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26.04.2017

EXTRUSION

PROCESSES

MANUFACTURING

PROCESSES

DesignOfMetalExtrusionProcesses

MetalExtrusionDesign

DesignOfMetalExtrusionProcesses MetalExtrusionDesign Designofametalextrusionmanufacturingprocess

Designofametalextrusionmanufacturingprocessinvolvesconsiderationofmany

differentfactors.Theprimarygoalistocreateaprocessthatenactsasmoothandeffective

flowofmaterial.Ingeneral,forcenecessaryisminimizedasmuchaspossible.Higherforces

requiregreatercapacityandenergy.Higherforcesalsoincreasethechancesofpartdefects,

diewearanddiebreakage.Frictionhasanimportantrollwhenextrudingapartandshouldbe

maintainedatanoptimumlevel.Byexaminingandunderstandingthecausesofmetal

extrusiondefects,theprocessengineercandesignaparticularoperationtomitigatethe

chancesofdefectsoccurring.Defectsfallintodifferentcategoriesandhaveseveralroot

causes.Mostdefectsaresimilar,lessspecifically,inthattheyarecreatedbyimpropermaterial

movementandstressdistributions.Controlofoperationalfactorswillallowforcontrolof

forcesandmetalflow,producingefficient,defectfreemetalextrusions.Inadditionto

operationalfactors,thegeometricprofileoftheextrusionalsoaffectsthemanufactureofthe

part.

TroubleshootingDefects

Extrusiondefectsthatoccurduringthemanufacturingprocessgenerallyfallintothreebasic

categories.Internalbreakage,particularlyinthecenter,surfacecracking,andpiping.

CenterCracking

Internalbreakage;commonnamesusedinmanufacturingindustryforthistypeofdefectare centercracking,cheveroncracking,arrowheadfracture,andcenterburst.Astheworkpieceis beingextrudedthroughthedie,stresseswithintheworkbreakthematerialcausingcracksto formalongthecentralaxisoftheextrudedsection.Centercrackingisadifficultdefectto

detectsinceitoccurswithinthematerialofthepart.Figure219showsametalextrusion

subjecttocenterburst,theparthasbeencutinahalfsectionsothatthedefectmaybe

observed.

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DesignOfMetalExtrusionProcesses

Figure:219

26.04.2017 DesignOfMetalExtrusionProcesses Figure:219

Tounderstandthecausesofcentercracking,itisimportanttounderstandtheflowofthemetal

thatisoccurringwhileextrudingaprofile.Asmentionedinthematerialflowsection,the

outerregionofthemetalextrusionwillexperiencemoredeformation,morematerial

displacementandmoreturbulentflowthantheareastowardsthecentralregion.The

differencebetweenthemetalmovementoftheouterregionscomparedtothatofthecentral

regioniscritical.Ifthematerialdisplacementoccurringintheouterareasisofamuchgreater

magnitudethanthatwhichisoccurringinthecentralarea,thenthedifferencewillcausehigh

stressestodevelopwithinthematerial.Thegreaterthedifferenceinmetalflowcharacteristics

betweenregions,thegreaterthestressesthatwilloccur.Ifthestresslevelbecomestoohigh,

thenmaterialbreakagewilloccurintheformofinternalcracks.

Inmanufacturingpractice,selectionofdieanglewillbeaprimaryfactorinpreventingcenter

cracking.Highdieangleswillfavorcentercrackinginametalextrusionmorethanlowdie

angleswill.Thereasonbeingthegreaterflowturbulencecreatedintheouterregionsofthe

work.Higherfiction,ingeneral,willtendtoreducethechancesofcentercracking.Cracks

willpropagateoverinclusions,thereforethegreatertheamountofinclusionsinthework

material,themorefavorabletheconditionsfortheoccurrenceofthismetalextrusiondefect.

Highextrusionratiosarelesslikelytopromotecentercracksthanlowerones.

SurfaceBreakage

Surfacebreakagedefectonametalextrusion,isbreakageonthesurfaceofthepart.Most

surfacedefectsareintheformofcracksthatextendfromthesurfaceintothepartsmaterial,to

varyingdegrees.Thesecracksusuallyoccuralongthegrainboundariesofthemetal.The

primarycauseofsurfacecrackingdefectinmetalextrusionmanufactureisexcessivestresses

onthesurfaceofthepart'smaterial.Frictionisalargefactorincontrollingsurfacebreakage,

whilemanufacturinganextrudedsection.Increasedfrictionwillcreateamorefavorable

environmentforsurfacecracking.Lubricationcanhelpreducefriction,socananincreased

dieangle.

Whendesigningametalextrusionmanufacturingprocess,itisimportanttobalanceallfactors

suchasfriction.Lowerfrictionmaycreatebetterconditionsatthesurfacesbetweenthework

anddie.However,iffrictionforcesaretoolow,amoreturbulentouterflowmayresultin

centercracking.Anotherimportantfactorinsurfacebreakagedefectisthehardnessofthe

workstockmaterial.Thespeedatwhichthepartisextrudedisalsoaconsideration.Higher

extrusionspeedswillcreateconditionsmorefavorabletomaterialbreakage.

Conditionsinwhichtheworkmaterialstickstotheextrusiondiecanbeacauseofsurface

cracking.Workstickingtotoolsurfacescansometimesbeaprobleminmanydifferentkinds

ofmanufacturingoperations,especiallywithsomespecificmaterials.Itisacommoncasethat

whentheextrusionstickstothedie,pressurebuildsupbehindthematerial.Enoughforce

breaksloosethework,causingcracksinthemetal.Thepartshootsforwardasmalldistance,

thenitstickstothedieagain.Thiscyclerepeatsitselfasthepartisbeingextruded.Thecracks

willappearatspacedintervalsaroundthepart'speripheral.Thisissomewhatreminiscentof

theappearanceofabambootree,thusthisparticularmanufacturingdefectistermedbamboo

defect.

Surfacecrackingofametalextrusionneednothaveamechanicalcause,oftentherootcause

ofcrackingofametalbeingextrudedwillbethermalstresses.Highthermalgradients

betweentheworkanddieinterfacecancausetheextrusion'ssurfacestolooseheatrapidly.

Heateddieandlubricationcanhelpmitigatethermalgradientsatsurfaces.Theworkbillet

shouldbeheatedtothebesttemperatureconsideringtheoperationalvariables.Extrusion

speedandfrictionarecriticalfactorsincontrollingthethermalcharacteristicsofthistypeof

metalmanufacturingprocess.Higherextrusionspeedscannotonlygenerategreater

mechanicalforces,butmoreheataswell.Increasesinheatgenerationduringtheprocesscan

cracktheworkmaterial.

PipingDefect

Piping,alsocalledtailpipeorfishtailing,isadefectcommonwhenmanufacturingsectionsby

directextrusion.Theuseofadummyblockandgoodsurfacepreparationoftheworkcanhelp

avoidpiping.Pipingoccursintheworkmaterialattheendoppositetothedie.Pipingisa

resultofimpropermetalflowduringtheextrusionoperation.Pipingmanifestsitselfasa

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DesignOfMetalExtrusionProcesses

funnelshapedvoidofmaterialattheendofthework.Asmentionedbefore,metalflowisa

veryimportantconsiderationinanyformingoperation.Thewaytosolveapipingproblemis

toenactasmoothmetalflowduringtheextrusionprocess.Thecombinationoffrictionand

thermalgradientsactingatthedie­workinterfaceneedstobeobserved,andtheircumulative

effectonthemetalflowoccurringduringtheprocessdetermined.Themanufacturingengineer

mustcontrolthedifferentprocessvariablestoachievethesmoothestmaterialflowpossible

duringthemetalextrusionoperation.

Figure:220

duringthemetalextrusionoperation. Figure:220 MetalExtrusionDesignForManufacture

MetalExtrusionDesignForManufacture

Whendesigningametalextrusionprocess,thegeometricprofileoftheextrudedsectionisan

importantfactoraffectingtheforcesinvolved,metalflow,diewearandpartquality.Some

crosssections,whenextruded,willproduceundesirableforcedistributionsandmetalflow.If

possible,itisdesirabletodesignformanufacture.Thissectionwilldiscusstheeffectof

differentfeaturesofaprofileandhowtooptimizethecrosssectionformetalextrusion

manufacture.

First,itisimportanttounderstandthatthenatureoftheforcesinvolvedinmetalextrusionare

fundamentallydifferentthanthoseofotherformingprocesses.Forexample,inaprocesssuch

asmetalforging,theforcesactingontheoperationwillvarythroughouttheprocess,stress

willchangeastheforgingstrokeprogresses.Withextrusion,(althoughindirectextrusion

thereissomewhatofadecreaseinthenecessaryforce,astheoperationprogresses,dueto

decreasingfrictionwithbilletlength),theforcesactingaregenerallyconsistentthroughoutthe

bulkoftheoperation.

Somecomponentsneedtohaveaveryspecificgeometryandmustbemanufacturedthatway.

However,ifmanufacturedproductsmaybegeometricallyalteredinsuchawayastoeasein

theirmanufacture,withoutchangingtheirabilitytoperformtheirdesiredfunction,thenthey

shouldberedesignedformanufacture.Symmetryisgenerallypreferredinextrudedmetal

crosssections,particularlywithregardtoopenareasofthecrosssection.Openareasinan

extrusion'scrosssectionwillcomplicatetheprocessbychangingtheforcesinvolved.Die

wearandbreakageareprimaryconsiderationsofamanufacturingprocessdesignerwhen

designingametalextrusionoperation.Controllingmaterialflowisessentialinmetalforming

manufacture.Inaddition,thestressesappliedtothedie,asaresultofthismetalflow,mustbe

calculatedandthemoldmustbedesignedtohandletheseforces.Someareasofthediemay

besubjecttogreaterstressesthanothers.Someareasofadiemaynotbeabletohandleas

muchstressasothers.Thegeometryofthemoldmustbeconsideredcarefullywithrespectto

theforcescreated,asthepartisbeingextruded.

Excessivestressesinplacesthatcannothandleit,cancauserapidwearanddiebreakage.

Extrusiondietonguescauseaweakerareainthedie'sgeometry.Thelocationofdietongues

andtheforcestheyaresubjecttoareanimportantfactorindiedesign.

Figure:221

Figure:221

Symmetryprovidesformorebalancedforcesandhelpsavoidoverstressingareasofthe

extrudingdie.Hollowareaswithinthecrosssection,inparticular,shouldbebalanced.

Figure:222

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DesignOfMetalExtrusionProcesses

26.04.2017 DesignOfMetalExtrusionProcesses Usually,largerhollowareascausemoredifficultiesduringthemetalextrusionoperation.

Usually,largerhollowareascausemoredifficultiesduringthemetalextrusionoperation.

Reducingtheareaofhollowsections,ifpossible,mayeasethemanufacturingoperation.If

hollowsectionscanbeeliminatedcompletely,infavorofasinglesolidextrusion,itwouldbe

abetterdesignformanufacture.

Figure:223

abetterdesignformanufacture. Figure:223

Thinwalledmetalextrusionsareoftenproducedinmanufacturingindustry,however,thereare limitstotheminimumwallthickness.Minimumwallthicknessofanextrusiondepends largelyonthetypeofextrudedmetal.Minimumwallthicknessforaluminumextrusionsis

usuallyabout.040inches.Acommontypeofextrudedsteelmayhaveaminimumwall

thicknessofthreetimesthatofaluminum.Standardwallthicknessthroughouttheprofileis

desirable,ifnot,thewallthicknessshouldbeasbalancedaspossible.

Figure:224

Figure:224

Onewaytoimprovethedesignofametalextrusionprocessthatrequiresacrosssectionof

wallsofdifferentthickness,istosmooththetransitionbetweenthicktothinwallswithalarge

radius.

Figure:225

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DesignOfMetalExtrusionProcesses

26.04.2017 DesignOfMetalExtrusionProcesses

Themanufacturingdesignershouldavoidsharpcornersinametalextrusion'sprofile,ifatall

possible.

Figure:226

possible. Figure:226

Asmentionedearlier,dietonguesarecriticalareasformoldwearandbreakage.Rounding

certaincornersofametalextrusioncanstrengthendietongues.

Figure:227

Figure:227 TOP

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