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Yildiz Technical University Press, Istanbul, Turkey Manuscript Received August 09, 2015; Accepted September 27, 2015

Vol. 2, Special Issue 4, No. 4, pp. 861-870, July, 2016.

This paper was recommended for publication in revised form by Regional Editor Omid Mahian

REGENERATIVE BRAYTON CYCLE

S. C. Kaushik

*

Raj Kumar

Centre for Energy Studies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, YMCA

Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New University of Science & Tech., Faridabad-

Delhi-110016, India 121006, India

Rajesh Arora

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Amity University Haryana,

Gurgaon-122413, India

Keywords: Thermo-economic objective function; Irreversible Brayton cycle; Regenerator; Power; Efficiency

* Corresponding author: S.C. Kaushik, E-mail: kaushiksc@hotmail.com

Thermo-economic optimizations along with a detailed observed the change in Brayton cycle temperatures

parametric analysis of an irreversible regenerative while altering maximum work in the cycle. Wu and

Brayton cycle with finite heat capacity of external Kiang [4] optimized power output of Brayton cycle

reservoirs have been carried out. The external using finite time thermodynamics. Wu [5] optimized

irreversibilities due to finite temperature difference and the power of an endoreversible Brayton gas heat engine.

internal irreversibilities due to fluid friction losses in Wu & Kiang [6] integrated real compression and

compressor/turbine, regenerative heat loss, and expansion in Brayton heat engine and found that engine

pressure loss are included in the analysis. The thermo- power and engine efficiency are strong functions of the

economic function is the ratio of power output to the compressor and turbine efficiencies. Cheng et al. [7]

sum of annual investment, energy consumption and used finite time thermodynamics for ecologically

maintenance cost. The optimization of the objective optimizing the power output of a closed Brayton cycle

function is done for maximizing the power output and and calculated optimal values of power, thermal

thermal efficiency of the model. A detailed analysis on efficiency and second law efficiency of Brayton cycle.

the efficiency of turbine and compressor, effectiveness Sahin and Kodal [8-11] performed several thermos-

of various heat exchangers, heat source inlet economic optimization studies for refrigerators/ heat

temperature and pressure drop irreversibility on power, pumps based on endoreversible and irreversible mode

efficiency and economic function has been carried out. using FTT approach. Kaushik et al. [12] applied finite

Parametric analysis shows that turbine efficiency has time thermodynamic approach to an irreversible

more effect on the performance of model than regenerative closed Brayton cycle. Wang et al. [13]

compressor efficiency for the same set of operating applied the hypothesis of finite time thermodynamics to

conditions. The model analyzed in this paper gives analyze an irreversible closed intercooled regenerated

lower values of various performance parameters as Brayton cycle and optimized the intercooler pressure

expected and replicates the results of an irreversible ratio for optimum power and corresponding efficiency.

regenerative Brayton cycle model discussed in the Kaushik et al. [14] performed a thermodynamic

literature at pressure recovery coefficients of 1=2=1. analysis of an irreversible regenerative Brayton cycle

with isothermal heat addition and optimized the power

INTRODUCTION output in context with working medium temperature.

Brayton cycles have been extensively used in gas They observed an improvement of 15% in the thermal

power plants, aircrafts, ship propulsion and various efficiency of Brayton cycle with heat addition at

industrial usages. Salamon et al. [1] examined constant temperature. Tyagi et al. [15] investigated a

externally irreversible Carnot cycle and calculated complex Brayton cycle under maximum ecological and

optimum values of objective function for various maximum economic conditions and found optimum

performance parameters of endoreversible Carnot heat values of various performance parameters at which the

engine. Leff [2] analysed an endoreversible Brayton cycle attains maximum values of economic function,

861

Research Article JTEN 2015 - 117

ecological function, and power output and cycle (e) The pressure recovery coefficients (1 and 2) are

efficiency. Till now, numerous researchers have done assumed to be equal.

thermo-economic optimization studies for different

thermal energy conversion systems based on

The hot, cold and regenerative side heat transfer rates

endoreversible and irreversible configurations [16-27].

can be presented as [12, 19]:

Finite time thermodynamics has touched various fronts

since this technique had been used to analyze and

optimize the performance of real thermodynamic QH U H AH ( LMTD) H CH (TH 1 TH 2 ) (1)

processes, devices and cycles. On the basis of recent

literature, a model of an irreversible regenerative QL U L AL ( LMTD) L C L (TL 2 TL1 ) (2)

Brayton cycle with pressure drop as supplementary

irreversibility is considered in this paper and

expressions for maximum thermo-economic function QR U R AR ( LMTD) R CW (T4 T4 R ) (3)

and corresponding power output/ thermal efficiency of

the cycle are obtained. In addition, thermo-economic where,

function chosen as the objective in this study includes

annual investment cost, energy consumption cost and (TH 1 T3 ) (TH 2 T2 R )

( LMTD ) H

ln (TH 1 T3 ) (TH 2 T2 R )

maintenance cost. The effect of effectiveness of various (4)

heat exchangers, efficiency of turbine and compressor,

heat source inlet temperature, pressure drop and

economic parameters have been studied in detail and

(T4 R TL 2 ) (T1 TL1 )

( LMTD ) L

ln (T4 R TL 2 ) (T1 TL1 )

the results are presented on the graphs. The model (5)

analyzed in this paper gives lower values of various

performance parameters as expected.

(T4 T2 R ) (T4 R T2 )

( LMTD ) R

ln (T4 T2 R ) (T4 R T2 )

THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS (6)

An irreversible regenerative Brayton cycle coupled

with a heat source and heat sink of finite heat capacity

is shown in Fig. 1. In this model, state 1 is the entry

point of working medium at compressor and

compressed up to state 2. Then the working medium

enters the regenerator where its partial heating up to

state 2R is done by the turbine exhaust. The working

medium next enters the hot side heat exchanger with a

pressure drop which is reflected using pressure

recovery coefficient, 1 = p3/p2 and heated up to state 3,

while the heat source temperature decreases from TH1

to TH2. The working medium now enters the turbine and

expands up to state 4. After expansion, the working

medium enters the regenerator to transfer heat partly

and then enters the cold side heat exchanger with a

pressure drop which is reflected using another pressure

recovery coefficient, 2 = p1/p4 . The working medium

is cooled up to state 1, while the heat sink temperature

increases from TL1 to TL2. Therefore, we consider the

closed Brayton cycle 1-2-2R-3-4R-1 with real

compression / expansion processes and pressure drop Fig. 1 T-S diagram for irreversible regenerative

irreversibilities for finite heat capacity of external Brayton heat engine Cycle

reservoirs. Process (1-2s) and process (3-4s) are

isentropic in nature as shown by dotted lines in Figure From equations (1) to (6),

1. The following assumptions are taken into account:

(a) The proposed model operates at steady rate. QH H C H ,m (TH 1 T2 R ) CW (T3 T2 R ) (7)

(b) The variable heat capacity of heat source and heat

sink is considered. QL L C L ,m (T4 R TL1 ) CW (T4 R T1 ) (8)

(c) The working fluid used in the proposed model

behaves like an ideal gas. QR R CW (T4 T2 ) CW (T2 R T2 ) (9)

(d) The constant specific heat of the working fluid is

assumed.

862

Research Article JTEN 2015 - 117

where H, L and R are the effectiveness of the hot T2 s (1 c )T1 T2c (19)

side, cold side and regenerative side heat exchangers

respectively and presented as [19]:

T4 s (1 t1 )T3 T4t1 (20)

1 e

N H (1 CH ,min CH ,max )

C

1 H ,min e H H ,min For a given model,

N (1C CH ,max )

CH ,max

T1T3 T2 sT4 s (21)

1 e

N L (1 CL ,min CL ,max )

L (11) k 1

C where (1 2 ) k and k is specific heat ratio of

1 L,min e L L ,min

N (1C CL ,max )

Substituting the values of T1, T3, T2s and T4s from

equations (17) - (20) into equation (21), we get the

NR

R (12) quadratic equation in T2 as:

1 NR

XT22 YT2 Z 0 (22)

The heat capacitance rates and number of heat

transfer units can be calculated as: Parameters X, Y and Z are given in Appendix- I.

Solution of equation (22) gives,

C H ,min min(CH , CW )

Y Y 2 4 XZ

C H ,max max(C H , CW ) T2 (23)

2X

P QH Q L (24)

C L ,max max(C L , CW )

H CH ,min (TH 1 T2 R ) L CL ,min (T4 R T4 )

U H AH U A U A

NH ; NL L L ; NR R R Substituting the value of T2R and T4R from

CH ,min CL ,min CW equations (15-16) into equation (24) and (7), P and QH

can be written as:

The compressor and turbine efficiencies can be

written as: P z6 x7T2 y7T4 (25)

T2 s T1

c (13) QH z7 x8T2 y8T4 (26)

T2 T1

Parameters x7, x8, y7, y8, z6 and z7 are given in the

T T Appendix-I.

t 3 4 (14)

T3 T4 s For optimal operation of gas power plant, cost

should be as small as possible with maximum power

output. Hence, for optimization power output per unit

Now from equations (7) to (14), cost is considered as the objective function as

proposed by earlier researchers [2, 8-9], and can be

T4 R (1 R )T4 RT2 (15) written as:

T2 R (1 R )T2 RT4 P

(16) F (27)

Ci Ce Cm

T1 (1 b)T4 R bTL1 (17)

Here Ci, Ce and Cm indicate annual investment

cost, energy consumption cost and maintenance cost

T3 (1 a)T2 R aTH 1 (18) of irreversible regenerative Brayton cycle model

respectively. The annual investment cost covers cost

863

Research Article JTEN 2015 - 117

used in Brayton cycle model. Investment cost of the (32) in context with T4 i.e. 0 and solution for

heat exchanger can be assumed to be proportional to T4

total heat transfer area [8, 9] and investment cost of this equation, gives:

compressor and turbine is assumed to be proportional T2

to their compression / expansion capacities. Therefore, ( x11 T4 ) z11 T2 (33)

the total annual investment cost of the model can be T4

presented as Parameters x11 and z11 are given in Appendix- I.

T2

Putting the values of and T2 from equation (23)

Ci aa ( AH AL AR ) a p P T4

aa ( AH AL AR ) a p (QH QL ) (28) into equation (33),

investment cost of the heat exchanger which is the

product of the capital recovery factor and investment Parameters X1, Y1 and Z1 are given in Appendix-

cost per unit heat exchanger area and ap is the I. Solution of equation (34) gives optimum value of T4

proportionality constant for the investment cost for the as

compression and expansion devices which is the

product of capital recovery factor and investment cost

Y1 Y12 4 X 1Z1

per unit power output. By using capital recovery

T4,opt

factor, the initial investment cost is calculated in terms 2 X1 (35)

of equivalent annual payment [8, 9]. The annual

energy consumption [8, 9] and the maintenance cost

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

[2] are proportional to the energy input and power

In order to have mathematical approval of the

output respectively, which can be presented as:

results, the effects of various performance parameters

viz. efficiency of turbine and compressor,

Ce aq QH (29) effectiveness of various heat exchangers, heat source

inlet temperature, pressure drop recovery coefficients

Cm b p P bp (QH QL ) (30) and economic parameters on an irreversible

regenerative Brayton heat engine model are

investigated. Each one of above mentioned parameter

aq is defined as equivalent annual operation hours is examined by keeping rest parameters constant as

times price per unit energy input [8, 9] and bp is TH1=1250 K, TL1=300 K, t= c=0.8, CW=1.05 kWK-1,

defined as equivalent annual operation hours times CH= CL=1 kWK-1, UH= UL=UR=2.0 kWK-1m-2, 1=

price per unit power output [10]. Putting equations 2=0.95, k1=0.5, k2=0.1 [12, 18-19]. The obtained

(28) - (30) into equation (27), the objective function results are presented on graphs and discussed in detail

can be written as: as follows:

F

aa ( AH AL AR ) (QH QL ) aq QH efficiencies (t and c)

The variations of turbine and compressor

Here a p bp Thus from equations (27) (30),

efficiencies on maximum thermo-economic function

and the corresponding power output/ thermal

we have efficiency of an irreversible regenerative Brayton heat

engine cycle with finite capacity heat reservoir are

z6 x7T2 y7T4 shown in figures 2(a) to 2(c). It is seen from these

F

k1k3 ( z6 x7T2 y7T4 ) k2 ( z7 x8T2 y8T4 ) figures that maximum thermo-economic function and

the corresponding power output/ thermal efficiency

z6 x7T2 y7T4

(32) increases with the increase in component efficiencies

z9 x9T2 y9T4 (t and c) which indicates that larger the component

efficiency is, better the performance of the cycle. It is

Parameters x9, y9, k1, k2 and k3 are given in also found that turbine efficiency (t) has more effect

Appendix- I. Equation (32) shows that F is a bi- than the compressor efficiency (c) not only on the

variable function of T2 and T4 but T2 is a function of thermodynamic performance but also on the economic

T4 and other parameters are constant for a typical set performance of an irreversible regenerative Brayton

of operating conditions. Hence, optimizing equation heat engine cycle. Hence, for practical Brayton heat

engine, lots of research and investigation is still

required on compressor efficiency.

864

Research Article JTEN 2015 - 117

0.8

Because at high source inlet temperature, pressure

0.7 recovery coefficients decrease and therefore, power

output and thermal efficiency starts decreasing. It is

further observed that at unity pressure recovery

0.6

with increase in heat source inlet temperature. It is also

seen that the effect of TH1 is more prominent for power

0.4

Fmax

0.3

c output as compared to other performance parameters.

0.2 t Hence, efforts should be made to increase heat source

inlet temperature of realistic Brayton heat engine

cycle.

0.1

0

0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1

Component Efficiency (t and c)

respect to component efficiency (c and t ) 0.5

0.4

100

c

90

t 0.3

Fmax

80

70

0.2

60

Power Output (kW)

50 0.1

40

0

30 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450

Heat Source Inlet Temperature (T )

H1

20

10

0

0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1

Component Efficiency (t and c)

50

component efficiency (c and t ) 40

35

30

30

Power Output (kW)

25 25

20

20

Thermal Efficiency (%)

15

15 10

5

10 c

0

t 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450

Heat Source Inlet Temperature (T )

H1

5

0

0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1

heat source inlet temperature (TH1)

Component Efficiency (t and c )

Thermal Efficiency (%)

figure 3(a) to 3(c). It is seen from these figures that the

6

increases, attains its maximum value and then starts

2

temperature. The power output and thermal efficiency 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300

Heat Source Inlet Temperature (T )

1350 1400 1450

H1

because of inclusion of pressure drop in the analysis. respect to heat source inlet temperature (TH1)

865

Research Article JTEN 2015 - 117

Effect of H, L and R 25

regenerative side effectiveness on different 20

4(c). It is seen from these figures that the maximum

thermo-economic function and the corresponding

15

Efficiency (%)

power output/ thermal efficiency increases as the

effectiveness on either side of heat exchanger (H, L 10

transfer area. It is required to increase the heat transfer

0

0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1

Effectiveness

increase of cost of the system. However, in general, Fig. 4 (c) Variations of thermal efficiency with

the variations of the performance parameters with respect to effectiveness of various heat exchangers

respect to various effectiveness of heat exchangers (H,

L and R) are not linear. Effects of pressure drop

Figure 5(a) to figure 5(c) shows the effect of pressure

drop on various performance parameters of an

irreversible regenerative Brayton heat engine cycle. It

0.7

economic function and the corresponding power

0.5 output/ thermal efficiency increases as the pressure

drop is decreased. It is also seen from these figures that

various performance parameters attains their

0.4

Fm ax

0.3

achieved in realistic Brayton heat engine cycle.

0.2

H

Further, negative value indicates that at lower values

L of pressure recovery co-efficient, performance of the

0.1

R system deteriorates in terms of power output and

thermal efficiency. Keeping this view in mind, the

pressure recovery co-efficient should be as high as

0

0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1

possible.

Effectiveness

w.r.t. effectiveness of various heat exchangers 0.8

80 0.6

0.4

70

0.2

60

0

F m ax

50

Power Output (kW)

-0.2

40

-0.4

30

H -0.6

20 L

R -0.8

0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1

10

Pressure Recovery Coefficients ( 1= 2)

respect to pressure recovery coefficients

0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1

Effectiveness

effectiveness of various heat exchangers

866

Research Article JTEN 2015 - 117

70

with the inclusion of irreversibility in the system,

60 the performance parameter decreases. Further, the

proposed model replicates the results of an

irreversible regenerative Brayton cycle model

50

40

discussed in the literature at pressure recovery

coefficients of 1=2=1.

Power Output (kW)

30

20

1

10

0.9 k

1

0 k

2

0.8

-10

0.7

-20

0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1 0.6

Pressure Recovery Coefficients ( 1= 2)

0.5

0.3

25

0.2

20 0.1

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Economic Parameters (k and k )

1 2

Thermal Efficiency (%)

10

CONCLUSION

5 A more practical irreversible regenerative

Brayton heat engine cycle model with pressure drop as

supplementary irreversibility is examined in this

0

-5

paper. The thermo-economic function is optimized in

context with cycle temperature. The corresponding

0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1

Pressure Recovery Coefficients ( 1= 2)

Fig. 5 (c) Variation of thermal efficiency with respect power output and thermal efficiency are calculated for

to pressure recovery coefficients analytical set of operating conditions. The major

outcomes of current analysis are:

Further, maximum thermo-economic function 1. The thermo-economic function value increases

reflects logarithmic while linear variations with with effectiveness of various heat exchangers,

corresponding power output and thermal efficiency. component efficiencies, heat source inlet

temperature, pressure recovery factors and

Effects of economic parameters (k1 and k2) decreases for economic parameters.

Fig 6 shows the effect of various economic 2. It is proved and verified that running cost is more

parameters (k1 and k2) on maximum thermo-economic effective than that of the investment cost.

function of an irreversible regenerative Brayton heat 3. It is found that the cold side effectiveness is more

engine cycle. It is seen from figure 6 that the maximum prominent for the power output while regenerative

thermo-economic function decreases with increase in effectiveness is dominant factor for thermal

the value of economic parameters (k1 and k2) but the efficiency.

effect of k2 is more prominent than k1. Since the 4. It is also found that the effect of turbine efficiency

economic parameter k1 belongs only to investment is more as compared with compressor efficiency on

cost while k2 belongs to investment cost and running maximum objective function and the corresponding

cost both. Hence, it is proved and verified from figure power output and thermal efficiency.

6 that running cost is more effective than that of the 5. The model analyzed in this paper gives lower

investment cost. values of various performance parameters as

expected and replicates the results of an

Comparison of results with Ref [12]: irreversible regenerative Brayton cycle model

The results obtained for irreversible Brayton discussed in the literature at pressure recovery

heat engine are compared with results obtained by coefficients of 1=2=1.

Kaushik et al. [12] under same set of analytical

conditions in Table 1. It is found that the values of For a typical set of operating parameters, the results

P and are 36.5% and 32.4% lower compared with obtained here are of large value to understand the

Ref [12] because of inclusion of pressure drop divergence of actual performance from ideal

irreversibility. Hence, it is proved and verified that performance while counting pressure drop as

867

Research Article JTEN 2015 - 117

supplementary irreversibility. The work can further be [13] Wang, W., Chen, L., Sun, F., Wu, C.:

extended by developing a correlation between Performance analysis for an irreversible

component efficiencies and capital cost of compressor variable temperature heat reservoir closed

/ turbine while doing thermo-economic analysis of intercooled regenerated Brayton cycle,

proposed model. Energy Conversion and Management, 44,

2713-2732 (2003)

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Table 1

H L R 1 2 TH1 TL1 t c P (kW) (%) F*

Present Study 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.95 0.95 1250 300 0.8 0.8 39.80 12.5 0.53

Ref [12] 0.75 0.75 0.75 1 1 1250 300 0.8 0.8 63.00 18.58 -

NOMENCLATURE

C Heat Capacitance Rate (WK-1) Thermal efficiency

F Dimensionless thermo-economic function H Heat source side effectiveness

k1 Ratio of aa to (ap+bp) L Heat sink side effectiveness

k2 Ratio of aq to (ap+bp) R Effectiveness of regenerator

P Power output (W) Subscripts

Q Heat transfer rate (W) 1,2,3,4 State points

R Gas Constant (Jmol-1K-1) H Heat source

T Temperature (K) L Heat sink

U Overall heat transfer Coefficient, kWm-2K-1 R Regenerator

s Ideal state

APPENDIX-I

x1 R (1 b)(1 c ) c Y1 x5 x6 2 Xy6 2 x13 x14 / x 2

12 z3 a (1 t1 )TH 1

x2 (1 a)(1 R ) y1 (1 R )(1 b)(1 c ) z4 bTL1

x3 (1 a )(1 )(1 R )

t

1

y2 (1 a) R z5 z1 z3 z2 z4

x4 (1 b) R y3 { (1 a )(1 ) R }

t

1

t

1

z6 CW (aTH 1 bTL1 )

x5 x1 y3 x3 y1 x4 y2 x2 y4 y4 (1 R )(1 b) z7 CW aTH 1

x6 x1 z3 x3 z1 x4 z2 x2 z4 y5 y1 y3 y2 y4 z8 z6 k2 z7

x7 CW {a(1 R ) b R } y6 y1 z3 z1 y3 z2 y4 y2 z4 z9 k1k3 z8

x8 CW a(1 R ) y7 CW {b(1 R ) a R } z10 y9 z6 y7 z9

x9 x7 k2 x8 y8 aCW R z11 z10 y10

869

Research Article JTEN 2015 - 117

x10 x7 z9 x9 z6 y9 y7 k2 y8 CH H

a

CW

x11 x10 y10 y10 y7 x9 y9 x7 C

b L L

CW

x12 2 Xz11 x5 x11 x6 Z y5T42 y6T4 z5

x13 x11 ( x52 4 Xy5 ) ( x5 x6 2 Xy6 ) Z1 x62 4 Xz5 x142 x122

870

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