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Build Options

The following sections explain some of the options you have if you want to build your own
NodeMCU firmware.

Select Modules

Disable modules you won't be using to reduce firmware size and free up some RAM. The
ESP8266 is quite limited in available RAM and running out of memory can cause a system
panic. The default configuration is designed to run on all ESP modules including the 512
KB modules like ESP-01 and only includes general purpose interface modules which
require at most two GPIO pins.
Edit app/include/user_modules.h and comment-out the #define statement for
modules you don't need. Example:
// #define LUA_USE_MODULES_U8G

TLS/SSL Support

To enable TLS support edit app/include/user_config.h and uncomment the following

The complete configuration is stored in app/include/user_mbedtls.h. This is the file to
edit if you build your own firmware and want to change mbed TLS behavior. See the tls
documentation for details.


To enable runtime debug messages to serial console edit app/include/user_config.h


Set UART Bit Rate

The initial baud rate at boot time is 115200bps. You can change this by editing
BIT_RATE_DEFAULT in app/include/user_config.h:
Note that, by default, the firmware runs an auto-baudrate detection algorithm so that
typing a few characters at boot time will cause the firmware to lock onto that baud rate
(between 1200 and 230400).

Integer build

By default a build will be generated supporting floating-point variables. To reduce memory

size an integer build can be created. You can change this either by uncommenting
LUA_NUMBER_INTEGRAL in app/include/user_config.h:
OR by overriding this with the make command as it's done during the CI build:

Tag Your Build

Identify your firmware builds by editing app/include/user_version.h

#define NODE_VERSION "NodeMCU 2.1.0+myname"
#ifndef BUILD_DATE

u8g Module Configuration

Display drivers and embedded fonts are compiled into the firmware image based on the
settings in app/include/u8g_config.h. See the u8g documentation for details.

ucg Module Configuration

Display drivers and embedded fonts are compiled into the firmware image based on the
settings in app/include/ucg_config.h. See the ucg documentation for details.
Flashing the firmware

Below you'll find all necessary information to flash a NodeMCU firmware binary to
ESP8266 or ESP8285. Note that this is a reference documentation and not a tutorial with
fancy screen shots. Turn to your favorite search engine for those. Make sure you follow a
recent tutorial rather than one that is several months old!


Keep in mind that the ESP8266 needs to be put into flash mode before you can flash a new


When switching between NodeMCU versions, see the notes about Upgrading Firmware.

Tool overview


A Python-based, open source, platform independent, utility to communicate with the

ROM bootloader in Espressif ESP8266.

Source: https://github.com/espressif/esptool

Supported platforms: OS X, Linux, Windows, anything that runs Python

Running esptool.py

Run the following command to flash na aggregated binary as is produced for

example by the cloud build service or the Docker image.

esptool.py --port <serial-port-of-ESP8266> write_flash -fm <mode> 0x00000 <nodemcu-


mode is qio for 512kByte modules and dio for >=4MByte modules (qio might work
as well, YMMV).


See below if you don't know or are uncertain about the capacity of the flash chip on your
device. It might help to double check as e.g. some ESP-01 modules come with 512kB while
others are equipped with 1MB.
esptool.py is under heavy development. It's advised you run the latest version (check with
esptool.py version). Since this documentation may not have been able to keep up refer to
the esptool flash modes documentation for current options and parameters.
In some uncommon cases, the SDK init data may be invalid and NodeMCU may fail to
boot. The easiest solution is to fully erase the chip before flashing: esptool.py --port
<serial-port-of-ESP8266> erase_flash

NodeMCU Flasher

A firmware Flash tool for NodeMCU...We are working on next version and will use QT
framework. It will be cross platform and open-source.
Source: https://github.com/nodemcu/nodemcu-flasher

Supported platforms: Windows

Note that this tool was created by the initial developers of the NodeMCU firmware.
It hasn't seen updates since September 2015 and is not maintained by the
current NodeMCU firmware team. Be careful to not accidentally flash the very old
default firmware the tool is shipped with.

NodeMCU PyFlasher

Self-contained NodeMCU flasher with GUI based on esptool.py and wxPython.

Source: https://github.com/marcelstoer/nodemcu-pyflasher

Supported platforms: anything that runs Python, runnable .exe available for

Disclaimer: the availability of NodeMCU PyFlasher was announced on the NodeMCU

Facebook page but it is not an official offering of the current NodeMCU firmware

Putting Device Into Flash Mode

To enable ESP8266 firmware flashing GPIO0 pin must be pulled low before the device is
reset. Conversely, for a normal boot, GPIO0 must be pulled high or floating.

If you have a NodeMCU dev kit then you don't need to do anything, as the USB connection
can pull GPIO0 low by asserting DTR and reset your board by asserting RTS.

If you have an ESP-01 or other device without built-in USB, you will need to enable
flashing yourself by pulling GPIO0 low or pressing a "flash" switch, while powering up or
resetting the module.

Which Files To Flash

If you build your firmware with the cloud builder or the Docker image, or any other
method that produces a combined binary, then you can flash that file directly to address

Otherwise, if you built your own firmware from source code:

bin/0x00000.bin to 0x00000
bin/0x10000.bin to 0x10000

Upgrading Firmware

There are three potential issues that arise from upgrading (or downgrading!) firmware
from one NodeMCU version to another:

Lua scripts written for one NodeMCU version (like 0.9.x) may not work error-free on
a more recent firmware. For example, Espressif changed the socket:send operation to be
asynchronous i.e. non-blocking. See API documentation for details.

The NodeMCU flash file system may need to be reformatted, particularly if its
address has changed because the new firmware is different in size from the old
firmware. If it is not automatically formatted then it should be valid and have the same
contents as before the flash operation. You can still run file.format() manually to re-
format your flash file system. You will know if you need to do this if your flash files exist
but seem empty, or if data cannot be written to new files. However, this should be an
exceptional case. Formatting a file system on a large flash device (e.g. the 16MB parts)
can take some time. So, on the first boot, you shouldn't get worried if nothing appears
to happen for a minute. There's a message printed to console to make you aware of

The Espressif SDK Init Data may change between each NodeMCU firmware version,
and may need to be erased or reflashed. See SDK Init Data for details. Fully erasing the
module before upgrading firmware will avoid this issue.

SDK Init Data


Normally, NodeMCU will take care of writing the SDK init data when needed. Most users
can ignore this section.

NodeMCU versions are compiled against specific versions of the Espressif SDK. The SDK
reserves space in flash that is used to store calibration and other data. This data changes
between SDK versions, and if it is invalid or not present, the firmware may not boot
correctly. Symptoms include messages like rf_cal[0] !=0x05,is 0xFF, or endless reboot loops
and/or fast blinking module LEDs.


If you are seeing one or several of the above symptoms, ensure that your chip is fully
erased before flashing, for example:

esptool.py --port <serial-port-of-ESP8266> erase_flash

Also verify that you are using an up-to-date NodeMCU release, as some early releases of
NodeMCU did not write the SDK init data to a freshly erased chip.

Espressif refers to this area as "System Param" and it resides in the last four 4kB sectors
of flash. Since SDK a fifth sector is reserved for RF calibration (and its placement is
controlled by NodeMCU) as described by this patch notice. At minimum, Espressif states
that the 4th sector from the end needs to be flashed with "init data", and the 2nd sector
from the end should be blank.

The default init data is provided as part of the SDK in the file esp_init_data_default.bin.
NodeMCU will automatically flash this file to the right place on first boot if the sector
appears to be empty.

If you need to customize init data then first download the Espressif SDK 2.1.0 and extract
esp_init_data_default.bin. Then flash that file just like you'd flash the firmware. The correct
address for the init data depends on the capacity of the flash chip.

0x7c000 for 512 kB, modules like most ESP-01, -03, -07 etc.
0xfc000 for 1 MB, modules like ESP8285, PSF-A85, some ESP-01, -03 etc.
0x1fc000 for 2 MB
0x3fc000 for 4 MB, modules like ESP-12E, NodeMCU devkit 1.0, WeMos
D1 mini
0x7fc000 for 8 MB
0xffc000 for 16 MB, modules like WeMos D1 mini pro

See "4.1 Non-FOTA Flash Map" and "6.3 RF Initialization Configuration" of the ESP8266
Getting Started Guide for details on init data addresses and customization.

Determine flash size

To determine the capacity of the flash chip before a firmware is installed you can run

esptool.py --port <serial-port> flash_id

It will return a manufacturer ID and a chip ID like so:

Manufacturer: e0
Device: 4016

The chip ID can then be looked up in


This leads to a manufacturer name and a chip model name/number e.g. AMIC_A25LQ032.
That information can then be fed into your favorite search engine to find chip descriptions
and data sheets.

By convention the last two or three digits in the module name denote the capacity in
megabits. So, A25LQ032 in the example above is a 32Mb(=4MB) module.