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# Research Article JTEN 2015 - 117

## Journal of Thermal Engineering http://eds.yildiz.edu.tr/journal-of-thermal-engineering/Articles

Yildiz Technical University Press, Istanbul, Turkey Manuscript Received August 09, 2015; Accepted September 27, 2015
Vol. 2, Special Issue 4, No. 4, pp. 861-870, July, 2016.

This paper was recommended for publication in revised form by Regional Editor Omid Mahian

## THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMIZATION AND PARAMETRIC STUDY OF AN IRREVERSIBLE

REGENERATIVE BRAYTON CYCLE

S. C. Kaushik
*
Raj Kumar
Centre for Energy Studies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, YMCA
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New University of Science & Tech., Faridabad-
Delhi-110016, India 121006, India
Rajesh Arora
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Amity University Haryana,
Gurgaon-122413, India

Keywords: Thermo-economic objective function; Irreversible Brayton cycle; Regenerator; Power; Efficiency
* Corresponding author: S.C. Kaushik, E-mail: kaushiksc@hotmail.com

## ABSTRACT heat engine following Curzon and Ahlborn [3] and

Thermo-economic optimizations along with a detailed observed the change in Brayton cycle temperatures
parametric analysis of an irreversible regenerative while altering maximum work in the cycle. Wu and
Brayton cycle with finite heat capacity of external Kiang [4] optimized power output of Brayton cycle
reservoirs have been carried out. The external using finite time thermodynamics. Wu [5] optimized
irreversibilities due to finite temperature difference and the power of an endoreversible Brayton gas heat engine.
internal irreversibilities due to fluid friction losses in Wu & Kiang [6] integrated real compression and
compressor/turbine, regenerative heat loss, and expansion in Brayton heat engine and found that engine
pressure loss are included in the analysis. The thermo- power and engine efficiency are strong functions of the
economic function is the ratio of power output to the compressor and turbine efficiencies. Cheng et al. [7]
sum of annual investment, energy consumption and used finite time thermodynamics for ecologically
maintenance cost. The optimization of the objective optimizing the power output of a closed Brayton cycle
function is done for maximizing the power output and and calculated optimal values of power, thermal
thermal efficiency of the model. A detailed analysis on efficiency and second law efficiency of Brayton cycle.
the efficiency of turbine and compressor, effectiveness Sahin and Kodal [8-11] performed several thermos-
of various heat exchangers, heat source inlet economic optimization studies for refrigerators/ heat
temperature and pressure drop irreversibility on power, pumps based on endoreversible and irreversible mode
efficiency and economic function has been carried out. using FTT approach. Kaushik et al. [12] applied finite
Parametric analysis shows that turbine efficiency has time thermodynamic approach to an irreversible
more effect on the performance of model than regenerative closed Brayton cycle. Wang et al. [13]
compressor efficiency for the same set of operating applied the hypothesis of finite time thermodynamics to
conditions. The model analyzed in this paper gives analyze an irreversible closed intercooled regenerated
lower values of various performance parameters as Brayton cycle and optimized the intercooler pressure
expected and replicates the results of an irreversible ratio for optimum power and corresponding efficiency.
regenerative Brayton cycle model discussed in the Kaushik et al. [14] performed a thermodynamic
literature at pressure recovery coefficients of 1=2=1. analysis of an irreversible regenerative Brayton cycle
with isothermal heat addition and optimized the power
INTRODUCTION output in context with working medium temperature.
Brayton cycles have been extensively used in gas They observed an improvement of 15% in the thermal
power plants, aircrafts, ship propulsion and various efficiency of Brayton cycle with heat addition at
industrial usages. Salamon et al. [1] examined constant temperature. Tyagi et al. [15] investigated a
externally irreversible Carnot cycle and calculated complex Brayton cycle under maximum ecological and
optimum values of objective function for various maximum economic conditions and found optimum
performance parameters of endoreversible Carnot heat values of various performance parameters at which the
engine. Leff [2] analysed an endoreversible Brayton cycle attains maximum values of economic function,
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Research Article JTEN 2015 - 117

ecological function, and power output and cycle (e) The pressure recovery coefficients (1 and 2) are
efficiency. Till now, numerous researchers have done assumed to be equal.
thermo-economic optimization studies for different
thermal energy conversion systems based on
The hot, cold and regenerative side heat transfer rates
endoreversible and irreversible configurations [16-27].
can be presented as [12, 19]:
Finite time thermodynamics has touched various fronts
since this technique had been used to analyze and
optimize the performance of real thermodynamic QH U H AH ( LMTD) H CH (TH 1 TH 2 ) (1)
processes, devices and cycles. On the basis of recent
literature, a model of an irreversible regenerative QL U L AL ( LMTD) L C L (TL 2 TL1 ) (2)
Brayton cycle with pressure drop as supplementary
irreversibility is considered in this paper and
expressions for maximum thermo-economic function QR U R AR ( LMTD) R CW (T4 T4 R ) (3)
and corresponding power output/ thermal efficiency of
the cycle are obtained. In addition, thermo-economic where,
function chosen as the objective in this study includes
annual investment cost, energy consumption cost and (TH 1 T3 ) (TH 2 T2 R )
( LMTD ) H
ln (TH 1 T3 ) (TH 2 T2 R )
maintenance cost. The effect of effectiveness of various (4)
heat exchangers, efficiency of turbine and compressor,
heat source inlet temperature, pressure drop and
economic parameters have been studied in detail and
(T4 R TL 2 ) (T1 TL1 )
( LMTD ) L
ln (T4 R TL 2 ) (T1 TL1 )
the results are presented on the graphs. The model (5)
analyzed in this paper gives lower values of various
performance parameters as expected.
(T4 T2 R ) (T4 R T2 )
( LMTD ) R
ln (T4 T2 R ) (T4 R T2 )
THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS (6)
An irreversible regenerative Brayton cycle coupled
with a heat source and heat sink of finite heat capacity
is shown in Fig. 1. In this model, state 1 is the entry
point of working medium at compressor and
compressed up to state 2. Then the working medium
enters the regenerator where its partial heating up to
state 2R is done by the turbine exhaust. The working
medium next enters the hot side heat exchanger with a
pressure drop which is reflected using pressure
recovery coefficient, 1 = p3/p2 and heated up to state 3,
while the heat source temperature decreases from TH1
to TH2. The working medium now enters the turbine and
expands up to state 4. After expansion, the working
medium enters the regenerator to transfer heat partly
and then enters the cold side heat exchanger with a
pressure drop which is reflected using another pressure
recovery coefficient, 2 = p1/p4 . The working medium
is cooled up to state 1, while the heat sink temperature
increases from TL1 to TL2. Therefore, we consider the
closed Brayton cycle 1-2-2R-3-4R-1 with real
compression / expansion processes and pressure drop Fig. 1 T-S diagram for irreversible regenerative
irreversibilities for finite heat capacity of external Brayton heat engine Cycle
reservoirs. Process (1-2s) and process (3-4s) are
isentropic in nature as shown by dotted lines in Figure From equations (1) to (6),
1. The following assumptions are taken into account:

(a) The proposed model operates at steady rate. QH H C H ,m (TH 1 T2 R ) CW (T3 T2 R ) (7)
(b) The variable heat capacity of heat source and heat
sink is considered. QL L C L ,m (T4 R TL1 ) CW (T4 R T1 ) (8)
(c) The working fluid used in the proposed model
behaves like an ideal gas. QR R CW (T4 T2 ) CW (T2 R T2 ) (9)
(d) The constant specific heat of the working fluid is
assumed.

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Research Article JTEN 2015 - 117

where H, L and R are the effectiveness of the hot T2 s (1 c )T1 T2c (19)
side, cold side and regenerative side heat exchangers
respectively and presented as [19]:
T4 s (1 t1 )T3 T4t1 (20)
1 e
N H (1 CH ,min CH ,max )

## H (10) Parameters a and b are given in Appendix-I.

C
1 H ,min e H H ,min For a given model,
N (1C CH ,max )

CH ,max
T1T3 T2 sT4 s (21)

1 e
N L (1 CL ,min CL ,max )

L (11) k 1
C where (1 2 ) k and k is specific heat ratio of
1 L,min e L L ,min
N (1C CL ,max )

## CL,max the working fluid.

Substituting the values of T1, T3, T2s and T4s from
equations (17) - (20) into equation (21), we get the
NR
R (12) quadratic equation in T2 as:
1 NR
XT22 YT2 Z 0 (22)
The heat capacitance rates and number of heat
transfer units can be calculated as: Parameters X, Y and Z are given in Appendix- I.
Solution of equation (22) gives,
C H ,min min(CH , CW )
Y Y 2 4 XZ
C H ,max max(C H , CW ) T2 (23)
2X

## C L ,min min(C L , CW ) From the first law of thermodynamics,

P QH Q L (24)
C L ,max max(C L , CW )
H CH ,min (TH 1 T2 R ) L CL ,min (T4 R T4 )
U H AH U A U A
NH ; NL L L ; NR R R Substituting the value of T2R and T4R from
CH ,min CL ,min CW equations (15-16) into equation (24) and (7), P and QH
can be written as:
The compressor and turbine efficiencies can be
written as: P z6 x7T2 y7T4 (25)

T2 s T1
c (13) QH z7 x8T2 y8T4 (26)
T2 T1
Parameters x7, x8, y7, y8, z6 and z7 are given in the
T T Appendix-I.
t 3 4 (14)
T3 T4 s For optimal operation of gas power plant, cost
should be as small as possible with maximum power
output. Hence, for optimization power output per unit
Now from equations (7) to (14), cost is considered as the objective function as
proposed by earlier researchers [2, 8-9], and can be
T4 R (1 R )T4 RT2 (15) written as:

T2 R (1 R )T2 RT4 P
(16) F (27)
Ci Ce Cm
T1 (1 b)T4 R bTL1 (17)
Here Ci, Ce and Cm indicate annual investment
cost, energy consumption cost and maintenance cost
T3 (1 a)T2 R aTH 1 (18) of irreversible regenerative Brayton cycle model
respectively. The annual investment cost covers cost

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Research Article JTEN 2015 - 117

## of various heat exchangers, compressor and turbine F

used in Brayton cycle model. Investment cost of the (32) in context with T4 i.e. 0 and solution for
heat exchanger can be assumed to be proportional to T4
total heat transfer area [8, 9] and investment cost of this equation, gives:
compressor and turbine is assumed to be proportional T2
to their compression / expansion capacities. Therefore, ( x11 T4 ) z11 T2 (33)
the total annual investment cost of the model can be T4
presented as Parameters x11 and z11 are given in Appendix- I.
T2
Putting the values of and T2 from equation (23)
Ci aa ( AH AL AR ) a p P T4
aa ( AH AL AR ) a p (QH QL ) (28) into equation (33),

## Here aa is the proportionality constant for the X 1T42 Y1T4 Z1 0 (34)

investment cost of the heat exchanger which is the
product of the capital recovery factor and investment Parameters X1, Y1 and Z1 are given in Appendix-
cost per unit heat exchanger area and ap is the I. Solution of equation (34) gives optimum value of T4
proportionality constant for the investment cost for the as
compression and expansion devices which is the
product of capital recovery factor and investment cost
Y1 Y12 4 X 1Z1
per unit power output. By using capital recovery
T4,opt
factor, the initial investment cost is calculated in terms 2 X1 (35)
of equivalent annual payment [8, 9]. The annual
energy consumption [8, 9] and the maintenance cost
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
[2] are proportional to the energy input and power
In order to have mathematical approval of the
output respectively, which can be presented as:
results, the effects of various performance parameters
viz. efficiency of turbine and compressor,
Ce aq QH (29) effectiveness of various heat exchangers, heat source
inlet temperature, pressure drop recovery coefficients
Cm b p P bp (QH QL ) (30) and economic parameters on an irreversible
regenerative Brayton heat engine model are
investigated. Each one of above mentioned parameter
aq is defined as equivalent annual operation hours is examined by keeping rest parameters constant as
times price per unit energy input [8, 9] and bp is TH1=1250 K, TL1=300 K, t= c=0.8, CW=1.05 kWK-1,
defined as equivalent annual operation hours times CH= CL=1 kWK-1, UH= UL=UR=2.0 kWK-1m-2, 1=
price per unit power output [10]. Putting equations 2=0.95, k1=0.5, k2=0.1 [12, 18-19]. The obtained
(28) - (30) into equation (27), the objective function results are presented on graphs and discussed in detail
can be written as: as follows:

## P (31) Effects of turbine and compressor

F
aa ( AH AL AR ) (QH QL ) aq QH efficiencies (t and c)
The variations of turbine and compressor
Here a p bp Thus from equations (27) (30),
efficiencies on maximum thermo-economic function
and the corresponding power output/ thermal
we have efficiency of an irreversible regenerative Brayton heat
engine cycle with finite capacity heat reservoir are
z6 x7T2 y7T4 shown in figures 2(a) to 2(c). It is seen from these
F
k1k3 ( z6 x7T2 y7T4 ) k2 ( z7 x8T2 y8T4 ) figures that maximum thermo-economic function and
the corresponding power output/ thermal efficiency
z6 x7T2 y7T4
(32) increases with the increase in component efficiencies
z9 x9T2 y9T4 (t and c) which indicates that larger the component
efficiency is, better the performance of the cycle. It is
Parameters x9, y9, k1, k2 and k3 are given in also found that turbine efficiency (t) has more effect
Appendix- I. Equation (32) shows that F is a bi- than the compressor efficiency (c) not only on the
variable function of T2 and T4 but T2 is a function of thermodynamic performance but also on the economic
T4 and other parameters are constant for a typical set performance of an irreversible regenerative Brayton
of operating conditions. Hence, optimizing equation heat engine cycle. Hence, for practical Brayton heat
engine, lots of research and investigation is still
required on compressor efficiency.

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Research Article JTEN 2015 - 117

0.8
Because at high source inlet temperature, pressure
0.7 recovery coefficients decrease and therefore, power
output and thermal efficiency starts decreasing. It is
further observed that at unity pressure recovery
0.6

## 0.5 coefficients, the performance parameters increases

with increase in heat source inlet temperature. It is also
seen that the effect of TH1 is more prominent for power
0.4
Fmax

0.3
c output as compared to other performance parameters.
0.2 t Hence, efforts should be made to increase heat source
inlet temperature of realistic Brayton heat engine
cycle.
0.1

0
0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1
Component Efficiency (t and c)

## Fig. 2 (a) Variations of max economic function with

respect to component efficiency (c and t ) 0.5

0.4
100
c
90
t 0.3

Fmax
80

70
0.2
60
Power Output (kW)

50 0.1

40
0
30 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450
Heat Source Inlet Temperature (T )
H1

20

## respect to heat source inlet temperature (TH1)

10

0
0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1
Component Efficiency (t and c)
50

## Fig. 2 (b) Variations of power output with respect to 45

component efficiency (c and t ) 40

35
30
30
Power Output (kW)

25 25

20
20
Thermal Efficiency (%)

15

15 10

5
10 c
0
t 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450
Heat Source Inlet Temperature (T )
H1

## Fig. 3 (b) Variations of power output with respect to

5

0
0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1
heat source inlet temperature (TH1)
Component Efficiency (t and c )

## The variation of heat source inlet temperature on

Thermal Efficiency (%)

## regenerative Brayton heat engine cycle are shown in

figure 3(a) to 3(c). It is seen from these figures that the
6

## corresponding power output/ thermal efficiency first

increases, attains its maximum value and then starts
2

## decreasing at higher values of heat source inlet 0

temperature. The power output and thermal efficiency 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300
Heat Source Inlet Temperature (T )
1350 1400 1450

H1

## Fig. 3 (c) Variations of thermal efficiency with

because of inclusion of pressure drop in the analysis. respect to heat source inlet temperature (TH1)

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Research Article JTEN 2015 - 117

Effect of H, L and R 25

## The variations of hot side, cold side and

regenerative side effectiveness on different 20

## performance parameters are shown in figures 4(a) to

4(c). It is seen from these figures that the maximum
thermo-economic function and the corresponding
15

Efficiency (%)
power output/ thermal efficiency increases as the
effectiveness on either side of heat exchanger (H, L 10

## The results obtained can also be correlated with heat

transfer area. It is required to increase the heat transfer
0
0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1

## area as the effectiveness is increased which results in

Effectiveness

increase of cost of the system. However, in general, Fig. 4 (c) Variations of thermal efficiency with
the variations of the performance parameters with respect to effectiveness of various heat exchangers
respect to various effectiveness of heat exchangers (H,
L and R) are not linear. Effects of pressure drop
Figure 5(a) to figure 5(c) shows the effect of pressure
drop on various performance parameters of an
irreversible regenerative Brayton heat engine cycle. It
0.7

## 0.6 is seen from these figures that maximum thermo-

economic function and the corresponding power
0.5 output/ thermal efficiency increases as the pressure
drop is decreased. It is also seen from these figures that
various performance parameters attains their
0.4

## maximum value at zero pressure drop which cannot be

Fm ax

0.3
achieved in realistic Brayton heat engine cycle.
0.2
H
Further, negative value indicates that at lower values
L of pressure recovery co-efficient, performance of the
0.1
R system deteriorates in terms of power output and
thermal efficiency. Keeping this view in mind, the
pressure recovery co-efficient should be as high as
0
0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1

possible.
Effectiveness

## Fig. 4 (a) Variations of maximum economic function

w.r.t. effectiveness of various heat exchangers 0.8

80 0.6

0.4
70

0.2
60

0
F m ax

50
Power Output (kW)

-0.2
40

-0.4
30
H -0.6
20 L
R -0.8
0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1
10
Pressure Recovery Coefficients ( 1= 2)

## 0 Fig. 5 (a) Variation of max economic function with

respect to pressure recovery coefficients
0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1
Effectiveness

## Fig. 4 (b) Variations of power output with respect to

effectiveness of various heat exchangers

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Research Article JTEN 2015 - 117

70
with the inclusion of irreversibility in the system,
60 the performance parameter decreases. Further, the
proposed model replicates the results of an
irreversible regenerative Brayton cycle model
50

40
discussed in the literature at pressure recovery
coefficients of 1=2=1.
Power Output (kW)

30

20
1

10
0.9 k
1

0 k
2
0.8

-10
0.7

-20
0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1 0.6
Pressure Recovery Coefficients ( 1= 2)

0.5

## pressure recovery coefficients 0.4

0.3
25
0.2

20 0.1
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Economic Parameters (k and k )
1 2

## 15 Fig. 6 Variations of maximum economic function

Thermal Efficiency (%)

## with respect to economic parameters (k1 and k2)

10

CONCLUSION
5 A more practical irreversible regenerative
Brayton heat engine cycle model with pressure drop as
supplementary irreversibility is examined in this
0

-5
paper. The thermo-economic function is optimized in
context with cycle temperature. The corresponding
0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1
Pressure Recovery Coefficients ( 1= 2)

Fig. 5 (c) Variation of thermal efficiency with respect power output and thermal efficiency are calculated for
to pressure recovery coefficients analytical set of operating conditions. The major
outcomes of current analysis are:
Further, maximum thermo-economic function 1. The thermo-economic function value increases
reflects logarithmic while linear variations with with effectiveness of various heat exchangers,
corresponding power output and thermal efficiency. component efficiencies, heat source inlet
temperature, pressure recovery factors and
Effects of economic parameters (k1 and k2) decreases for economic parameters.
Fig 6 shows the effect of various economic 2. It is proved and verified that running cost is more
parameters (k1 and k2) on maximum thermo-economic effective than that of the investment cost.
function of an irreversible regenerative Brayton heat 3. It is found that the cold side effectiveness is more
engine cycle. It is seen from figure 6 that the maximum prominent for the power output while regenerative
thermo-economic function decreases with increase in effectiveness is dominant factor for thermal
the value of economic parameters (k1 and k2) but the efficiency.
effect of k2 is more prominent than k1. Since the 4. It is also found that the effect of turbine efficiency
economic parameter k1 belongs only to investment is more as compared with compressor efficiency on
cost while k2 belongs to investment cost and running maximum objective function and the corresponding
cost both. Hence, it is proved and verified from figure power output and thermal efficiency.
6 that running cost is more effective than that of the 5. The model analyzed in this paper gives lower
investment cost. values of various performance parameters as
expected and replicates the results of an
Comparison of results with Ref [12]: irreversible regenerative Brayton cycle model
The results obtained for irreversible Brayton discussed in the literature at pressure recovery
heat engine are compared with results obtained by coefficients of 1=2=1.
Kaushik et al. [12] under same set of analytical
conditions in Table 1. It is found that the values of For a typical set of operating parameters, the results
P and are 36.5% and 32.4% lower compared with obtained here are of large value to understand the
Ref [12] because of inclusion of pressure drop divergence of actual performance from ideal
irreversibility. Hence, it is proved and verified that performance while counting pressure drop as

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Research Article JTEN 2015 - 117

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[25] Kumar, R., Kaushik, S.C., Kumar, R., optimization of an Irreversible regenerative
Performance analysis of an irreversible Brayton Cycle using isothermal heat
regenerative Brayton cycle based on addition, Journal of Thermal Engineering, 1
(4), 279-286 (2015)

Table 1

## Systems Design Variables Objectives

H L R 1 2 TH1 TL1 t c P (kW) (%) F*
Present Study 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.95 0.95 1250 300 0.8 0.8 39.80 12.5 0.53
Ref [12] 0.75 0.75 0.75 1 1 1250 300 0.8 0.8 63.00 18.58 -

NOMENCLATURE

## A Area (m2) Greek letters

C Heat Capacitance Rate (WK-1) Thermal efficiency
F Dimensionless thermo-economic function H Heat source side effectiveness
k1 Ratio of aa to (ap+bp) L Heat sink side effectiveness
k2 Ratio of aq to (ap+bp) R Effectiveness of regenerator
P Power output (W) Subscripts
Q Heat transfer rate (W) 1,2,3,4 State points
R Gas Constant (Jmol-1K-1) H Heat source
T Temperature (K) L Heat sink
U Overall heat transfer Coefficient, kWm-2K-1 R Regenerator
s Ideal state

APPENDIX-I

## X 1 x52 4 Xy5 x132 x122 Y x5T4 x6 z2 aTH 1

x1 R (1 b)(1 c ) c Y1 x5 x6 2 Xy6 2 x13 x14 / x 2
12 z3 a (1 t1 )TH 1
x2 (1 a)(1 R ) y1 (1 R )(1 b)(1 c ) z4 bTL1
x3 (1 a )(1 )(1 R )
t
1
y2 (1 a) R z5 z1 z3 z2 z4
x4 (1 b) R y3 { (1 a )(1 ) R }
t
1
t
1
z6 CW (aTH 1 bTL1 )

x5 x1 y3 x3 y1 x4 y2 x2 y4 y4 (1 R )(1 b) z7 CW aTH 1
x6 x1 z3 x3 z1 x4 z2 x2 z4 y5 y1 y3 y2 y4 z8 z6 k2 z7
x7 CW {a(1 R ) b R } y6 y1 z3 z1 y3 z2 y4 y2 z4 z9 k1k3 z8
x8 CW a(1 R ) y7 CW {b(1 R ) a R } z10 y9 z6 y7 z9
x9 x7 k2 x8 y8 aCW R z11 z10 y10

869
Research Article JTEN 2015 - 117

x10 x7 z9 x9 z6 y9 y7 k2 y8 CH H
a
CW
x11 x10 y10 y10 y7 x9 y9 x7 C
b L L
CW
x12 2 Xz11 x5 x11 x6 Z y5T42 y6T4 z5
x13 x11 ( x52 4 Xy5 ) ( x5 x6 2 Xy6 ) Z1 x62 4 Xz5 x142 x122

870