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1.1 Entrepreneurship: Intention

Following Low and MacMillans definition of entrepreneurship as creation of new enterprise

(Low and MacMillan, 1988). For simplification, we define entrepreneurial intention as the
intention to start a new business.Our understanding of entrepreneurial behavior by showing that
creativity is an important antecedent of entrepreneurial intentions. By entrepreneurial intentions
we mean a conscious state of mind that directs attention (and therefore experience and action)
toward a specific object (goal) or pathway to achieve it (means) (Bird, 1989, p. 8). Several
empirical studies have found that a persons intention to become an entrepreneur offers the best
predictor of her actually engaging in entrepreneurship in the future (Delmar and Davidsson, 2000;
Krueger et al., 2000).

The term entrepreneur implies qualities of leadership, initiative, and innovation in new venture
design. Economist Robert Reich has called team-building, leadership, and management ability
essential qualities for the entrepreneur. Historically the study of entrepreneurship reaches back to
the work in the late 17th and early 18th centuries of (CantillonSmith,) which was foundational to
classical economics.

Entrepreneurship was studied by Joseph Schumpeter in the 1930s and other Austrian economists
such as Carl Menger, Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich von Hayek. The term "entrepreneurship"
was coined around the 1920s, while the loan from French of the word entrepreneur dates to the
1850s. According to Schumpeter, an entrepreneur is willing and able to convert a new idea or
invention into a successful innovation. Building on more general models, entrepreneurial
intentions are typically considered to be formed by a persons attitude toward entrepreneurship,
prevailing social norms attached to entrepreneurship, and the persons level of self-efficacy.

1.2 Social Entrepreneurship

Instead of focusing solely on financial value creation, social entrepreneurship centers on the
creation of social value for disenfranchised members of society. To date, little attention has

focused on understanding the macro-level factors that influence the prevalence of social
entrepreneurship firms. Research in social entrepreneurship can advance quickly by utilizing the
knowledge gained in the study of commercial entrepreneurship. Indeed, we should build our
theory of social entrepreneurship on the strong tradition of entrepreneurship theory and research.
Social entrepreneurs are one species of the genus entrepreneur (Dees et al., 2001, p. 2) and social
entrepreneurship founders are utilizing both for-profit and non-profit organizational forms
(Townsend and Hart, 2008).

Bill Drayton founded Ashoka in 1978. This organization, which operates in multiple countries,
finds local social entrepreneurs to support through a three-step evaluation process. Drayton tells
his employees to look for four qualities in the candidates: creativity, entrepreneurial quality, social
impact of the idea, and ethical fiber. Creativity has two parts: goal-setting and problem-solving.
Social entrepreneurs are creative enough to have a vision of what they want to happen and how to
make that vision happen. In their book The Power of Unreasonable People John Elkington and
Pamela Hartigan identify why social entrepreneurs are, as they put it, unreasonable. They argue
that these men and women seek profit in social output where others would not expect profit. They
also ignore evidence suggesting that their enterprises will fail and attempt to measure results
which no one is equipped to measure. About this, the Schwab Foundation says that entrepreneurs
have, " A zeal to measure and monitor their impact.

Entrepreneurs have high standards, particularly in relation to their own organization's efforts and
in response to the communities with which they engage. Data, both quantitative and qualitative,
are their key tools, guiding continuous feedback and improvement." Entrepreneurial quality builds
from creativity. Not only do entrepreneurs have an idea that they must implemented, they know
how to implement it and are realistic in the vision of implementing it. Drayton says that,
"Entrepreneurs have in their heads the vision of how society will be different when their idea is at
work, and they can't stop until that idea is not only at work in one place, but is at work across the
whole society." This manifests through a clear idea of what they believe the future will look and a
drive to make this come true.
Muhammad Yunus says about this characteristic, "He (or she) competes in the marketplace with
all other competitors but is inspired by a set of social objectives. This is the basic reason for being
in the business."

1.3 Relationship between small business and entrepreneurship

The term "entrepreneur" is often conflated with the term "small business" or used interchangeably
with this term. While most entrepreneurial ventures start out as a small business, not all small
businesses are entrepreneurial in the strict sense of the term. Many small businesses are sole
proprietor operations consisting solely of the owner, or they have a small number of employees,
and many of these small businesses offer an existing product, process or service, and they do not
aim at growth. In contrast, entrepreneurial ventures offer an innovative product, process or
service, and the entrepreneur typically aims to scale up the company by adding employees,
seeking international sales, and so on, a process which is financed by venture capital and angel
investments. Successful entrepreneurs have the ability to lead a business in a positive direction by
proper planning, to adapt to changing environments and understand their own strengths and

1.4 Role of technology in Social entrepreneurship

Social entrepreneurship is facilitated by the use of the Internet, particularly social networking and
social media websites. These websites enable social entrepreneurs to reach a large number of
people who are not geographically close yet who share the same goals and encourage them to
collaborate online, learn about the issues, disseminate information about the group's events and
activities, and raise funds through crowd funding.

1.5 Example Of Social entrepreneur :

1.5.1 Harish Hande, co-founder Selco Solar:

Hande, co-founded Selco in 1995, to bring renewable energy solutions to Indias poor. When he
first started he had problems with creating awareness about solar and had to install the first
lighting solutions free of cost to demonstrate its value. Selcos impact since then? In the past 18
years more than 1.35 lakh solar home lighting systems have been installed.

1.5.2 Vikram Akula, founder of SKS Microfinance:

Akula founded SKS Microfinance in 1998 to provide micro-loans and insurance, and within a
period of 12 years (does not include a brief hiatus to McKinsey), had taken the company to a
blockbuster IPO of $347 million in 2010.

Review of literature

The approaches of these studies closely overlap with the general mainstream of entrepreneurship
literature. Some of them focus on personality characteristics or personal background of
respondents. The level of self-confidence was measured through two statements: I am sure that I
can accomplish every task successfully and I believe that I can manage a company
successfully. As it can be noticed, the former measures ones present level of self-confidence,
while the latter, which was derived from the scale of Parnell et al. (1995), measures the possibility
of managing a company in the future.

In the questionnaire, all responses were obtained on a 5-point Likert - type scale from strongly
agree to strongly disagree. The literature on entrepreneurial networks and the social capital that
results from the connections between people (as distinct from human capital which is contained
within people) developed at the same time as the literature on entrepreneurial intention. Both
literatures emerged in the 1980s as a reaction to the deterministic approach taken in many
psychological studies of entrepreneurs.

However, they developed in parallel and did not intersect. Where the literature on entrepreneurial
intention changed our understanding of what was occurring within the mind of individuals, the
entrepreneurial network and social capital literature moved the focus away from the mind of
individuals to the social surroundings affecting individuals and their decision making. Owing
heavy allegiance to the resource perspective developed by Werner felt (1984), entrepreneurial
network and social capital literature argues that entrepreneurs obtain non-redundant resources
(social capital) from their network that makes them perform better. The social capital resources
entrepreneurs obtain from their networks have to be understood broadly and include, among other
things, information, advice, social support, and legitimacy.

2.1 Social Entrepreneurial: Intention Models

A large number of studies on qualitative aspects of entrepreneurs have focused on the

psychological characteristics and personality traits which differentiate both successful
entrepreneur from non-successful entrepreneurs, and entrepreneurs from the rest of the population
(Borland 1975). Later studies have emphasized the importance of different demographic factors,

such as age, gender, religion, ethnic group, education, family, socioeconomic status, and
professional experience (Reynolds et al. 1994).

Universities can support entrepreneurship in many ways, but it isimportant to measure students'
perception of the support that they receive in order to understand the extent ofsuch support and its
impact on students. The current study proposed and tested an integrative,
multiperspectiveframework. We have hypothesized that the three dimensions of university
Educational Support, Relational Support, and Structural Support for entrepreneurial self-efficacy.

2.1.1 Perceived Educational Support (PES)

The first dimension of model is educational support. It is obvious that professionaleducation in

universities is an efficient way of obtaining necessary knowledge aboutentrepreneurship.
Although, in their study, Wang and Wong (2004, p. 170) mainlyfocused on personality
characteristics of students, they also pointed out the fact thatthe entrepreneurial dreams of many
students are hindered by inadequate preparation

2.1.2 Perceived Structural Support (PSS)

The second factor in the model is structural support. As it is indicated in the previous section, we
are living in a broader context of social, cultural, economical, political and technological factors.
The current context of entrepreneurship is mainly shaped by economical and political
mechanisms, which are governed by the actors in the public, private, and non-governmental

2.1.3 Perceived Relation Support (PRS)

The support of family and friends is likely to affect ones career selection. In the current study,
this relational support mainly indicates the sentimental and monetary supports of family and
friends. If someone knows that there will be such type of support when she/he starts a
business,she/he might be encouraged to choose an entrepreneurial career.

2.2 Social entrepreneurship: Intention Model

Perceived Educational Support (PES)

Perceived Structural Support (PSS) Social

entrepreneurship :
Perceived Relation Support (PRS)

Research Methodology

Research Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of
study, or the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch
of knowledge.

3.1 Problem statement of the study

We have to study on problem then we study the different parameters on Social entrepreneurship
and intension. In addition we asked some question to students for Educational Support and
Relational Support in university.

3.2 Objectives of the study

The objective of this research, as it was pointed out previously, is to check Social entrepreneurial

3.3 Hypotheses of the study

H1. Entrepreneurial intention of university students positively relates with perceived educational

H2. The strength of the relationship between entrepreneurial intention and perceived educational
support is affected by the level of self-confidence.

H3. Entrepreneurial intention relates with perceived structural support.

H4. The strength of the relationship between entrepreneurial intention and perceived relational
support is affected by the level of self-confidence.

3.6 Methodology

The process used to collect information and data for the purpose of making business decisions.
The methodology may include publication research, interviews, surveys and other research
techniques, and could include both present and historical information.

3.6.1 Research design used

In this study we use descriptive research .The main reason is in this research to Describe the
social entrepreneurship and determine the intention of students.

3.6.2 Sources of data:-

In selection of sources there are mainly two types of sources of data available, Primary data and
Secondary data but we have used the Primary data with help of Questionnaire in our project.

3.6.3 Reseach instrument:-

There are four instruments for getting the information like that mail, telephone, personal, and
online. We have got information by Questionnaire.

We went all the persons to collect the information.

3.6.4 Contact method:-

Face to face interview in university with permission letter of university.

3.6.5 Sample size:-

In our project report sample size is 100

3.6.6 Measures of the study Dependent variables

Social Entrepreneurial intention Independent variables.

Perceived Educational Support (PES), Perceived Structural Support (PSS),

Perceived Relation Support (PRS)

Questionnaire Development

Dear Respondent,

We Ghunjariya Gopiben, Joshi Savaj, Jpwala Riyanka, Kachhatiya Bhavik, Khatri Kapilkumar
students of V.M. Patel Institute Of Management, Ganpat University, Kherva. We are conducting survey for
Social Interpreuership : Intetion. This is for our academic purpose. So that please attempts all question
and tick in square.

Part 1, Demographic factors

1. Name:

2. Address:

3. Gender: Male Female

4. Type of education: Under-graduation Post Graduation Ph. D

5. Type of university: Government Private

6. Age : 18-20 21-23 Above-24

7. Income (Per month Family): Up to 5000 5001-15000 Above 15001

8. From Last How many years you are studying in this university?

1 Year 2 Years 3 Years 4 Years More than 5 Years

Part 2, Personal Attitude

9. If you ever started a firm, what size would you like it to achieve?

Self-employed Micro-firm Small firm Medium-sized Large firm

Part 3, Social Intreprenuership : Intetion

10. Indicate your level of agreement with the following sentences. (Strongly Agree to Strongly

Strongly Strongly
Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Disagree

Perceived Educational Support (PES)

The education in university encourages me to develop
creative ideas for being an social entrepreneur

My university provides the necessary knowledge about

Social entrepreneurship

My university develops my social entrepreneurial skills and


Perceived Relation Support (PRS)

If I decided to be a social entrepreneur,
my family members support me

If I decided to be an social entrepreneur,

my friends support me

Perceived Structural Support (PSS)

In India, social entrepreneurs are encouraged by a structural
system including private, public, and non-governmental

India economy provides many opportunities for Social


Taking loans from banks is quite difficult for

entrepreneurs in India

State laws (rules and regulations) are adverse to running

a business


5.1 Web sites :-


5.2 Book Prefered :-

Marketing research, Naresh Mahlotra, latest edition