 to 5,000
RECEIVER Refer to 'Discharge (supply) lines' and 'Storing compressed air', or other
1

this section.
* F i g u r e applies t o a two-stage machine
SILENCER IS used to suppress objectionable sound which may radiate from
an air intake.
FILTER is provided in the suction line to an air compressor to collect FLOW OF COMPRESSED AIR: T A B L E 3.5
PRESSURE DROPS O V E R 1 0 0 Ft PIPE,
pil~tlculate matter. W I T H AIR E N T E R I N G A T 1 0 0 PSIG"
(Adapted from data published by lngemll-Rand)

The following information is given as a guide for engineering purposes --


FREE AIR NOMINAL PIPE SIZE (INCHES) -SCHEDULE 40 PIPE
LlNE SIZES FOR AIR SUCTION & DISTRIBUTION INFLOW
(SCFM)
SUCTION L l N E Suction lines and manifolds should be large enough to pre-
40 1.24 0 37
verit excessive noise arid starvation of the air supply. I f the first cnnipression
70 Presslire drop sn~nllerrharr
stage is reciprocating, the suction line should allow a 10 t o 23 ftlsec flow: 90 600 169 019 than 0 I PSI per 700 11
if a single-stage reciprocating compressor is used, the intake flow should not 100
be faster than 20 ftlsec. Dynamic compressors can operate with faster intake 400
velocities, but 40 ftlsec is suggested as a maximum. The inlet reducer for 700
a dynamic compressor should be placed close to the inlet nozzle. 900
1,000
DISCHARGE (SUPPLY) LINES are sized for 150 to 175% of average flow, 4,000
depending on the number of outlets in use at any time. The pressure loss in 7,000 877 106
a t~ranclishould be lirnited to 3 PSI. The pressure drop in a hose should riot 9,000 1 75
I t ~ d i l35 p.d71r o per
Pr~ssclre 700 / I
p lnrqer
exct?ed 5 PSI. The pressure drop in distribution piping, from ttie cornpressor 10,000 2 13
to tlie most remote part of the system, should not be greater than 5 PSI (not 40,000 33 8
~ncl~rdlilg t~oses),
'Pressure drop varies tnversely as absolute pressure of entering nlr
'rfit!st? suggested pressure drops niay be used to select line sizes with the aid
of table 3.5. From the required SCFM flow in the line to be sized, find the
POWER CONSUMPTION
rit!xt higher flow in the table. Multiply ttie allowed pressure drop (PSI) in the
lirlc! t ~ y100 and divide by the length of the line in feet to obtain the PSI drop The power consumption of the diffcrr:rlt coiiljlrcssor typr!s is cllaractf?ristic.
per 100 ft-find the next lower figure to this in the table, and read required Table 3.4 gives the horsepower riectfctf a t an o t ~ t p u tpressure of 100 PSIG.
line size. Power consumption per CFM rises witti risirig output pressure. Air cooling
Equipment drawing air at a high rate for a short period is best served by a adds 3-5% to power consumption (including fan drivc). ' F A D ' power con-
receiver close to the point of maximum use-lines can then be sized on sumption figures for cornpressors of 'average' power consumption are givt!n.
avcrage demand. A minimum receiver size of double ttie SCF used in intcrrnit- 'FAD' denotes 'free air delivered corresponding to standard c ~ i t ~ i11c per
tent demand should limit the pressure drop at the end of the period of use to TABLES
minute (SCFM) or liters per iniriute rneasirrcd as set o ~ r tin AShilE PTC9,
about 20% in the worst instances and keep i t under 10% in most others. BS 1571 or DIN 1945.' 3.3-3.5
[43I
SPECIFIC POWER CONSUMPTION (FAD) UNLOADING (POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSORS)

'Unloading' is the ren~ovalof the compression load from the running corn-
pressor. Compressors are unloaded at startup and for short periods when
HP per 1130 C F M INFLOW
demand for gas falls off. Damage to the compressor's drive motor can result
if full compression duties are applied suddenly.
COOLING-WATER REQUIREMENTS I f the vendor does not provide means of unloading the compressor, a manual
or automatic bypass line should be provided between suction and discharge
Coollng-water dernand IS normally shown on the vendor's P&ID or data sheet.
Most of the water denland is for the aftercooler (and intercooler, with a two- (on the compressor's side of any isolating valves)-see figure 6.23.
stage compressor). Jackets and lube oil may also require cooling. As a guide, Provision should be made so that the discharge pressure cannot rise above a
8 US gallons per hour are needed for each horsepower supplied to the comp- value which would damage the compressor or its driver. Automatic unloading
ressor. If the final compression is 100 PSIG, the water demand will usually will ensure this, and the control actions are listed in table 3.6.
be about 2 US GPH per each SCFM inflow. These approximate demands
are based on an 40 F temperature increase of the cooling water. Demand AUTOMATIC UNLOADING TABLE 3.6
ACTIONS FOR COMPRESSORS
for cooling water increases slightly with relative humidity of the incoming
air. AUTOMATIC CONTROL
COMPRESSOR
~~~~~~E ACTION
QUANTITIES O F M O I S T U R E CONDENSED
FROM COMPRESSED A I R Not running Low-reaches Starts compressor unloaded
lower set value accelerates to normal speed:
and brings on load
The follow~ngcalculatior~ (taken from the referenced Atlas Copco manual) Running Hi h-reaches Unloads compressor for a
IS for a two-stage conipressor, and is based on moisture content given in the hi$ er set value preset period
table below Low-reaches Reloads compressor
reload pressure
DATA: Capacr ty of the compressor = 2225 SCFM before idling
period i s over
Idling
Temperature of the incoming air = 86 F Switches o f f compressor
Relative hurnidlty of the incoming air = 75%
Medium-idlin
period endsbegore
reload pressure
i s reached
Outlet temperature = 86 F L L

Air pressure = 25.3 PSIG, or 40 PSIA


Water separation efficiency = 80% STORING COMPRESSED A I R
Outlet air temperature = 86 F

CALCULATIONS:
I
Aftercooler Air pressure = 100 PSIG, or 115 PSIA
Water separation efficiency = 90%
A limited amount of compressed air or other gas can be stored in receivers.
One or more receivers provided in the compressor's discharge piping also
serve to suppress surges (which can be due to demand, as well as supply)
to assist cooling, and to collect moisture. Receivers storing air or other gas
(1) Fronl the table, weight of water vapor i n 2225 SCFM air at 86 F and are classed as pressure vessels-refer to 6.5.1.
75% R t i = (0.00189)(2225)(0.75) = 3.15 Ib/min. RECEIVER CONSTRUCTION Usual construction is a long vertical cylinder
(2) Rate of removal of condensed water from intercooler, thru trap with dished heads, supported on a pad. Water will collect in the base, and
= (0.8) [3.15 -- (0.00189)(2225)(14.7)/(40)] = 1.28 Iblmin., or therefor a valved drain must be provided for manual blowdown. Collected
(1.28)(60)/(8.33) = 9.2 US GPH water may freeze in cold climates. Feeding the warm air or gas at the base of
(3) Rate of removal of condensed water from aftercooler, thru trap the receiver may prevent freezing, but the inlet must be designed so that it
= (0.9) 13.15 - 1.28 - (0.00189)(2225)(14.7)/(115)]= 1.20 Ib/min., or cannot be closed by water if i t does freeze.
(1.20)(60)/(8.33) = 8.6 US GPH
CAPACITY NEEDED A srmple rule to decide the total receiver volume IS to
(4) Total rate at w t ~ ~ cwater
h is removed from both coolers dlvide the compressor rat~ngin SCFM by ten to get the volurne In cub~cfeet
= 9.2 + 8.6 = 17.8 US GPH for the recelver For example, if the compressor IS designed to t<tke 5500
MOISTURE CONTENT OF A I R A T 100% R H
cubic feet per mlnute, a recelver volume of atlout 550 cublc feet IS drlequdte
Th~srule IS considered suitable for outflow pressures up to about 175 PSIG
dnd where the cor~trrtuously runrllng compressor IS unloaded by ~tutotn~jtic
~ n g ' An exterlslve plplng systerrl for d ~ s t r ~ t ~ u t l n g
v,ilvcs-see ' U ~ ~ l o ~ ~ dabove
c,ornpressed dlr or other gas may have a capdclty suff~c~ently Idrqe 111 ~tstjlfto
survo <isa receiver
1441
PROCESS EQUIPMENT 3.3 SEPARATION 3.3.3

Eyiliprrient for scl)arntiori is evr?riinort? varictf. Etltliprricrit sc?p;~r;~tiri!l solids


on ttie basis of particle sire or spocific gravity aloric arc in rjeric?r;tl tc?rr~lcd
classifiers. T t ~ cbroader rnrigr! c~fsc!pitr;~tiorit?clui~rric!ntsc!p;tri,tt,s ptii~ser;(sol~d,
liquid, gas) and sornc! o f tlie types tlst?d;tro listt!tl i ~llic
i t;11111? tic!low
(1) C l i E M l C A L REACTION
(21 MIXING
SEPARATION EQUIPMENT T A D L E 3.8
(3) SEPARATION
(4) CHANGE OF P A R T I C L E S l Z E
(5) H E A T TRANSFER

t qiril~lncritrnariulacturc!rs give all information riecessary for ir~stallatioriand CENTRIFUGE

pipiliq.
[his sectiori is a quick rcfererict? to the furicliori of sorrie iterris of ecluipmcrit DEAE R A T O R
~st!din process work. Iri table 3.7, the furlction of the equipr.rient is expressed DEFOAMER
In terrns of tllr! pliase (solid, liquid or gas) of the process materials mixed. DISTILLATION COLUMN
Cxamples ( 1 ) A blender car1 mix two powders, and its furiction is tabulated
as "S+S". ( 2 ) An agitator can be used to stir a liquid into another liquid- this D R Y SCREEN
frrnction is tabulated " L t L " . Ariother large and varied group of equipment EVAPORATOR
achieves separations, and a similar method of tabulating function is used in
table 3 8. F I L T E R PRESS
FLOTATION T A N K S t L S L
FRACTIONATION COLUMN L ( 1 ) -1 L ( 2 ) None L(1). L(2),
CHEMICAL REACTION 3.3.1 -1 L ( 3 ) + etc L(3). etc t
SCRUBBER S t G S G
Chcrnical reactiorls are carried out in a wide variety of specialized equiprnerit,
SETTLING T A N K S t L S L
tt!r~ric:tl reectors, autoclaves, furnaces, etc. Reactions involving liquids, sus- STRIPPER L(1) + L(2) L(1) L(2)
pensions, arid soriietirnes gases, are often performed in 'reaction vessels'. The
vcssel i~ntfits cor~teritsfrequently have to be heated or cooled, and piping to a I tSeparrte flows
1G (;AS. L = LIUIII[). S S O L I D . S111.S121. L ( 1 1 . 1.171, etc -
R e m o v e d as v a p o r
[ I I F i E l l F N T SOL IDS OF1 k 1C)IJIIISI
L

I
jacket or ~nterrialsystern of coils has to be arranged. If reaction takes place
uriclcr pressurt?, tlit? vesscl rnay need to comply with the ASME Boiler and
Pressclre Vessel Code. Refer also to 6.5.1, under 'Pressure vessels', and to the
standards listed in table 7.10. CHANGE OF PARTICLE S I Z E 3.3.4

MIXING 3.3.2 Reduction of particle size is a cornrrion operation, and can be termed
'attrition'. Equiprrient used includes crustiers, rod-, t~itll-ancf tiamrner-mills,
,'variety
I o f cquipr~icnt is made for niixirig operations. Tlie principal types and-to acliieve the finest reductions-energy mills, which ruri on cornpressed
of equipn~erltare l~stedin table 3.7, air. Ernulsioris ('creams' or 'milks'), whicli are liquid-in-liquid dispersioris,
are stabili7ed by honiogcnirers, typically used on rnilk to reduce ttir! size
M I X I N G EQUIPMENT T A B L E 3.7 of ttie fat globules arid thus prevent creani from separating.
Occasionally, particle or lump size of the prodoct is irlcreased. Equiprrient for
I EQUIPMENT I PHASESMIXED 1 agglornerating, pelletizing, etc., is used. Exainples: tablets, sugar cubes, pow-
dered beverage and food products.
AGITATOR
B L E N D E R ( T U M B L E R TYPE)
PROCESS HEAT TRANSFER 3.3.5
EDUCTOR
M I X E R ( R I B B O N , SCROLL,
OR O T H E R T Y P E )
Adding and removirlg heat is a significant part of cliernical processing.
PROPORTIONING PUMP I-leat~ngor coolirig of process material is accomplished wit11 heat exchariyers,
PROPORTIONING V A L V E jacketed vcssels, or otlir:r heat transfer equipmcrlt Ttie project and p~ping
TABLE:
groups specify the duty and rnechanical arrangenient, but the detail design
3.6-3.8
is normally left to tlie niariufacturer.
1451
THE P I P I N G G R O U P 4.1 JOB FUNCTIONS

DESIGN (I) RE-SPONSIBLE F O R A L L F'C R S O N N E L I N G R O U P S


I'l;ir~t d(!si!j~i is d ~ v i d e dirlto several areas, e a c h the responsibility of a 'design SUPERVlSOR INCLUDING IRING
(2) C O O R D I N A T I N G W I T H O r H E R Gf?OCJPS ( A N D
g r o u o ' . C h a r t 4 . l ( a ) shows t h t ! n i a l r i groups uf people cooperating on the T t t t CI I f N T )
~ ) l ; ~ r ti lte s ~ g r l ,a r l t l t h e types of drawings f o r which they are responsible. Other (3) OVENALL PLANNING A N D SUPERVISING THE
GROUP'S WORK
groups, ~nvolvc?dwith instrurnentation, stress analysis, pipesupport, etc., c o n - (4) L I A I S O N W I T H PROJECT E N G I N F E R ( S )
t r ~ b u t ct o ( l i e dasign a t appropriate stages.
GROUP LEADER (1) SUPERRISIN(> D E S I G N & D R A F T I N G I N A R E A ( S )
Thc personnel rc?sponsiblc for ttie piping design may be part of an engineering A L L O C A T E D BY DESlGN SUPERVISOR
NOTE: O n small rojects,
d e p i l r t r n e n t ' s r n c c h a r t i c a l design group, or they may function as a separate may assume gesign (2) ASSIGNINGWOf7K TO DFSIGNCRS & DRAFTERS
Supervisor's duties
t dcpilrtniecit. F o r simplicity, this design group is referred t o as the
s c ! c t ~ c ~ ror (3) RESPONSIBLE F O R P L O T P L A N S . P L A N T DE.
SIGNS & P R E S E N T A T I O N 81 C O M P L E T E N E S S O F
'p111inq! ] r o u p l , 2 n d i t s i t ? l a t i o n s h i p with ttie o r g a n i z a t i o r t and basic activities f INIStiED DRAWINGS
COORDINATES MECttANICAL, STRUCTURAL,
art? irirficnted in chart 4.1 (a). ELECTRICAL, A N D C I V I L D E T A I L S F R O M OTHER
GROUF'S
C h a r t 4.1(c) shows the strrlcture of a design group. CHECKING & M A R K I N G VENDORS' DRAWINGS
OBTAINING INFORMATION FOR MEMBERS O F
T t i E GROUP
RESPONSIBILITIES O F T H E PIPING GROUP 4.1.1 ESTABLISHING TtIE N U M B E R O F DRAWINGS
R E Q U I R E D FOR E A C H JOB ( D R A W I N G C O N T R O L
OR REGISTER) S E E INDEX
ASSIGNING T I T L E S F O R E A C H D R A W I N G A N D
Ttlc pipirig qrolrp produces designs in the form1 of drawings and rnodel(s), M A I N T A I N I N G UP T O D A T E D R A W I N G C O N T R O L
OR R E G I S T E R O F D R A W I N G S . C H A R T S , G R A P t i S
stiowirlg cquipri~ent arid pipirig. A N D S K E T C H E S FOR E A C t i C U R R E N T P R O J F C T
E S T A B L l S t t l N G A D E S l G N G R O U P F l L l N G SYS
T E M F O R A L L I N C O M I N G & O U T G O I N G PAPER
Ttie f o l l o w ~ r t garc! provided by the p i p ~ n ggroup as its contribution l o the WORK
KEFI'ING A C U R R E N T SCHEDCJILF A N D R E C O R D
p l n ~t i dcs~qri- Of- HOURS WORKED
REQUISITIONING V I A PURCHASING DEPART
M E N T A L L PlPlNG M A T E R I A L S
(1) AN EQUIPMENT ARRANGEMENT DRAWING, USUALLY
CHECKER (1) CHECKING DESIGNERS' AND DRAFTtRS'
TERMED THE 'PLOT PLAN' DESIGNS A N D D E T A I L S F O R D I M E N S I O N A L
A C C U R A C Y A N D C O N F O R M I T Y W I T H SPECIt-I
C A T I O N S , P&lD's, V E N D O R S ' D R A W I N G S . ETC
(2) PlPlNG DESIGN (DRAWINGS OR M O D E L ) (2) IF AGREED WITH THE DESIGNER &/OR GROUP
LEADER. M A Y MAKE I M P R O V E M E N T S AWD
ALTERATIONS T O THE DESIGN
(31 PlPlNG DETAILS FOR FABRICATION A N D CONSTRUCTION
DESIGNER (1) PRODUCING STUDIES A N D L A Y O U T S OF EQUIP
ME N T A N D P l P l N G WI-iICH M U S T BE E C O N O M I C ,
(4) REQUISITIONS FOR PURCHASE O F PIPING M A T E R I E L SAFE. OPERABLE A N D E A S I L Y M A I N T A I N E D
(2) M A K I N G A N Y NECESSARY A D D I T I O N A L C A L C
U L A T I O N S TOR THE DESIGN
3 SCJPCRVISING r ) t ? A f T t RS
JOB FUNCTIONS 4.1.2

(111 j o ~ r ~ ~ rai ! cjc!si~jn


] o l f i c c 1 1 i s i r r ~ p o r t a n tthat the r i t ? w rriernhnr s h o { ~ l dknow DRAFTER M I N I M U M RESPONSIBILITIES A R E
(1) PRODUCING D E T A I L E D D R A W I N G S F R O M DE
w l l n t lirir? of autliority e x i s t s . This is especially irnportant wllen information S I G N E R S ' OR G R O U P L E A D E R S ' S T U D l t S OR
SKETCHES
is rcrluircci arid i t siivr?s tI1(? wrung peoplr? frorn t ) c i r i g interrupted. C h a r t 4.2 (2) SECONDARY DESIGN WORK
sl~owstwo typical liries o f authority. (Different companies will have different (3) F A M I L I A R 1 7 A T I O N W l T t l T I i F RECORDS, TILLS,
I N F O R M A T I ( 3 N S H f l TS A N [ > C O M P A N Y P R A C
set-ups arid jut) titics ) T l C t S R E L A T I N G T O T t i C 1'17OJt CT
1471
[a] PROJECT ORGANIZATION
H L A V Y LINESSHOW r i o w OF JNFORMATION
PERMANENT L C X C C U T I V E S T A F F o f ENGINEERING COMPANY
LIGHT LINES INDICATE AUTHORITY
CLIENT

t
H t A D OF H C A D OF H E A D OC titAO Of )if A 0 O F
MCCHANICAL Sf H U C T U H A I AHCttlrtcTuRA~ t LECTHlCAl (I V I I L N L I N L f HINO
DtSlGN Dt5lGN DESIGN OtSIGN L)tSl(sN

lilli I'M1 N I
~
01~! lI (~I<
,Al> l ll 0
ltl I 11 t 1, ENGINEERING COMPANY S T A F F ASSIGNED TO P A R T I C U L A R PROJECT

t 1 1 t
I!

_-- MECHANICAL&
PIPING
DESIGN GROUP
S~HUCTURAC
DESIGN GROUP
ARCHITECTURAL
DESIGN GROUP
ELECTRICAL
DESIGN GH3UP
C I V I L t N C > I Nf~RINL
D E S I L N (,flOlJP

P&IL) r h S P C C I F I C A T I O N S
t
SITE & P L O T P L A N S M O U E L h P I P I N b & H V h A C D R A W I N G S

STIIIJCTUIIAL UHAWINGS

Altt H I T E C T U H A L D R A W l N b S

t L < T H I < AL L)WA*lNGS

U N D ~ l i G R O U N OPlPlNCi & 4 f 1 A O I N L ORAWIN(,S


DESIGN I N F O R M A T I O N T O Plf'lNG GROUP 4.2 LINE DESIGNATION St-{EETS,or TAt3LES 4.2.3

Ttic?se sliccts cootnil1 tnt)c~l;~lc?tltl;itn s l i o w i r ~ ! ] ~ i o r i i ~ r ~pip(? i l l sir(?, rriateriijl


sy)ocific:ntiori, tfr!si!lri ; ~ r i t f oltr?ri~tiriqc o r i t l ~ t i o r i z i t r l c ! rirrrrrt~c?rsitrt? assigriotf i n
sttcli~cticc! o f f l o w , artti ;I sr!i~itr;llc! !;l~rv!l is ilri*o,!tiltf lor 13;)r:I) c:r)rivc:~~!ti f l r ~ i d
--see 5.2.5.
(1) JOO SCOI'i O O C U M f N T , W l i I C t I Dt f I N E S
P R O C f - V U H t S 7 0 U E CJSt I II N PF?CPAHIN(;
D L S I G N S K t T C I I E S A N D CIIAGRAMS
(2) PIPING & INSTRUMf N T A T I O N DIAGRAM
src
( t ' t t ~ ~ 5 2 4)
(31 L I S T OF M A J O R t OUII'MI N T ( F O U I P M I NT A d r a w l r i g riurntjcr relates ttir? d r , t w ~ ~ i lqo tlir [irojt!ct, c ~ r i ~rn,ly l t ~ ec o d e d
INLIE X ) , S l ' t C I A L I U C I I P M [ N r AN[) M A T
E R l A L S OF F A R f 3 I C A T I O N t o s l i o w sucti i r i f o r r ~ i ; ~ t ~as o n prolclct ( o r 'lot)') rirl~~it)r!r,areil o f p l a n t , r t r ~ d
FROM THE o r t q l n a t l n g g r o o p ( w l i ~ c l irrioy be 111rl1c;ltr:tf 'M' f o r rncch;lri~cal, etc.) f'lgurt?
(4) LINE LIFSIGNATION S H F F T S OR T A R L L S .
INCLUDING A S S I G N A T I O N O F L I N E NUM
PROJECT G R O U P
B F R S S E E 4 2.3 A N D 5 7 5 5 15 s l i o w s a riurnber ~ d e r i t ~ f y l n pc ol r t of a 01p1r1gs y s t e m
(5) SPECIFICATIONS FOR M A T E R I A L S U S E D
IN f'll'lNC; SYSTEMS SEf 4 2 1 T h e d r a w ~ r i gc o r i t r o l stiows thc: c l r a w ~ r i gr i u r ~ i t ~ c t title,
r, arid p r o g r e s s t o w a r d
(G) SCHEDULE OF COMPLFTION DATES (UP
DATED ON F E D B A C K INFORMATION)
n status of rcvlsior, arid ~sst~c!s1s s l i o w r i st!(! 5.4.3. T h c d r a w i n g
c o r ~ i p l e t ~ oTtie
(7) C O N T R O L S (METHODS O F W O R K I N G ~ E T C . ) c o n t r o l i s k e p t u p t o - d a t e b y t h e g ~ o It?a[lctr.
u ~
T O BE A D O P T E D F O R E X P E D I T I N G T H E
JO I
3

F R O M O T H E R GROUPS (8) DRAWINGS---SEE 5.2.7 D E S I G N GROUP-TWO TYPICAL LINES OF AUTHORITY CHART 4.2

Example 1 Exatnple 2
F R O M SUPPLIERS (9) VENDORS' PRINTS-SEE 5.2.7

HEAD O F DESIGN.
POLICY. CHIEF ENGINEER
DIRECTION
C H I E F ENGINEER DEPARTMENT HEAD

T h e s e consist o f separate specifications f o r p l a n t l a y o u t , p i p i n g materials,


C H I E F DESIGNER PROCF DUIIES. PROJECT E N G I N E E R
s u p p o r t i n g , fabrication, i r ~ s u l a t i o n , wc!ldiri~j, e r e c t i o n , p a i n t i n g a n d testing. S T A F I ING
T h c p i p i n g dcsigncr is r n o s t l y concerrrcd wit11 p l a n t l a y o u t arid nlateriel DESIGN SUPERVISOR ADMINISTRATION ASSISTANTISI

specifications, w h i c h d e t a i l t h e design requirr!rnents a n d materials f o r pipe,


flanges, f i t t i n g s , valves, etc., t o b e used f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t .
T h e p i p i n g m a t e r i a l s specificatiori u s u a l l y has ;In i n d e x t o t h e various services SFCTION LEADER(S1 S E C T I O N LEADER(S1
o r processes. T h e p a r t o f t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h a p a r t ~ c u l a rservice
GROUP LEADER(S1 PLANNING, GROUP LEADERISI
c a n b e i d e n t i f i e d f r o m t h e p i p i n g d r a w i n g l i n e n u m b e r o r P&ID l i n e n u r n b e r - SUPERVISION,
DESIGN
see 5.2.4 u n d e r ' F l o w lines'. A l l p i p i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s m u s t b e s t r i c t l y a d h e r e d COORDINATION
t o as t h e y a r e c o m p i l e d f r o m i n f o r r ~ i a t i o ns u p p l i e d b y t h e p r o j e c t g r o u p .
Altt-tough t h e fittings, etc., described in t h e G u i d e are t h o s c m o s t f r e q u e n t l y
used, t h e y w i l l n o t necessarily b e seen in e v e r y p i p i n g specification.

I
L E A D DESIGNERfSI L E A D DESIGNERIS1
On soriie p r o j e c t s (sucti as 'revamp' w o r k ) w h e r e t h e r e IS n o s p e c i f i c a t ~ o n , FOUIPMF NT & PIPING
SENIOR DESIGNERIS) SENIOR D E S I G N E R I S I
t t i c designer rriay b e r e s p o n s ~ b l cf o r s e l c c t ~ r i gn i a t c r ~ a l sa n d hardware, a n d i t IS LAYOUTS &
CALCCILATIONS
i m p o r t a n t t o give s i ~ f f ~ c i e innt f o r m a t ~ o nt o s p e c ~ f yt h e h a r d w a r e 111all e s s e n t ~ a l F R O M P&IDS

details. N o n - s t a n d a r d l t c m s are o f t e r i l ~ s t e db y t h e I t e m nurriber a n d / o r r n o d e l


I DESIGNERS I / DESIGNERS I
s p e c i f ~ c a t ~ of on r o r d e r l n g t a k e n f r o m t h e c a t a l o g o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r m a n u f a c t u r e r .

LIST O F EQUIPMENT, or EQUIPMENT INDEX 4.2.2


I SENIOR D R A F T E R f S I I PRODOCF D E T A I L L O
I DRAFTERS

DESl(rN T O
T t i i s shows, f o r cacti iterri o f equiprnerit, t h e e q u i p m e n t n u m b e r , e q u i p m e n t DE 3 1 b N I R 3
t i t l e , a n d status-that is w l i e t l i e r t h e itern has b e e n approved, ordered, a n d INSTRUCTIONS

w h e t h e r c e r t i f i e d vcridor's p r l n t s have b c c n received.


I DRAFTERS 1
1491
F I L I N G DRAWINGS 4.3 FILING SYSTEM C H A R T 4.3

There dre two types of draw~ngsto f~le-those produced by the group and
ttiosc rece~vedby t t ~ egroup The former are f~ledIn numerical order under
f)Idrit or tlntt rit~rrlbcrill ttie drdwlrtg office ort a 'stick file' or in a drawer-
see 4 4 10 Tilt?fillng of the latter, 'foreign1, prints IS often poorly done, caus-
ing tlrne to be wdsted dnd irtformation to be lost. These prlnts are contmonly
filed by eqc~iprr~ertt lrtdex rturnber, placing all rnformatlon connected wlth
- -.-....- - - -- ..- -. .
..- -- - . . --
ttiat item of erjuiprlierit in the orit! flle. .. - -- - - . - .

CUOLiNG W A l ~ l i
. -- -. -.-- -- . . . .
A sti!~!~(!sted
method lor lilirlg these incoming prints is illustrated in chart 4.3, f l AfiL S T A C K
--
.. --- -....--. .- - - .....
. -.-.. .. -- - . -. ..- - . .
wlricii cross-references process, lurtction, or area with the group originating 4 i(ltl011
tire dr;lw~rty, arld with associated vessels, equipment, etc. All correspondence
SOLVENTS
bctwet?rt the project ant1 design groups, client, vendors, and field would be
Iilr:d under 'rero', as shown. a --- - -- -- ..

V L N T I L A T I O N -- O F F I C E S

M A T E R I A L S & TOOLS FOR T H E D R A F T I N G ROOM 4.4 VtNTlLATlON - PROCESS A R t A

PAPER 4.4.1

Velli~rrlpaper and mylar film are used for drawings. Drawing sheets must be
translucent to the light used in copying machines. Mylar with a coated drawing
Paperwork classified according t o a system of this type may be located i n a filing
surflice is more expensive than vt!llum, but is preferable where durability and
cabinet fitted with numbered dividers as shown :-
tlirrir!r~s~onal stability are importartt. Sheets can bc supplied printed with border
arid titlit t~lockarid witti a 'fade-out' ruled grid on ttie reverse side. 'lsornetric'
S T A N D A R D D I V I D E R S FOR F I L I N G C A B I N E T
stit,tets wit11 fade-out 30-tle!lrce grid are available for drawing isos.

ANSI 14 1 defines the following flat drawing-sheet sizes (in inches): ( A ) 8Xxl1,
22x34, ( E ) 34x44.
(8)1 1x l 7 , (C) 17x22, (0)
l~iternationaldrawin!) sheet sizes of approximately the same dimensions are
defiried ( i n inclics) as: (A4) 8.27x11.69, (A3) 11.69~16.54,(A2) 16.54x23.39,
(A11 23 39~33.11,(AO) 33.11 x46.81.

PAPERS FOR COPYING MACHINES Ptlotosensitive paper is used for


ri~akinclprirrts for checking, issuirlg and filing purposes. 'Sepia' photocopying to smearing on handling, Grades harder than 3H terid to cut paper making
papcr (Oralid Corripany, etc.) gives brown positive prints which rrtay be lirtes difficult to erase. Conventional leads are 2 mm in tliarnetr?r :lrrd rt!quirc!
arnerrdcd with pencil o r ink, arid the revision used as an original for photo- frequent repainting. 0.5 rrim and 0.3 mrn leads speed work, as tlley rleeti no
copying iri a diazo mnclrine. Sepias may also be used to give a faint back- repoiriting. Conventional leads are not suitable for use on plast~cfilrris as tt1r:y
ground pririt for drawirig ottier work over, such as ducting or pipe supports. smear artd are difficult to erase. 'Film' leads arid pericils are itvailablt iii t l ~ e
Tiit: ilti;tIily of sepia prints is not good. Positive pllotocopies of superior same sizes as co~iveritionallends, arid in dtf ferent grades of ti;~riirictss
clii;~llty arc ~riitileon cletjr plastic film, wtiiclt rrlay have eitttei continuous
r!irriils~c~i~to !live: Iictavy copies, o r scr(!crtt!tl t:rr~illsinn tu yield faint backgrot~rld Clirtctl pericils (Ir!:tcl iioltlers) sttitable for tisc witti citlic?r iypc! of t l ~ t tsirr,~lic:r
1'1 iiits (~:~ritrIsiorrslrotrltf ~ ) ~ ( ! l c r i j tl)o
~ l water-rc~i~uvattln).
y tliarrlr?ter lrtatfs Iiavr! :I ~tust~.t)~r
t ton arfvanclt

LEADS 81PENCILS 4.4.2


SCALES 4.4.3
I't!ricil Ii!,~ds osud irl tllc drawirig office art! iivailal)lc in tlte followirl!] graclr?s,
bt:!ji~iri~n!j witli tlic soltest : 13 (uscd for sllodirlg), 111) (rrstr:~llyiist!tl lor wrilirl!] 'TI\(! arc:I~itet:t's scalt! is used for ~ i ~ i drawiitgs,
ng and is d~v~clt!cl11ito Iri~c;t~c~rrt;
l l y((!st giildo used for tlraf tin!]), 11 (grade iriost ol tun used for
orrly), 1: ( ~ l s ~ i , ~sot of a11 ir~clito on[: loot-lor exarnplr;, 318 iricti per foot. Tlir! t!ir!jir~r!or'ssc;il(!
(11illtrry), 21 1 (t~st!tlIur tlr;~wir~!j tllir~rlt?rlines s\icll as dirnc!~lsior~lines), 3H oricJ is clst!tl to draw sitt! plarls, tjtc., and is rlivid~!dinto unr! i ~ t ( :CIOI
l ~ ti^ ttfrl iiir11il)1!1
(111 (cisotl lor liiirit lirtt!s lor layotit or back!jrou~lrl). Suftttr pcr~cilingis prolic! of loot, s~rcli;IS 1 ir~c:t~ ~)r!r30 Icc!t.
I !I 0 1
- -.
COPYING PROCESSES 4.4.1 1 The negative is projected through a contact screen and a print rnadc on
'reproducible' film. Dimensions, notes, etc., are added to the r~producible
' D I J L ~ 'or 'tlyell~ie' processes reproduce to the same scale as the or~ginal f i l r ~ iwhich car) be printed by a diazo process-see 4.4.1 1 . Tt~eseprints are
drdwlng ,is ,I posltlvc copy or print Brurling and Oralid rndct~~ncs are often used as working drawings, and distributed to those needing infor~iiittion.
erriployed The! drcjwing t l i d t is to be copied rriitst be on trdcing paper, linen
or f~lrn,dnd tlic copy is mdde or1 Iigtit-sensit~vepdpers or filins The older
R E V A M P WORK FOR EXISTING PLANTS
reversed tone 'blue-print' is no longer In use.

A Polaroid (or vldeo) carnera can be used to supply v~ewsof t l ~ oplorlt arid
SCALED P L A N T MODELS 4.4.1 2 urlrecorded changes. Filed drawings of a plant do not dlwllys ir~clttclr!dlterd
t ~ o r ~or
s , deviat~onfrom orig~naldeslyri
I'l,~nt rnodels are ofteri used in dcsigr~iriglarge installations ~nvolvingmuch
pip~rlg WIlcrl dcs~gci of tile pldnt 1s completed, the model IS serlt to tlle
s~te as the bds~s of construction In the place of orthograptlic draw~ngs.
Some engineering corriparlies strorigly advocate their use, w t ~ i c hnecessitates Photographs of sections of a plant can be combined with drawings to facilitate
nid~ritd~n~rig a model stlop and retaining trairied personnel Scalcd model installation of new equipment, or to make further changes to the existirig
piping coniponcrlts are ava~lable in a wide range of sizes. The followir~g plant. To do this, ptlotographs are taker, of the required views, using a
color codlrlg may be used on rnodcls - camera fitted with a wide-angle lens (to obtain a wider view).

PIPING . . . . . . . . . . . YELLOW, RED or BLUE The negatives obtained are printed onto screened positive films w h ~ c t iare
EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GREY attached to the back of a clear plastic drawing sheet. Alteratloris to thc alp-
INSTRUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . ORANGE ing system are then drawn on the front face of this shoet, linking tlie photo-
ELECTRICAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GREEN graphs as desired. Reproductions of the composite drawlng are rriade ~ rttiei
usual way by diazo process.
ADVANTAGES
Alternately, positives may be marked directly for minor changes or Instruc-
0 Available routes for piping are easily seen tions to the field.
0 Interferences are easily avoided
0 Piping plan and elevation drawings can be eliminated; only the model, PHOTOGRAPHIC L A Y O U T S
plot plan, P&ID's, and piping fabrication drawings (isos) are required
The following technique produces equipment layout 'drawings', and is
r The rnodel can be photograplied - see 4.4.13. especially useful for areas where method study or investigatiorlal reports
0 Provides a superior visual aid for conferences, for construction crews are required.
and for training plant personnel First, equipment outlines are produced to scale on photographic film, either in
DISADVANTAGES the regular way or by xerography. Next, a drawing-sized sheet of clear film is
laid on a white backing sheet having a correctly-scaled grid niarked on it.
0 Uupliclttion of the rnodel 1s expensive
0 Ttic model is riot uas~lyportable and is liable to damage dur~rigtrans- The building outline and other features can be put onto the film using the
~ortdtion variety of printed transparent tapes and decals available. Tllc pieces o f filrri
with equipmerit outlir~esmay then be positlonod wittl clear tapc, and any
0 Ct\,~rigt!s(~ic!ilot rc!cortit:d iri the rrlodel itself
other parts of the 'drawing' corrlpletetf. Alter;~tions to thr! layout rriay bu
riljlidly made with this tcctiniqite, which piioto?jraptis wi!ll for rojtorts, arid
PIiOTOGRAPHIC AIDS 4.4.13 allows prints to be rriatle in the usual ways for marking ;ir.id cornciicirit. Tlit!
fill11 layot~t slioiild be covered wi t t i ;in acetate or otlicr protrctlvc sticxt
'DRAWINGS' F R O M THE MODEL tlefore insertion iri a copying iriactiirlc!.

I lie l ~ ofk pol ti~bllity of a scalcd pli~rttrnodcl can /I(! partially ovctrc:orric?l)y R E D U C T I O N BY I'HOTOGRAPHY
j j l \ ~ t ~ g ~ i ~ i ~11.t \ i1~o iO{J ! j tl~i:;it ITI~IS! IJC~l~!si!]t~c(I SO t l i i ~ tit (:;II~ ti~kc!~I iIl)i~ri
u ~ s ~ l y .Plioto!lrapt~s car] be ir~acfeto c u r~e s l ~ o ~closoly ~d to Ill(! r~t!)irlirr j)li11i,
~ ! ~ ~ ! ~ ilil(1~ l ~ ll :O
; l ll ll l l ~ ?\)l~j~t:!iOrlS
~l~~ tly ~ ~ ~ l ~ ~till! ~ 1~1 l ~ ~ l ~~~i 1~~~!1l 1 i40
1 1l ~ l ~ l ~ l l ~ ]
or I I I ~ I ~ Ii !~ w ; ~wit11
y lorl!] l o c i ~ lIt!rl!lll~ I[!ilscs-,-'var~isl~ii~!j i ~ o i f ~ l s(c:o~ivc~!li~i!j
'
l~~it!:;)111 t t ~ op ~ ~ t t i r~t I! I C ~ ~ I l c c ~ i~vI~~ lI IyI ~ I I ~ I ~ ( ! I ~ ,
I
- .- -.
.., - = _ . ? -,3
2- , - = Tl --
-
-z - . G z g z 2
--
z.2 &;z -. -.
m
.- C: 3,s-. 27
na
-T --Z K ?-- &-= z
r= Y,
-.
O .-..
-.
--- -- % < Z--. 2s z2..
-.
- - a ,= -
5
-- '3 2 . LO.
z - 7
-z3 3
, -
V)
- - -_ -- Z- , Z &
.
- 3 = ; ^ 3 a m
- - - -
- 2 7
y z z s - z -5. .-.+
2 2 c: z ,.""-
C
' V ) Z J h ,"
3 - -<-,3
c - g m5 . 3
= o -. T
J a
7

5 5
--. 3 - z ,o, z qz,.
d .
is; =s-: a
-.
%rm25~e d

- C)
35.- '
i - o
-
2 d
- c -
.=z. e : 2 $ .
9 - %
zzcns
,,e?"0
;-- T- z s g 5
< ". - O -
g - -m = 3-
C - + r J
-
% 2 ",G.Zn
":gE=.s
0:3 C T z;;; --.I
eo
~ _ - U FC A . 1

ZG.3 5; 2
=
2 ;;ZD-.C+ - 7 V)
L I N E SYMBOLS WHICH M A Y BE USED O N A L L D R A W I N G S 5.1.2 MISCELLANEOUS SYMBOLS FOR PIPING D R A W I N G S 5.1.6
Chart 5.1 stlows commonly accepted ways of drawing various lines. Many Symbols that are shown in a similar way in all systems are collected in chart
o:l;er Il::e symbols Itaile been devised but most of these 2 % n o t readily recog- 5.7.
nized, and it is better to state in words the function of special lines, partic-
G E N E R A L ENGINEERING SYMBOLS 5.1.7
ularly on process flow diagrams and P&ID1s. The designer or draftsrnan
should use his current employer's symbols. Chart 5.8 gives some symbols, signs, etc., which are used generally and are
likely to be found or needed on piping drawings.

SIN181 t 1 I N P I P I N G
PIPING, U N O f R O R O I J N D O H OHSCURCD BY t O U I P M E N 1

SIGNAL I I N S T R U M E N T I L I N E S

IN5THIJMCNl AIR I P N E U M A I I C S I L N A L I
I N S T H U M E N 1 L I O U I O ( H Y O H A U L I C SIGNAL1

CLtCTfiOMAGNETIC. O H SONIC
I N S I H U M C N T CAPILLARY TUBING

V A L V E 8( EQUIPMENT SYMBOLS FOR P&ID's &


PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS

Pr,~ctlc,u III sliow~riyeclu~pment IS not uniform. Chart 5 2 is based on ANSl


Y32 1 1, and appl~r!sto P&IDfs and process flow diagrams
REPRESENTING PIPING O N PIPING D R A W I N G S 5.1.4

Charts 5.3-6 show symbols used in butt-welded, screwed and socket-welded


systems. Tile various aspects of the fitting, valve, etc., are given. These sym-
bols are based on conventional practice rather than the ANSl standard
Z32.2.3, titled 'Graphic syrnbols for pipe fittings, valves and piping'.
REPRESENTING V A L V E S ON PIPING D R A W I N G S 5.1.5

Cli(~rt5.6 sl~.~wsways of denoting valves, including stems, handwhc?elsand


otller operators. l'tlc symbols are based on ANSl 232.2.3, but rnore valve
tyl~esare covered arid tlie presentation is up-dated. Valve handwhttels stlould
to be drawn t o scale wit11 valve sten) shown fully cxtcnded.
ATMOSPHERIC ICONC R O O F ) T A N K F L O A T I N G ROOF TANK

C A T A L Y T I C REACTOR
SECT I O N DISC A N D D O N U T
lSCllONAL L Y P A CK L O I OPEN ot V E N T E D

PROCESS STREAM

S H t L L SIDE F E F D CONDENSATE
'CHARTS
COOLED OUTFLOW
5.1 & 5.2A

CONTINUOUS TUNNEL D R Y E R

WITH M A N U A L D R A I N WITH A U T O M A T I C D R A I N

FILTER a STRAINER
RDTARYDRYER~ROTARY

PROfVRTIONING PUMP
N O R T t i ARROWS.

( 1 ) FOR PLANS A N D F L E V A T I O N S

(2) FOR ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS


FOR 'HOI L)' --- W O f { K I N O1JI !;1 ION

ENCIRCLE AREA
OF CHANGE INCLUDING
REVISION TRIANGLE
ON FRONT OF SHE ON REAR OF SHEET
G O F THE PREVIOUS T R I A N G L E

ES (COORDIN.

A N D t i & V DRAWINGS)
( 2 ) HOLE. ( A R C H )

T Y P I C A L SECTION INDICATORS. LETTERS 'I'


A N D '0' SHOULD NOT RE USED T O A V O I D
CONFUSION W I T H N U M E R A L S '1' A N D '0'.
IF M O R E T H A N 24 S E C l l O N S ARE NEEDED, STRUCTURAL STEEL SECTIONS.
USE COMBINATIONS OF LETTERS A N D NUM- (11 ANGLE. (21 CHANNEL. (31 I B E A M
E R A L S SHOW NUMBER OF THE DRAWING
O N W I I l C t i SECTION W I L L APPEAR [CHARTS
15.7 & 5.8
E L F V A T I O N SYMCIOLS FOR R A I L I N G

CENTERL.INE SYMUOL

U l M F N S l O N L I N E SYMBOL USED TO SHOW A


DIMENSION NOT TO SCALE

SCREW? I i R E A D SYMBOLS

---
- ---
-------
- - - CHAIN SYMBOL
SYMBOLS FOR WELDING D E T A I L S 5.1.8 EXAMPLE USE OF THE F I L L E T WELD SYMBOL

Standard welding symbols are published by the American Welding Society. If a contiriuous fillet weld is needed, like this,
These symbols should be used as necessary on details of attactlrnents, vessels,
the fillet wcld symbol is placed
piping supports, etc. The practice of writing on drawings iristructions sucli
as 'TO BE WELDED THROUGHOUT', or 'TO BE COMPLETELY WELDED'
transfers the design responsibility for all attachments and connections from
the designer to the welder, which the Society considers to be a dangerous
141, or1 the 'arrow side' of the
refererice line, thus.

If the wcld is required on the far side from the arrow, thus
and uneconomic practice.
the weld syrnbol is sliowri or1
Ttie 'welding symbol' devised by the American Welding Society has eight
the 'other side' of the rcfcr-
elements. Not all of these elements are necessarily needed by piping designers.
ence I ~ n e ,
Ttie assembled welding syrnbol which gives tlic welder all the necessary in-
struction, and locations of its elements, is shown in chart 5.9. The elernerits
are: If a continuous fillet weld is needed or1 botti sides of the joint,

REFERENCE L I N E the fillet weld symbol is


ARROW placed on both sides of the
BASIC WELD SYMBOLS reference line
DIMENSIONS 81 O T H E R D A T A
EXAMPLE USE O F T H E BEVEL G R O O V E SYMBOL
0 SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS
a FINISH SYMBOLS If a bevel groove is required, like this:
0 TAIL The 'groove' symbol for a
SPECIFICATIONS, PROCESS or OTHER REFERENCE bevel is shown, w ~ t hthe fillet
weld symbol, and a break is
The following is a quick guide to the scheme. Full details will be found in
made in the arrow toward the
the current revision of 'Standard Welding Symbols' available from the
member to be beveled, thus CHART
American Welding Society.
Only the bevel and 'J' groove symbols require a break in the arrow -see ( 5.9
ASSEMBLING T H E WELDING SYMBOL chart 5.9.

Reference line and arrow: The symbol begins with a reference line and arrow DIMENSIONING T H E WELD CROSS SECTION

pointing to the joint where the weld is to be made. The reference line has two Suppose the weld is required to be 114 inch in size, and the bevel is to be
'sides': 'other side' (above the line) and 'arrow side' (below the line)-refer 3/16 inch deep:
to the following examples and to chart 5.9.
BASIC WELDING ARROW FIGURE 5.1 These dimensions are shown
1 to the left of the wcld sym-

Other side
A
=
\
Other side
Arrow side
/ Other $id\
Arrow side
Other ~ l d e
+
1 1
4 16
4 4&
bol :

Alternatively, the bevel can be expressed in degrees of arc:

BASlC WELDING SYMBOLS


(a) The weld symbol

FILLET 1 zi,"i& / R U E ISLOT I nt~~C;;ON I SEAM / EDGE


FLANGE
CORNER
FLANGE

I f a root gap is required, thus:


(b) The groove symbol

1 WUARE 'V IEVEL 'U' I FLARE V' FLARE 8 E V E I


the symbol is:
G
-. p'
D
[T:
4
DRAWINGS 5.2 SCHEMATIC D l A G R A M 5.2.2

All information for constructing pipirig systerns is coritainc!d i r ~cJrnwir~g(;, Commc~nlyreferred to as a 'sclicr~~atic', rl~istJr;~qr;~rii
sl~owsp;ltlic of flow 11y
apart from the spccif~cations,arid tlio i)ossit)le usc of a rnotfcl arid plloto siriyle Ilnes, arid operations or process rclcl~(~rriont
,~rcrt!prrlceritc?tf 11y s~rr~pltl
graphs. f\gures sucli as rectarigles and circles Nott?s on tlic pr ucrss will often be
included
I
THE MAIN PURPOSE OF A DRAWING IS TO COMMUNICATE The dragrarn is riot to scale, but rrlationsti~psOctwrcri rqtlrprrbcrit and p ~ p ~ n g
INFORMATION I N A SIMPLE AND EXPLICIT WAY. w ~ t t iregard to ttie process are shown Ttir desirrd cpatial arrarigcrncnt of
equrpment and piping may be broadly ~rid~catedUsually, the scherriatic is
not used after the initial planning stage, but scrves t o devclop the process flow
PROCESS & PIPING D R A W I N G S GROW F R O M 5.2.1 diagram which then becomes the primary referurice
T H E SCHEMATIC D I A G R A M

FLOW D I A G R A M 5.2.3
To design process piping, three types of drawing are developed in sequence
from the schematic diagram (or 'schematic') prepared by the process engineer.
This is an unscaied drawing describing the process. I t is also referred to as
a 'flow sheet'.
These three types of drawing are, in order of development:-
I t should state the materials to be conveyed by the piping, conveyors, etc.,
(1) FLOW DIAGRAM (PROCESS, or SERVICE) and specify their rates of flow and other information such as terr~perature
(2) PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM, or 'P&ID1 and pressure, where of interest. This information may be 'flagged' (on lines)
within the diagram or be tabulated on a separate panel-such a panel is
(3) PIPING DRAWING shown at the bottom left of figure 5.3.

EXAMPLE D I A G R A M S
L A Y O U T O F T H E FLOW D I A G R A M
Figure 5.2 shows a simple example of a 'schematic'. A solvent rr?covt!ry
syslern is used as an example. Based on the sclierriatic diagram of figure 5.2,
Whether a flow diagram is to be in elevatiori or plan view should dcperid
a developed process flow diagram is shown in figure 5.3. From this flow
on how the P&ID is to be presented. To easily relate the two drawings, both
diagram, the P&ID (figure 5.4) is evolved.
should be presented in the same view. Elevations are suitable for sirnple
As far as practicable, the flow of material(s) should be from left to right. systems arranged vertically. Installations covering large horirontal areas are
Incoming flows should be arrowed and described down the left-hand edge best shown in plan view.
of the drawing, and exitting flows arrowed and described at ttie right of
the drawing, without intruding into the space over the title block. Normally, a separate flow d~agrarnIS prepared for ~ a c hplant process If a
Information normally included on the process drawings is detailed in sections single sheet would be too crowded, two or more shrrts may be used. For
5.2.2 thru 5.2.4. Flow diagrams and P&ID1seach have their own functioris slmple processes, more than one rriay be shown or1 a stitlet. Procrss l~ncs
and should show only that information relevant to their functions, as set should have the rate arid d~rect~on of flow, and othrr r~q111rcd
data, rioted.
out in 5.2.3 and 5.2.4. Extraneous information such as piping, structural Maln process flows should preferably be shown gotnq from the left of ttie
and mechanical notes should not be included, unless essential to the process. sheet to the right. L ~ n esires are normally riot shown on a flow diagram.
Critical internal parts of vessels and olher terns ~sstrittalto the process
SECURITY
should be ~ndtcated.

A real or supposed need for industrial or national security may restrict infor- All factors corisidered, it is advisable to write equipment titleseither near the
rnation appearing on drawings. Instead of naniirig ct~micals,indeterminate top or near the bottom o f the sheet, cithcr directly abovc or bclow the
or traditional terms such as 'sweet water', 'brine', 'leach acid', 'chemical B', equipment symbol. Sometimes it rnay bc directed that all p~jr~ips t)e drawn at
may be used. Data important to the reactions such as temperatures, pressures a cornmon level near the bottom of the sht!ct, although this practice may lead
and flow rates may be withheld. Sometimes certain key drawings are locked to a complex-looking drawing. Particularly with flow diagrams, simplicity in
away when not in use. presentation is of prime importarice.
(651
-. - --
PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION D I A G R A M 5.2.4 FLOW LINES ON P&ID's

This drawing is comcnonly referred to as the 'P&ID1. Its object is to indicate All flow lines and interconnections should be shown on P&ID1s. Every line
all process and service lines, instruments and controls, equipment, and data should show direction of flow, and be labeled to show the area of project,
necessary for the design groups. The process flow diagram is the primary conveyed fluid, line size, piping material or specification code nurnber
source of information for developing the P&ID. Symbols suitable for P&ID1s (company code), and number of the line. This informat~onis shown in the
are given in charts 5.1 ttlrc~5.7. 'line number'.

The P&ID should define piping, equipment and instrumentation well enough EXAMPLE LINE NUMBER: (74182161412123) may denote the 23rd
for cost estimation and for subsequent design, construction, operation and line in area 74, a 6-inch pipe to company specification 412. 'BZ' identifies
modification of the process. Material balance data, flow rates, temperatures, the conveyed fluid.
pressures, etc., and piping fitting details are not shown, and purely mechanical This type of full designation for a flow line need not be used, provided
piping details such as elbows, joints and unions are inappropriate to P&ID1s. identification IS adequate.

Piping drawings use the line numbering of the P&ID, and the following
INTERCONNECTING P&ID points apply to piping drawings as well as P&ID1s.
This drawing shows process and service lines between buildings and units, r For a system of lines conveying the same fluid, allocate sequential
etc., and serves to link the P&lD1s for the individual processes, units or numbers to lines, beginning with '1' for each system
buildings. Like any P&ID, the drawing is not t o scale. I t resembles the layout
r For a continuous line, retain the same number of line (such as 23 iri
of the site plan, which enables line sizes and branching points from headers
the example) as the line goes thru valves, strainers, small filters, traps,
to be established, and assists in planning pipeways.
venturis, orifice flanges and small equipment generally -unless the line
changes in size
P&ID LAYOUT 0 Terminate the number of a line at a major item of equipment such as a
tank, pressure vessel, mixer, or any equipment carrying an individual
The layout of the P&IO should resemble as far as practicable that of the equipment nurnber
process flow diagram. The process relationship of equipment should corres- r Allocate new numbers to branches
pond exactly. Often it is useful to draw equipment in proportion verti-
cally, but to reduce horizontal dimensions to save space and allow room for
flow lines between equipment. Crowding information is a common drafting
fault - i t is desirable to space generously, as, more often than not, revisions As with the process flow diagram, directions of flow within the drawing are
add information. O n an elevational P&ID, a base line indicating grade or shown by solid arrows placed at every junction, and all corners except where
first-floor level can be shown. Critical elevations are noted. changes of direction occur closely together. Corners should be square. The
number of crossings should be kept minimal by good arrangement.
For revisroil purposes, a P&ID is best made on a drawing sheet having a grid
system-this 1s a sheet hav~ngletters along one border and numbers along the Process and servicestreams entering or leaving the process are notcd by hollow
adjacent border. Thus, references such as 'A6', '85', etc., can be given to an arrows with the name of the conveyed fluid written over the arrowhead and
ared wtiere a ctldni~ctlrrs been made. ( A grid system is applicable to P&ID1s the continuat~onsheet number within it. No process flow data w ~ l nt~rmally
l
more complicaterl thdn the s~mpleexaniple of figure 5.4.) be shown on a P&ID.

DRAFTING GUIDELINES FOR P&ID1s FLOW L I N E S ON P&ID's

r Suitable line thicknesses are shown at full size i n chart 5.1


r Crossing lines must not touch-break lines going in one direction only.
Break instrunient lines crossing process and service lines
r Keep parallel lines at least 318 inch apart
8 Preferably draw all valves the same size-114-inch long is suitat~lc-as
NOTES FOR LINES
[tiis retains legibility for photographic reduction. Instrurlit?rit isolatirll~
valves and drain valves can be drawn srnallcr, if desired
Spcc~alpo~ntsfor des~gnand operatirig procedures drc notcd such ds l~ries
r Draw instrument identification balloons 7/16ttl-inch diariletcr--sue 5.5 whicl~need to bt! sloped for gravity flow, llncs wti~cttileetf carc!ful clt:a~\~~lg
8 [Iiaw trap sy~nbols3/8ttl-inch square tli!fort! startup, ctc.
loel
P&ID SHOWS ALL EQUIPMENT & SPECIAL ITEMS

The P&ID should st~owall major equiprrtent and information that is relevarit
SEPARATORS, SCREENS 81 STRAINERS

These items should be shown upstrean1 of equipment and processes ncedinq


protection, and are disciisscd i n 2.10.
5 '1I
If
2.4

to the process, such as equipment names, equipment numbers, the sizes,


ratings, capacities, and/or duties of equipment, and instrumentation. STEAM TRAPS ON T H E P & I D
Standby and paralleled equipment is st~own,including all connected lines. If the locations of traps are known they arc ind~cated For example, thc? trap
Equiprnent numbers and service functions ('STANDBY' or 'PARALLEL OP') requ~redupstream of a pressure-reducing statlon feed\r\rl a stearn turbine
are noted. sliould be shown.
'Fut~ire'equipment, together with the equipment that will service it, is stiown Steam traps on stearn piping are not otttcrwise indicated, as thcsc? trap posl-
in broken outl~ne, and labeled. Blind-flange terminations to accommodate tions are determined when making the piping drawings. They can be added
future piping should be indicated on headers and branches. 'Future' additions later to the P&ID if des~red,after the piping draw~ngshave been completed.
are iisually not anticipated beyond a 5-year period.
Pressure ratings for equipment are noted if the rating is different from the DRIPLEGS
piping system. A 'typical' note may be used to describe multiple pieces of Driplegs are not shown.
identical equipment in the same service, but all equipment numbers are
written. VENTS 81 DRAINS

CLOSURES Vents and drains on high and low points of lines respectively, to be used f o r
hydrostatic testing, are not shown, as they are established on the piping
Temporary closures for process operation or personnel protection are shown. arrangement drawings. Process vents and drains are shown.

SPACE OVER TITLE BLOCK FOR NOTES, -- ,


SPECIAL SYMBOL IDENTIFICATION, rtt

FIGURE
COOLING WATER 5.4

- SHOW LINE NUMBER


ON ALL LINES

- -
SOLVENT PREHEATER SOLVENT VAPORIZER S_OLVCNT COOLER NO
EQUIP
EQUIP NO EQUIP NO FQUlP NO
VALVES O N THE P&ID L I N E DESIGNATION SHEETS OR TABLES

0 Show and tag process arid service valves w i t h size and identifying num- These sheets are tabulated lists of lines and information about them. The
ber ~f appl~cal)le.Glvc pressure ratlng if d~fferenlfrorn line specificatiori nurnbers of the lines are usually listed at the right of ttie sheet. Other
columris list line size, material of construction (using company's specification
0 Indicate any valves that have to be locked open or locked closed
code, i f there is one), conveyed fluid, pressure, temperature, flow rate, test
0 Indicate powered operators pressure, insi~iationor jacketing (if required), and connected llnes (which
will usually be branches).
SHOWING INSTRUMENTATION O N T H E P & I D
The sheets are compiled and kept up-to-date by the project group, taking all
Signal-lead drafting symbols shown in chart 5.1 may be used, and the the information from the P&ID. Copies are supplied to the piping group for
ISA scheme for designating instrumentation is described i n 5.5. Details of reference.
instrument piping and conduit are usually shown on separate instrument
installation drawings. On small projects involving only a few lines line designation sheets may not be
used. I t is useful to add a note on the P&ID stating the numbers of the last
0 Show all instrumentation on the P&lD, for and including these items: line and last valve used.
element or sensor, signal lead, orifice flange assembly, transmitter, con-
troller, vacuum breaker,flame arrestor, level gage, sight glass, flow indica- VIEWS USED FOR PIPING DRAWINGS
tor, relief valve, rupture disc, safety valve. The last three items may be
tagged with set pressure(s) also Two types of view are used:
0 Indicate local- or board-mounting of instruments by the symbol-refer (1) ORTHOGRAPHIC - PLANS A N D ELEVATIONS
to the labeling scheme in 5.5.4 (2) PICTORIAL - ISOMETRIC VIEW A N D O B L I Q U E P R E S E N T A T I O N

INSULATION & TRACING Figure 5.5 shows how a building would appear in these different views.

Insulation on piping and equipment is shown, together with the thickness PRESENTATIONS USED I N PIPING DRAWINGS F I G U R E 5.5
required. Tracing requiremerlts are indicated. Refer to 6.8.

CONTROL STATIONS

Control stations are discussed in 6.1.4. Control valves are indicated by press-
ure rating, instrument identifying number and size-see figure 5.1 5, for ex-
ample.

P & I D SHOWS HOW WASTES ARE H A N D L E D

Drains, funnels, relief valves arid other equipment handling wastes are shown
on the P&ID. If an extensive system or waste-treatment facility is involved,
it should be shown oil a separate P&ID. Wastes and effluents are discussed
In 6.13. ELEVATIONS

SERVICE SYSTEMS M A Y H A V E T H E I R OWN P & I D


PLANS & ELEVATIONS
Process equipment may be provided with various services, such as steam for
heating, water or refrigi?rant for cooling, or air for oxidizing. Plant or equip- Plan views are more common than elevational views. Piping layout is developed
ment providing these services is usually described or1 separate 'service P&ID1s'. in plan view, arid elevational views and section details are added for clarity
A service lirie such as a stearn line entering a process P&ID is given a 'hollow where necessary.
arrow' line designatiori taken from the service P&lD. Returning service lines
PICTORIAL VIEWS
arc desigr~atedin ttie sjrriu way. Refer to figure 5.4.
Iri corrlplcx pil1i11gsystcrns, wt~ereorthograptiic views riiay not easily ~ l l i ~ s -
U T I L I T Y STATIONS
trate the design, pictorial presentation can be used for clarity. I n e~ther
Stations providing steam, compressed air, and water, are shown. Refer to isoriietric or oblique presentations, lines not horizontal or vertical on the
6.1.5. drawing are usually drawn at 30 degrees to the tiori~ontal.
1701
$ O _ Z Z 52 2. p -'
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= C = a
yszcc 3 ru
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r-.
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gz = - n" n g a

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L O G O -
- I v , MATCHLINE AREA '2' z")m v,
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=. 2
1% to 2-INCH MARGIN FOR STICK FILE
- .- - - - - - - - - - - - --- - - - - - - -- - --- - - -
r If pipe sleeves are required tttru floors, indicate where they are needed PLAN VIEW PIPING DRAWINGS
and inform the group leader for transmitting this information to the r Draw plan views for each floor of the plant. These views should show
group(s) concerned what the layout will look like between adjacent floors, viewed from
r Indicate insulation, and show whether lines are electrically or steam above, or at the elevation thru which the plan view is cut
traced-see cllart 5.7 r If the plan view will not fit on one sheet, present it on two or more
sheets, using matchlirles to link the drawings. See figure 5.8
FITTINGS, FLANGES, VALVES & PUMPS ON PIPING DRAWINGS
r Note the elevation below which a plan view is shown-for example,
r The following items should be labeled i n orte view only: tees and ells 'PLAN BELOW ELEVATION 15'-0" '. For clarity, both elevations
rolled at 45 degrees (see example, this page), short-radius ell, reducing can be stated: 'PLAN BETWEEN ELEVATIONS 30'-0" & 15'-0" '
ell, eccentric reducer and eccentric swage (note on plan views whether r If a tee or elbow is 'rolled' at 45 degrees, note as shown in the view
'top flat' or 'bottom flat'), concentric reducer, concentric swage, where the fitting is rolled out of the plane of the drawing sheet
non-standard or companion flange, reducing tee, special items of
unusual material, of pressure rating different from that of the system, 'ROLLED' ELL 'ROLLED' TEE
etc. Refer to charts 5.3, 5.4 and 5.5 for symbol usage
r Draw the outside diameters of flanges to scale
r Show valve identification number from P&ID
r Label control valves to show: size, pressure rating, dimension over flan-
ges, and valve instrument number, from the P&I D -see figure 5.15
r Draw valve handwheels to scale with valve stem fully extended ROLL ELL ,// ROLL TEE
AT 45'
r If a valve is chain-operated, note distance of chain from operating A T 45'

floor, which for safety should be approximately 3 f t


r For pumps, show outline of foundation and nozzles

DRIPLEGS & STEAM TRAPS

Driplegs are indicated on relevant piping drawing plan views. Unless identical,
r Figure 5.10 shows how linescan be broken to give sufficient information
a separate detail is drawn for each dripleg. The trap is indicated on the drip-
leg piping by a symbol, and referred to a separate trap detail or data sheet. without drawing other views
The trap detail drawing should show all necessary valves, strainers, unions, I, Indicate required field welds
etc., required at the trap-see figures 6.43 and 6.44.
ELEVATIONS (SECTIONS) & DETAILS
The piping shown on the dripleg details should indicate whether condensate
is to be taken to a header for re-use, or run to waste. The design notes in e Draw elevations and details to clarify complex piping or piping hidden
6.10 5 discuss dripleg details for stearn lines In which condensate forms in the plan view
cont~nuously. Refcr to 6.10.9 also. r Do not draw detail that can be described by a note
r Show only as many sections as necessary. A section does not liave to be
INSTRUMENTS & CONNECTIONS ON PIPING DRAWINGS
a complete cross sectiorl of the plan
r Stic~wlocation for each instrument connectiorl with ellcircled instrurnent
r Draw to a large scale any part needing fuller detail. Enlarged deta~ls
number taken from the P&ID. Refer to 5.5.3 and chart 6.2
arc preferably drawn rn available space on elevational draw~ncjs,and
r Show similar isolating valve arrangements on instrument connections as should be cross-referenced by tile applicable detail and draw~ngnurri-
'typical' detail, unless covered by standard company detail sheet ber (s)
r Identify sections indicated on plan views by letters (see chart 5.8) and
VENTS & DRAINS
details by riur~k~crs. Letters I and 0 are not used as this c a n lead to con-
fusiorl with numerals. If rrlore than twcntyfour sections are rlttcded
the Icttcjr idcritification can be broken down thus: A1 -A1, A2 -A2,
PIPE SUPPORTS 84-04, ....... and so on
f3efi:r to fi.2.2, ;iriif cliart 5.7. f o r syr~ibols. r Do rbot section plarl views looking towdrd the bottom of the drawirigstit?rtt
1/41
a Figure 5.10 stlows how t o break lirlcs to give sufficiclit ~rlforriii~tioll
whilst avoiding drawing ailother view or scctiorl

SHOWING 'HIDDEN' L I N E S F I G U R E 5.10


ON PIPING D R A W I N G S

L IDENTIFY BY LINE NUMBER

P L A N (or ELEVATION)

ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS. or 'ISOS'

IDENTIFY BY LlNE NUMBER


An ISO usually showc a complete llrle from one plece of equlprrient to
another-see flgure 5.15. I t glves all informdtion necessary for fabr~catlonand
erection of pip~ng.
Isos are usually drawn freehand, but ttie various runs of pipe, fittings arid Ct-IART
Correspond~ng E L E vAT 1 0N (or PLAN) valves should be roughly in proportion for easy understanding. Any one 5.1 0
llne (that is, all the piping with the sarne line number) should be drawn
on the minimum nuniber of iso sheets. If conttnuatiori sheets are needed,
break the line at natural breakpoints such as flanges (except orifice flilnges),
PIPING F A B R I C A T I O N DRAWINGS-'ISOS' & 'SPOOLS' 5.2.9 welds at fittings, or field welds required for ~nstallatlon.

Items and inforniation to be shown on an iso include:


The two most common methods for producing piping designs for a plant
are by making either plan and elevation drawings, or by constructing a scaled a North arrow (plant north)
rriodel. For fabricating welded piping, plarls and elevations are sent directly
to a subcontractor, usually referred to as a 'shop fabricator1-if a model is r Dimensions and angles
used, isometric drawings (referred to as 'isos') are sent instead. a Reference number of plan drawlr~lfrom whlcti so is made (~~nless F~GURE-
model IS used), l ~ n enumber, dlrect~onof flow, ~risulatloriand traclrig 5.1 0
isometric views are commonly used in prefabricating parts of butt-welded
piping systems. lsos showing the piping to be prefabricated are sent to the a Equipment nc~rribcrsand locations of c:qu~prncrit (by centerlines)
shop fabricator. Figure 5.15 is an example of such an iso. r Identify all items by use of an untir?rstc~oiisyrnbol, and arriplify by
a descr~ption,as necessary
a Glve detatls of any flanqr:d not7lr~son rtlulornrrtt to wtllch p~ptriqhas
The prefabricated parts of the piping system are termed 'spools', described to be conncctcd, ~f the flariqc: 15 d~f[r)rerltfrom the s p r ~ c ~ f ~ c ; ~for
t~ori
under 'Spools', this section. The piping group either produces isos showing the connected plplnq
tile requ~redspools, or marks the pipirig to be spooled on plans and elevations, a S~zeand type of every valvt?
depending on whether or not a model is used (as shown i n chart 5.10).
I Size, pressure rat~ng2nd tristrr~rlii~ritrtur~lbcr of control vnlvcs
From these draw~ngs, the subcontractor niakes detail drawings termed
'spool sheets'. Figure 5.17 is an example spool sheet. a Nurmber, locatiori orid orleritatlorl for cdch ~rlstrurnerltcorint?ctlori
4
r Shop and field welds. Indicate limits of shop and field fabrication Each spool sheet shows only one type of spool, and:-
r Iso sheet contlriilation numbers (1) Instructs the welder for fabricating the spool
r Uriiorls rcqurred tor iristall~ttioriand ntatntenance purposes (2) Lists tltc cut lengths of pipe, fittings and flanges, etc. needed to make
r Ori screwed arid socket-welded assemblies, valve tiandwt~eelposltlons the spool
rtued not bc shown (3) Gives nlaterrals of construction, and any special treatrriertt o i the
r Materials of coristructlori finished pipirig

r Locatioris ot verits, drairis, artd traps (4) Indicates tiow many spools of the same type are required

a I-clcat~onsof supports, rdentif~edby pipesupport number N U M B E R I N G ISOS, SPOOL SHEETS, & SPOOLS f'-+l
CI

The following iriforrnation may also be given: Spool nunibers are allocated by the plplng group, and appear on all
piping drawrngs. Var~ousmethods of numbering can be used as long as
r Requirements for stress relieving, seal welding, pickling, lining, coating,
IS eastly made. A suggested rrlethod follows -
identif~cat~orl
or other special treatment of the line
Iso sheets can be identified b y the line number of the section of line that is
Drawing style to be followed is shown in the example iso, figure 5.15, shown, followed by a sequential number. For example, the fourtti iso sheet
which displays some of the above points, and gives others as stiaded showing a spool to be part of a line numbered 741BZ16/412/23 coc~ldbe
notes. A n iso may show more than one spool. identified: 74/EZ/6/4 12123-4 .

SPOOLS
Bottt the spool and the spool sheet can be identified by number or letter
A spool is an assembly of fittings, flanges and pipe that may be prefabricated. using the iso sheet number as a prefix. For example, the numbering of
I t does not include bolts, gaskets, valves or instruments. Stra~yhtmilt-run spool sheets relating to iso sheet 74/0Z/6/412/23-4 could be
ler-igths of pipe over 20 ft are usually not included in a spool, as such lengths
rnay be welded in the system on erection (on the iso, this is indicated by 741BZl614 12123-4-1, 74lBZ1614 12123-4-2, ........ etc.,
noting the length, and stating 'BY FIELD'). or 74lBZl614 12123-4-A, 7410Zl614 12123-4-5, ..... ... etc.
The size of a spool is l i m ~ t e dby the fabricator's available means of trans- The full lirte rturrtber need not be used if a shorter form would suffice for
portation, and a spool is usually contained within a space of d~rncnsions rdcntif icatiori.
40 f t x 10 f t x 8 f t . Ttie maximum perniissrble dimensions may be obtained
Spool numbers are also referred to as 'mark numbers'. They are shown o n
from the fabricator.
isos and on the following:-
F I E L D - F A B R I C A T E D SPOOLS (1) Spool sheets-as the sheet number
(2) The fabricated spool-so i t can be related to drawings or isos
Some States in the USA have a trades agreement that 2-inch and smaller
(3) Pip~ngdrawings-plans and elevatioris
carbon steel piping must be fabricated at the site. T l i ~ srule is sometimes
extended to pipirig larger than 2-lnch.
DIMENSIONING
SHOP-FABRICATED SPOOLS
D I M E N S I O N I N G F R O M REFERENCE POINTS
All alloy spools, arid sl)ouls with 3 or more welds rnade from 3-inch (occasion-
ally 4-incll) and Iitrgclr carbon-steel pipe are norirtrtlly 'sholl-fabricatt?dl. This H O R I Z O N T A L REFERENCE
is, tattricatctf iri tile sttop fattricator's worksl\op, eittlcr at his plant or at WIlerl a proposed plant st te IS surveyed, a gcograptllc rt!tererlcc point is
ttie site. Spools with fewer welds are usually rnade iri tlle field. 11tllued frorii w t l ~ c lrrredsurements
~ to bounddrles, roads, bu~ldiriqs,tanks,
Large diameter pipirlg, bcing more ditficult to handle, often neccss~tatesthe etc., can t)c made. The yeographlc reference point chosen IS usually an
of jigs and ~IIIIIIII~ICS, illid I S 1110r(?ecoi~~rnically
(IS(? prodiiced In a wor kstlop. offic~allyt!st,ibl~sl~ed orie

l ' l w lirlc!s of latitudc arid longitude wllictl def ine t h e gc?o!jraptiic rt?fcrt:nce
SPOOL SHEETS point arc riot ust!d, as a 'plartt north' (st?f: figure 5.1 1) is t!stat~lislir!ti, p;irollt?l
A sl~ool>,lir~t?tIS IICI ortliograoh~c cfrawttig of a slluol rrtacft! Ity t11e p~p~ric) to stri~ctcirnl stc?ctlwork. Ttic tfircction closcsl to trcie nortti is r:l\osc:n for
contractor cltl~c~r front plans artcf clcvdtrons, or fro111aii [so- scc? cll;tr t 5 10. ttrc '~tlaritriorttr'.
The coordinates of the southwest corner of the plant in figure 5.1 1, as VERTICAL REFERENCE
referred to 'plant north', are N 110.00 and E 200.00.
Before any buildirig or erectirrg begiris, !lie site is lcvclcd ('gradt?tl') with
Sornc?tiines coordiriatcs such as tliosc al~overriay he writteri N 1 t-10 arid earth-moving equipment. The grourid IS niade as flat as prr~cticat~lr, i~rid,]f tcr
1: % t O O . The first coordin;lte is read as "orl~?l\lirltirc?tf ~)I[rs10 i t rior I / \ "iiiid leveling is termed 'firiistit?d ~lradc'.
1110 soconcl as "two h l i r l d r ~ d11111sr'r!ro It [!;)st". Iliis is ;I systcrri 11sed lor
travorse survey, and is cnorc corrc?ctly tipplicxf l o higliways, railroads, etc. Tlic highest graded point is tcir~iotl tlit? 'I~irlll poi111 ol I~rlistiori!jri~(f~!',
(IIPFG), and the horizorital plane passirig t h r t ~it is ri~;tt.fr?
tlic vertict~lrc?lc!rcrice
Coordinates are used to locate tanks, vessels, rrinjnr equipment arid structural plane or 'datum' frorn which plaiit clcvatioris ;ire given. f igcrrr: 5.12 stiows
steel. I n the open, these items are located directly with respect to a gco- that this horizontal plane is giver1 a 'lalsr!' or riorriirial c!lt?v;ttiori, t~sually100 i t ,
graphic reference point, hut in buildings and structures, can be dimensioned and is riot referred to rnean sea level.
frorn the building steel.
The 100 f t nornilial elevatinri erist~rt:~that foundntions, baser~ic?nts,l)urit!d
H O R I Z O N T A L REFERENCE FIGURE 5.11 pipes and tanks, etc., will have positive elovatioils. 'Minus' clcvatioris, which
would he a nuisance, are thus avoidecl.
Coordinates a r e ~ t s u a l l y
q l v e n to t h e S-W corner Large plarits may have several areas, each havirlg its own h ~ g l ipolrit of
of plant, bulldlngs a n d
structures
f~nlshedgrade. Nomrnal grade elevation is measured from a benchmark, as
illustrated in figure 5.12.

VERTICAL R E F E R E N C E F I G U R E 5.12
/
TRUE
PLANT
NORTH
F L E V A T I O N OF EOUIPMENT
H I G H POINT OF FINISHED GRADE CENTFRLINE S T A T E D AS
E L E V A T I O N SET AT 1 0 0 NOMINAL 105-4' Of4 5 - 4 ABOVF HPFG
(EQUALS 811 - 7 TRUE D A T U M )
- -

:
I
I - -
ELeAT!ON-z22'
_ _
ABOYE I c A L E V 5
/C
I

The US Department of Commerce's Coast and Geodetic Survey has estab- D I M E N S I O N I N G PIPING DRAWINGS
listled a large number of references for latitude and long~tude, and for
elevations above sea level. These are termed 'geodetic control stations'. D R A W I N G DIMENSIONS-& TOLERANCES
M A I N T A I N E D I N ERECTED PIPING
FIGCJRE!
Coritrol stations for hori7ontal reference (latitude and longitude) are referred 5.1 1 & 5.1
On plot: Dirriensions on piping clrawin!js are normally rriaintrriritld witti~ri
to as 'triangulation stations' or 'traverse stations', etc. Control stations for
the limits 01 plus or rriirius 1116th irich. How tt~istolc:rar~ce is nict docs riot
vertical reference arc referred to as 'benchmarks'. Latitude and longitude
concern the clesigricr. Any riecessary allowarices to t?nsurc?that dir-nerisioris
have not been established for all benchmarks.
are maintained are made by thc fabricator arid r;rr:ctor (contractor).
A geodetic control station is marked with a metal disc showing identity Offplot: Dimensions are rnaintairied as closely as practicable by the erector.
and date of establishment. To provide stable locations for the discs, they
are set into tops of 'monuments', mounted in holes drilled in bedrock or
WHICH D I M E N S I O N S SHOULD BE SHOWN?
large firmly-imbedded boulders, or affixed to a solid structure, such as a
building, brldgc, ctc Sufficierit dimr~n~ioris should br qivc;ri f o r povt~ortirtrltlrl~ri~rnc~ril,for 1at)ri
catlnq spools and for ercctinq p~pincj Uc~plicationof d~r~icrisioris In d~flrrerit
The geograptiic posltlons of these statloris car1 be obta~nedfrom the Director, views s h o ~ l dbe dvorded, as t t i 1 5 rnay e a ~ ~ lead
l y to error i f alterat~onsare
US Coast arid Geodet~cSurvey, Rockville, Maryland 20852. made.
Basically the dimensions to show are: VERTICAL VlEW ELEVATIONS & DIMENSIONS BI*

On plplng drawings, elevations may be given as In table 5.2.

BURIED L I N E S ( I N A T R t N C H t
SHOW E L E V A T I O N OF BOTTOMS OF PIPES

FOR M I N I M U M COVER REFER TOP O F


SINGLE PlPE TO NOZZLE SHOW PlPE TO GRADE E L E V A T I O N
CENTERLINE E L E V A T I O N OF
PlPE A T N O Z Z L E

Fiyure 5.13 illustrates the use of these types of dimensions.

D R A I N S A N D SEWERS
PLAN VlEW DIMENSIONS SHOW 'INVERT E L E V A T I O N ' ( I E i

SUPPORT SHOW E L E V A T I O N OF
P
Plan views convey most of the dimensional information, and may also show BOTTOMS OF PIPES
dimensions for elevations in the absence of an elevational view or section.

E X A M P L E DIMENSIONS F O R PLAN VlEW F I G U R E 5.13

'PIPES M A Y 8E R U N U N D L O GRADE BEAMS OF


B U I I DING6 BUT NOT U N U t R FOUNOATIONS

O l N T StiOW t L L V A T I O N O F
C O N N f C l l O N C t NTCRL IN[ or OIMf NSlON
FROM N t A f i E S T f l L L F V A N T E l t V A T l O N
DIMENSION
r
FITTING MAKEUP EXAMPLE VESSEL DRAWING SHOWING FIGURE 5.14
D I M E N S I O N S R E Q U I R E D BY V E N D O R (Refw to 5.2.71
If a nurntlcr of iterris o f standard dirnensions are grouped togetticr it is un-
nct;cssiiry t o dirnertsiori cacti item, as the fabricator knows the sizes of staild
ard fittings arid cquil)rrient. It is necessary, Iiowcver, to iritlicate that the
ovr!rall drrr~c!risioc~IS 'litting makeup' by the special cross syrnl)ol, or CENTERLINC: E L E V A T I W
MAY BE GIVEN FOR DESIGN
proft!ratjly by writirlq ti112 ovt:rall dinierisiori. Any non-standard item inserted OFFICE REFERENCE
t~etwoc!ristarirhrd itr!r~lsstiould bu dirrie~isioned.

FITTING MAKEUP SYMBOL

TANGENT LINE

DIMENSIONING TO VALVES

a Locato flangecf and welding-end valves w i t h ANSI standard dirnensions


by tlirnensioning to their centers. Most gate arid globe valves arc stan-
dard--see table V-1 3 LFGS EQUALLY
SPACFI) FROM
a Dirnerlsion rion-standard flanged valves as shown i n the panel opposite S C H 40 PIPE
chart 5.6. Alttiough a standard exists for control valves, face-to-face
dirnonsions are c~sually given, as it is possible to obtain them in non-
standard sizes
a Standard flanged check valves need not be dimensioned, but if location
is important, dirnerlsion to the flarige face(s)
a Non-flanged valves are dimensioned to their centers or stenis

DIMENSIONING TO NOZZLES ON VESSELS & EQUIPMENT

a Iri plan view, a nozzle is dimensioned to its face frorrl tlie cr!riterl~ne of
tiic oquipmcrit i t is on
a Iri clevat~on,a nolzle's centerline is either given its owri elevation or is
rlirnertsiorlcd front another reference. I n the absenct? of nn clcvat~onal
V I ~ W ,nozzle elcvat~orlscar) be sllown on ttie plan vlcw

DIMENSIONING ISOS 5.3.4

lii c~rtlilr r o clcdrly show all d~rnens~ons, the best aspect of the plplng rnust
t)tldctctrrriinc!tf Frec?dom to exterld l~riesarid spread the plplnq withotlt ic:gartj
to sc lo 1 5 IIPI~III S ~ I O W I I I ~~ s ~ r i i e t ~r I~I TcI ~ ~ I ~ S I O I Ttte
~ S ~ I ( I S I C ~IITIL;I~SIOIIS
--- -- -- - -
set ocrt i l l !I 3 2, 5 3 3, and tlic ge~~del~rlcs I r i 5.2.9 apply OF THE VESSEL

I-igurc 5. 15 ~llustratr!s tlio 11iai11re~uir~riierits


of ari isorli~trir:11ri1wi1i!j,illid ill-
iiiclt~dcs;I dr~nr!risic~rlt:rjoffset. Figure 5.16 slil~wstkow otlit!r of lsrtts ;lr (! cliili-
cirislui3c:d.
a I)~ir~t!rlsion in (tie saint: way as ltlarls arid clovatiolis
a (;IV[: s(iffici~?rit
tliii~r:r~sioitsfor
the fattricator to tnakr?tl~t!s[)ool drawirigs
so[: fiq\ir[! !J.I.?
'IPOOI N l J M f l t R \

I4 fl/ l > 4 l ? ? l 1 A
14 H I I G 4 1 2 11 I I \
74 f I J I 6 41,' 2 3 1 <
14 f3/10/4 11 2 I I 0
14 H l i t , 4 11 2 l 1 I

NOTES

rll AI I (IA\K~TS TltlCK

(21 IN\IILAlION T14ICK

SPECIFICATION

FIGURES
5.14 & 5.15

PLANTIAREA

N l l M n t H Of L IN[

N O M I N A L PIPE \I71
HOW T O SHOW OFFSETS ON ISOS FIGURE 5.16 D I M E N S I O N I N G SPOOLS (WELDED ASSEMBLIES) 5.3.5
( C h a r t M - l gives a f o r m u l a f o r
calculatlny t h e c o m p o u n d angle)

COMPOUND OFFSET I Allowance for weld spacing (root gap) is E shop set-up problerrl and should
ERTICAL OFFSET
riot be corisidered in rnaking assembly drawings or detailed sketchcs. Thc
Pipe Fabrication Institute recornrnends that an overall dirnensiorj is shown
which is ttie sum of the nominal dimensions of the cornpollent parts.

I
i
A spool sheet deals with only one design of spool, and shows complete
dimensional detail, lists material for making the spool, and specifies how
HORIZONTAL OFFSET
marly spools of that type are required. Figure 5.17 shows how a spool from
figure 5.1 5 would be dimensioned.

EXAMPLE SPOOL SHEET F I G U R E 5.17

+ -BEVEL EN0 FOR WELDING


-+V -THREADED END
-
B BEND
M -MITER
BOLTHOLES TO STRADDLE
CENTERLINE UNLEGS NOTED .
L I S T
- --O F M A T E R I E L

ITEM QY DESCRIPTION E:EE>


'

2 1 WSGxO'llS/B"5CH40 A5Y.3

3 1 W5 4 x 3 ' - 0 J/lG" KH 40 A 5M

HERE FOR EXPLANATION ONLY.


AND IS NOT A PART OF THE

5 1 NP5 4 CL 300 Sll [if A 105

b 2 NPS 6 CL 1 5 0 I?f A 105

7 1 ltiliELOLETNOi,3/0iLJOOO A105

- . -. -- . .

SPCCIF ICATION 'I E N C I S E E I t I N C ('0.


- ) NUMBER R E Q U I R E D I

IILFERENCE DRAWINGS JOB N O ISOMETRIC


REFERENCE N O
-~
RN:
DRAWN CHECKED APPROVE D DATE
2 ' - . -- - 14/l12/b/4 12123- I 23-I- E 0
0 I S S O I I I f OR C ( I N \ l I i N
J L
Thdt floor and w ~ l penetratlons
l are shown correctly
Access~brlity for oor!rdtlori and maintenance, and that adequate man-
holes, hatches, covers, dropout and handl~ngareas, etc. have been A l t t ~ o i ~ ginstrurrrents
ti are used for rnany purposes, their basic ft~nctionsare
ft!w In rrt~nit~cr:
provltfed
Fourld,tl~o~i
~ I ~ W I I I Iwltli
~ S vendors' equ~piiif!rit reqcrirenlt!irts
(1) To sense a 'condition' of the process n~aterial, most con\niorily 11s
L ~ s tol rn,iter~t!l, 11 J I I ~ .L l s t ~ dItems should t ~ e~derrt~flc!d
oncc, e~ther pressure, ternperaturc, flow rate or level. Ttlese 'conditions' iIr(?torrric?d
oil ttrr! plan or tlrt! e l c v ~ t ~ odraw~nys
n process variables. Tlie piece of equipment that docs the sc!r)s~ciq is
That sectlor) letters ~lgrt?e
w ~ t tthe
i sectlon markrngs on ttie plan view termed a 'prirnary element', 'sensor', or 'detector'.
TIidr drdwlngs rricludc necessary rnatchline irlformation (2) To transmit a measure of the process variable frorn a prirriary element.
Appedrance of necessdry corltlnuat~orisheet nurriber(s) (3) To lndlcate a measure of a process variable to ttte plarit operator, by
Thdt spool numbers appear correctly showing the measured value by a dial and pointer, pen arrd paper roll or
digital display. Another form of indicator is an alarm which gives audible
Presence of all rcqu~redsignatures
or visual warning when a processvariable such as temperature al~proaclles
an unsafe or undesired value.
(4) To record the riieasure of a process variable. Most recortlt:rs are
Th~sfurther p o ~ n stiould
t be checked on isos: electrically-operated pen-and-paper-roll types wtricti record uittrcr the
instantarteous value or the average over a time period.
a Agrcnn~entwr th model
(5) To control the process variable. An instr~~rnent initiating this fi~rlctiort
is termed a 'controller'. A controller sustains or changes the value of
These further points should be checked on spool sheets.
the process variable by actuating a 'final coritrol element' (this elerrlent
a That materiel IS coriipletely llsted and described is i~suallya valve, in process piping).
0 That ttte required rturr~berof spools of identical type is noted Many instruments combine two or more of these five functions, and may also
have mechanical parts integrated - the commonest example of t h ~ sIS the
self-contained control valve (see 3.1.10, under 'Pressure regulator', arid
INSTRUMENTATION (As shown on P&ID1s) 5.5 c t i ~ r t3.1 f .

Tliis scctiori briefly 0cscr1t)c:s ttte purposes of instruments and explains 11ow HOW INSTRUMENTATION I S IDENTIFIED 5.5.3
Instrumentation may be redd from P&ID1s. P~pingdraw~ngsw ~ l also l stlow
the corlnectlorr (cuupl~r~g, utc ) to Ilne or vessel. However, plplng drdwlngs The most-uscd instruments are pressure and temperature gages ('indicators')
sho~ildshow only ~rlstrurrlentsconnected to (or located In) piping and vessels and are shown as in figure 5.18 (a) and (b). An example 'instrurnerit
T l ~ eonly purpose in ddd~rigIrrstrumentat~onto a plplng draw~ngIS to i d e n t ~ f y identification number' (or 'tag number') is shown in figure 5.18 (c). The
the conricLtlori, orlt~ccp l ~ t eor equipment to be ~nstallcdor1 or i r i the plpinq, balloon around the number is usually drawn 7116-inch diarrreter.
dnd to correlate the piprr~gclr,lwrng to the P&ID INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBERS FIGURE 5.18

INSTRUMENT FUNCTION ONLY IS SHOWN 5.5.1


Instrumentation isshowrr on process diagramsand piping drawings by symbols.
The turictiorls of irrtrurrlcrrts are sliown, not the instruments. Only the pri- T Y P E OF
rnary corrrit?ction to ~i vesst!l or line, or devices irlstalled in a l i ~ l e(sucll as INSTRUMENT ..
orifrce plates and control \/alvr:s) are indicated.
There is some uniformity, among the larger cornpanics at least, iri the way in Icl
ss~V n n l A n L E -
PI~OC
O,,,,?,
l,,,tj
I U N L I I U N A I /it/ N I I ~
I( A r l i ~ n i
which irtstrumer~tationis shown. There is a willirigness to adopt ttic rccorli- LOOI' NUMBE H---+ -. I oivrr /,is*
1 OOP 101 N I / / l L A l i ( l h
rriendatioris uf the Instrklrnerit Society of America, but adticrerice is riot always
corr~plc:tc. T tit! ISA standi~rtfis S5.1, titletf 'lirstrt~rncntatiorlsynil)ols arltl iiiort- Iri flqure 5.18, 'P', IT', and 'F' denote process var~~ibles pressure, tcnil)crotrIrc,
tif Ici.lt ion'. i low rt?spi!ctrvely. 'I' iind 'G' sllow tIi(? type of iristrurnr?rlt, rrid~c,,tor
Co~npli~ince with the ISA sctierne IS t o some extent ~ntcrnat~orial. Tllis IS I)rric ,irltl []CI<](!rcspcct~vt!ly.Taltlt? 5 3 gives other Ir!tters dt!not~rrgproct!ss ~ ~ ~ r l ~ ~ t i l e ,
f ~ c ~wd tl i e ~ drowinc~s
l (jo lrorri orlc country to arrother, as tt,cro 1s t1lr;ri r i c ~t f i i f ~ tyIlri o f Irlstrurlicllrr, ctc,. Tlie ril~rirbcr'U', lat~r!lf;d'loop iit~rribor',is ill1 c!x,i~rr~~lr~
~ u l t y113 L I I I ~ C ~ S ~ ~ ~ I I ~ I the
I I ~ ~ Ir1strtlrii(!ntdtlon. ~ o i l ~ ~ c ~ ~i itt~i r~l r~l(olluc;itc?tl
lcr t ~ y; ~ r i I r ~ s t r u l i ~ o ~ ~ t~!~ic]~rrec!r)
,~t~i,rr
I ti 2%
CHECKING & ISSUING DRAWINGS 5.4 CHECKING PIPING DRAWINGS
(PLANS, E L E V A T I O N S , & ISOS)

Points to tte checked on all pipirig tfrawiri!ls iiicltrtlo 111(? follow~riq

P&lD1s, process flow diagrarns and line dcsigni~tionslicets are c1ict:kctf by a Ti tic of drawing
engineers in the project group.
I Number of issue, and revisiori nurnbc~
Except for spool drawings, all piping drawings are cliecked by the pi[~iiiqqroup. Oritmtation: N t ~ r t harrow agaiilst plot olari
Orthographic spool drawings produced by ttie pipiriq fabricator are riot rlsually Inclusion of graphic scale (if drawing is to t)c [ltiotc~graptiicdlyredt~cerl)
ctiecked by ttie piping group, except for 'crit~cal'spools, such as spools for Equiprnent numbers and their appearance on piping drawings
overseas shipment and intricate spools.
That correct ideritificatiorl appears on all liiics in all vicws
Usually an experienced designer within the piping group is givcn the task
Line material specification changes
of checking. Some cornpanies employ persons specifically as design checkers.
Agreement with specifications and agret?rrientwitti other drawings
The checker's responsibilities are set out in 4.1.2.
That the drawing includes rcferericc nurnber(s) arid titlc(s) to any other
rclevarit drawings
That all dimensions are correct
C H E C K I N G PIPING DRAWINGS 5.4.2 Agreement with certified vendors' drawings for dimensions, nozzle
orientation, manholes and ladders
Prints of drawings are checked and corrected by marking with colored pencils. That face-to-face dimensions and pressure ratings are shown for all
Areas t o be corrected on the drawing are usually marked i n red on the print. non-standard flanged items
Correct areas arid d~mensionsare usually marked i n yellow. Location and identification of instrument connections
Checked drawings to be changed should be returned t o their originator when- Provision of line vents, drains, traps, and tracing. Check that vents are
ever possible, for amendment. A new print is supplied t o the checker with at all high points and drains at all low points of lines for hydrostatic
the original 'marked up' print for 'backchecking'. test. Driplegs should be indicated and detailed. Traps should be identi-
fied, and piping detailed
8 The following items should be labeled in one vlew o n l y tees and ells
ISSUING D R A W I N G S 5.4.3 rolled at 45 degrees (see exarnple in 5.2.8), short-rad~usell, r ~ d u c ~ n g
ell, eccentric reducer and ecceritrlc swage (note on plan vlews whether
Arcas of a draw~ngawaltlng further ~ n f o r n i a t ~ oorn dccis~onare ringed clearly 'top flat' or 'bottom flat'), concentric reducer, concentric swag^,
on the reverse side and labeled 'HOLD'-refer to chart 5.8. ( A black, red, or non-standard or companion flange, reduelrig tee, spc?c~alItems of
yellow c h ~ n amarker IS suitable for film w ~ t ha sl~ckfin~shon the reverse unusual mater~al,of pressure rating d~ffereritfrom tli<tt of the system,
side.) etc. Refer t o charts 5.3, 5.4 and 5.5 for syrnbol usage

Cti;triges or revisions are indicated on the fronts of the sheets hy a small t l ltlc PPII [I
That insulation has been shown as r c q u ~ ~ eby
triiirtgle iri ttte area 01 the revision. The revisiori nurnber is niarked inside the Pipe support locations w ~ t hsupport nur~ibt?rs
triangle, noted above the title block (or in an allocarQd panel) witti a descrip- That all anchors, dummy legs and welded supports arc tio own
tior) of the revision, required initials, and date. The revision riunlber rnay be
That the stress group's requ~renierttshave been i^rirt
pitit of the drawing number, or i t may follow the drawing number (preferred
iriethod-see figure 5.17). The drawing as first issued is nurnbered ttie 'zero' That all field welds are shown
rcvisiori. Correctness of scale
A draw~ngIS ~ssuedIn three stages. The f~rstissue IS 'FOR APPROVAL', b y Coordinates of equipment against plot plan
management or client. The second issale IS 'FOR CONSTRUCTION BID', when Piping arrangement against P&ID requirernerits
vendors arc invited to bid for equipment and work contracts. The t h ~ r d
~ssireIS 'FOR CONSTRUCTION' follow~ngaward~ngof all purchase orders Possible interferences
and contracts. Draw~nqsrnay bc rensued at each stage ~f s ~ g r l ~ f ~ c actiancles
nt Adequacy of clearances of piping frorli slnclwork, doors, w~ndowsand
are niade. M ~ n o rchanges rnay be niade after t h +h!rl;
~ braye (by agreernerit braccs, ductwork, etluiprnerit arid cnalor t?lectrlc apl~aratus, including
on cost and extent of work) but major changes may involve all three stages of control consoles, cables frorn nlotor control ccrllers (MCC's), and f~re-
issue. fighting equipment. Check accessibil~tyfor opcratlon arid rna~ritr?narice
INSTRUMENT MOIJNTING, SIGNAL LEADS 5.5.6
Kc MULTIPLE.FUNCTION INSTRUMENTS
t Ic?ritc?rits,Irarisri~itters,rc?corcic?rs,~riclic:;ltorsillid ci~r~t~ollc?rs crlri,riitlrilcatr wit11
(?i~[;l\ otli(;r Ov ~ i i ~ ! : i ~ofi s ~ i ! l ~ l ilr!o~ls
iI wttict~,lrfl r(?f!rr?sf!rifeidt ~ ylir~f?sor1 I t i f ?
[ ~ l ; l ~ i l lTIII!
! ~ , Si!]llil~[:ill1 \)I! i l ~ O \ ~ i l ( ]1110
l ! , ~ l l ~ ? ! ~ S I 01 t C, . IIll'S~!ill(?
l l l ! il I ~ I l l IO~ llll?
111ost c;oril~llo~isi!l~\i~ls.
IIOAflO MOUNTING LOCAL MOUNTING
Sy111t)olslor ~ I I S ~ I ~ J I I ~si!lriilI
(?I~I I(?;I(~s
ill(! 0iv011ill C ~ ; I II 5.1.
----

INSTRUMENTATION CODING : ISA CODING TABLE 5.3

rti(! ISA sc:lic;rlio slic~wsi l l s t rtlint!nt fi~rict~ons,not instru~rir!rtts. t-lowt!ver, a


r r i ~ ~ l ~ ~ ~ ~ l r ! - l ~ iiris~r~irr,r;rlt
r ~ c ; t ~ r ) r i can he indicated by drawing ttie balloons stiow-
11111Ihci sc!lt;lr;)le! I u n c t ~ o ~so i s that tlie circles touctl.
So~iic!~~iiic:s, instrurncnt will t ~ eiridicatcd by a single
;) rri~~!tiplr!-furi(;tio~t

Jii~iiooi!sy111t~il.w ~ t l ;Ii fi~itctiunidentification, s~iclias 'TRC' lor a ternp-


c!riittrrci ri!c:o~tii!r-coritroI1t:r. This practice is not preferred-it is ttt:ttcr to
iiritw (111 t h ~ si!x;lirtpict) siiparate 'TR' and 'TC' balloons, tor~ching.

INTERCONNECTED INSTRUMENTS ('LOOPS') 5.5.5

Tllo ISA st~~rtti:rrd ~rscls tli(! term 'loop' to describe an intcrconltcctod group
wl\~r:his riot ncccssar~lya closed-loop arrangcnir?ljt tliat is,
of i~tstr~r~rtc:rtts,
ir~strtirt~c!ritatio~i
used in a feedback (or fcedfnrward) arrangcincn I .
I f scvcr;~l irist rurrtcn ts arc in tcrcortncctcd, lliey [nay be all allocatc?dt11c snrlie
riu~lii)c!r for 'loop' itfcritificatior~.Fiijuru 5.19 sliows a process line served by
n t s riurnbcr 73) to sense, transrnlt artd ~ n d ~ c a t t ?
r l r i c i clroili) of ~ r ~ s t r ~ l i i i c (loop
, ....... .... ... , ...
lorrlitor;~l~irc!, a ~ t d second !]roi1(7(loop n~r~lt)e!r 74) to sense, translrl~l,lrltdl-
ci~tc!,rocortl iir~tlc:oritrt~lflow rate.

EXAMPLE INSTRUMENT 'LOOPS' FIGURE 5.19

the process variable is involved

rate can be summed to give total volume


FIGURE
syrribols, r e f e r
to chart 5.1 5.1 8 & 5.

L..

HIGH . . . . . . . H To denote instrument action on 'high' set


value of the process variable

INTERMEDIATE. . . M To denote instrument action on 'intermedi-


ate' set value of the process variable

LOW . . . . . . . L To denote instrument action on 'low' set TABLE


value of the process variable 5.3
LISTING PIPING MATERIEL ON D R A W I N G S 5.6 Haphazard listing of items makes reference troublesome. The scheme sug-
gested in chart 5.1 1 is based on the duty of the tlardivare and car) be extended
Irt tt~c: r!c~gir~cc~riiiy
cclristructton industry, it is usual for piping components to listing equipment if desired. Items of higher pressure rating and larger size
to bc givc!ir a cutic r~c~ntI)r!rw l ~ i c l lappt?ars i n the piping specification. In can be listed first within cacti class.
c:urt\llarllcts nut prlrriarlly urrgi~gedi r ~plant construction, rrtateriel is frequently
listt!d ~ Itfrawirlgs.
I LISTING SPECIFIC ITEMS 5.6.3

Under the hc:ad~nq DESCRIPTION, often on drawlngs the size of the itecri IS
DIFFERENT FORMS OF LIST 5.6.1
stated llrst A typ~c;~lorder is SIZE (NPS), RATING (class, scl~r:tlulr?riciirlbt?r,
etc 1, NAME (of [tern), MATERIAL (ASTM or other materlal spttc~l~cd~lort),
Ttiis list IS usually t ~ t i e d'list of material', or preferably, 'list of materiel', as
artd F tATUf3 t (dcslgrt feature)
Items of hardware are referred to. 'Parts Ilst' and 'Bill of materiel' are alternate
tteadtrigs. Descriptions are best headed by the NAME of the item, followed by tht! SIZE,
RATING, FEATURE(S), and MATERIAL. As material listirlgs are corrirnonly
Eitt~era separate list can be made for materiel on several drawings, or each
handled by data-processing equipment, beginning the description of an itern
drawing sheet can include a list for items on the particular drawing. Lists on
by riame is of assistance in tiandling the data. The description f o r 'pipe' is
drawings are written in the space above the title block. Column headings
detailed.
norrnally used for the list are:
EXAMPLE LISTING FOR PIPE

L I S T O F M A T E R I E L
r NAME: State 'PIPE'

r SIZE: Specify nominal pipe size. See 2.1.3 and tables P - l

r RATING Specify wall thickness as either a schedule number, a


manufacturers'weight, etc. See tables P-1. SCH=schedule,
STD= standard, XS= extra-strong, XXS= double-extra-
SUGGESTED LISTING SCHEME 5.6.2
strong, API= Arnerlcan Petroleum Inst~tute.
Vessels, pumps, machinery and instruments are normally llsted separately
II FEATURE: Specify design feature(s) uriless covered by a pipe
frorn piping hardware. t-lowever, it is not uncommon, on small projects or
specification for the project.
revamp work, to list all rnateriel on a drawing.
Pipe is available seamless or with a welded seam-
CLASSIFICATION FOR PIPING COMPONENTS C H A R T 5.11 examples of designations are: SMLS = seamless, FBW =
furnace-butt-welded, ERW = electric-resistarlce-welded
GALV = galvanized. Specify ends: T&C = threaded arid
INTENDED DUTY OF HARDWARE
CLASS
WlTIi RESPECT TO FLUID
EXAMPLE HARDWARE coupled, BE = beveled end, PE = plain end.
r MATERIAL C:lrbort-stet!l pipe is often ordered to ASTM AS3 or
' CONVEYANCE ICJ .I
/ I ~ C J I ~ I ~ ~ I /~.rtIl Pi[)e, Iittirtys, ordirtdry fldnyes, bolt
AlOG, Grade A or B. Other specificatiorls are giver\ 10
!of /11i111 ! l c ~ ~ s a n d gasket sets
.- .- . --
tnl~lcs7 5 and 2 1.
- -. - - ---

-- - POINTS TO CHECK WHEN MAKING THE LlST 5.6.4


SEPARATION: '10 rc,,rtu~~r, 111,1tc,rl,11 Stearn trap, discharge valve, safety
llll.~~ll,lll~~,ll
Irl~.rJll,
/rOlll jllll1l
1111~ or relief valve, screert. strairler
0 See that all lterns in the list have been given a sequential itcrri riLlcr\t)c!r
HEATING OR COOLING: '1'0
IV 1I I I ~ IJ I II Jacketed Pipe, tracer 8 Label tiit! itcriis aopearirig on the piping drawings wit11 tltt:it~:~li ~rc~riiilor
by ,II/I/III~o r ~(.IIIIJI'II\L( /II,<JI
frulrl tlrr! list. Writ(! tIl(! itclrl nc~rnbc!r in a circle with i1 firic! lirlr! or ;lrrow
. - - ..-.. -- -.
MtASUAEMtNT 'I,, rlrl~,~,l,rl~ ,I Gdges (all types), tttctrrrrotr~eterr('111 ooicltiri!l t o t l ~ ci tc>rr? or1 ttic! drawirlq. f act1 itern in tile list of r r ~ i ~ t riol
t r is
I ,< ,;I,.~ ~ l l lst(,
lt,ul,J~,~l. , j ~/I ,& 11,11,4 tyi)es), flow !11et(!r, d c r ~ s l t o ~ l ~ t : ~ e t .
irtdit:atctl lii this wtty oiict! or) tttc plort or elev;ttional pi/]irt!j tlcaw~rr!js
sensor ttousing (suctt as a t11t?r111o
rtilt,, l ~ ~ ~ , ~ l ~ ~ r l ~~, / 1 , 1 1 ~ 1 l y ,
! i / l ~ ~ r ,lrl,$\ltr<3,
well) and other specldl flttlngs lor
I~I\I.O\IIY, f t ~ r l ~ t < / ~co1111
fy, instrur~ients
0 Verify that all data on the list agree with:
r
Insulat~on, reir\forcen~ertt, ttaliger, (1) Requiron~entsset o ~ int piping drawings
(2) Availat~lch;lrtlware in tltr: mar~rifacturcrs'ciitalogs
1 HO )
-- -- _- 2 2 5
- .-
-E -- - 2 -s
= S
-z z
7 - E X -.- .- - z
ir.
i/; I 5 =
c - -
s
--.u - --?-
P, C- ----- =c---
=;S C
,, s- z g
Z E == - - =-
6 5 = a =
C3 =ji 5
-- -
- . -.
-- -
-,% 2c
- c -
E
-,=..- g
7 L-
-
,-
-2 -YC Z,.-.-
s 2 3 2
C
- C , .-.
-.
- - - :
-z %
E c g 7
3- 2-"
ZC;'- 2 ;
C) ri V;c
.
--
-c-.z
,... - -.
0 y " i
-E --c g- -
n
5 ,... 0.
d
- --.
22%
- s
E ,-L G
-= - -;=- r== 2
2.
" 0
c 2 " G E E
-
-
c r , ;
-- -
STRESSES O N PIPING

T H E R M A L STRESSES Changes In tcrnperatllre of pipinq, due either to


change in temperature of the crivlrorirncnt or of the coriveycI(j fluid, cause
changes In It!rigth of tht! piping Tlils cxparislorl or coritractloii 111 turn causrls
Irr current [ ~ r s c t l c e .IWOS ur rliadr f r o m strnlght stra~nsin piping, supports and attactit?dequ~prnent.
~ I I Mand e l l n ~ w sI n nearly 111 clrconivtances T h e
legs ~)CI~MIN~ICU~I~ t o the r u n qlve IIEXIIIIII~Y
SETTLEMENT STRAINS F o ~ ~ r i d ~ ~ t or of nlarge
s tanks and hravy eqcj!prrlrnt
rriay settle or t ~ l sl~gtitly
t in the cotjrse of tirrle CoririecterJ piplnq and i?qtiip
On p t ( r r a < k ~ a t r a n i p Ilnes aiblect t o t h r t m a l
rnovetrterit t o o n e side wtttt latqt=r I ~ n e so i t t e t i n m t rrlent riot on a corrimori fouridatior~w ~ lt)r l stressed by tlie d~spldcerncritunless
so that larger i o o f ~ scan be provrded for them and
so that ell l m i ~ scan be made over the p~(?arackt o
save space
the plplriq IS arrarigetl In a confiquration flexible enot~ghto accomniodate
rriult~plcplane movemerit This problrlrn ~tioultlno1 arise Iri new construct~on
hut could occur lri a m o r l ~ f ~ c a t ~too ral plant r~nrtor process
F L E X I B I L I T Y I N PIPING

To reduce strains in piping caused by substantial thermal movement, flexible


O l f w t l f n g the r u n glves f l e x ~ b t l ~ twyh i c h increaser
and expansion joints may be used. However, the use of these joints may he
w t t h the i e r q t h o f ?tie offset
minimized b y arranging piping in a flexible manner, as illustrated i n figtire 6.1.
Pipe can flex in a direction perpendicular to its length: thus, the longer
an offset, or the deeper a loop, the more flexibility is gained.

C O L D SPRING

Cold springing of lines should be avo~dedif an alternate method can be used.


Rtgfd c o n n w t l o n r between tanks and vessels or
other corinpctwf e q u l p r n m t are t o be avotded 11
A line may be cold sprung to reduce the amplitude of movement frorn
( 1 ) There IS l ~ k e l v t o be large changes I n
temperature d u e t o the proress o r t o c l ~ m a t e
ttlerrnal expansiori or contraction in order (a) To reduce stress on connec-
( 2 ) T h e tanks or equtprnent are placed t n the
o ~ ) r f io n separate foundattons whfch are Ilable
tions. (b) To avoid an interfererice. 'CHART
t o senle

Figure 6.2 schematically illustrates the use of cold springing for both pur- / 6.1
poses. Cold springing in example (a) corisists of ninking tlie t~rarichiri the
indicated cold position, which clividcs thcrrnal rnoverncnt bt!twet?ri ttic cold
and hot positions. In exaniple (b) ttic cold spring is made equal to the
thermal movement.
I n b o t h arrangements, the p u m p IS used t o circulate
l t q u ~ dI n the tanks o r vessels The llextble arrange
ntent reducer s t r e w o n nozzles a n d also permfts COLD S P R I N G I N G F I G U R E 6.2
access between the untts
(a) T O REDUCE STRESS

FIGURES
HOT POSITION--
I n turritng corners. an oftset l l m h g l v n a l l m l t e d
f l e x t b l l ~ t yt o the ptplng The longer the offset, the
greater the t l e x l b ~ l ~ t y . 7;\ 6.1 -6.2

The extra l t m b I n the m o r e fiextble arrangement


a l l o w greater thermal movement behveen branch
and run. f b ) TO A V O I D A N INTERFERENCE

These are t w o arrangements uslng a l o o p at a


corner Greater flextbtltty I r g s l n r d b y maklng one COLD LINI --1
o f the runs f o r m one l ~ m bo f the I m p thls
v r a n p c m e n t also uvn an elbow and t w o welds COLD LlNE
4
HOT LlNE
i 1 'TABLE
Anchored e n d 6.1
COLD SPRING
111 t 1 1 i i l o l l o w ~ r t c!xclliil~l[;,
i~ c o l t f sllrtn!]lrtg is c r n p l o y c t l solely to rt!duce a stress The s m a l l e s t size of pipe run on a piperack w i t h o u t a d d i t i o r i a l s u p p o r t 1s

A i o i r c ~ ~II~II!( : o r ~ r i c ! ~ l ~ 11y
! d a QO-(jt!!jr[:~ f!lt~owtirid flanqt: t o a r i o r r l e rnay usually 2 inch. I t may be more economic t o change proposed s r ~ i a l llines t o
2 - i n c h pipe, or t o susperid t h e m f r o r ~ i 4 - i r t c t i o r lar!lt:r Iln[!s, i n s t i l a d of
011 ~ I ~ ; I I I rItIx~p a~r ~ t fso tI1i1t 11 l r r ~ ~ l o s o;Is l o a d on tlic riur/lc i r t c:xc(?ss of t h a t
provid~ci!] arlditiorial s u p p o r t .
ri!ccirrtri~~iritfti(IAsstirrit! Itti11 p i l ~ i r i ! ] to t l i t ? r t o / r l e has 1)eeri i n s t a l l r t d at : i m b i t ? r t t
~ c i r i i l ~ c ! r , i t i ~ r c, 1:1,t c 1 111i1t t11(! ~ I I ~ I ( c! x ~ : l r i d s 0.75 i r ~ c l iw l ~ c t r il i o t rriaterral flows
II~III i t , l ] [ r t t l r l c l ;I I;I[(!I~II ( S I ~ C W ~ I Yl S o a) d of GOO It) 011 t h e r t o / l l c .
Table S-1 artd c h a r t s S-2 g l v e stress arid support data for sparis of horl~orital
pipe.
If tilo III~II; Iiod 0 :fI ! ) rich o f 11s Ic!nqth reriictvt?d bcforc c o n n r ? c t l o n , t h e r o o m -
---
tc'liioc!r,ituro l t f ~ l ~ o 300
I,ltt!r,~l IoCitfor1 t i l e ~ ~ o / / l i ! w u t ~I)c c ~ t11) (IIIS~[?;I~ of /[!TO),
,IIN~t l i c / l o t l o C i dw o u l t l bo r o r l ~ ~ ~ 1e0 ccl l b o u t 300 11). KEY FOR FIGURE 6.3
T l i o I r i l ~ : l l o r ~111 (lit! c!xl)arision takr?ri ul) car) b c v a r i e d . A coldspring of 50%
o f (11o i t ~ j l i ~ l i ~i ti oot w
~ i it t t n t i l e tc!riipcrattlre e x t r e r r i e s gives t t i u m o s t b e n e f i t in ( 1 1 WHEN USING A DOUBLE DECK I T IS CONVENTIONAL ro P L A C U~ T I ~I T Y
AND SERVICE PlPlNG ON TtiE UPPER LEVEL OF THC PIPERACK
rr!tl~ri:~ri!jstross. C o l t l sprirt!jlng is rtot rccornrnondetl i f a n alternate solution (2) DO NOT RUN PlPlNG OVER STANCHIONS AS THIS WILL PREVENT ADDING
ciiii I l o I I S I ? ~ Refer t o the Cotfc f u r PressurcPlping ANSI 831 a r ~ dt o t a b l e 7.2. ANOTHER DECK
(3) PLACE LARGE L I Q U I D FILLED PIPES NEAR STANCHIONS TO REDUCE STRESS
ON HORIZONTAL MEMBERS OF BENTS HEAVY LIQUID F I L L E D PIPES (12 In
AND LARGER) ARE MORE ECONOMICALLY RUN AT GRADE- S t E NOTE (12)
RESISTANCE O F PlPlNG T O FLOW
( 4 ) PROVIDE DISTRIBUTED SPACE FOR F U T U R t PIPES APPROXIMATELY AN
ADDITIONAL 25 PERCENT (THAT IS, 20 PERCENT OF F I N A L WIDTH SEE
All [lipirig has resistance t o f l o w . T l i t ! s r r ~ ~ i l l ct hr e flow cross s e c t i o l i arid TABLES A 1)
t 1 ~ r i l o r i ! i1ttit11)t t l i i t clianqe irr dirc!ctiort ot flow, t t t c greater is t h e ( 5 ) HOT PIPES ARE USUALLY INSULATED AND MOUNTED ON SHOES
ri!slst,lrtcc! i l r t d loss o f prc!ssurt?. F o r ;I p i i r t i c t ~ l u rlirir! size t t i e resistance is ( 6 ) WARM PIPFS M A Y HAVE INSULATION LOCAL1 Y REMOVED AT SUPPORTS
( 7 ) THE HEIGHT OF A RELIEF HEADER IS FIXED BY ITS POINT OF ORIGIN
o r o l ~ o r t l o r l i j lt o t i l o l c l i g t l ~o f p i i ~ o ,arid t11(! resistance o f fittings, valves, e t c . AND T l i E SLOPE REQUIRED TO DRAIN THE LINE TO A TANK, Etc
riiay bu c x [ t ~ e s s e d as a It?rigttt of plpe having t h e sarne r e s i s t a r l c e t o f l o w . (8) ELECTRICAL AND INSTRUMENT TRAYS (FOR CONDUIT AND CAB1 ES) ARE
B t S T PLACED ON OUTRIGGERS OR BRACKETS AS SHOWN TO Pf3EStNT THE
T11lilr? F - 10 givt?s sucl~e q u i v a l e n t l e r l g t l ~ sof pipe f o r f i t t ~ r i g s ,valves, etc. L E A S T P R O B L E M WITH PIPES L E A V I N G THE PIPEWAY' A L T ~ R N A T E L Y
TRAYS M A Y BE ATTACHED TO THE STANCtilONS

1,111le I 1 1 ! ~ l v u s prcssurt? drops for water f l o w l n g t t i r u S C l i 40 plpe a t (9) WHEN CHANGE I N DIRECTION OF A HORIZONTAL LINE IS MADE I T IS BEST
ALSO TO M A K E A CHANGE OF ELEVATION (EITHER UP OR DOWN) THIS
vllrlocls r,ltes Ctll]rts t o d e t c r r r i l r ~ e t h e e c o n o r r i l c SIX (NPS) of p l p i n q a r e AVOIDS BLOCKING SPACE FOR FUTURE LINES SODEGREE CHANGES I N
DIRECTION OF THE WHOLE PIPEWAY OFFER THE OPPORTUNITY TO
~ t l ~ cC t ~ e r n ~ Eng~neer's
g ~ v o r111 c~I H a r i r l b o o k and o t h e r sources CHANGE THE ORDER OF LINES A SINGLE DECK IS SHOWN A T A N INTER
M t D l A T t ELEVATION
(10) SOMETIMES INTERFACES ARE ESTABLISHED TO DEFINE BREAKPOINTS FOR
SLIDERULE F O R FLOW PROBLEMS CONTRACTED WORK (WHERE ONE CONTRACTOR'S PlPlNG HAS TO JOIN
WITH A N O T I i t RS) AN INTERFACE IS AN IMAGINARY PI ANE W I i I C H MAY f3C
ESTABLISHED FAR ENOUGH FROM A WALL SIDING, PROCESS UNIT, Of1
f'ioblc!~iis of resrstiiiiic t o flow can ttc q t ~ l c k l ys o l v e d w ~ t ht h e a ~ dof t i l e STORAGE UNIT TO ENABLE CONNECTIONS TO BE MADE
sllclr! rille c d l c ~ l ~ ~
o I t~ t~o l)r j~d [ ) l e fro111 T o t l e rurrls D l v l s l u n of C h e n i e t r o n (11) PIPES SHOULD BE RACKED ON A SINGLE DECK I F SPACE PERMITS
C o r p o r 1 ~ t i o n PI1
, 13ox 32'160, L o u ~ s v i l l c ,K Y 40232 (12) PIPING SHOULD BE SUPPORTED ON SLEEPERS A T GRADE IF ROADS WALK
W A Y S , E K , WILL NOT B E R E Q U I R E D O V E R THE P I P E W A Y AT A L A T E R D A T E
PlPlNG 'AT GRADE'SHOULD BE 12 INCHES OR MORE ABOVE GRADE
(13) CURRCN1 PRACTICE IS TO SPACE BENTS 20--25 FEET APART THIS SPACING
IS A COMPHOMISE BtTWEEN THE ACCEPTABLE D t F L E C T l O N S O F T t i I
SMALL El3 PIPES AND T t i t MOST ECONOMIC BEAM SECTION D E S l R l D FOfi
A 'pi1)i!wl~y1 is t l i c bpacc ; ~ l l o c a t e d for r o u t i r l q scvcral pi~r;~lll!l A.
d c j j i ~ e c l ~l it ~ i t ? ~ T l i L I.'IPERACK PIPERACKS ARE USUALLY NOT OVER 25 FEET I N WIDTt-1
'plpt!rack' is a structure iri tllc pipeway for c a r r y i r u j p l l l c s iirlrf ~ s u s t ~ a l fl ay b r l - IF MORE ROOM IS NEEDED, THE PIPERACK IS DOUBLE OR TRIPLE DECKED

r:illi!d frurr) stc!cl, or colicrctte ; ~ n ds t c o l , c o r i s i s l l r i g 111 c o l l r ~ i ~ir!d


r F l-sl~;~l~t!cl (14) MINIMUM CLEARANCE U N D E R N t A T H TtiE PlPtRACK IS DtTCHMlNCO B Y
A V A I L A B L L MOBILE LIFTING EUUIPMLNT HEOUIRtNG ACCESS UNDkR TItf
/ I ~ ~ I I ~ Ct cSr r r l c t ~' i ) i ! l ~ t s ' or1 t o p (11 w l i i c i i t l l c f)ipttS rcst. TtlC vc?rt i c a l rrit!~iibc?rsof PlPf HACK VERTICAL CLEARANCES SHOULD BE AS SET OUT I N T A l J L t 6 1
BlJT CANNOT NECESSARILY BE ADtiERFD TO AS ELEVATIONS OF PIPtS
I l l o l i t ! ~ i t sJrt? tc!rliic!cl ' s t ~ ~ c i c l ~ ~ o r ri!]urc!
is'. 6.3 slluws Iwo [ ) l l l ( ! r d c k s IISIII[] AT I N T k R l ACE5 ARE SOMtTIMES FIXL D HY PLANT SlJBCONrflACTOllS
IF l t i 1 S 5ITIJATION ARl'htS I t t f l'll'lN0 GIIOUfJ StiOCJLlf L S T A i l t ISti MAX
rill:; t o r r i i o f ~ : ~ I I ~ s ~ I ~ I : or~c!
: ~ I uoI If , wl11c:11
IS ' t l o t ~ l ) l o - d ( t c ; k ~ ! ( fPly~ctritck:;
~. lor IMLJM AND MINIMUM t ; L V ~ \ T I O N S w t i ~ ~ , t~i t t PIPINCI
t SI~BCONTI~ACTOII:,
MCJSI WOIIK TO 1t11S tiLLl'S TO AVC)IL) f'ROtJLf MS A 1 A 1 A1 t I1 [ ) A l l
o111y t w o or t l ~ ~ c t~!I I ~ I C S :I[(! 11ii1(1(! i1111ii
' l " - s l ~ i ~ ~ ~~cr (t tl ! r r i t ~ o r s ~
, [!IIIK![~ C t i f (:K T l i l M I N I M U M tiLI(;tiT IlFOlJl tif [I f 01i ACCLSS WtiL t l l 1t i 1 1'11'1
RACK IiUNS PAST A U N l l Of1 PLANT ENTRANCE
'il!i! l l r ! < l [ i s i l / ) ~ ) o r t h ' .
(151 W t f t N SL71 ING C L E V A l l O N S FOR THE PIPFHACK TRY TO A V O I f ) POCKET5
IN TI!^ PIPINCJ L I N F S S I ~ O C J L DB E A B L E ro D R A I N I N ~ C FOUIPMI
) NI oil
I)illc!racks ;ire t!xpc!risive, b11t arc! rir!cc!ssary f o r ; ~ r r a r ~ ! j i r tlti! i ~ j 1r1it111 procc!ss a r i d LINES T l t A T CAN BE [ I R A I N t L)
si!iv~i:c: Iirics ;iroiii)d t l i c p l a r ~ tsitc?. T l t c y a i o lriailt! cisc! of iii scic:o~itliiryw i t y s , (16) GIiOUP I-10'1 L I N t 5 f i L OUII3ING FXP.ANSI0N tOC)PS A 1 ONE SIOt Of Ttlf
I'IPLl3A(,K F O R t A5t OF SUPPORT St L F I ( > U I l t 6 1
pr~~i(;~p;~ y :I p r o l c c t [ ! d I o c : ~ t i o r i l o r L I I ~ C I ~ ~ ~~I I!V( ] ~ I I ~ I I I I ~ ! I I ~ ,
t ol l ~IOVILII:
( 1 7 ) IOCA1 t U T l i I T Y STATIONS CONTROL I V A l VE) STATION!), A N D f-I 131 tiOSt
POIN I S ALIJACI N7 TO S l ANCIiIONS FOH 5UPPOflTING
(18) IEAVF SPA( f F O I I I)OWNCOME RS TO f'IJMf'S, I IL , t i t TWI t N fJIf'I tiA(.K A N 0
AI)IACt N 1 I l l J l l l)INO 011 S r I 3 U C l l J l l t

I /('I
VALVES I N PIPING DESIGN 6.1.3 VALVE OPERATING HEIGHTS * TABLE 6.2 PL

Valves are used for tliese purposes:


ELEVATION FOR
(1) Process corltrol during operation
(2) Coritrolling services arid utilities-steam, water, air, gas a n d o i l
(3) Isolating cquiprnerit or instruments, for maintenance
(4) Discllarging gas, vapor or liquid
(5) Draiiling piping arid t!quiplnt!lit o n s h u t d o w n --
(6) E rr~c!r!lt!ncy shutdown i n the evellt of p l a n t mishap o r fire

WHICH SIZE VALVE TO USE 7

Ne,~rl y cjll vdives w ~ l be


l I ~ n es ~ z e - one e x c e p t i o n IS corltrol valvcs, w h i c h are
HCFLR T O C I i A I I T P 2 I N P A R 1 I1
usudlly olio or t w o slres snialler than line sue; never larger. 1 10 M l N l M l Z L I1AZARI) 1 0 PLHSONNEL I t V A L V f S AHL T O Bk L O X A T k O AT Hfl(;tiTS
W I T H I N 211~1ANTI 3rd CIiOICES A V O I D P O I N I I N G STkMS I N 1 0 WALKWAYS A N [ ) W O H K I N L
AREAS T f l Y T O PLACE VALVES C L O S t TO WALLS OH L A R G t 1TtMS W l i l C t i AfIC (:L L A H l Y
A t coritrol s t a t ~ o n sarid pumps rt has been a l m o s t trad~tronalt o use line-s~ze StEN

isolat~ngvalves However, some companies are now ilslrlg ~solatrngvalves at


coritrol statloris ttie same size as the coritrol valve, and at purlips dre uslng a Infrequently-used valves can be reached t ~ ya ladder - b u t consider alter-
'pump sue' ~ s o l a t ~ r lvalves
g a t suctlon and discharge. T h e cholce IS usually natives
an economic one made b y a project engrneer. 0 D o n o t locate valves o n piperacks, unless unavoidable
T h e sizes of bypass valvcs f o r control s t a t i o n s are given i n 6.1.4, under a Group vdlves w h ~ c t wi o u l d be o u t of reach so that all can b e operatrd
'Control (valve) stations'. b y p r o v ~ d l n ga platform, ~f a u t o m a t ~ coperators are n o t used
a I f a charn IS used o n a h o r ~ r o n t a l l y - m o u n t e dvalve, take the b o t t o r n of
WHERE TO PLACE VALVES
the loop t o w ~ t h ~3r fl t of floor level for safety, drld p r o v ~ d ed h o o k near
See 6.3.1 for valving pumps, under 'Pump emplacement & connect~ons'. b y t o h o l d the chaln out of the w a y -see 3.1 2, under ' C t l a ~ n '
8 Preferably, place valves 111lrries frorn headers ( o n p~pcracks)I n t i o r ~ z o n - 0 D o n o t use c h a ~ noperators o n screwed valves, or on any valve 1% ~nchcs
tal rdtliei ttiari vertical rurls, so that l ~ r i e scan drairi wtlcrl the valves are and smaller
closed ( I n cold cl~rnates,water held I n l l n e s may freeze and rupture the 8 W ~ t hllnes h a n d l ~ n gdangerous mater~als~t 1s better t o place valves at a
prpir-ig such l~riesshould be traced - see 6.8.2) surtdbly l o w level dbove grade, floor, pldtform, etc , so t h i t the operator
8 T o a v o ~ dspoolrrig unnecessary lengths o f pipe, m o u n t valves drrectly does n o t have t o reach above head h e ~ g h t
o n t o flanged equipment, ~f the flange 1s correctly pressure-rated. See
6.51 under 'Nozrle loadrng' ACCESS T O VALVES I N HAZARDOUS AREAS
8 A relief valve that discharges i n t o a header s h o u l d be placed higher than
8 Locate m a l n lsolatlng vdlves where they car1 be reached I n an errlergericy
the tieader i n order to drain i n t o i t
such as an outbreak of fire or a plant r n ~ s h ~ i pM ~ k sure
c t l ~ d pt!rsonnel
t
8 Locatt? heavy valvcs rlear suitable s u p p o r t points. Flanges should be w ~ l be
l able t o react1 valves eas~lyb y walkway or a n t o r n o b ~ l e
n u t closer than 12 irlcl~est o the nearest support, so that installation is
8 Locate rnarlually opcratcd valvr!s at thc! plant perlrrlc!tcr, o r outside I/)(!
rlot t~arnpt!red
hazardous area
8 F u r appcararlce, if c)racticable, keep centerlines of valvcs at the same
8 Ensure that autorriatlc operators and t h e ~ rcontrol llrles w ~ l t)e
l prot-
h e ~ y th above floor, arld in-line on plan view
ected frorrt the eflucts of f ~ r e
8 Make use of brrck or corlcrcte walls as possible fire shrelds for valve
OPERATING ACCESS TO VALVES statlons
8 Corls~dt!r f rc?qtiency of operation when 1 ocatin!) n i a n ~ ~ly-ope1 al ated 8 I n s ~ d ea plant, pldce isolat~ngvalvt!s 111 accsss~t)le posrtlons t o shut
V<IIV~!S feed Iirit!s for t!cl\t~prnerlt 3 r d processes havlnq a f ~ r er ~ s k
8 I-ocate frcclc~entlyoperated valves so they a r c acccsslt)ic t o ari ol~c!c,itor 0 Considor tlic use uf a ~ ~ t o r n a t valvcs
ic i n fire-fighting systc?~ivito relt!t~sc?
f ~ o r ngrade or plattorrn. Above this helgtit a r i d u p to 30 ft, use c l l a ~ r op-
i water, foaril and other fir[!-fighti~i!l agcrlts, rt!spocitling t o tlcal-fusiblc
erdtors or extension stem. Over 20 ft, c o r ~ s i d e ra p l a t f o r n l or rerriotc links, smoke detectors, ctc., triggered by fire or undue rise i n temperature
ooi?r~tiori -advice m a y be obtained frorrl ttie insurer and the local f i r e tfe~ii1rtriit:rit
1 :' 1
M A K E MAINTENANCE SIMPLE CLOSING DOWN LINES

0 p(ovtilc access f o r rqobllr! J t f t~ n eqti~prnorit


q to ttoritltc: /lt?;~vyv;ilvcls Coris~dcrvalve c(osl(i(l t l r ~ i e111 s l i c ~ t t ~ r i(Jowri
q or tlirottI11111I;lrtlc! lrriric N , i p ~ r i
closi~rc! of \tic valve ( c c l t ~ ~ r cr sa p ~ r ld i s s ~ ~ , ~ ot f~ otllr!
r ~ I ~ c j l r ~ ~kl~' sr l c t ~ r~iorcly,
r:
0 Forisl(l~!r [IIOVI[{III[J (1lt11i(1I ~ ~ I V I ~\or
S III!,IVY VII(VI!S (JI/\ICIII~to 111ovt?Oy
WII~I ;I tisk 01 rijpturlrig t t i ~1111~.\ OII(J [IIS~:~II(:I!~ I I ~ ) ( ! ~ I I I ( !prost?rlt
s ilrl ~ ~ X ~ I I I ~ I ~ I I ?
cttl~rlrIn(!ill\s, 11 acc;c!ss IS rnstr~ctnd
o f tills p r o \ ~ ) c ! ~ ~ ~ .
0 If ~ u s s ~ b l earrange
, valves so that supports w ~ l ln o t be or1 ~ c ~ r l o v o l ) l o
A liquid line fitted w i t h a fast-closing villvc sliot~lcl!I(! p r ~ ~ v i d owt il t h ;I st;lrirl-
spools
pipe upstream and close t o tlic valve to i~l)sort)ttit! k~ric!trc t!~ic?r!ly 111 ttlr!
0
Ijquid. A standpipe 1s a closed verticttl brarictt o n a lirte- ;lir or other g;ts is
PREFERRED {rapped i n if-lisbranctl 10 f o r p a pneuniatic cusbiorl.
ARRANGEMENT

I F T H E R E IS N O P & I D .....

0 Provide valves a t headers, pur~ips,equ~prrlr?rit,etc., t o ensure that tlie


system w i l l be pressure-t~glitfur hydrostat~r:tcstlrlq, a r ~ dto a l l o w eclu~p-
m e n t t o be removed for rnairiteriaricc w i tliou t shut l i n g d o w n the systern
8 Provide isolating valves i n all small lines branching f r o m headers-for
example, see figure 6.12
0 A plug valve reqi~iririglubrication must be easily accessible, even though 0 Provide isolating valves a t all instrurnerit pressure points for removal of
i t m a y riot be frequently operated instruments under operating conditions

M A K E M A I N T E N A N C E SAFE
0 Provide valved drains o n all tanks, vessels, etc., arid other equipment
w h i c h m a y contain or collect liquids
0 Use line-blind valves, spectacle plates or ttie 'double block and bleed' 8 Protect sensitive equipment b y using a fast-closing clieck valve t o stop
where positive shutoff is required either f o r niaintenance or process b a c k f l o w before i t can gather momentilrn
needs - see 2.7
0 Consider butt-wefding or ring-joint flanged valves for lines containing
O R I E N T A T I O N O F VALVE STEMS hazardous or 'searching' fluids. Hydrogen is especially liable t o lcak
0 Consider seal welding screwed valves if used I n tiydrocarbori servlce
0 D o n o t p o i n t valve stems i n t o walkways. truckways, ladder space, etc.
-see chart 2.3 (inset sketch)

0 Unless necessary, d o n o t arrange gate and globe valves w i t h their sterns 0 Provide sufficient valves t o c o n t r o l flows
p o i n t i n g downward (at any angle below t h e horizontal), as:- 0 Consider providing a concrete p i t (usually about 4 f t x 4 f t ) for a
( 1 ) Sediment may collect i n the gland packing and score the stem. valve w h i c h is t o be located below grade

(2) A projecting stem m a y be a hazard t o personnel. 0 Consider use of temporary closures l o r positive sttutoff-see 2 7
0 Provide a bypass ~f necessary for equlprricrlt w h i c h rnily be taken o u t of
0 I f an inverted position is necessary, consider employing a dripshield: service
Provide a bypass valve around control statioris ~f continuous f l o w IS
required. See 6.1.4 arid figure 6.6 The bypass sllould be at least as
large as the control valve, arid IS i ~ s i ~ a l lqlobe
y type, unless 6 ~ n c t or
i
larger, when a gate valve 1s norri?nlly irstirl (see 3.1.4, under 'Gate valve')
8 Provide an upstrearii so la ti rig valve wit11 a s m t ~ lvolvcd
l bypass to equip-
m e n t w h i c h rnay be subject to fracturt! if heat is t o o rapidly applicti on
opening the isolating valve. Typical use is i n stcarn systorr~st o Iesst!n the
risk of fracture o f such things as castirigs, vitreous-lirlccj vl?ssr!ls, ctc.
8 Consider providing larqe valvcs w ~ t ha valved bypass to equalize TABLE
pressure o n either side o f tlie d ~ s cto rcducr! e f f o r t needed t o open
6.2
the valve
PIPING S A F E T Y & R E L I E F V A L V E S PRESSURE-RELIEF-VALVE PIPING FIGURE 6.4

0 Refer t o 3.1.9 f o r valve o r i e n t a t i o n


0 E x t e n d safety-valve discharge risers t h a t discharge t o atmosphere a t VAPOR TO ATMOSPHERE
lcast 1 0 f t a t ~ c ~ v t !h e r o o f lrrle o r p l a t f o r m f o r safety. S u p p o r t ttie
vent p ~ p eso as r i o t t o strain t h e valve o r t h e p i p i n g t o t h e valve.
P o ~ n t ~ nt hge discharge l l n e u p w a r d (see figure 6.4) imposes less stress
w h e n tht? valve discharges t h a n does t h e h o r i z o n t a l arrangement
RELIEF VALVE,
e T h e d o w n s t r e a m side o f a safety valve s h o u l d b e u n o b s t r u c t e d a n d SAFETY VALVE,
i r ~ v o l v et h e m i n i m u m o f piping. T h e downstream side o f a relief or or SAFETY-RELIEF
safety-relief valve is p i p e d t o a relief header o r k n o c k o u t drum-see
6.1 1.3, u n d e r ' V e n t i n g gases', a n d 6.12, u n d e r 'Relieving pressure-
liquids'
0 P ~ p eexhausting t o atniosphere is c u t square, n o t a t a slant as f o r m e r l y
done, as n o real advantage'is gained f o r t h e cost i n v o l v e d 4"-INCH D R A I N HOLE
N o r n i a l l y , d o n o t instal a valve upstream o f a pressure-relief valve
p r o t e c t i n g a vessel o r system f r o m excessive pressure. However, i f a n
ISOLATING VAL
isolating valve is used t o facilitate maintenance o f a pressure-relief
valve, t h e isolating valve is 'locked open1-sometimes t e r m e d 'car sealed
open' ( C S O )
I I n c r i t i c a l applications, t w o pressurerelief valves p r o v i d e d w i t h isolating
valves c a n b e user1

VAPOR TO ATMOSPHERE

RELIEF VALVE OR
F R O M VESSEL
O R SYSTEM

The installation of pressure-relieving devices and the use of isolating valves in


lines to and frorn such devices i s governed by t h e C o d e for Pressure Piping, VAPOR AND/OR LIQUID
ANSI L331 and t h e ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
TO RELIEF LINE - "

INSTALLING BUTTERFLY VALVES

0 Ensure t h a t t h e disc has r o o m t o r o t a t e w t i e n t h e valve is it~stallud,


Y AND R E L I E F V A L V t S REGAI1C)ING USE
as t h e disc crlttxs ttie p i p i n g i n t h e open p o s i t i o ~ i
0, I T I S ALSO NtCESSAHY 'r0 P t I O V I O L
0 Plact! b u t t t ! ~ l l y valves w i t h irltcgral gaskets t)ctwccr\ wc!ldir-i!j-ric!ck or t BETWELN r l i E ISOLAIINC; V A L V E AND
sockt!t-weldi~i!l flanges-see 3.1.6, u n d e r '8uttc:rfly valvc'. T h e usual T H E PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE AINTENANCE PURPOSES)
L U E 7 W t E N THE TWO V A L V E S I S NOT USED, THE BLEED V A L V E MAY
r n e t t i o d o f w e l d i n g a slip-on flange (see figure 2.7) w i l l n o t g~vc: 211 DY CAN BE TAPPED
: t d c i ] i ~ a t c seal, unless t h e p i p e is finislletf srrloottl w i t h t t l c face of llie
f lnr-i!je
1 94 1
CONTROL ( V A L V E ) STATIONS 6.1.4 U T l L l T Y STATIONS 6.1.5

A corilrol s t a l l o n is a n arranrlrmc!rtt o f p ~ p i r i gI n wtiich a c o n t r o l valvc: is A u t i l i t y station usually conlpriscs tlircc service licics c ; ~ r r y i ~ i slr?arri,
g cr~rri-
IISI:~~ t o rc!dur:e ariri rcqcilatc tlir: pressure: o r rate o f f l o w o f stcacn, tl~ts,or pri?sscd air arltf water. T t i e str:arli licit! is riorri~,rlly :: ~ric:tlrrilrlrilillrli, ; ~ r i t J ttirt
Ircl~t~d. o t h e r t w o services arc t ~ s u ; ~ l lcarricd
y iri I-iricl) Irric!s. Tl)c!sc! cc~tvic:os itrc? lor
clearting local equipmerit antf Ilosinrj floors. (Frrc?wi~t~!r is t;~kr!rl f r o r r ~[ ~ o i r l t s
<%--
f e d f r o m art irldependcnt w a t e r s t ~ p p l y.)
(;ci~itrril stiltions stioultl ije cft:siqrlc?tf so tliirt tl11! c o i i t r o l v;tlvf? cilri [I(! i ~ o l i l t t ! [ l Tlic! stearn lint? is f i t t e d w i t h a globe v;tlvc nriti llir: ;lit ; t r \ r f w,rttir Iir~or;w ~ t l q;il(!
l
L I I I ~ ~I!II\IIV[!I~ [ o r SI?IVILII~~],T i ) l L i t ; ~ l i t i ~ttiis,
t ~ ? t!11? pip111gt ~ tt~c!
f StiItIOIIS ~ I ~ [ i t l l [ i valves. A l l arc! tr!rniinatecf w i t h tiose coricloct~ocisi i t l o r ~ t3%.f t a t r o v ~ ?floor o r
t)~!as f l ( : x i l ~ l ~;IS ? circurrist;trlces pc:rrnit. flr!lurc! 6.5 shows w;tys of pcrrriittin!] grade. A u t i l i t y static111 slioold 111: locntt?d at saint? ccirivc?rilr!rlt sitlcl colt111111 for
(:oritroI v;rIvr: r ( ! ~ ~ i o v ;i~l lI wt:lcfcd or screwed systt!rns. Flgtlre 6.6 sliows t l l c supporting, arid all areas i t is t o serve stloe~l(lt ~ t ?rr?;icl~;~l~lt? w l t t l a 5 0 - I t tiosc
tj;~sic ;~rr;~ngr?rncritfor c o n t r o l station piping. M o s t compaiiies Iiavc! a standard dt?si!]rl for o u t i l i t y s t i l t i ~ r i . l'i~]urc! 6.12
shows a design for a standard s t a t i o n wtiich car1 t)c cop~t!d o r i t o one of t h e
T l l r t w o i s o l a t ~ r i gvalves pc?rmIt servicing of t h e c o n t r o l valve. T h e crriergerlcy
design drawings for reference, or otl~erwisc!supplied w i t h ttic! drawlrigs t o t l i c
i ~ y p a s svalvc IS used f o r manual regulation 11the c o n t r o l valve IS o u t o f actlon.
erecting contractor w h o usually runs tfic necessary lines. A r l o t a t i o n used
Tlic bypass valvc1 IS clsc~allya globe valve o f t h e same si7e and pressure r a t i n g o n p l a n views t o indicate the statior, arid servicc!~ r c ( l r ~ i r c r lis:
,IS the c o n t r o l valve. F o r manual renulation rri l ~ n e s6-lnch and larger, a gate - -. ---
v,ilvr! IS o f t e n the m o r e econornlc choice f o r the bypass Ilne-refer t o 3.1.4, SERVICES: STEAM,AIR, WATER AIR, WATER STEAM, WATER STEAM,AIR
r~rlder'Gate valve'. STATION
S A W AW S W S A
Figures 6 7-11 s h o w o t h e r ways o f arranging c o n t r o l stations - m a r l y rnore L 1 A
tJcsi!lris ttian i h c s t are possible. Tllcsr: illustrations are all schematic ; ~ n dcar1
b e adapted t o b o t h w e l d e d arid screwed systems. UTILITY S T A T I O N FIGURE 6.12

DESIGN POINTS

r F o r hest c o n t r o l , place the c o n t r o l station close t o the equiprricrit i t


serves, and locate i t a t grade or operating p l a t f o r m level
e Proviclu a pressure-gage connection downstream o f the statiorl's valves.
Depending o n t h e operation of tlie plant, this conriection rriay either b e
f i t t e d w i t h a permanent pressure indicating gage, or be used t o a t t a c h
a gage t e m p o r a r i l y ( f o r checking purposes)
e Preferably, ( l o r l o t 'saridwich' valves. Place at least one of t h e isolatirig
valves i n avertical line so that a spool can be taken o u t a l l o w i n g t h e c o n -
t r o l valvc t o b e rerrioved
r If tlie e q u i p m e n t and p i p i n g downstream o f t h e station is o f l o w e r
pressure ratlrig t h a n p i p i n g upstream, i t [nay b e necessary i o p r o t e c t
ttic dowristream systeni w i t h a pressure-relief valve
0 Proviilit a valved d r a i n near t o a n d upstream o f t h e c o n t r o l valvc. T o save
space, tile d r a i n is placed o n t h e reducer. T h e drain valve allows pressure
bctwccri ttiu isol:tting valve(s) and c o n t r o l valve t o be rclease(1. O n e
drain is i~serfif t l ~ curl
c trol valve fails open, arld t w o drairis (one each sidt!
of the c o n t r o l valvc) if ttic? c o n t r o l valve fails closed
e Locate statioris i n rack pipirig at grade, n e x t t o a berit o r coluniri f o r
easy suopor tirig I f suhject t o free7ing coriditions, ~ i t i l i t ysintior1 stc?nrrl lirit?s arc usually t r a p p e d
(c~tlicrwise,t h e trap can he omitted). Water is sornotinlos r u n u n d r ~ r g r o u n di n
DRAFTING THE STATION
c o l d cliniates usirig a n additiorlal urrdergrocrrid c:or:k or ~ I Lv;ilvt-, I ~ w i t h a n ex-
111 plan vic?w, irlstt!atl o f drawing the valves, etc., tlie statiorl is s l i o w n ;IS ;I tended k e y for operating, arid a sclf-clra~~iiclcl valvo at tilt? t ~ i ~ socf t h e riser.
rc!ct;inqle labelr!d 'SEE D E T A I L " X " ' or 'DWG " Y " - D E T A I L " X " ', if Ariother m c t l i o d t o prevcnt frcc/inq, is t o IIIII tllc: watc!~ itrid stearn lines
detail appears o n ariotlier sher!t. See chart 5.7.
t111! c?lcv~~tiorial i n a c o r n m o n insulation.
1951
.- .. .-. .
o f t l r l ( I T O <AII,I>~Y
W A H M I N O 51 t A M 1 0

TtIIS VALVE MAY NO1

CHLCK P O S I T I O N

IltlWN , I I I I A M O N A I N IS R L O U I H I 11
I t 1 1 ) N I l i O l I A L V L F A 1 1 5 CLOStl)
CAHRYlNCl StL)IMENT PLACE T t l t BY

I i l I1 t L I I I Y I ' I
A R R A N G I N G SUPPORTS FOR PIPING 6.2 Supports for l~ncssrrltillcr tllari 2 1cic11arid r~orl.crrttcalIrr1t:s ,~rc: oflcri 1 ~ 1 1to

I'ioc! is Iic!ld etitl~r!~frorr~;~l)ovc!1)y liar~qc!rsor t ~ ysclpllorts rtf varlo(rs typc?sor)


!I) i l S ~ l i [ l i ) O ~ t S ,fI(!I(!l 10 7 , 12 f01
t t ~ c'f~eld'to arrange, by noting 'FIELD SUf'PORT' on tlie p i p ~ r ~draw:riqs
q 6 :22.4
~ I l 1 ~ ;1 I1 l i l ! S t S , I IiilI!](!r~ill[! i\Is[] i(!II!fl(!(J LOADS O N SUPPORTS
l)'~lll:il~ tlil~(j~ill(!
. . +
.*- - - 1'-1, WIII(;II I I S ~t110 wc:igIits ~II!II I I O ~ 0 1 /II~II!i11i11
f \ ~ I [[(I! iti~blc!~ C;OIII:IIIII![I
water (stx 6.1 1.2). Woigt~tsof fittings, flariqt?~, valvt:s, t)olIS n ~ ~ir~iir~l;~t~ciri
cl ;rrc
III Ill[?ol)c!ii, s i ~ ~ gpil~c!s
l ~ ! ;~rot~su;~lly II~
roirti!tl so 1I1i1tth!y rrl;~yt)c str[~(~ortt!tf
lixtt~rc!s to I)ciilcjir~!jsor str~rctc~rr?s. A !jrotrp of paritllcl pii~r!s irl tlic ojtt!ri is qiveri irl t;tt)Ie:s W.1, coni[~ilt!tlfrorr~s~r[)[tlir!rs'[lat;~
riorirl;~Ilystrl)[tortt!tl oil il pil)crack-sr!c 6.1.2.
ARRANGING POINTS O F SUPPORT 6.2.3
Wi\liirl a bttiltliri~],l~ipirlgis routcci pri~riarilywitli rcxlaitl 1 . 1 ~ l [)rocttss
s tltrty
;trld sc!c:oritlarily wit11 re!q;lrd to r:xisting streicttlr;~lstcttlwork, or to structur;tI Pipe supports shottld be arranqod br?;rring iri rriir~tlnil frvc? jtoirits it1 6.2. 1.
s~c!t!l wttich rnay bc cr~nvt!nicrttlyadded. Separt~tctpipe-l~oldirlgstructiirr?~ in- Irisidc buildings, it is usu;~llynt!ct?ss;;,ryto ;lrr;lrlge suppurts rc:lat~vo to exist~rl!]
srdr? buildirlgs are rare. structural steelwork, ar~dthis restricts cl~oiceof support points.

FUNCTIONS O F T H E SYSTEM O F SUPPORT 6.2.1 The method of support set out In 6.2.415 Ideal In praLtlce, son~erornpro-
Ttio rncct~ar~ical
rt!quirr?rnents of the piping support syslerri are' nilre may be necessary. The use of durnmy legs and the add~tronof pirccs of
structural steel may be needed to obtain opt~nialsupport nrrangc:rnPnts.
(1) To carry tllc wr?igt~tof the piping filled with watcr (or otlicr liquid
irivolvc?d) i111d irisulation if ust!d, with arl ar-nple safety margirl - - \IS(? a
I;~ctor of 3 (= r i ~ t i oof load just causing failure of support or tlanger CALCULATING PREFERRED POINTS O F SUPPORT 6.2.4
to actual load) or the safety factor specified for the project. Exterr~al Ideally, each point of support would be at tlie ceriter of gravity of
loadirig factors to be considered are the wirid loads, the probable weight associated length of piping. Carrying this scheme thru the entire piping
of ice buildup in cold climates, and seismic shock in some areas systern would substantially relieve ttie systcr~i frorn twistirig forces, ar~d
(7) To ensure that the material from which the pipe is made is not stressed supports would be only stressed vertically. A nlethod of t~alaricirigscctioris
beyond a safe lirnit. I n continuous runs of pipe, maximum tensile stress of pipe at single support points is illustrated for a straight run of pipe iri
occurs in ttlc pipe?crosssections at thesupports.Table S-1 gives spans for figure 6.13.
wittcr-fillrtd stet?\ arid alurriiriurn pipe at the respective stress lirnits 4000
BALANCING SECTIONS OF PIPE F I G U R E 6.13
arid 2000 psi. Ctiarts S-2 give the rrtaximt~rr~ overtlangs if a 3-11 iiscr is
inclr~dtttl in t1:c span. The systern of supports should m i n i r ~ ~ i zthe e
ir~lrodc~ction of twisting forces in the piping dc~t?to offsct loatls on
tlit? stll~l~orts;tlie rnetliod of cantilevered sections set out iri 6.2.4
sul)staritially c?limir~atestorsional forces
(3) To allow for drai~iing.Holdup of liquid can occur due to pipes s;lggii~g
betwecn supports. Complete draining is ensured by making adl;lct;rit
supports adequately tilt the pipe-see 6.2.6
(4) To permit thermal expansion arid contraction of ttie piping--see 6.1.1,
uridcr 'Stresses on piping'
FIGURES
(5) To wittistand and darnpen vibrational forces applied to the piping by
Consider hanger B associated with a Iengttl of pipe l i 1-tiis lt;r~gtti of pipe 6.5-6.11&6.13
compressors, pumps, etc.
is supported by 6, located at its center of gravity, which is at Ill(:rrridway
PIPING SUPPORT GROUP RESPONSIBILITIES 6.2.2 point for a straight length of t~nifornipipe. tH;~ngi:rs A, C, D tind E ;Ire
A large company will irsually have a specialist piping support groitp respons- likewise placed at the respective centers o f gr:~vityof lciigttis of pipe (1, c ,
ible for designing arid arranging supports. This group will note all required t i arld c . if any length of [ ~ i p eis rernoved, ttlf?/)olaricc?of the rest of t t ~ i ?lirie

supports on the piping drawings (terminal job) and will add drawings of would be unaffected. Each nf the tiangcrs rrittst \I(: dcsigricd t o atlcrltiately
any special details. support the load of the associated pipirlg - st?[! 6.2.1, poirit (1).
The piping support group works in cooperation with a stress analysis group- The presence of heavy flanges, valves, etc , In the piping will sot tlit; ctinter
or the two inay be combined as one group-which irivestigatcs areas of stress of gravlty away from the r n ~ d p o ~ noft tlie assoc~ated Icrirjtli Colcul,~t~ori
due to thermal movement, vibration, etc., and rnakes recornrneridations to of support pornts and loadings IS rnore qu~cklydone using s~rri[~lr! ;llqt:bra
tlic piping group.The stress group should be supplied with prclimiriary layouts Answers niay be found by mak~ngtrial-and error calculat~oris,but tti~sIS
for this pilrpose by the pipirig group, as early as possible. much nlore tedrous.
1971
Correct location of piping supports can be determined by the use of 'moments CALCULATING PIPE SUPPORTS FIGURE 6.15 ma41

of force'. M~~ltiplyinga force by the distance of its line of action from a point
gives thc 'riiorne~it'of ttie force about that point. A moment of force can
be expressed in Ib-ft (pounds weight times feet distance). The forces involved
in support calculations either are the reactions at supports and nozzles, or are
the dowrlward-acting forces due to the weight of pipe, fittings, valves, etc.

In figure 6 14(a), the moment about the support of the two flanges is
(30 + 20)(16) = 800 It)-ft, counter-clockwise. The moment of the 100-lb
vdivc about the support IS (100)(8) = 800 Ib-ft, clockw~se.As the lengths of
pipe each side of the support are about the same, they may be omitted
from the moment equation. The problem IS s~mplifiedto balanc~ngthe valve
and flanges.

USE OF MOMENTS FIGURE 6.14

1
301b BLIND 201b SO
I Ilrnlb V A L V E

ym

Suppose it was required to balance this length of piping with a 120 Ib valve
on the right-wilere st-lould the 120 Ib valve be placed?

Referring to figure 6.14(b), if x represents the unknown distance of the


120 Ib valve frorrl the support, the piping section would be in balance if:
(50)(16) = (120)(x). x = (80)/(1 I),or about 7 ft 3 in.
That is, if x = (50)(16)/(120) = (800)/(120) = 6 ft 8 in. The x2 terms canceled-this must be so, as there can ptlysically be only one
value for X . The load on hanger F is (20)(15) + (360) or 660 Ib.
The support J should be at the center of ttre associated lengttl of pipe, as
A rliorc irlvolved example follows:-
already shown in f~gure6.15, and the load on the support IS (30)(15), or
Figure G 1'3 slrows a lerigtll of 4-incll piping held by tttc hanytjrs F, G , 450 Ib.
dnd H, drid suppolt J Ttie lengths of assoc~atcdplplng are shuwr~by tlL~sIicid
1he Iicinger G 1s easily seen to be suitably placed, as there is 5 f t of 4 rnctl
separation lines The weights of pipe and fittings are shown on ttte drawlnq
p ~ p coverl~ar~girlgeach side. Only the load on the Ilangcr need bc calculotcd,
The 4 ~ n c hpipe i s assunmi to we~gh 15 Ib per foot of Ierlgtt). Welded
c h(5 + 5 + 24 + 2)(151 + ( l o ) , or 550 Ib
w f ~ ~ 1s
clt~ows;tnd tets are assunled to weigh the same as llrte pipe
The locdtion of hanger ti has to be found by a calculation like that for
F l r \ t c oris~dt!r tlitl section dssoc~~jted w ~ t hhangor F The wc~cjlitof j)i[ic t o
Ildoger F, except ttiat the heavy terrn~rial flarlrje hns also to t,c tdki:r~ Irrlo
tllo I1!f1of F 1s (l5)(2(3 x-1 Ib, ant1 as its center of gravity is d l (70 - A ) / ( ? ) It, ,Iccourit 1I\(! rnorriont ecluat~on11-1 Ib-ft IS
11s rriorrlcrit or1 thc tl,lr~qt?r1s (15)(20 - xj2/(2) II) f t T t ~ ct)r!,~vyvolvc ,ti,d
Ildrlgt's art! dsstirric!d to t ~ m ettie~rmass center 5 ft front tlic elld, orld ttlc!lr
morncnt i s ( Y !1)(3G0)It) f t Igilor~r~g the p ~ p e'replaced' by tht? vcjlvti, wliict~gives y as nearly 2 ft 8 in.
lliu w o ~ g l ~oft 1)111(! t o ttie r ~ y h tof F IS ( 1 5 ) ( x ) It) and its rrwrilellt dtjo~11F
15 ( 1 S ) ( A ) ( \ ) I ( ? )It] f t As ttie associated It?ngtt~ i s In t~~~larict?
PROBLEM OF THE E N D ( T E X T C O N T I N U E S OVERL-IIRI-1

The sr~pportcdlength at one end of a run of piping may bc carttilevered in


the same way as the otticr lengths, artd thls tins the advarttagc? that if the -----
piping tcrrriiriatcs a t a nortlc 1\11; load on thr? rloltlc is minirnal. Iiowevnr,
M E T H O D F O R FINDING L O A D S ON SUPPORTS
it rriay bo rieccssary t o use or arrari!jc a s u l ) ~ o r tat or near the cnd of a
piping run. If the end of the run is vertical, tlic end support stiould be
tfcsigricd to carry the vertical run. Ttie problem is usually niorc complex I The followrng graphtcal method permlts quick calculat~onof bearing loads fur corner' plprng

wlic:ri the end of ttie ruri is ttorirontal


The locatiorts of flttings and support poiitts will us~iallybe already defined,
and the problt?m is to calculate the reaction on the term~rial support,
and to see that the support is designed to withstand the load on it. I n
I PROBLEM l o ftnd tlie load to
arrangement shown
tw taken by a sopport to tx! placed at potnt ' F ' rrl the pip~ng

calculat~ngthe load on the terminal support, i t should be made certain that


the load is downward-witti some arrangements, the piping would tend
to raise itself off the terminal support (negative load) and i f this type of
arrangement is not changed, the terminal support will have to anchor the
piping.
The sketch stiows a horizontal end arrangement. Taking moments in Ib-ft
about the support A .

100 Ib VALVF

End o f prevlous SUPPORT


canrilevered sectton
+= Reaction

SOLUTION
(15)(10)(1/~)(10)= (15)(18 + 2)(%)(18+ 2) + (100)(18) - (R)(18 + 2)
111 Draw the plan view to any convenient scale (as above)
which gives R = 202% Ib. [2] Add the axis line AB (this must pass thru points of support)

The reaction, F, on the support A can be calculated by taking moments about (3) Divide the run of piping into parts. Piping between the support polnts A and B is
considered in three parts. (1) The valve. (2) The length of pipe BC. ( 3 ) The length
the support B or another axis, or more simply by equating vertical forces: of pipe AC-the short piece of line omitted for the valve is ignored, and the effect

F + 202% = ( 1 5)(10+18+2) + 100 = 550, which gives F = 347% Ib. of the elbow neglected.

[41 Drop perpendiculars from midpoints M I and M2, the valve and support polnt E to
the axis line.
PROBLEM OF T H E RISER
(51 Take moments about the axis line, measuring the lengths of perpendiculars M2P. ES,
Supports for lines changing in direction can be calculated by the cantilever DQ and M i R directly from ttie plan view (these lengths are noted on the sketch)'

rrrethod. Sketch (a) t~elowshows that the weight of the vertical part of the PIPE LENGTH AC PIPE LENGTH CB VALVE ASSY LOAD ON SUPPOR1
piping can be divided between two cantilevered sectioris in any proportion
suited to the available support points. Sketches (b) and (c) show the vertical
piping associated wholly with the left- or right-hand cantilevered sections. which gives the load on the support at E as:

Ttic piping nray be supported by means of a dummy leg, if direct support F = 581 Ib

is not practicable.
EXTENSION OF THE METHOD

The same method can be used if the angle at the corner IS dtfferent from 90 degrees, or tf
vertical lines are included in the plptng

NOTES
1
- I The axrs I ~ n emust pass thru points of support If the axis lrne IS not hortrontal.

I
1 I DENOTES ENDS O F (11
the lengths of the oerpendlculars are st111measured directly from the (>Ian vtew
-". .-
I
CANTILEVERED

A
SECTIONS O F
PIPING.
I 121 This method does not tdke Into account add~tronal moments due to bend~ngand
torsion of pipe However, it IS legit~rriateto calculate loads on supports as 11the aloe
is rigtd
T hrs problem uftcri occurs w l t c n rurtrtlrig pipes f r o m one plperack t o another, The nature of the coriveyed material, the process, and f l o w requirenients
w r t h a change In elevation, as 111 frgure G 15. T o o m u c h ovcrhang w i l l stress determine h o w m u c h sagging can be accepted. Sagging is reduced b y bringing
t h e rri;~terral of the pipe b e y o n d a safe l i m i t near one of the supports adjacent adjacent points of support closer. Pocketing of l i q u i d due t o sagging car1 be
ro the bend, and the designer rteeds to krtow the allowable overt~ang. eliirtinated b y sloping the iine so that the difference iri tteigttt between
T h e stresses set u p i n the m a t e r ~ a lof the pipe set practrcal limrts o n t h e adjacent supports is at least equal t o triple the deflection (sag) at the niid-
ovc!rtranqs allowed C I ~ corners T l i e problem IS like that for spans of strarght poirrt. Lines wtiich require sloping include blowdowrl Iloaders, pressure-relief
prpc allow,it~lct)etwcc?ri supports. Overhartgs p e r m ~ t t e db y stated l i m i t s f o r lines, and some process, condensate a n d air lines. ( A i r liries are discc~ssedi n
6.3.2, and draining of compressed-air lines i n 6.1 1.4.)
strt!ss are givt:n 111 ctiarts S 2.
Coniplete draining (nay be required for lines used irt hatch procr?ssing t o
PIPE SUPPORTS A L L O W I N G T H E R M A L M O V E M E N T 6.2.5
avoid containiriatiort, or where a product held i n a line rnay ticyc!rteratr? or
P i i ~ i r t gsiittjt:ct t o lar!ge tempc;attlrc chartgi!s stiould be routed so as t o flex polymerize, or where solids may settle and become a probltrn.
clndcr the clidnges i n length-see figure 6.1. However, hangers and supports I n freeririg conditions, lines conveying condensate frorn traps t o drarns arc
r r i i ~ s t ~ ~ e r m these
it cttdngcs 111 Icngttl. Figures 2.72 A & B show a s e l e c t ~ o n sloped, condensate headers may be sloped (as an alternative t o steal11 tracinq),
o f tiangers and supports able t o accommodate movement. F o r single pipes depending o n the rate of flow.
h u n g I r o m r o d or bar hangers, the hanger should be sufficiently long t o
I n the past, steam Irnes were sloped t o assist i n clearing c o n d c i i s ~ t e ,btrt the
lirrirt totdl rnovernent t o 10 degrees of arc.
Improved draln~ntl 1s rtow n o t considered t o be w o r t h the rfifliculty orid
SPRING SUPPORTS expense involved.
Tht!re are t w o basic types of spring support: (1) Variable load. (2) Constant
load-refer t o 2.12.2. A p a r t frorri cost, the choice between the t w o types SLOPED L I N E S ON PIPERACKS
depends o n h o w critical the circumstances are. F o r example, if a vertical line Sloped l~rtescan be carrrr?d o n brackets attached t o the plperack stanchions
supported o n a rigid support a t f l o o r level is subject t o thermal movement, (see figure 6.3). T o obtarrr the r e q u ~ r e dchange i n elevation at oach bent,
a variable-spring hanger or support at the t o p of t h e line is suitable-see tlte brackets nlay be attached at the requrred elevations, alternately, a st!rlt!s
figure 6.16 (a) and (b). of brackets can be arranged at the same elevation and the slope obtalnctl
I t a h o t l ~ n ecomes d o w n t o a nozzle connected t o a vessel or machine, a n d b y usrng shoes of differcrit s~zes-this method leads t o fewer construction
i t IS riecess~lry t o keep the r t o r r l e sul~stantrally free f r o m vertical loading, problems.
a constant-load hanger car1 bt! used-see frgure 6.16(c). Cheaper alternate Shoes of graded sizes are also the best method for sloping srnallcr lines on the
ntethods of supportrr~gthe / o d d are b y a cable-held weight workrng over a piperack. It IS n o t usual or desirable to harig lines f r o i n the piperack urilt!ss
pulley, as illustrated I n f ~ g u r c6.16(tl), or b y a cantilevered weight. necessary vertical clearances can be maintained.

V A R I A B L E - & CONSTANT-LOAD HANGERS & SUPPORTS F I G U R E 6.16 SLOPED L I N E S I N B U I L D I N G S


litside a building, b o t h large and small sloped lines can rest o n steel brackc?ts,
(b) VARIABLE (C) CONSTANT (dl COUNTER.
SPRING LOAD WEIGHT
or be held wrttt hangers. Rods w l t h turnbuckles are used for h,~ngerso n llries
HANGER HANGER requrred to be sloped Otherwise, drilled flat bar can be used (Adjustable
brackets are available front the Unistrut and Kirldorf ranges of support
tlardware.)

SUPPORTING PIPE MADE F R O M PLASTICS O R GLASS 6.2.7


Pipe made either fro111 flexible or rigid plastics callnot susti~irttlle silrric sl);~rr
lodds as rrletal pipe, arid requires :I greater nuirtbr!r of support p o ~ r l t s . Orlc
way o! prr~vitfiii!]support is to lay ttii? pipc upori lcr~!lttisof slc!r!l cfi;~rtrrrtlsr!c-
t i o r ~ sor trill! s o c t ~ o i ~01s IIIIIC, ~ J I b y suspc!r~diri!l r t l r o r ~ rollic!i slc!c!l I I I ~ I ~ ! 1~tit!
.
olroict! o l sloc!l sur:tiorl w o u l d dcpcrlll or1 tltc spar1 loirtls i11ttJ It\o SI/(! i11)[1 Iyllc!
ol plastrc p i l ~ o .
For !)lass proco:;~;II~IJ cfrair\ lirius, trarigcrs for stt!c!l pip[! art; ~lsc?tI,prov~tlitcl1Il:ll
tlit!y Irold tlrc! pip(! wrttroul csilsirly local slrairls aitcl arc ~)ircirlc!tlso i I S ~ i o 111 l
SLOPED L I N E S A V O I D P O C K E T I N G c:r,lc:k llic? pipe!. Ilul~llt!r arid asl~estospacldiri!]~art! suil;~t~lc!. IJIIIIISI~I~I[I!~I
A N D A I D DRAINING l ~ o r i / o ~ i l i rl ~l r l c sI I O I I1~to 6 ~cicliIII sr/e: r ; c ) i ~ l ~ ~ ~ gas
r i ~ cori g II(IIII(~01 s[)f!c~lr(:
{]liiVlty I[!SS !lldii 1.3 ~ ~ 1 I)[?0 S ~\ J [1I ~ ~ O ~I ilt~ C~8~ 10 10 11 l i ~ ~ ~ t ~l ~~ l i ~l l~ ~~l .~ l l l l ~ 5

,111lJ l l l l l l l ~ ~~sI l ~ l ~I][!l l,ll)11~lt


~ I 1 It li~1lir ~ 1 ~ 1 1 101 ~1s ~ l ~ l ~ ~ ~ l l l ,
I I 0 0 I
DESIGN POINTERS 6.2.8 r Check tlie'code pertinent to the project, as ~t rnay prolilblt 'partial'
welds for supports-that is, welds that do riot erictrclt? tlie plpe
Terms such as 'dkirnrny leg', 'anclior', 'sline', etc , ~ s t l d111 tleta~l~ng
supporting
8 Provide slots in shoes to accept the straps or wires used 10 llnl(j
hardware are cxplalllr!d l r i 2.1 2.2. Roicr to cliart 5 7 for syrlit~ols
irist~latiorlto pipe
8 f'rov~de g~ildt!s for Ion(] straiql1t I)I~II?S s~~ttlt!ctto tllt~rn~al
rnovcrrlt?ri~,
GENERAL
c~tllr!r tly guldlng the slloe or by qu~dingp ~ p csupport saddles attached
8 Dcsi(]ri ha~igcrsf o r 2Y~incl1arid larger pipe to perr~iitadjustmr?nt aftf!r to tlic ~ l p c as
, sllown
installation
a If piping IS to be connected to eqiiipment, a valve, ~ t c . ,or piping
PIPE s n n n t ~ s- -
asserribly that w ~ l require
l rc?movdl for rriatrltenance, support the piping 4 INSULATION

so that temporary supports are not needed


8 Base load calculations for variable-spring and constant-load supports
on the operating conditions of tile piping (do not include tlie weight
INSULATION
of hydrostatic test fluid)
8 If necessary, suspend pipes smaller than 2-inch nominal size froin 4-inch
and larger pipes 8 For better stress d~stribcltionIn the pipe wall, p ~ p esupport saddlc?~
are
usually used on large Ilnes. They can also be used for lines that niay
D U M M Y LEGS twist over when moving
Tahle 6.3 suggests sizes for dummy legs. The allowable stress on the wall SUPPORTING V A L V E S
of the elbow or line pipe to which the dummy leg is attached sets a maximunl
length for the leg. The advice of the stress group should be sought. 8 Provide support as close as possible to heavy valves, or try to gat valves
moved close to a suitable point where support can be provided
APPROXIMATE SIZES FOR DUMMY LEGS TABLE 6.3
8 Large valves and equipment such as rneters located at grade will usrially
require a concrete fouridation for support

W E L D I N G PIPE-SUPPORT &
P L A T F O R M BRACKETS T O VESSELS, Etc.

8 Instruct the vendor t o add brackets required on pressure vessels prlor


ANCHORS to stress-relieving and testing-otherwise, retesting arid rccertif~catiori
Arichors are required as stated in the following two points. However, advice may be obligatory
from the stress and/or piping support groups should be obtained: 8 I t is permissible to specify brackets to be weldi?rf to rion pressure vessels
r Provide anchors as necessary to prevent thermal or mechanical rnove- provided that the strength of the vessel is not degraded
ment overloading rlozzles on vessels or machinery, branch corirlcctlons,
SUPPORTING PIPE AT N O Z Z L E S
cast-iron valves, etc.
Enskire that nozzles on machinery, compressors, purnits, turbirics, etc., art!
8 Provide anchors to control direction of expansion; for example, at
substantially free frorn loads transmitted by the pipirig, wliicli nwy be tfr~oto
battery limits arid on pipirig leaving units, so that niovement is not
the weight of tlie piping, or to rnoveriient in thc pipirlg rcsultirig frrtrn cori-
transmitted to piping on a piperack
traction, expansion, twisting, vibration or surging. E-rlc~ipnir?ritsopplicrs will
SHOES, GUIDES, & SADDLES sornetirnes state maxirnurn loadings pt?rrniss~bleat norrles. Excessive loads
appliCd to nozzles on machinery can force i t from aligrrrnent and may cause
8 Do not use slioes or1 uritnsirlated plpes, unless required for sloping damage.
purposes. For reduced lrlction where lines are long and subject t o
movemelit, slldc plates are an al ternative-see 2.1 2.2. Pipiriq to pumps, turhirir?~,etc., sho~ildt ~ esultoortt?d atlcquately, tlut should
allnw the c q \ ~ i p r n ~ rto i t 1 ) ~~ ( ? I T I ~ v ( Si~pports
?(~. lor this pipill!] ilrf! t~f!st
8 Usc o l wye type sliot?s criat~lcspipes to be placed on the slloe before
rnacle integral wit11 the coricrcte fouridatio~is,t!s(~cci;llly11 tl~orrlialriiovc!rr~~!~lt
weld~rigarid inakcs coristructiori easier -- see flgurr? 2.72A
occurs and should be ori the same Ievcl as tlie tlasc of ttic cq~riprilt:rlt, so t h;it
1 8 Weldinrl tlie pipe directly to shoes is not always acceptable; for example on lieating or cnoling, vertical dificrential expansit~nand coiitractiori bt:twc?r?ri
TABLE
6.3
I with rut)t~c:r-liric?d
pipe. Uol tcd or strapped shoes are more suitable s ~ i ( ~ p o rarid
t s cqiirprrierlt will t)t! rr~iriirriiretl.
(1011
- .-. - - .
T
c:
m
-
==
g
-
b
7
0
cd a
g E
.- 2.
U- 75 g
0.j ?'a
a x t;
Z & 2
2 C
c
.-L a o
--,E
C
coz
s . -? c-
C) s=J
t
..- ";i Q
- a
c % ,5
n
-2L - a3 z
2 5's
c
.
-.=.= 2
2
0
SUCTION L l N E a Provide a pri?ssure conlicction in thc dischargc? line, close to ttie pump
outlet --- see figurns 6.17 thru G.21. I t rnay 11c necessary to providr? a
To avo~dcavltat~on, ttie pump rnust be at the correct elevat~ort,related to
short spool for this purpose if ttiere is no pressure point ttipping on t l i ~
the level or head of tlie liquid being p~~r~lpc:tf.If ttia location of the prrnip
pirmp discliarge riclrzle
Iiiis riot picvio~rslybeen establist~cd on a11eq~riprneritarrangcnierlt drawing,
refer to the engineer involved. r For locations of drain connections in the dischargc line, sce fi!lures 6.17
thru 6.21
Concentric reducc!rs arc ~sc!d irt lii\c:s '2-ir\r:l\ ;\[\(I sr~i;illr!r. Eccc:ntric rc!tl\~c(!is
i \ [ l ( j lill~i(!r,illll! [ l r f ! illrilil(i!?(j ( 0 ilv(ll[i ( 1 ) [ ~ ~ ( ! i l l l ! l ~ ]
ilr(! \IS(!({ ill \ l t i l ! ~?'/~-lll~;/l
PlJMPS W I T H SCREWED CONNECTIONS
;I V~lilOr S1lii[:(?. (2) Ct(!i11111(] ii ~ ) ~ t : k (~?Itl l ( : / W l O I I I ~ rl11(!ci t ( l [)I! (Ilillll(!tj.
Tlit?se cc~ridiiior~s sct ttic corifiguratiori of the rcdt~cc?r--thatis, wtic?thc?rit A purrip witti screwed connectloris rrxlulrcs uriioris in ttie suction arid dls-
is to br! installed 'top flat' or 'buttorn flat'. charge lines to permit removal of ttit! purrlp.
I f a centrifugal pump has the suction no77le at the end (in line with the
drive shaft), an elbow may be connected directly to the nozzle at any PIPING FOR POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT' PUMPS
orientation.
Reciprocating and rotary pumps of this type must be protected against over-
I f a pump has the suction nozzle at the side with split flow to the impellor loading due to restriction in the discharge line. If a positive-displacement
provide a straight run of pipe equal to 3 t o 5 pipe diameters of the suction pump is not equipped with a relief valve by the manufacturer, provide a
line to connect to the nozlle. Alternately, an elbow may be connected to relief valve between the pump discharge nozzle and the first valve in the
the suction nozzle, but it must be arranged in a plane at 90 degrees to the discharge line. The discharge frorri the relief valve is usually connected to
driving shaft, to promote equal flow to both sides of the impellor. If an the suction line between the isolating valve and the pump.
elbow [nust be in the same plane as the driving shaft of the pump, consider
As positive displacement pumping does n o t greatly change the flow velocity,
the use of turning (or splitter) vanes to induce more even flow. Uneven flow
reducers and increasers are not usually required in suction and discharge
causes damage to the impellor and bearings.
lines. See figures 6.20 and 6.21. A positive-displacement pump having a

gEk
pulsating discharge may set the piping irito vibration, and to reduce this
an air chamber (pneumatic reservoir) such as a standpipe can be provided
T U R N l N G VANES downstream of the discharge valve.

KEEPING M A T E R I A L F R O M S O L I D I F Y I N G I N THE PUMP

I t may be necessary to trace a pump (see 6.8.2) in order to keep the conveyed
material in a fluid state, especially after shutdown. This problem arises either
with process material having a high rnelting point, or in freezing cond~tions.
a Route suction lines as directly as possible so as not to starve the pump Alternately, jacketed pumps can be employed (such as Foster jacketed
and incur the risk of cavitation pumps available from Parks-Cramer).
a If the pump draws liquid from a sump at a lower elevation, provide a
combined foot valve and strainer. A centrifugal pump working in this
situation requires priming initially-provide for this by a valved branch
near the inlet port, or by other means
a Provide a strainer in the suction line-see figures 6.17 thru 6.21. Do
not place a temporary startup screen immediately downstream of a
valve, as debris may back up and prevent the valve from being closed

DISCHARGE L l N E

The outlet pipe for centrifugal and other non-positive displacement pumps is F I G U R E S 6.17 T H R U 6.21 ARE O N
in most cases chosen to be of larger bore than the d~schargeport, in order to
T H E F O L L O W I N G T H R E E PAGES, &
reduce velocity and consequent pressure drop in the line. A concentric
reducer or reducing elbow is used in the discharge line to increase the dia- T H E K E Y FOR THESE FIGURES IS
meter. There is no restriction on the placement of elbows in discharge lines ON T H E T H I R D O F THESE PAGES
as ttlere is in suction lines.
(1031
--
A
-
-"
--

DISCHARGE MANIFOLD WITH


S I N G L E CHECK V A L V E

f ' L A N V l L W 01 LLBWW
ARIIANLJLMI N T A U U V c

Il

I
I

I
I
I

VAt V i O N $TIlAlNf R
1
'FIGURE!
6.1 7-6.1 9
f 014 1'Lf11001(.
I R( "&,,)OWN -

1
PROVII)I I L I x l n t l ~ ~ ~
A V C ) I I l S I 4 0 1 i l Hl(,lri

j
I1051
- - - -
IPlNG AT NOZZLES I
SPREAD ( A S NECESSARY)
T O ACCOMMODATE V A L V E

FOR SCREWED fifiN6

CONCENTRIC TYPES M A Y BE USED O N PUMPS

VERTICAL POSITION PLACES HANDWHEEL OUT OF REACH OR I F DISCHARGE


NEEDS TO TURN DOWN
01 CASING D R A l N PLUG. R U N V A L V E D L l N E I F LIOUID I S LIKELY TO FREEZE
12) ALTERNATE POSITIONS FOR HANDWHEEL
11) PlPE BASEPLATE OF PUMP TO D R A l N HUB. PROVIDE HUB AT EACH PUMP
131 PROVIDE 112 TO 314lNCH D R A I N O N CHECK V A L V E ABOVE DISC ( A DRAINPOINT PIPE HUB TO APPROPRIATE D R A I N O R SEWER. I F TWO PUMPS ARE ON A COMMON
OR BOSS IS USUALLY PROVIOED O N 2 INCH A N D LARGER VALVES1 A N 0 RUN BASE, TIIEY CAN S H A R t THE SAME HUB
L l N E TO D R A l N OTHERWISE. PLACE D R A l N O N WOOL BETWEEN CHECK AND
ISOLATING VALVES O N SCREWtD AND SOCKET WELDED PIPING, PROVIDE A
12) BYPASS PROTECTS POSITIVE OISPLACEMENT PUMP AND DRIVER I F A N AI-TEMPT
TEL FOR THE D R A I N CONNECTION
IS MADE TO OPERATE PUMP WlTH A DISCHARGE V A L V f CLOSED

141 SPOOL FOR D R A l N POINT. I F D R A I N CANNOT GO O N CHECK V A L V E


13) BYPASSES FOR PUMPSOPERATING I N PARALLEL ALLOW FLOW I N SUCTION AND
I51 ALTERNATE PHESSlJRE GAGE POINTS ON D l S C t l A R ( i t PIPING I F W I N 1 I S NOT DISCIiAHGE L l N L S r0 A HEADER I F A PUMP IS SItLJI OOWN
P t l O V I O E 0 ON PUMP BY VLNDOR

16) CASING VENT. CAN BE usto FOR SEAL ~IOUID IAKEOFF I141 !3%OL FOH TEMPORARY STHAINER

(151 R t O U C I N t i t L B O W M A Y f i t P L A C E REGULAR ELBOW AND REDUCER


17A1 TEMPORARY S l A R T U P STHAINEIi

(7 B l P t R M A N E N T LlNE S T H A l N t H FOH SCHEWtO O H SOCKET WEI.DE0 PIPING (161 I F A PUMP HAS SlVE SUCTION WlTH SPLIT FLOW TO IMPELLOR. Pf7OVlOE 3 O
R CONNECl AN ELBOW I
SCHEMATIC ARRANGEMENTS FIGURE 6.23 o Provide a pressu're gage connection betwc?en filter and comprcssor t o
OF COMPRESSED-AI R E Q U I P M E N T
a l l o w the pressure drop across ttie f ~ l t e rt o be rr1easurt:d I n order t o
(a) SINGLE-Sl-AGE. COMPRESSOR check when cleaning or replacement is needed
R A I N S H l t L O A N D S C R E t N F O R I N T A K E AIR
- * o Use a temporary screen at the compressor inlet at startup-see 2.10.4
1 I'

I+1 U N L O A D I N G V A L V E & BYPASS 0 A v o i d l o w points i n suction lines where moisture and d i r t car1 collect.
I f l o w points cannot be avoided, provide a clean-out -see figure 6.24
e I f the suction line is taken f r o m a header, take i t frorrl tlic! t o p of t11c
header t o reduce the chance o f drawing o f f rnoistirrc or setlirr~er~t
0 A line-size isolating valve is requlred f o r the suction lint! i f t t ~ r suction
!
line draws f r o m a header shared w i t h other compressors
0 Consider pickling or painting the inside of the suction piping to inhibit
( 0 )I . W O - S T A G E C O M P R E S S O R rust formation and lessen the risk of drawing rust i n t o the compressor

SUCTION LINES TO FIGURE 6.24


A I R COMPRESSORS

SUCTION PIPING FOR AIR COMPRESSORS

0 To reduce darriage t o a compressor b y abrasion or corrosion, the air


supply r~ct!ds t o be free f r o m solids arid water (water in ttie air intake
ciocs n o t affect operatiori of lirluid-ring air compressors). A i r iritakes
are t~est located where the atmospl~ereis uncontaminated b y exhaust
gases, industrial operations, or bv traffic
e F o r efficiency the air supply should be taken f r o m the coolest source
such as the shaded side of a building, keeping t o building clearances
shown i n figure 6.24 FOR C L E A N I N G

0 If the air supply is f r o m outside ttie building, locate the suctior~poirlt


above the roofline, a n d away f r o m walls to avoid exct!ssive noise
0 Keep suction piping as short as possible. I f a line is k~rlavoidably long
;ifid coiiderisatc likely t o forrn, provide a separator at tile ctlrrijtrcssor
intakc -. /
/ ',
COMPRESSOR
r Provide a rain cover and screen as shown i n figure 6.24 DRAIN

r Srriall (ant1 soir~etiniescncdiurri-si~ed)air cornprc?ssors u s u ~ t l l ytake air


fro111 ~rlsitlt!a l~iiililir\g.Large air cornpressors tnkt! air I r u i ~ outsicle i a
corrt(~rc?!;sorI ~ o u s c(figure 6.24): this rnirjirnitcs effr!cls o n t111? b(rilclii~g
DISCHARGE PIPING (GENERAL)
o i i ~ i l I s ; ~ l i i ~ rr;ieli;~tc!d
ts f r o r n tlic air i i ~ l t ? t .111 b o t l ~irist;iriccs, ;I trl\c!r is
rlc!i:di!d t o rc!rilovc! ~ L I S I , w t l i c t ~is always prt!st!ril t o sc,~~\c!c:xloril
Ili~clli\r!j(! i)ipir\!j shocrld t~t! arranged to allow for ttit!rrni~l rriovc!rric!rit ilcitl
r F-iltors ~ r l i l s tII;IVCI:;I~);IC~IY t o retain large! cluar~titic!~ of iir~pirritictswit11 driiiriir~~]. Aiir;l~ors t111t1braccs s t ~ o u l t lt ~ eprovided t o scrp~rc!ssvit~ruliori. I~tii:
I u w prt;ssi,rti drop, arid iriust tte ru!l!lccf c r i o i ~ ! ] lt~o witl~slariiff ~ i i l s a i i o r ~ s o t l t f l ~ wIfor11 thf! i l f t ~ r c o o l ~w ri l l ISU~IIY IIO w(:t ( f r o 1 ~ tilt!
1 (?XCI!SS n~oistiiri!
IIor11 rccil~rOC;IIIII~ c o r ~ i ~ ~ r c s s o r s III suctio~,aii) i111d t l ~ i swater must bc c o r ~rtr ~ i ~ a l lrr:rr)ovr!d.
y
1 loel
. -.- -. -
r
r
AII ~~(llilflll!]
valve iri 111ed~sctiar!je line
I'rt~vldcdlscliar!1t! ~)ipirigw ~ t connectloris
t~
IS I1nc-si7t!
lor tt!~iiporat~rrc
aiid prt!ssurc!
I S O L A T I N G V A L V E S FOR COMPRESSOR

Corr~prcssors operating in parallc!l sl~ouldI)(!provirlr?tf will1 isol;~tiri(lv;ilv[!s


6 ' 3.2
clacJc!s arrariged so that any cornpressor iri tlie group niny be slirlt ~ l o w ror
i rt!~novr?d.
r Provitlc ari ~ r r ~ l o a d i ~
v;~lvr!
i ! l arid I~yl~;iss circtlit co~iri~!ctod ~~pslrr?;~rii
of Ari isolating valve at tlic dischar!lt: stioultl t)e pl;~cc;d rJow~istrc!;)rriol tlic
~ I I d~scliar~c!
O isolatiri~lvalvc!, aritl dowr~strt?a~r~ ol t110 s~rcti~tri isoli~tiri!~ prcssurc!-relief valvc and i ~ r l ybypass valve coririr!ct~on.Tlie isolating v;llve at
V;I~V(?,So i l S to CriSIIrC (:ilctllilliOrl Ililt1 1Ill! (:oIIIplt!SSor t l t l l ill!] Illl~Oil(lill!~, tlic suctiori should be upstroa~nof the t~ypossv[tlvt? connection. Isolatirig
i t to I I ~ ~i i I I S Si I I I I c o ~ i s s osc!c? ~ 3.7.7, trritlt!~ v;ilvc!s arc?not recltrircd lor o sin!llo colr~[~rc:ssorirlst;~lli~tior~.
'\J~iI(~ii(ji~i!j'
PRESSURE-RELIEF V A L V E S
r Norlnally locate a rt?celver close to tlic coriiprt!ssor. (A~rxiliaryroct!lvcls
niay t ~ clocated rit!ar points of heavy usc.) Prc:ssure-relief valves shor~ltf tte iristall(!tf on iriterst;~gc pipirig arid c ~ r ia dis-
r For drainirig corripressed-air discliarge linrs, refcr to 6.11.4 cliargt? line from a compressor to tl11? first tivwr~s~rc~;~iii isol;ltirig valvc. A
[tresstlre-relief valve rnay be vcritt!rl to tlic stictiorl lirir!-- see ligtrrt! 6.73. Cacti
jtrcssure-relief valvr! shotild bt? ;~blr! to cliscli;~rgt? t t i r ? 1t1ll capitcity of tlit!
CoIripressor.
Il ~ r ! \is(?of dampeners and volurrie bottles iri tlie d~scliargeIS d~scussed In
3.2 2, under 'Equ~pnientlor compressors'.
CHECK V A L V E

LOADS & V I B R A T I O N Uriless suppl~edwitti (or ~ritegralw ~ t l i )a cornpressor, a ctir?ck valve riiust be
provided to preverit backflow of stored cornpressed air or otht~rgas.
The design of supports for piping to large cornpressors (espec~allyfor reclp-
rocatlrig macti~ncs) requires spec~al kr~owledge. Usually, collalorat~onIS
D I S T R I B U T I O N OF COMPRESSED A I R
riccessary w ~ t hthe plplng support group, the stress group, and the cornpressor
manufacturer's representative. A major proble~nIS that the compressor may tieaders larger than 2-inch are ofteri butt weldr?d. Distribution lines are
be forced frorn al~gnrnentw ~ t h~ t sdrlver ~f the plping and supports are not screwed and usually incorporate malleable-iron fittings, as explained in 2.5.1.
properly arranged. Equipment used in distribution piping is described in 3.2.2.

If a diesel or gasoline engine is used as driver, a flexible joint on the engine's A moreefficient layout for compressed air lines is the ririg rnairi with auxiliary
exhaust pipe will reduce transmission of vibration, and protect the exhaust receivers placed as near as possible to points of heavy internlitterit demand.
nozzle. Flexible connections are sometimes needed on discharge arid sc~ctiori The loop provides two-way air flow to any user.
piping. Pulsatiori in discharge and-to a lesser extent-si~ction lines, tends to
vibrate piping. This effect is reduced by using bellows, large bends and COMPRESSED A I R USAGE
laterals, instead of elbows and tees.
The compressed air provided for use in plants is designated 'instrtrment
air', 'plant air' or 'process air'. lnstrurnent air is cleaned and dried corripresscd
I N S T R U M E N T A T I O N & I N S T R U M E N T CONNECTIONS air, used to prevent corrosion in somc instrumeiits. Plan1 air is cornpressed air
F~qure6.23 shows the more useful locations for pressure? arid tcrnporature hut is usually neither cleaned nor dried, altliougti rriost of the rric~isturearid
gages, but does not show ~nstrumentatlonfor startlnq, stopplnq arid unload~riq oil, etc., can be collected by a separator close to the cornpressor, especially
the compressors. S~mplecompressor control arrangements uslnq pressure if adequate cooling can take place. Plarit air i s used for cleaning, powc!r tools, lFIGURES
sw~tcheshave long been used, but result In frc?qucnt startlng and stopp~rigof blowing out vessels, etc. if used tor air-powered tools c?xt:lusively, sorne ! 6.23 & 6.24
ttit?corripressor, causlng unnecessary wear to equ~pmr?nt. suspended oil is advantagc:ous lor I~lbrication,altliocl~~ti Iilter/l~rt~t:units arc
usually installed in tilt: air line to thc? tool.
Atrtorri:itic control using an unloadir~gvalve is superior: tablc 3.6 gives tlie
Process alr is compressctl arr, cl~ancdarid di led, whlcli may br! used 111the
workin!] principles-sec: 3.2.2, under 'Unloading'. Furtlier iriforrnaticiii cart he
process stream for oxidirlng or aglt,jt~ori T tic trcnd 1s to sirp[]ly clraried arid
found in the 'Coriiprcssor irislallatiori mariual' (Atlas-Copco), Uriloadin!]
v i ~ l v t ?arc:
~ ;,llocatt!d instrunleiit nurribers. d r ~ c dair fur botli general process or~d~ r i ~ t r ~ ~ r ipt~rltoscs
it~rit Ttils ;tvo~dsruri
riiny separate l~nesfor process o rid rristr~~rr~r~rltdir.
Ttirt air-prttsse~resigrials for uriloading, starting, loadirig ancl stopping a com-
Process and iristrumerit air lor sornc applicat~onsrer1e~iresto liavit ari oil
[~ressors t i ~ e ~ lt~t:
( l fst?e from pulsations. It is best to take il~cst?
s/!lri;ils frorri
content less tiiari 10 parts pcr rr~illiori.As alri~ostall oily coritarrtiri;irits art!
;I r;or~r~c!r:tiori or1 tlic; reccivcr or a littlc dnwnstreani of it.
present as extreniely srriall droplt!ts (less t t w i 1 riiicron in tf~arric!tc?r)~nccti-
[Ioli~ilsof constrc~ctiono l instr\~nieritconnections are given iri 6.7. Iristrumerit anical filtration may be irieflectivc; atlsorption r?rluipnit?nt car1 elficieritly
l)rarict~r!ssliould be braced to withstand tr;~nsrnissioriof lirie vit~ration. rerriove tlit! oil.
11091
T U R B I N E EXHAUST ARRANGEMENTS F I G U R E 6.25
PIPING TO STEAM TURBINES 6.4
A turbine is a machine for deriving mechanical power (rotating shaft) from
thc expansion of a gas or vapor (usually air or steam, in industrial plants).
Steant turbines are clsed where there is a readily-available source of steam,
arid are also used to drive standby process pumps in critical service in the
evcrit of an electrlcdl power failure, and emergency standby equipment such
as fircwotcr purnps and cluctric generators.
Flqure 6.9 shows a sctiematic arrangement of piping for automatic operation.
There are similarities between steam-turbine and purnp and cornpressor
piping, Tlicir comrnori requirements are.-

(1) To limit loads on nozzles from weight of piping or from thermal


movcrnerlt
(2) To provide access and overhead clearance
(3) To prevent harrnful material trom entering the machine KEY:
(1) Exhaust IS discharged directly t o atmosphere. Suitable for small turbine In
lntermlttent use.
INLET (STEAM FEED) 6.4.1
(2) Exhaust Is taken t o a low-pressure header for use elsewhere. Suitable for
continuously-operating turblne, t o avoid wasting steam.
In order to guard against damage to a steam turbine, protective piping (3) Exhaust Is condensed t o Increase pressure d r o p across the turblne.

arrangements such as those mentioned in table 6.4 are needed in the


steani feed. BYPASS STEAM & OTHER PIPING FOR TURBINES 6.4.3

PROTECTLVE PIPING FOR F E E D I N G TABLE 6.4


STEAM TO TURBINE An orifice plate is used as a 'bleed' bypass to ensure that steam constantly
passes thru the turbine. An orifice plate is used rather than a straight pipe, as
a changeable constriction is needed. Alternately, the small amount of steam
needed to keep the turbine warm can be admitted by a cracked-open valve in
a bypass-a wasteful and uncertain practice.
FOREIGN MATTER & WATER
I N THE STEAM FEED A trap is fitted to the casing of the turbine to remove condensate. Piping
is provided to supply seal liquid to the turbine's bearings-refer to 6.3.1,
under 'Auxiliary, trim, or harness piping'.
PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
SWARTWOUT H E A D FIGURE 6.26
(COURTESY CRANE COMPANY^

ORIFICE BYPASS TO /
THERMAL SHOCK, DUE TO F E E D SMALL AMOUNT
TOO NAPID HEATING ON SWARTWOUT
STARTUP OF STEAM TO TURBINE EXHAUST H E A D
/
A T A L L TIMES

6
mini

EXHAUST (STEAM DISCHARGE) 6.4.2

Figure 6.25 shows three methods for dealing wlth the turb~ne's exhaust.
Steam from an lnterrnlttently operated turbine rnay t ~ erun to waste artd all
th,it i s rcclu~redIS a slniplu run of prpe to the nearest outstdc wall or op t t ~ r u 6 f t mrnctnurn
clearance lor
the roof txl\austs sttoultJ be woll clear of the b i ~ ~ l d i iarid
l y arr,)rigud so ~ 1 snot I exhaust ltorn

to t ~ clrdtdrdous to pt!rsorlr~ol The lurbrno d~sctl(~rgc will ~r\r:l~rrlc


tfroj~so f
c-. hu;ldlr~-w"!_,

w,~tt?rdrid 011froirt ttlc turttrne, which arc best collcctcd ant1 ruii to t l r d ~ r i A -1- --
dcvlce suitable for t t l l s pLrrpost: IS a Swartwout 'extiaust hcdtf' sllowrl 1r1 flguru I
f i 21; AIterri,~tt!ly, steCjriidischarged from a continuously runrurtq turt~~rlt? may
1 c r l ~ l ~ / (~ISI?W~II!II~,
~ 1 ?d 111 d lower pressure systt!rm. 'Condensate line f r o ~ r ,exhaust head Is piped l u Urairl
(11(11
PIPING TO VESSELS & COLUMNS 6.5 PIPE FLEXIBLY TO N O Z Z L E S

VESSEL CONNECTIONS 6.5.1


e tb! cautious iri r~iakingrigid str,ritllit r;oii~it!r:t~o~i~
t)t!twor!i~rit~rrl(!~;S(rcl1
cc~rinectlnrisrnay be accep tat~lct f hot t i rlr?rris of rclr~iprriortI arc, or? Itto
Vcsst?l conric?ctioris are oftun made witti coul)lirigs (for srnall(?r liiic:s), flarigt!tJ SiilTie fo~~riclat~ori,
and are not subj(!ct to rnorc?t h ~ r riorrri,~l
i ,~trnnsl)lit~rrc
or wuld~ri!~ rior/lr!s, aiid ~;irls f ittcd wit11 studs, designed to lriatc will1 f l i ~ i ~ q o d tc?riipt!raturr?clianges (see figurc 6. 1)
piping. Nortlc outlt?ts arc also rliade by extrt~sion, to give a shapr! like
that of ttie branch of a welding tee-this gives a good flow pattern, but is
NOZZLE LOADING
arn experisive rnettiod usually reserved for such items as manifolds arid dislicd
heads. Wr!ldolets, sockolets arid throdolets are suitable for vessel connectioris r Ensure that a nozzle can take ttie load ~rnpnscdon ~t by connected
and are available flat-based for distied heads, tanks, and large vessels. p~pirig-see 6.2.8,under 'Scrpport~ricj pipe at nozrles'. Manufacturers
often can provide nozzle-loading data for ttit?~rstandard eqo~prnent
Alinost any type of connection may be made to open vessels or vessels
vented to atmosphere, but for pressure vessels, ttie applicable design code r Check all coririections to ensure that stressc!s due to tlierrnal movement,
will dictate requirements for connections (and possible reinforcernerit-see arid shock pressures ('kicks') frorn opcrlirig pressure relicf valves, etc.,
2.1 1). are safely handled

F R A C T I O N A T I O N C O L U M N PIPING
PRESSURE VESSELS (OR TOWER PIPING)

With exceptions and limitations stated in section 8 of the ASME Boiler and As columns and their associated equipment take different forms, accordirlg
Pressure Vessel Code, vessels subject to internal or external operating to process needs, the following text gives a simplified explanation of colurnn
pressures not exceeding 15 PSI need not be considered to be pressure vessels. operation, and outlines basic design considerations.
A vessel operating under full or partial vacuum and not subject t o an external
pressure greater than 15 PSI would not require Code certification. T H E COLUMN'S JOB

A fractionation column is a type of still. A simple still starts with rnixed


VESSEL D R A W I N G & R E Q U I R E D N O Z Z L E S
liquids, such as alcohol and water produced by fermenting a grain, etc.,
Preliminary piping layouts are made to determine a suitable nozzles arrange- and by boiling produces a distillate in wtiich the coricentratiori of alcohol is
ment. A sketch of the vessel showirig all pertinent information is sent to tile rriany times higher than in the feed. In the petroleurn industry in particular,
vessel fabricator, who then makes a detail drawing. The preliminary studies rnixtures not of two but a great many components are dealt with. Crude oil
for pressure vessel pipirig layouts should indicate where pipe supports and is a typical feed for a fractionation column, and frorri it the colurnn can forrn
platforms (if required) are to be located. I n the event that the vessel has to simultaneously several distillates such as wax distillate, gas oil, heating oil,
be stress-relieved, the fabricator can provide clips or brackets-see 6.2.8, naphtha and fuel gases. These fractions are terrried 'cuts'.
under 'Welding pipe-support and platforrri brackets to vessels, etc.'
C O L U M N OPERATION
Figllre 5.14 shows the type of drawing or sketch sent to a vessel fabricator
The feed is heated (in a 'furnace' or exchanger) before it eriters ttie colurnri. FIGURES
N O Z Z L E S N E E D E D O N VESSELS
As the feed enters the column, quantit~esof vapor are q~vcrio f f by 'flash~ng', 6.25 & 6.26
r Nozzles needed or1 nun-pressure vessels include inlet, outlet, vent (gas duc to ttie release of pressure or1 ttie feed.
or air), manhole, drain, overflow, agitator, temperature el(?rncnt, level As the vapors rise up tlie colurnn, they come into intirr~att?contact witti
instrument, and a 'steamout' connection, sometimes arrar~gedtangent- dowriflowing liquid-set? figure 6.29. Durin!] this contact, so~ricof ttic heavier
ially, for cleaning the vessel components of the vapor are coridcnsed, arid sonic of thc lighter components
r Nozzles needed on pressurevessels include inlet, outlet, manhole, drain, of tlie downflowing liquid are vaporiretl. This process is terrried 'refluxirig'.
pressure rel~ef,ag~tator,level gage, pressure gage, temperature element,
vent, arid for 'steamout', as above If the composition of the feed remains tlie same dritl the coluinn is kept In
stcady operation, a temperature rlrstribution establirhcs in ttlc colurnri Tlic!
r Check whether nozzles are required for an electric heater, coils for temperature at any tray is the bo111rigpoirit of thc Iirl~rlrlnn tilt: trdy 'Cuts'
heating or cooling, or vessel jacket. A jacket requires a drain and vent arc not taken frorn every tray Ttic P&lD shows cuts that ore to he mnde, 111-
TABLE
r Cticxk special nozzle needs, such as for flush-bottom tank valves (see clod~nqalt~rnat~ves-noz7lrson sclccted trayr arp p ~ p r d ,and riozlles for I
3.1.9) ; 6.4
alternate operation are providetl wit11 I~rit?blirids or v,ilvc:~.
DAVIT (for hand1ing
trays, valves, e t c . )

SAFETY-RELIEF VALVE

I rUSTRUMENT SPAC

(LIGHTER FRACTIONS)

'CUTS' ARE TAKEN


FROM SELECTED
TRAYS IN COLUMN

I NTERMED IATE CUT

(HEAVIER FRACTIONS)

RELIEF HEAPER

L E V E L GAGE

GUIDE H E A W CU

l NTERMEDIATE CUT

'BOTTOMS' PUMP

p-. .
3
I----------'
ELEVATION
Material frorri the bottom of a column is terrried 'bottoms', and must be SPARGER UNIT . FIGURE 6.31
r- "-
pumped away (ser! flgure 6.27)-this rnaterial consists of 'heavier' (higher
molecular weight) liquids which either did not vaporize, or tiad condensed, FEED
OWNCOMER AREA
plus any highly viscous inaterial and solids in the feed.
LIQUID FLOW
OVER TRAY
COLUMN ORIENTATION & REQUIREMENTS

Simultarieously wittt orientating nozzles and arranging piping to the column,


t11e piping desigrier decides the positions of maiiholes, platforms, ladders,
dav~t.and instruments.

COLUMN ORIENTATION FIGURE 6.30

M A N H O L E FOR
FOR ACCESS
TO SPARGER

\VAPOR OUTLET
(TOP OF COLUM

NOZZLE AND
PIPING SPACE

If the cuts are to be taken either from even-numbered trays, or from odd-
numbered trays, all nozzles can be located on one side of the column, facing
the piperack. If cuts are t o come from both even- and odd-numbered trays,
LADDER SPACE -' it will almost certainly be impossible to arrange afl norzles toward the
piperack. (See 'Arranging column piping', this section.)

Manholes are necessary to allow installation and removal of tray parts. PLATFORMS & L A D D E R S
Platforms arid ladders are requ~redfor personnel access to valves on nozzles, Platforms are required under manholes, valves at nozzles, level gages, con
to manholes, and to colunlri Instruments.
trollers ~f any, and pressure rel~efvalves Colunins may be grouped dntl
A ddvlt i s needed to raise and lower column parts, and a dropout area has sornetirnes Interconnecting platforms between columns are used Indiv~dual
to tte reserved platforms for a colurnrl are usually stlaperf as c~rcularsegments, as shown In
figure 6.30 A platform is reqclired at the top of the column, ior operdtlng
MANHOLES & NOZZLES
a davit, a vent on shutdown, arid for access to the safety relief v,~lvt!.
This top platform is often rectangular.
For d p d r f i ~ u l ~project
r or colufnn, manholes are preferably of thesame type
Usual practice IS to provide a separate ladder to go frorn yratle pdst the
They s t i o ~ ~ be
l t l located away frorri piplng, and with111range of the davit.
lowest plc~tformLadders are arranged so that the operdtor steps s~clr!woys
rr~,lnI~olescdri be placed o f f tho column centerlirles (plan view).
If rc!tj~r~rcd, onto the pldtforrns
Tlit! ~I~~II~IIOIC st!ivi~i!] tlic sparyt!r unit (figure 6.31) should permit easy re- Ladder Ittrigth is cisc~allyrestricted to 30 f t betweerr laritlir~!ls. Svrirc St;)tt?s
rriovtil iil t t i i t unit, whicll rrlay be anglcd to place t11c feed coriric?ctic~rliri t i l l i ~ w40 11 (ctir!t:k loc:al cotfcs). If operat iriq platforirls arc! itrc ttic!i ; ~ j i ; i 1i
i l (!~!!)l~l!(l
~~0~11l0i1. ~ l l i i l l1I1(! 1 1 1 i 1 ~ l l l l l l l l l[ l O l l l l l ~ ~ i t )Iil(j(jl!l
l ~ ! Il(!i!]lll, il ~ l l l i l l ~l l l l ( ! l l l l ( ! ( ~ l~iIilf/Ollll
~l~(!
is 111 ovidcd.
r ~ f rllc: t:olti~r~ii
7110 [ I ~ I ~ I O I I S wall availablt! for ric~zrlosarc d(:tt!rrrlic~r!d t ~ y
1110 oiit!rit,it~ori aiid typi! ot tray--st!t! figurc 6.29. Elovatic~risof rit)//lr!s arc: I.ittttfors arici cagt!s ~tioulrlcorilorill to thtt ( ; o ~ ~ i l t i i ~staiitl;~rd
iy i11itl siitisly ~ l i ( !
r i stleet (nori~iallyin ttiu iornl of a vi!ssc!l dri.~w~ii!l).
t;iht!rl iloril ill(! c o l u ~ l ~dsta r~!cl~riir!r~ic!rlts ~ Dcpartrrit!r~t of 1.at1or (OSIIA), 0i1rt 1!110.(0).
uf t t US
11141
DAVIT a 1.1ne dt!s~griat~onshr!c!ts, to ot)ta~rioperat~ngterr~pcraturesof l~rlcsfor
calcula t rig tliernial rnovcrr~r?rit
Relcrrlng to f~gurc!6.30, tile rliiv~ts l i r ~ i ~be
l d loci~tr?rfat thr! top of tIi(?col\lrn~i
so that ~t can Iowc:r i ~ r i dralso tray parts, p ~ p ~ r lvalves,
g, ctc: , t)t!twcc!rl Itro pl,~t a Uctails of trays and otlicr intorrial parts o f thr! c o l ~ ~ r ~ i r ~
area iit ! ~ r i ~ d c
lor 111saild t l ~ uclropo~~t a I I[;! ior~son t110l ~ o i ! ~ l 01
I~I!sI ~ t sI;I(I~J~!Is
r Operat~orialrt!quirc!riicr~ts lor the plant
ARRANGING COLUMN PIPING

To achieve slriipl~cityand good arrariqerr~ent, some trial onrl error workrnq


1s rir!cess;jry. Columns are major pieces of equ~pment,arld the~rprp~rigrieeds BOTTOMS PUMP 81 ELEVATION OF COLUMN
take precedence over other pip~rig.
The elevation of a colurrin is set primarily by the NPSti requtrcd by the
bottoms pump, the access required under the suction line to the bottoms
pump, and by requirements for a thermosyphori reboiler, i f used.
As lines from riozzles on the column are run down the length of the column,
it is logical to start arranging downconiers from the top and proceed down VALVES
the column. A lower nozzle may need priority, but usually piping can be
arranged more efficiently if the space requirements of piping conling from Valves and blinds which serve the tower should be positioned directly on
above are already established. nozzles, for economy. I t is desirable to arrange other valves so that lines
are self-draining.
Sometimes tray spacing is increased slightly to permit installation of rnan-
holes. I t may be possible to rotate trays within lirnits, to overcome a Platforms should be located to give access to large valves. Srnali valves may
difficulty in arranging colurnn piping. Such changes in tray spacing and be located at the ends of platforms. Control valves should be accessible
arrangenient must be sanctioned by the process engineer and vessel designer. from operating platforms or from grade.

r Allocate space for vertical lines from lower nozzles, avoiding running The pressure-relief valve for the relief line should be placed at the highest
these lines tllru platforms if possible point in the line, and should be accessible from the top platform.

r Lines from the tops of columns tend to be larger than others. Allocate Valves should not be located within the skirt of the column.
space for them first, keeping the lines about 12 inches frorn the plat- INSTRUMENTS & CONNECTIONS
forrns and the wall of the column-this makes supporting easier, and
permits access to valves, instruments, etc. Temperature connections should be located to cornr~iur~icate
with liquirls in
the trays, and pressure connections with the vapor spaces bclow the trays.
r Allocate space for access (manholes, ladders) clear of piping-especially
Access to isolated gages can be provided by ladder.
clear of vertical lines
Gages, and gage and level glasses, must be visible when operating valves,
o Provide a clear space for lowering equipment from the top of a column and be accessible for maintenance.
(for maintenance, etc.)
Gages and other instruments should be located clear of rnanholes and
r Provide access for mobile lifting equipment t o condenser and reboiler accessways to ladders and platforms. If necessary, ternperatwe and pressure
a Provide clearance to grade (approximately 8ft) under the suction line, gages may be located for reading from ladders. Locatirig Iristruriierits at oric
from the column to the bottoms pump end of a circular platform may allow a narrower platforrri. FIGURES
r Arrange vent(s) in the skirt of the column THERMAL INSULATION 6.30 & 6.31
a Ensure that nu low point occurs in the line conveying 'bottoms' to Therrnal insulation of the exterior of a colurnn may bc rc!quired in order to
the suction port of the bottoms pump, in order to avoid blocking of reduce heat loss to the atmosphere. Insulation rnay b e ir\atlt!quate to maintain
this line due to cooling, etc. the required temperature distribution; in th~!secircumstances, a reboiler is
used. Thermal insulation is discussed in 6.8.1.
INFORMATION NEEDED TO ARRANGE THE COLUMN PIPING
FOUNDATION FOR COLUMN
a Plot plan showing space available for column location, and details of
cquiprnerit which is to connect to the column The base rlng of a column's s k ~ r tIS attached to a re~nforcedcoricrpte con-
structlon. The lower part of t h ~ sconstruct~ori,ternled t l i r 'four~ddt~on',IS
r P&ID for norlle connections, NPSH of bottoms pump, instrumerit- bclow grade, and IS square In plan view the uppt'r part, ternled ttie ' b , t s ~ ' ,
ation, line t~linds,relief valves, etc. t o whlctl the base rlng IS attached, is usually octagonal arid projects above
r Column data stieets and sketch of column showing elevations of nozzles grade approx~mately6 inches.
[llSl
PIPING FOR H E A T EXCHANGERS 6.6 DESIGN POINTERS . 6.6.2
Engineering Notes:
tlr!t~t exr:li,~r~!lc?rs
art! drscussr!d ti) 3.3.5
8 Provrdr! tlic slicll wrth a pressurt?-reliuvirigdevice to protect a!]drrist
exccsstvi! slicll sttle pressure In the event of internal failurc
D A T A NEEDED T O P L A N EXCHANGER PIPING 6.6.1
8 f'ilt f o t ~ l ~ raridlor
ig corrosrve fluids rnsrde the tubes as these arc (except
Pr~:lirntr~;~iy c:xcliari!ic!r irilor rii;~tiorishould be grvert early to tlit! piping grotrp,
U type) t?ds~lyclearir!d, and cl~eaperto replace than tlte shell
so t liat p t l i r r i ~st~rdit!scart br; rllatfe with special rt?fcrr?riceto orientat ion of
r~o/tlt;s. t3clorc> arrar~!liri~j I~c!at-excliar~!~cr
piping, the followirig r i l l ~ r r ~ i i ~ t i ~ ~8 ~ f'c~t t l ~ cIiottt!~fl~rrcl111 tiit! tubes to reduce heat loss to tlir! surrortrid~t~c~s
i s rteuded
, 8 However, ~f steam IS used to heat a flurd iri an exchnliger, passrrig t l ~ e
PROCESS FLOW D I A G R A M This wrll show the fluids that are to be handled stearn thru tlit? shell has advantages. for example, coridensatc i s far
by tllct t~xcliacigcrs,and w ~ lstate
l tl)crr flow rates, terriperatures and pressures. c:~s~crto ttaridlc stiellside. lnsulatiorl of the shell IS r>orrrially rt:q urred
E X C H A N G E R D A T A SHEETS One of these sheets is cornpiled for each to protect personnel, and to reduce the rates of condensate forrrtatron
exclian~jcr ilcsigii by the project group. The piping group provides nozzle and heat loss
orientation sketches (resulting from the piping studies). The data sheet in- 8 Pass refrrgcrarit or cooling lrquid thru the tubes, 11 the exctiartger IS
forms the manufacturer or vendor of the exchanger concerning performarice clot ~risulatcd,for economic operat~on
and code statnp requirer~ients,materials, and possible dimensional limitations.
8 If Itcat transfer IS bctweeri two liquids, a couritercurrerit flow pattern
T E M A C O D I N G FOR E X C H A N G E R T Y P E will usi~dlly give greater overall lieat transfer than a paralleled flow
pattern, otlier factors being the sanie
Tllc: Tuj_)(lldr Exchangers Manufacturers Assocratron (TEMA) has devrsed a
method for desrgriattng exchdnger types, ustng a letter cod~rigThe excl~angor 8 Orientate sittgle-tube spiral, helical and U-tube exchangers (witti steam
stiowri ~ rfigure
i G 32 would have the bas~cdes~griat~onAEW See chart H-1 fed thru the tube) to permit outflow of conderlsate

SHELL-AND-TUBE H E A T EXCHANGER WITH REMOVABLE TUBE BUNDLE F I G U R E 6.32

HEAD
NOZZLE STATIONARY
2nd F L U I D
ENTERS
RELIEF V A L V
CONNECTION

UBE BUNDLE

FLOATING
TUBE-SHEET

BAFFLE ( T Y P )

1st F L U I D
LEAVES
(WARM)
Nozzle Positions: M I N I M U M SPACtNG & CLEARANCES TABLE 6.5

0 Arrange noz7les to suit the best pipirig and plant layout. Noz7lcs niay
FOR MULTIPLE HEAT EXCHANGERS

(a) Exchangers arranged with 2 f t 6 in. o p e r a t i n g space txtween piping


6
t ~ epositioned tarigentially or on cll~ows, as well as on vt!rt~cal or
horizontal centerlines (as usually offered at first by vendors). Alttlot~gti
a tarlgeritial or elbowed nozzle is more expensive, it niay permit econo-
mies in piping multiple tieat excharigers
0 Make condensing vapor the descending strcarn
0 Make vaporiring fluid the ascending stream

Locating Exchangers:

0 Position exchangers so that piping is as direct and simple as possible.


To achieve this, consider alternatives, such as reversing flows, arranging
exchangers side-by-side or stacking them, to minimize piping
o Elevate an exchanger to allow piping to the exchanger's nozzles to be
arranged above grade or floor level, unless piping is to be brought up (b) E x c h a n g e r s a r r a n g e d with 2 f t 0 in. m a i n t e n a n c e space between p a i r e d units
and 2 f t 6 in. o p e r a t i n g s p a c e b e t w e e n piping
thru a floor or from a trench
0 Exchangers are sornetirnes of r~c:ccssity rnoun ted on structures, process
columns and other equipment. Special arrangements for maintenance
and tube handling will be required

PIPING T O NOZZLES FIGURE 6.33


OF H E A T EXCHANGERS
-. ---
TO ALLOW LIFTING OF I l F A R HEAD SOPPORTED LINES UNDER A N
FOR M A l N T E N A N C t PIPE M A Y BE OFF EXCHANGER ARE SOMETIMES
SET AS SHOWN OR A StiORT SPOOL INSUFFICIENTLY FLEXIBLE FOR
CAN BE PROVIDE[) THE FLANGED JOIN7 AT THE
H E A D NOZZLE TO BE PARTED

[Ai
1 2 ' M I N FOR
AFTER REMOVAL OF ROLTS
WRFNLtl ACCESS
I F THIS IS L1KEI.Y. A StiOf3T
- -ii- REMOVABLE WOOL TO THC

Qi
HEAD NOZZLE SHOULD BE
REMOVABLE SPOOL PROVtDED

= ,,/,
I 1 (1) Show ovtllnes of exchanger supports or foundations before arrdriglng plplng I
(2) Add to clearances shown, thicknesses of insulation for r x c h a n g ~ rshells and
connected piping
(3) Provide additional clearance to the 2'-6" operating space ~f valve handwheels
and valve stems, etc., protrude, depending on p ~ p i n garranyrnent
FIGURE

Operating and Maintenance Requirements:


6.32 & 6.:
1 ALLOW SFIACF FOR /
/ PULLING TUBES 1 0 Access to operat~ngvalves arid iristrurnerits (or1 uric v d c orily suff~ces)
I (SEE TABLE 6 5 )
0 Operat~ngspace for any dav~t,moriord~lor crane, etc , both for move
merit and to set loads down
OBLIOIJE OFFSETS I N PIPING SIMILAR
TO THOSt St4OWN ALLOW FXCHANGERS
TO HE PLACED CLOSER TOGETHER I 0 Access to exchanger spacc IS ricccl~dfor tubc burldlil rr!rnoval, for
clean~ng,and around the ~xch,iriqrr's bolter1 erids ( ~ t ~ , i ~ i r ~ ~ Inrld
covor
-- --..- rear head) and ttie bolted channel-to-shell closure
CONSIOt R FIEO\JFSIING F i l O M VENDOR
f f l F F E I l t N 1 NOZZLE TYPES Of1IZNTA 0 Access for tt~be bundlr! rciriovol 1s of tml cjlveri or1 ni~riul,tcturt:rs'
drawings, and 1s usually nl~out1% t~nicsthe huntflo lrlrlgtti 15 to 20
TABLE
90 ELBOW NOZZLE
w f t cleararm should be allocated frorrl the outer sldc of ttir I<~st
er In a row for rnot~~le
~xchoritl
llft~ngerlulprnent access and t t ~ t l rtl;~rltfllriq 6.5
MEASURING FLOW-ROTAMETERS & ORIFICE PLATES 6.7.5 Manometers for use wifh orifice date assemblies are calibrated i n terms of I

differential pressure by the rnanuiacturer The meter run (that is, the piping
ROTAMETER CONNECTIONS
in which the orifice plate is to be installed) must correspond with the piping
A rotanieter consists of a transparent tube with tapered and calibrated bore, used to calibrate the orifice plate-the read~ngswill be in error i f there is very
arranged vert~cally,wide end up, supported In a casrng or framework w ~ t tend i much variation i n these two piping arrangements.
cortrlections The lristrumellt should be conrlected so that flow enters at the
lower end arid leaves at the top A ball or spinner rides on the rising gas or li- Sometimes the or~ficeassembly includes adjacent piping, ready for welding
q u ~ dinside the tapered tube - ttle greater the flow rate, the higher the ball or i n place. Otherwise, lengths of straight pipe, free from welds, branches or
splnner rides Isolating valves and a bypass should be provided, as In f~gure obstruction, should be provided upstream and downstream of the orifice
6 35 assembly.

Table 6.6 shows lengths of straight pipe required upstream and downstream
ROTAMETER F I G U R E 6.35
of orifice flanges (for different piping arrangements) to sufficiently reduce
(a) P I P I N G T O R O T A M E T E R (b) I N D U S T R I A L R O T A M E T E R turbulence in liquids for reliable measurement.

PIPING T O FLANGE TAPS

Figure 6.37 shows a suitable tapping and valving arrangement at orifice


flange taps. In horizontal runs, the taps are located at the tops of the flanges
in gas, steam and vapor lines. An approximately horizontal position avoids
vapor locks i n liquid lines. Taps should not be pointed downward, as sediment
may collcct in pipes and tubes.

CONNECTIONS T O ORIFICE FLANGES FIGURE 6.37


& INSTRUMENT

ORIFICE PLATE ASSEMBLY

A n 'orifice plate' is a flat disc with a precisely-made hole at its center. It


offers a well-defined obstruction to flow when inserted in a line-see figure
6.36. The resistance of the orifice sets up a pressure differerlce in the fluid
either side of the plate, w h ~ c hcan be used to measure the rate of flow.

O R I F I C E P L A T E ASSEMBLY & GAGE (MANO?AETER) FIGURE 6.36

GAGE

I I

KEY:
( 1 ) 1-lnch t n l n l r n u m clearance b e t w e e n
gate or b a l l valves. A l t e r n a t e l y , splay
vdlves a n d arrange sldoby-rltle.
( 2 ) Pipe-to tube cor~rlrctor.
( 7 ) 0 ~ ) t l o n d l l v ,lirres rriav t)e r11)pcd.
I 1 ) t - l l r ~ l i c r . f ~ r e r s u rCO~IIIL'L~IOII.
e
( ) Irlstrur~ient-s11owr1 sctlerndtl~ally.
( 6 ) Verit.
( I )Lowcbr-pressure connection.
( 8 ) G l o b e valve i s norriraliy closed. I t 15
ojtoriod o n l y for ' z e r o ctieckiri9' tliC
lnstrtirnent.
( 9 ) C d o . H e n l o v e d for ' r o d d l n g o t l t ' .
S T R A I G H T PlPE RUN T O T H E O R I F I C E CLEARANCES .

I lit! arrar,gonierit of o r ~ f ~ cp lca t e asscrrlbl~r!~s l i o u l t j b e rlladtl iri c o r l s u l ; l t ~ o r i Clcar spacn sliould bc? left a r o u l i d arl o r i f i c e assr?rnl)ly. Fi!jllrt! 63.38 s t l o w s
w ~ t hthc iristrumc?rit criqlnc:cr. Usually, 11 is prr?fc!rrc!d t o locatc o r ~ f i c cp I i ~ t ( ! r e q r ~ i r c dlor r ~ i o u r l t i r i ! li r i s t r ~ r r ~ ~ r ? s(?;11
r l i i r i i r ~ l ~CIC~I~~II~CL'S
~r~l ~ l t s ,[ ~ o t s ,(!I(:., :111(I

assc?rriblics in h o i ~ l o n t a l111ics. f o r rnairi tcnrtncc .

Flow c o n d ~ t ~ o ncso n s i s t e n t w i t h thosf? used t o calit)rato ttx ~ r i s t r u r n c r l tart?


crlsured by p r o v ~ d ~ r ai qd e q u a t e l y lorlg straiqtlt s c c t ~ o n sof pip[! ~ ~ p s t r r ! , ~and
rri CLEARANCES T O O R I F I C E ASSEMBLIES F I G U R E 6.38

d o w n s t r e a r r i of t h e o r ~ f i c c ! Table G G g ~ v c sl o ~ l r l t t i st t i a t I l o v e bcc!rl found


s a t ~ s f a c t o r yfor I ~ c l u ~ d s

S T R A I G H T PlPE UPSTREAM & DOWNSTREAM CLEARANCES FOR CLEAf7ANCES FOR


O F O R I F I C E ASSEMBLY T A B L E 6.6 LINES CONVEYING LINES CONVEYING
A I R OR OTHER GAS LIQUIDS OR STEAM

FIGURE!:
6.35-6.38

=access space
ELEVATIONS L - 2'-6 A TABLE
6.6
KEEPING PROCESS MATERIAL For personnel protection insulation should be provided up to a height of
AT THE RIGHT TEMPERATURE about 8 f t above operating floor level. Alternately, wire IT~CSII
g ~ i ~can
i d be
~
provided. The following more detailed table gives insulatio~ithickness for
To ensure continuity of plant operatiorls i t is necessary to rna~rltairisome heat conservation, based on 85% magnesia to 600 F, and calcium silicate
process, servlce arid utility lirles within a desired temperature raliye in order above 600 F.
to keep ntatcrials In a fluid state, to prevent degradation, arid to prevent
damage caused t ~ yliquids freeririg in cold conditions. Piping can be kept
I N S U L A T I O N R E Q U I R E D FOR PIPE
warlri by irrst~lat~ori,or by aoplyirl!l heat to the irisulated piping-this is A T V A R I O U S TEMPERATURES T A B L E 6.8
'lacket~ng'oi 'tracir~y',as discussed ~ r 6.8.2
i acid 6.8.3.

NOMIPJAI. INCIiES THICKNESS OF lNSUL A T ION FOR STATED TEMPERATURE RANGE


THERMAL INSULATION 6.8.1 PIPE SIZE -
Ternoerdture Range i n Degrees F d t i r e n l l e ~t
(in. 1 below 4 0 0 4 0 0 - 5 4 9 5 5 0 - 6 9 9 7 0 0 - 8 9 9 9 0 0 - 1 0 4 9 1 0 5 0 - 1 2 0 0
INSULATION to 1 1 1 1.5 2 2 2.5
1.5 1 1.5 1.5 2 2 2.5
'Insulation' is covering material having poor thermal conductivity applied ex- 2 1 1.5 1.5 2 2.5 3
3 1 1.5 1.5 2.5 2.5 3
ternally to pipe arid vessels, and is used: ( 1 ) To retairi heat in a pipe or vessel 4 1 1.5 1.5 2.5 2.5 3.5
6 1.5 1.5 2.5 3 1.5
so as to maintain process temperature or prevent freezing. 12) To minimize 8 1.5 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
transfer of heat frorn the surroundings into the line or vessel. (3) To safe- 10 1.5 1.5 2 2.5 3
12 1.5 2 2 2.5 3 4
guard personnel from hot lines. The choice of insulation is normally included 14 1.5 2 2 3 3 4
16 2 2 2 3 3.5 4
with the piping specification. The method of showing insulation on piping 18 2 2 2 3 3.5 4
20 2 2 2 3 3.5 4
drawings is included in chart 5.7. C
24 2 2 2 3 3.5 4
I

Installed insulation normally consists of three parts: ( 1 ) The thermal insula-


ting material. (2) The protective covering for it. (3) The metal bartdir~gto
JACKETING & TRACING 6.8.2
fasten the covering. Most irtsulating materials are supplied in formed pieces
to fit elbows, etc. Formed coverings are also available. Additionally, it is
customary to paint the installed insulation, and to weatherproof i t before Tlie contmon methods by which temperatures are maintained, other thari by
painting, if for external use. simple insulation, are jacketing and tracing (with insulation).
JACKETING
The principal thermal insulating materials and their accepted approxiniate
maximurn line temperatures, where temperature cycling (repetitive heating Usually, 'jacketing' refers to double-walled construction of pipe, valves, vessels,
and cooling periods) occurs are: asbestos (1200 F), calcium silicate (1200 F), hose, etc., designed so that a hot or cold fluid can circulate in the cavity be-
cellular glass [foamglas] (800 F), cellular silica (1600 F), diatomaceous silica tween the walls. Heating media include water, oils, stearn, or proprietary
plus asbestos (1600 F), mineral fiher (250-1200 F, depending on type), high-boiling-point fluids which can be circulated at low pressure, such as
rriineral wool (1200 F), magrtesia (600 F), and polyurethane foam (250 F). Oowtherm or Therrninol. Cooling rnedia include water, water mixtures and
Certain foamed plastics have a very low conductivity, and are suitable for various alcotlols.
insillating lirtes as cold as -400 F. Hock cork [bonded ni~neralfiber] is Jacketed pipe can be made by the piping fabricator, but an engirleered system
satisfactory down to -250 F, and mineral wool down to -150 F. boitgllt from a specialist mariufacturor would be a more reliable choict?. The
julnpovcr lines coririt!ctir~g adloceirt jackets, thru w h ~ c httic! trcatiog or c:oolirig
HOW THICK SHOULD I N S U L A T I O N BE ? rriedium flows are factory-rnitcle by the spt?cialist rniltltifactitrt!r witti lt!ss joi~its
than those rtlade un-site, where as rriariy as nine screwed joirlts [nay br?r~c?ces-
Most 111si~ldt1o11 In ~t pl,~ntwill rtot excct!d 2 ~ r ~ c l i c111
s tti~ohrit!s A rough
sary to rnakr? one jurnpovr:r. Details of the rarige of fittirys, viilvos arrd
g~jldeto rrrsul~t~ori tt~ickricssesof [tie rlrore r:or11111orlrr~,ltr:rr,~lsrcq~llrr(Jorr
ecluiprnent available and methods of corlstructiurl for steel jackt!torf i~ioirig
p ~ p cto 8 icich slce 1s
systems can br? found in Parks-Cramer's and other catalogs.
GUIDE TO INSULATION THICKNESS T A B L E 6.7
Artottrt!r type of ~itckctingis 'Platecoil' (Trantcr M;~nufacturing Inc.) wliict~is
I AYf'LlCArlDN 1 1YPICAt INSlll ATlNG MATElllAL
( USUAL TtilCKNf U
O f IN\\Jt A 1 ION
a r,arl,t! giver, tc) Ileal trur~sferurtils lat~rici~tod frorn t!rrr!josst:d rrrr!till sl~c?cls,
joir~t!rf to!jr:ttter t o f o ~ r lirltc!rnal
l ctlarlrieling thrt~wliicll th(? Ilr!ii\irl!j (01 c:ool-
ill!]) tluitl is ~)at;sc!d. I I)(!tcrrrr 'j;~cketir~!j'is also applic!tl t o c?lccrric:tic!atlr~q
pircls or ritarltlos wl~icti;I((!forcrrotl to fit c!clt~il~rllc:rlt.I t irlso sorrloti~r~r!~ rolt:rs
to ttrr! sf)irltl wir~dingo f r!l(!ctric tracin!] ailti fluitf trocirr!l liirr!s i l t ( ~ ~ f)ilici!;,
i~i~l
vt!ssc!ls, 01c.
STEAM TRACING 6.8.3 EXPANSION O F T H E 'TRACER, & ANCHORING

This is a widely-used way of keeping lines warm-surplus steam is usually Expansion can be accommodated by looping the tracer at elbows and/or pro-
available for this purpose. Figure 6.40 shows typical tracing arrangements. viding horizontal expansion loops in the tracer. Vertical dowriward expan-
A stearrl-tracirig systcrn consists of tracer lines separately fed from a stcarn sion loops obstruct draining and will cause trouble in freezing clirrlatcs, urlless
supply treader (or subtleadcr), each tracer terminating with a separate trap. the design includes a drain at the bottom of the loop, or a union to break
tiorizontal pipes are commonly traced along ttie bottom by a single tracer. the loop. I t is necessary to anchor tracers to control the amount 01 expansion
Multiply traced pip(!, with ruurc than two tracers, is ur~c~sual. that can be tolerated in any orie directiori. Straight tracers 100 f t or lor~lr?rare
STEAM PRESSURE FOR T R A C I N G usually anchored at their midpoints.

Steant pressures in ttie range 10 to 200 PSIG are used. Sometirnes steam will Expansion at elbows must be limited wherc nc) loop is used arld excessive
be available at a suitable pressure for the tracing system, but i f the available nlovement of the tracer could lift the insulation. I n such cases the tracer is
steam is at too high a pressure, it may be reduced by means of a control anchored not more than 10 to 25 f t away from an elbow which limits start-up
(valve) station-see 6.1.4. Low steam pressures may be adequate if tracers exparlsion to 112 to 314 inch in most cases. The distance of the anchor fronr
are fitted with traps discharging to atmospheric pressure. If a pressurized the elbow is best calculated from the ambient and steam temperatures.
condensate system is used, steam at 100 to 125 PSIG is preferred. EXAMPLE: System traced with copper tubrng: coefficient of linear expan-
sion of copper = 0.000009 per deg F. Steam pressure to be used = 50 PSIG
SIZING HEADERS (equivalent steam temperature 298F). Lowest ambient temperature = 50 F.
The best way to size a steam subheader or condensate header serving several I f the anchor is located 20 ft frorn the elbow, the rnaxirnurn expansion in
tracers is to calculate the total internal cross-sectional area of all the tracers, inches is (298--50)(0.000009)(20)(12) = 0 53 in. T h ~ sexpansion will usually
and to select the header size offering about the same flow area.Table 6.9 be tolerable even for a small line with the tracer construction for elbows
allows quick selection if the tracers are all of the same size: shown ~ r figure
l 6.40.

NUMBER OF TRACERS PER HEADER


5 0 P S l G S T E A M PRESSURE

TABLE 6.9

/ ' 0 53 unch E X P A N S I O N
LOWEST A M B I E N T T E M P E R A T U R E = 5 0 F

PIPE, TUBE & F l T T l N G S FOR T R A C I N G

SCH 80 carbon steel pipe, or copper or stainless steel tubing is used for
tracers. Selection is based on steam pressure and required tracer sire. In prac-
tice, tracers are either 112 or 318-inch size, as smaller sizes involve too much
pressure drop, and larger material does not bend well enough for customary
field installation.
M A X I M U M LENGTHS & RISES 112-inch OD copper tube is the most econorrlic material for [racing straight
The rdte at which conderisate forms and fills tlie line determiiles the leriqttl piping. 318-inch OD copper tubing is more useful where srnall bends are
of the tracer In contact witti the pipe. Too many variables are involved to required around valve bodies, etc. Copper tubing can be used for pressures up
give useful mdxirnum tracer lengths Most cornpanles have their own design to 150 PSIG (or to 370 F). Table T-1 gives data for copper tube.
frgure (or figures based on experience) for this usually, length of trdcer In Supply lines frorn the header are usually socket welded or screwed and seal-
Lontact with pipe does riot exceed 250 ft welded depending on the pressures involved and the company's practice. A
1 PSI stcdrri will l i f t condensate about 2.3 ft, and therefor vertical rises plpe-to-tube connector i s used to make the connection between the steel pipe
will present no problern unless low-pressure steam IS being used Cornp,tnlcs and tracer tube - see figure 2.41.
prefer to lirrlrt the vertical rrse In a tracer at any one place to G ft (for 25 49
TRACING V A L V E S & EQUIPMENT
PSIG stearn) or 10 ft (for 50-100 PSlG steam). As a r0llgh gultle, t l ~ etotdl II

Iieigtlt, 1r1 feet, of all the rises iri orle trdcer rriay be Iirrl~tcdto orir! qu~lrterof Differt!nt rnetliods arc iisud. Sornc cornparlics require valves to be wrapl)c?d
tllc ~ r i i t ~stearn
al pressurr?, in PSIG. For exanlple, ~f the in~tialstcarn pressure w ~ t htracer tub~ng Ottlcrs r-rierely run the tub~ngIn a vr?rtical loop alorirjridc
1s 100 I'SIG, total tir!igtlt of all risers Irk tlie tracer should be limited arid against tlie wive ttndy. In erthcr mt!tliorf, roorn stioi~lclt ~ c11!f1 f o r rc!
10 25 11. Tt~crise for d sloped trdcer is the diifurence In elev(itioris t~t!twccii rnovtilg tl,lryc I~olts,airti onror\s ~110~jld t)e \)li)~t!d111 ttltl: I ~ ~ tliiltO
SO C 1\11!I
tlrc? (!rids of the slopirig pdrt (11 tlic tracer. v,llvr! or ccli~~[)rrlr!rlt
oar1 /I(! rt!rr~ovr!d.
(l?4l
STEAM & LOW-PRESSURE HEATING MEDIA 6.9 SUPERHEATED S T E A M

EXPLANATIONS O F S T E A M TERMS 6.9.1 I f heat is added to a quaritity of dry st(!arri, Ill(!tr?rnl)c?rat~~rc of tlic steani will
rise, arid tho nurnb(?r of tfcgrees rise in tr?rril)c!rat~~rc! is t t i t ! 'tlo!jrcr!s of st~pr?r-
HOW STEAM IS F O R M E D
llctat'. Tlius, supcrhc!at is 'serisil~le'1ro;it - tliirt is, it ciici 11(1 rrlc;~sirrc!clIly ;I
Stcam is a coriv~?riicr~t and clasily Ii:iridl(?d rnodiurrl for hcatirig, for clriviri!l tl~c?rriiornc!tc?r.
rrractiiriery, for clearling, arid for creating vacuurn.
EFFECT O F PRESSURE C H A N G E
After water has reached the boiling point, further ;ltlditio~iof Iit!at will corivc?rt
water into the vapor state: that is, stearn. During t~oilingtlicr~!is no further Urider normal atmospheric pressure (14.7 F'SIA) pure watcr t~oilsat 212 F.
rise in tornperature of tlie water, but the vaporization of the watt!r ~rscs(11) Reduction of the pressure over tlic water will lowr!r ttic boiling poirit. Iricreasr!
hcat. This added heat energy, wliicli is not sliown by a rise iri tt?rnpcrat~rrc,is iri pressure raises the boilirig point. Stcar11 tal)lns give boiling points cnrrc!s-
termed 'latent heat of vaporization', arid varies with pressure. poridirlg to particular pressures.

In b o ~ l ~ none
y pound of water at atrnosplier~cpressure (14.7 PSIA) 970 3 BTU FLASH STEAM
IS absorbed. I f the steam condenses back Into water (st111at the bolllng Suppose a quaritlty of water IS be~nqb o ~ l c dat 300 PSlA (correspond~nqto
tcrnperature and 14.7 PSIA) it will release exactly ttie amount of heat ~t 417 F ) . I f the source of heat IS rernoved, bo~llrigceases. If the pressure over
absorbed on vaporlzlng. the water IS then reduced, say frorri 300 to 250 F'SIA, ttic water starts bo111riq
Ttre term 'saturated steam' refers to both dry steam arid wet steam, descrit~ed on its own, wlthout any outside heat applied, u n t ~thel temperature drops to
below. Steam tables give pressure and temperati~redata applicable to dry and 401 F (this temperature corresponds to 250 PSIA). Such spontaneous bolllng
to wet steam. Small amounts of air, carbon d~oxide, etc., are preserit in due to reduction in pressure is termed 'flashing', and the steam produced,
steam f rorri ridu us trial bo~lers. 'flash steam'.
The data provided in steam tables enable calculation of ttie quantity and
STEAMIWATERIICE D I A G R A M C H A R T 6.3
temperature of steam produced in 'flasliirig'.

CONDENSATE - W H A T IT IS & HOW I T FORMS

Steam in a line will give up heat to the piping and surroundings, and will
gradually becorrie 'wetter', its temperature rcrnainirig the sarnc. Tllc change o f CHART
state of part of the vapor to liquid gives heat to the piping wittiout lowering 6.3
" . ' I . the temperature in the line. The water that forrns is termed 'conderisatt!'. I f
the line initially contains superheated steam, heat lost t o thr? pipirig arid
surroundings will first cause tlie stearri to lose sensit~loheat until the stcarn
ternperature drops to that of dry steam at ttle line pressure.

A I R I N STEAM

With both dry arid wet steam, a certain pressure will correspond to a certairi
ternperature. The temperature of the steam at various prr:ssures car1 t ~ ofound
iri steam tables. I f air is mixed with steam, this relationship betwt!eri pressure
-Heat removed Heat added ----+ and temperature no longer holds. The rnnre air that is adrriixt!d, the more
CHANGE OF STATE the temperature is reduced below that of stc;~mat thc sirrrlr! I)rr!ssirrr:. Tticrc!
D R Y STEAM is no practicable way to separate air frorn stearn (without coricft!ns;~tiori)nrlcc
it is mixed.
Dry steam IS a gas, consisting of water vapor only. Placed in contact with
water at ttie same ternperature, dry steam will not condense, nor will more
stcam form--liquid and vapor are in equilibrium. LOW-PRESSURE H E A T I N G M E D I A 6.9.2
WET STEAM
Spccial liquid rnedia such as Dowthc:rrns ( I l o w (:IIFIII~C;I~ Co.) illid TIif?rr~ii~>ols
Wf!t stearri consists of water val~orand suspendt?rlwatc:r particles at tllc! sariic! (Monsanto Co.) can be boilcd liko water, t)ut ttir! s;~rnc!v;r~or torirl~ori~tures :IS
torn[~c!ratureas the vapor. Ileatirig ability ('quality') varies with the perceritagc steam are obtained at lower prt?ssurc:s. Iir!;ltirig systr!~ris11sir10thc!sr! liquids
of dry stearn iri the mixture (the water particles contain no latertt 1ic;it of arc more complicated Illan stcnrn systt!rns, arid c?xl~c!ric?~ict? w ~ t t ti t r ~ r ris~ ricces-
vaporizatiori). Like dry steam, wet steam is in equilibrium with water at the sary in nrdcr to design ari efficierlt iristalli~tiori.t-lowc!vr!r, tllo t~asic~)rirlciplos
sarnc! temperature. of stearn-heating systcrris apply.
STEAM PIPING In early steam systems, there was considerable waste of steam and condensate
after passing thru heating coils, etc., as steam was merely vented to the open
REMOVING AIR FROM STEAM LINES air. Later, the wastefulness of this resulted in closed steam lines from which
Air in steam lines lowers the temperature for a given pressure, and calculated only the condensed steam was removed and then refed to the boiler. The re-
rates of heating may not be met. See 6.9.1 under 'Air in steam'. moval of condensate to atmospheric pressure was effected with traps-special
autornatic discharge valves-see 6.1 0.7.
Thr! rnosi ccononlic rncans for renjoving air from steam lines is automatically
This was a much more efficient system, but it still wasted flash steam. On
thru temperature-sensitive traps or traps fitted with temperature-sensitive air-
passing thru the traps, the depressurized condensate boiled, generating lower-
venting devices ;)laced at points remote from the steam supply. When full
pressure stearn. In modern systems, this flash steam is used and the rcsldual
line temperature is attained the vent valves will close completely. See 6.10.7
condensate returned to the boiler.
under 'Temperature-sensitive (or thermostatic) traps'.
WHY PLACE V E N T S A T REMOTE POINTS ?
STEAM SEPARATOR O R D R Y E R 6.10.3
On start-up, cold lines will be filled with air. Steam issuing from the source
will mix with some of this air, but will also act as a piston pushing air to the This is an in-line device which provides better drying of steam being imnted-
remote end of each line. iately fed to equipment. A separator is shown in figure 2.67. I t separates
droplets entrained in the steam which have been picked up from condensate
WHY R E M O V E CONDENSATE ? 6.10.2 in the pipe and from the pipe walls, by means of one or more baffles (which
In heating systems using stearn with little or no superheat, steam condenses cause a large pressure drop). The collected liquid is piped to a trap.
to form water, termed 'condensate', which is essentially distilled water. Too
valuable to waste, condensate is returned for use as boiler feedwater unless it SLOPING & D R A I N I N G STEAM & CONDENSATE L I N E S 6.10.4
is coritamirlated with oil (usually from a steam engine) or unless it is
uneconomic to do so, when it can either be used locally as a source of hot Sloping of steam and condensate lines is discussed in 6.2.6, under 'Sloped
water, or run to a drain. If condensate is not removed:- lines avoid pocketing arid aid draining'.
Condensate is collected from a steam line either by a stearn separator (sorne-
r Steam with entrained water droplets will form a dense water film on
times ternled a 'dryer1)-see 6.10.3 above-or more cheaply by a drrpleg
heat transfer surfaces and interfere with heating
(drip pocket or well - see below) from where i t passes to a trap for period~c
r Condensate can be swept along by the rapidly-mov~ngsteam (at discharge to a condensate return line or header which will be at a lower pres-
120 ft/sec or more) and the hi!)h-velocity impact of slugs of water sure than the steam line. The header is either taken to a bo~lerfcedwatcr
with fittings, etc. (waterharnmer) may cause erosion or damage tank feeding make-up water to the boiler or to a hotwell for pumping to the
U T I L I Z I N G CONDENSATE F I G U R E 6.41 boiler feedwater tank.
Low pressure Flash Stearn
Condenwre from Traps I -b
DRIPLEGS COLLECT CONDENSATE 6.10.5
I t is futile to provide a small dripleg or drain pocket on large lines, as the
condensate will not be collected efficiently.
Driplegs are made from pipe and fittings. Figure 6.42 shows three methorfs of
construction, and table 6.10 suggests dripleg and valve sizes.

~'1-I
CondCnwte P u n ~ l )
I
.-.
-

RECEIVER
Low temlwrdturr Cor~denwte DRIPLEG CONSTRUCTIONS

SCt3tWf.U OH
SOCKC 1-WELDED P I P I N G
BUTT-WELDED P I P I N G

/
F I G U R E 6.42

F ~ g u r e6 4 4 shows
I l e n ~ sc o v e r e d b y
the trap symbol

tluilur feed Syslerrl


t-

Condensate Pumr)
DRIPLEG & V A L V E S I Z E S TABLE 6.10 Steam traps are designed to react to cliarigcs in ternpcratrlrr?, prcssrrrc? or
density :

TEMPERATURE-SENSITIVE (or 'THERMOSTATIC') TRAPS arc? of two


3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 70 24
types 'rtie f~rst type c~pc!ratc!s by tlir! rnovt!nir:nt of ;I lirlc~lrlf ~ l l c dI~c!llowc,,
and tlie sr?corld t~sc?s;I b~rrintalc:lc:riic?r~t Ilotlr tyi~csrlrr! ol)clrl wliclri colt1 ; ~ r r r l
% % % % % % I l l 1 1 readily discharge oir and condr!risatr! at start-tip. Strlar-rl is iri dirc!ct corit;~ct
% % % % % 1 1 1 1 1 1 with ttie closing valve arid tliert? is a tirrit! cfcl;iy wit11 1)otIi typr!s iri opc!r;~ti~irl.
A Iar!]c! dr~plegallow~riqtirric for corid(!rirat(! to cool ~rri{~rovr!s opc1r;ltion
As ttic:se traps arc actualt!tj by Icrnjlr?ralurt? t f i f f e r t r i t ~ ~ttlry ~ l , ,lrr r?c,oriomlc
at steam prcssurcs greator ttian G f'SI(;.Tlir: tempcratt~rr:ratlrirl of ttie t~ellows
; ~ r r t l t i i f ~ o s s ~ l ) ~ lof
i t yt-lttrnarle t)y witerti,~rrrr~icrslio~ilrlbt! r:onatlr!rc:d - rcfrlr
to 6.1 0.8.

IMPULSE TRAPS are also referred to as 'ttl~!rr~iodyrlam~c' 2nd 'coritrotled


disc'. Tttese traps are most suited to eppllcat~onswtiere the pressurt! down.
strearri of the trap is less than about half the upstream pressure. Waterlianirner
does not affect operation. They are suitable for stearn pressures over 8 PSIG

DENSITY-SENSITIVE TRAPS are made in 'float' and 'bucket' designs. Ttie


Flgilre 2 . 7 0 shows float trap is able to discharge condensate continuously, but this trap will not
dripleg construction discharge air urlless fitted with a temperature-sensitive vent (the temperature
limitation of the vent should be checked). Float traps sornetirnes niay fail
frorn severe waterhammer. The inverted bucket trap (see 3.1.9) is probably
STEAM L I N E PRESSURE FORCES CONDENSATE 6.10.6 the most-used type. The trap is open when cold, but will not discharge
I N T O RECOVERY S Y S T E M large quantities of air at startup unless the bucket is fitted with a ternperature-
I n almost every steam-heating system where condensate is recovered the trap- sensitive vent. The action in discharging condensate is rapid. Stearn will be
ped condensate has to be lifted to a condensate header and run to a holler d~schargedif the trap loses its prim~ngwater due to an upstream valve beirig
feedwater tank, either directly or via a receiver. Each PSI of steam pressure opened, refer to note (9) in the key to figure 6.43. lrrverted bucket traps
behind a trap can lift the condensate about two feet vertically. The pressure will operate at pressures down to 114 PSIG.
available for lifting the condensate is the pressure d~fferencebetween the
stearn and condensate lines less any pressure drop over pipe, valves, f~ttings,
trap, etc. FLASHING 6.10.8

STEAM TRAPS 6.10.7 Refer to 6.9.1. When hot condensate under pressure is released to a lower
The purpose of fitting traps to steam lines is to obtain fast tieating of systems pressure return line, the condensate immediately boils. This is referred to as
'flashing' and the steam produced as 'flash stearn'.
and equipment by freeing the steam lines of condensate and air. A steam
trap is a valve device able to discharge condensate from a steam line without The hotter the stearn line and the colder ttre condensate disctrarqc I~rie,ttie
also discharging steam. A secondary duty is to discharge air-at start-up, lines more flashing will take place, i t can be severe if the conderisatrl conies frorrr FIGURES
are full of air which has to be flushed out by the stearci, and in continuous t11gt-1pressure steam. Only part of the condensate forrns strlnrn \inwrvcr, i f 6.41 & 6.42
operation a srnall amount of air and non-condensible gases iritroduced In the ttie header is ~riatleqt~ately
w e d to cope w ~ t htlie clrri~ntity of fl,~sli stoarn
boiler feedwater have also tc be vented. produced arid backpressure bu~ldsup, waterhamrner (:an result.
Some traps have built-in strainers to give protection from dirt and scale whicli Often, where a trap is run to a drain, a lot of steanr seems to be passirig thru
may cause the trap to jam in an open position. Traps are also available with the trap, but this is usually only from condensate flastiing.
cttecking features to safeguard against backflow of condensate. Refer to the
rnarlufacturers' catalogs for details.
Ctiousing a trap froni the many designs should tie based on the trap's ability D R A I N I N G SUPERHEATED S T E A M LINES 6.10.9
to operate with minimal maintenance, arid on its cost. To reduce irlventory Steam lines with rnore than a few degrees of superhaat will not usually forrri
and aid maintenance, the minirnum number of types of trap sltould be used condensate in operation. During ttie warmirig-up period after starting a cold
in a plant. The assistance of manufacturers' representatives should be sougtit circuit, the large bulk of metal in the piping will ricnrly always tist? up the TABLE
before trap types and sizes are selected. degrees of superheat to produce a rluarltity of contlerrsatc. 6.1 0
t l ( ~ l l K l . 5 b ,!'I & I , ,I1 h l l O N k.QI1ll'bll.N I M'lll( I 1 ( ' 4 s Ill (851 I) l h I KT\!' l'll'lN(.
AKHAN(.t.hlt S IS. 0 N I . Y I l t . h l S O t t Q l l l l ' h l l h'l St.( t.?ISAKY t O K I.( OF;O5II(
& ?I.\tt l)b.5l(*> N t t l ) l i t l1St.l) llll.tOl.l,I>NiS(, N O l l . 5 Nll.1 :All) 5t.l I ( - 1 I o N

DNIPLEG FROM STEAM HEADER. OR L l N E TO EQUIPMENT. OR L l N E FROM S T t A M F t O


EOUIPML N T
DHIPLEC. VALVE FOR PERIODICALLY BLOWING DOWN SEOIMENT FOR SAFETY V A L V E
StiOULO BE PIPE0 TO A D R A I N OR TO GRADE
ISOLATING V A L V E TO BE LOCATED CLOSE TO DRIPLEG
INSULATION NEEDED I N A C O L D ENVIRONMENT I F THERE IS A RISK OF CONOENSATE
F R t E Z l N G AS A RESULT OF SHUTDOWN OR INTERMITTENT OPERATION I N t X T R E M E
COLD TNACING M A Y ALSO BE REOUIRED I F STEAM IS NOT C O N S T A N l L Y AVAILAUL t
FOR THlS PURPOSE. ELECTRIC TRACING WOULD BE NECESSARY
ISOLAllNG V A L V t REQUIRED O N L Y I F V A L V E S (3)AND (11) A f i L O U 1 O t H L A L I I 011
IF A U Y P A S IS USED-SEE NOTE 1181
STRAINER N O R M A L L Y FITTED I N LINES TO TRAPS OF LESS T H A N 2 INCH SIZE A
STRAINER M A Y BE A N INTEGRAL FEATURE OF THE TRAP
V A L V E FOR BLOWING STRAINER SEDIMENT T O ATMOSPHERE PLUG FOR SAFETY
M A N U A L L Y OPERATED D R A I N V A L V E FOR USE I N FREEZING CONDITIONS WHEN TtiE
TRAP IS POSITIONED H O R I Z O N T A L L Y - SEE NOTE (16)
CHECK V A L V E PRIMARILY REOUIRED I N LINES USING BUCKET TRAPS T O PREVENT
LOSS OF SEAL WATER I F D I F F E R E N T I A L PRESSURE ACROSS TRAP REVERSES DUE TO
BLOWING DOWN THE L l N E OR STRAINER UPSTREAM OF TklE TRAP
UNIONS FOR REMOVING TRAP, ETC
SWAGES FOR ADAPTING TRAP TO SIZE OF L l N E
BLOWDOWN V A L V E FOR A TRAP W l T t i A B U I L T I N STRAINER I A L T E H N A T I V E TO (611
TEST V A L V E StiOWS I F A F A U L T Y TRAP IS PASSING STEAM SOMETIMES L10OY OF THAP
t i A S A TAPPEO PORT FOR FITTING THlS V A L V E
CllECK V A L V E PREVENTS BACKFLOW T l i H U TRAP I F CONOENSATE IS BEING 11ETIJIlNLO
TO A HEADER FROM MORE T H A N ONE THAP I N THE LOWER POSITION 1tiE V A L V E tlAS
THE ASSISTANCE OF A COLUMN OF WATER T O HELP I T CLOSE A N D T 0 GIVE I T A W A l t ll
SEAL REQUIRED IF S E V t R A L TRAPS D I X t i A R G E INTO A S l N G L t H t A D L t I W l i l ( t i I5
O H M A Y BE IINDER PRESSURE

SIGHT GLASS ALLOWS VISUAL CHECK THAT TRAP IS DISCtlAflC,lN(r CORRECTLY INTO
A PRESSUfilZED CONDENSATE RETURN L l N E BUT IS SELDOM U S t D BECAUSt THE GI ASS
M A Y E n o o t PHESENTING A RISK OF EXPLOSION

TtMl'ERATIJRf SENSITIVE IAUTOMATICI D R A I N ALLOWS L l N t TO LMPTY f ' f { l V [ N l l N C ~


DAMAGE TO PIPING I N A COLD t N V l H O N M E N T ISEE NOTE (411 IF V A L V t 1141 IS OVEII
H t A[) TtlE AUTOMATIC D R A I N M A Y BE FITTED TO THE TRAP SOMl TtiAP 110OlL\
PROVIC)E FOR THIS
ISOLATING V A L V E AT HEADER
BY PASS NOT RELOMMENDED AS I T C A N BE LEFT OPEN I T IS BETTER T O PfiOVl1)t
A S l ANOBY 1 HAP

ASTElllSK IN[)ICATES TtIAT THC. EOUIPMENT IS OPTIONAL AN[) 15 NOT iSS1 N T I A I 1 0


TtIE UASlC 1HAP I'IPING DESIGN
.v
- , LCj- cG :i => -
.- e G 2
._.I
Z s- C
r
cj C; =
W E g-&2
-
.d
L Cj
m r 5 2 .i3 r, 3
%t--- 2 c 0
-
.u z
.
V)
-q?n
0 z.g
C C C
g 2:
~ r ; c z
go"",%
2
$%z
U
.-
2 2 m
- 0 >)-I= 2
"..- -c
.g .E
2 5 5 U 5
- 0 r ." g-3
g " z
-- . --2 -FO,Z
a
2 E g g
m -
.-
-
ex
E
C
0 3 m
o 6"
O . L O 6~ ~ ?'2 r
c
E g z P g -"' 1 3a- %- i
u.'M-
.-z -
m iL:
r 7 C"
sS$z 5
E?=,
-C3 ,0' ~a g-s o
t ; o > m
z $
3 - -
ei%cZn C3
5 m g 3 -
-zs .-gg'"
c c3-
-ccz
.-C
a,
+
0 -
E V E
z g E -g g
Lo V) Vls
-0
'Zgm m 3
~ ~ 2 r m
3 =
(
.
m 2 r 3 z
VENTS & DRAINS ON LINES & VESSELS HYDROSTATIC TESTING

WHY VENTS ARE NEEDED 6.11.1 After piping has been erected, it is often necessary to subject the system to a
tiydrostatic test to see if there is any leakage. In compliarice with the
applicable code, this consists of filling the lines with water or other liquid,
Verits arc needed t o Ict gas ( ~ ~ s i ~ aair)
l l yin and out of systems. Wlieri a line or
closing the line, applying test pressure, and observirig how well pressure is
vessel cools, t l ~ epressure drops and creates a partial vacuum wlliclt can cause maintairted for a specified time, while searching for leaks.
syptioriing or prt!vt!nt (Jrainir~g.Wlicri ltrcssure rises in storage tanks due to an
incrcasc in temperature, it is necessary to rr!lr;ase excess pressure. Air niirst
also be released frorn tanks to allow filling, arid admitted to pcrrnit draining or As ttie test pressure is greater than the operating pressure of the systcrtt, ~t IS
puir\pin!l out liquids. necessary to protect equlpmcnt and tnstruments by closirlg all relevant valves.
Vessels and equ~pmeritusually are supplred wit11 a cert~ficateof code cornplr-
Unless air is removed from fuel lines to burners, fiailie iading can result. In ance. After testing, the valved drains are opened and the vent plugs temporar-
steam I~nes,air reduces heating efficiency. ily removed to allow air into the piping for complete draining.

I F THE VENT OR D R A I N I S FOR ANOTHER PURPOSE I1 IS DETAILED O N THE PIPING DRAWING OR THE D t S l G

12) SOCKET WELDING ENDS


(3) ONE SOCKET END AND OTHER END WITH INTE
GRAL NIPPLE (PLAIN OR THREADED1
141 ONE END SCREWED A N D OTHER END WtTH I N 1
EGRAL NIPPLE (THREADED OR PLAIN1
(51 BEVELED ENDS FOR BUTT WELDING
GASES CONTAINING MOISTURE M A Y FREEZE I N
A L V E I S SOMETIMES THE V A L V E DUE TO THE GAS C t I l L L l N G WHCN IT
CPLALEU B Y A PLUG EXPANDS FOR DRAINING WET GAS L l N t S W U B L E
V A L V E D CONSTRUCTION M A Y BE REOUIHED T H E
INNER V A L V E IS OPENED AND THE LINE I S D R A I N
ED BY THROTTLING THE OUTER VALVE. ICE M A Y
FORM I N THE BODY OF THE OUTER V A L V E PREV
ENTING CLOSURE AFTER D R A I N I N 6 THE D R A I N

TtiRE001 t T T H H E 0 0 1 ET
Tlirealml Endl PLOL

whet End LAP 1IIlII)I)

5 0 1 KUI L 1

I lo ublatn puta s t r e , y O ~ lh n#(~ll.lnu* 0. huln,rf


' S r V A L V t S thr durl L) 1h.lI!* r t l d I$ lllrtly w1 ~h(LwvCl* "I Ih nliuk!
Positions of tt-ir?required vent and dra~rtpoirits art! cstat)l~shc?d
or) the p ~ p i n g R E L I E V I N G PRESSURE-LIQUIDS 6.12
Orawings. (F1&ID's will sliow only proccss vt?nts, sur:li as var:uurn breakers,
Tlic builrlup rtf pressure in a lirlrrid is Il;tltc!ti tty tfisctli~r!jiri!l a sr-ri;ill arrinunt of
anti process drains ) Refer to figilre 6.47 for coristructlon detalls.
licluid. Relicvirig dnviccs having large ports art? not rt!rltiirt!tI. Flc!lir:f v;tlvc:s---
sc?o 3.1.9 --are ust!rj, and 11r:cd to bc pipot1 ; I \ ttto ciiscliar!1r! sicif?, 11\11 thr! piping
V E N T I N G GASES 6.11.3
sllot~ltjbe kept sliort. Set! 6.1.3 crnrlcr 'I'~pirig safoty F i rt!lic!i v~~lvos'.
Qu~ck-open~ng vents of ample sire are neodcd for gases S ~ f r t yand sctf~lty-
Rarely will the relieved lirluid t.ie s ~ l f f i c i e ~ i t lnori-llarardous
y to t)e pip(![!
rel~ef valves are tlie I I S U ~ ~venting rTicnns. Sec! 3.1 (3 lor prcssucc rcllcvlng directly to a sewer. Oftcri the liquid is sirriply 10 t)o reclairned. Rt!licvt!tf
devices, and 6.1.3, ( ~ r ~ d e' Pr ~ p ~ r isafety
y arid rr?l~cfvalves' liquid is lretlucritly pipod to a 'kriockout clrurri', or to a sLrrnp or otlit!r
Gases whicti offer no serlous tia7ard after sorne d ~ l u t ~ owith
n air may bc receiver for recovory. Tile ['&I I1 slio\rld stiow wllat is tn be done wi tli tlic
vented to atmosptiere by means ensurlng that no d~rcct~nlialat~on can occirr. rt!Iieved liquid.
If a (cornbust~blc) gas is toxic or has a bad odor, i t may be piped to ari 6.12.1
R E L I E F HEADERS
incinerator or flarestack, and destroyed by burn~ng.
Headers should be sized to handle adequately ttie large amounts of vapor and
D R A I N I N G COMPRESSED-AIR L I N E S 6.1 1.4
liquid that may be discharged during major mishap. Relief headers taken
to knockout drums, receivers or incinerators, are normally sloped, Refer to
Air has a moisture content which is partially carried ttiru the compressing 6.2.6 and figure 6.3, showing ttie preferred location of a relief header on a
and cooling stages. I t is this moisture that tends to separate, together with piperac k.
any oil, which may have been picked up by the air in passing thru the
compressor.
WASTES & E F F L U E N T S 6.13
If air for distribution has not been dried, distribution lines should be sloped
toward points of use and drains: lines carrying dried air need not be sloped. Manufacturing processes may generate materials that cannot be recycled,
Sloping is discussed in 6.2.6. and for which there is no commercial use. These materials are termed 'wdste
products', or 'wastes'. An 'effluent' is any material flowing from a plant
site to the environment. Effluents need not be polluting: for example,
properly-treated waste water may be discharged without harming the envl-
If the compressed-air supply is not dried, provide:- ronment or sewage-treatment plants.
(1) Traps at all drains from equipment forming or collecting liquid-such as Restrictions on the quantities and nature of effluents discharged into rivers,
intercooler, aftercooler, separator, receiver. sewers or the atmosphere, necessitate treatment of wastes prior to discharge.
(2) Driplegs with traps on distribution headers (at low points before rises) Waste treatment is increasingly a factor in plant design, whether wastes are
and traps or manual drains at the ends of distribution headers. processed at the plant, or are transported for treatment elsewhere. For in-
plant treatment, waste-treatment facilities are described on separate P&ID1s
LIQUID REMOVAL FROM AIR LINES FIGURE 6.48 (see 5.2.4) and should be designed in consultation with the responsible local
authority.
M A N U A L D R A I N AT
END OF AIR L I N L i q u ~ dwastes have to be collected w ~ t h r na plant, usually by a specral
drainage system. Corrosive arld tia~ardous properties of l i q u ~ dwastes w ~ l l
affect the choice and design of plpe, f~ttings,open channels, surnps, hold~rig FIGURES
tanks, settllng tanks, etc Because many watery wastes are acidic and cnrro ,6.47 & 6.48
sive to carbon stcel, collect~onand drainage piping 1s oftcrt 11nrd or made
Flgure 2.67 gives of alloy or plastic Sulfdtes frequently appear in wastes, rtrld special coricrt!tPs
a s e c t i o n a l vlew may be necessary for sewers, ctiannels, sumps, etc., because s\~lfdtesdeter10
of a separator
rate regular concretes.
Flammable wastes rnay be recovcrt?d and/or burned ~ rsmokeless
i rncrnerators
or flarestacks. Vapors fro111 1larnrnat)le I ~ q u ~ dpresent
s serious explos~on
the trap symbol harards In collection and drainage systerns, especially i f tlie l ~ q u i dIS ~nsoluble
and floats
Wastes niay be held pt?rrnancntly at ttie I-rianufactur~ngsite S o l ~ dwastes
may be p ~ l e din dumps, or burled Watery wastes coritarning sol~dsrnay bt?
pumped into artif~cial'ponds' or 'lagoons', where ttie solids settle.
11331
SAFETY G U I D E L I N E S FOR FLAMMABLE L I Q U I D S 6.14 SOME GUIDELINES

REFERENCES a Apply ttie recornrncndations relating to the project of the NFPA, API
or otlier advisory body
'Fire harard properties of flammable liquids, gases, volatile solids'. 1984.
0 Check insurer's requirements
NFPA 325M
'Flamn1at)le arid cornbustil~leliquid codt?'. 1987. NFPA 30 0 Isolate flammable liquid facilities so that they do riot crldanger irnpor-
tant buildings or equipment. I n rnairi buildings, isolatc frorri otlicr
'Flanirrlat~le and cornbustil~lt?liquid code handbook'. Tiiird edition. 1987.
areas by firewalls or fire-resistive partitioils, witti fire doors or upt!ri~irgs
NFPA
and wi tti rntjans of drainage
'Fire protcction iri refineries'. Sixth etlition. 1984 Ariiericarl Pt!trolt:urn
Institute. API RP 2001 0 Confine flarnrnable liquid in closed containers, equiprnent, arid piping
systems. Safe design of ttlesc should have three prirriary objt!ctivt?s'
'Protection against ignitions arising out of static, lightning and stray currents'.
( 1 ) To prevent urlcontrollcd escape of vapor frorn ttit! liquid. (2) To
Fourth edition. 1982. API RP 2003
provide rapid stiut-off if liquid accideritally escapes. (3) To cor~fine
'Inspection for fire protection'. First edition. 1984. API RP 2004 the spread of escaping liquid to the srnallest practicable area
'Welding or hot-tapping on equipment containing flammables'. 1985. 0 I f tanks containing flammable material are sited in the open, it is good
API RP 2201 practice to space them according to the miriirnurn separatiorls set out in
'Guide for fighting fire in and around petroleum storage tanks'. 1980 the NFPA Code (No. 395. 'Farm storage of flammable liquids') arid to
API publication 2021 provide dikes (liquid-retaining walls) around groups of tanks. Additional
NFPA address: Batterymarch Park, Quincy MA 02269 niethods for dealing with tank fires are: ( 1 ) To transfer the tank's
contents to another tank. (2) To stir the contents to prevent a layer
T A N K SPACINGS 1NFPA) T A B L E 6.11 of heated fuel forming
a Locate valves for ernergcncy use in plant mishap or fire-see 6.1.3
r Valves for emergency use should be of fast-acting type
0 Prov~depressure-rel~efvalves to tanks corltaining flammable liquid (or
Wtlichever is greater: - Iiquef~edgas) if exposed to strong sunl~ghtand/or higt~arnbient terriper-
(Sum of diameters of adjacent tanks)/6
ature, so that vapor under pressure can escape
r Consider providing water sprays for cooling tanks containing flammable
liquid wtllch are exposed to sunlight
0 Provide ample ,ventilation in buildings for all processing operations so
that vapor coriccntration is always below the lower flammability lirilit.
Process ventilation should be iriterlocked so that the process caririot
operate wittlvut it
r Install explosion panels in bulldings to relieve explosiori pressure and
reduce structi~raldarnqr?
0 Install crasti pariels for pqrsonnel in ha~ardousareas
10 f t f r o m centerline of dike wall 0 Erisurct that tlic basic protection, ailtonlatic sprinklers, is to be iristallod
r Sornc Iiar~rdsrc!rlilire s[)r?ci;tlf ~ x e textinguish~n~]
l systerns-foarn, carl)ori
d ~ o x ~ t l cdry
, CIICIIIIC~I or water sprtty-in addltlon to spr~nklcrs.Seck
a ~ l v ~ cfrorii
e [lit! Irre cli!~),~rtrrlt~~it