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9-3.

Structural response
in fire

Frantiek Wald

Czech Technical University


y in Prague
g
Objectives

Repetition Objectives of the lecture


Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1

Design tables
The mechanical load in the fire design
Simplified
calculation Response
p of the structure exposed
p to fire
Advanced
calculation Levels of accuracy/complexity
Design software
of fire design
Assessment 2

Worked example Avaliable worked examples


Assesment and design softwares
Conclusions

Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


2
Objectives

Repetition Repetition
Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1

Design tables
Three steps of fire design
Simplified
calculation Fire design Eurocodes
Fire load
Advanced
calculation Fire behaviour
Design software
Modelling of the gas temparature
EN 1991-1-2
Assessment 2 in the fire compartment
Worked example

Assesment

Conclusions
Thermal response
Transfer of heat
Notes and development in structure EN 1991-1-x
EN 199x-1-2
Mechanical load
Structural response
Design of structure at elevated temparature
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
3
Objectives

Repetition Repetition
Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1

Design tables
Structural response
Simplified
calculation Global analyses
Advanced
calculation
At ambient temparature
Design software At elevated temparature
p
Assessment 2

Worked example The structure


Assesment
Whole structure
Conclusions

Notes
Part of the structure
The structural element (beam,
(beam colum,
colum connection)

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


4
Objectives

Repetition Mechanical load at fire situation


Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1

Design tables
Mechanical load at fire lower compare
Simplified to maximum one at ambiet temparature
calculation

Advanced Sorce of safety for structures exposed to fire


calculation

Design software
Described in
Assessment 2

Worked example EN 1990 the load combinations


Assesment at accidental situation
Conclusions

Notes
EN 1991-1-2 procedure to aplly the load

EN 1991-1-x particular loading


pernament,
pernament wind,
wind snow,
snow etc
etc.

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


5
Objectives

Repetition Mechanical load


Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1 Combination rules for mechanical actions


Design tables EN 1990: Basis of structural design
Simplified
calculation
At fire conditions at the accidental situation
Advanced
calculation

Design software E fi,d = G + 1 or 2,1 Q 1 + 1 or 2,i Q i


i >1
Assessment 2

Worked example
E.g. offices area with the imposed load Q,
Assesment as the leading variable action
Conclusions

Notes
E fi,d = G + 0,5 Q

E.g. offices area with the wind W,


as the leading variable action
E fi,d = G + 0,2
0 2 W + 0,3
03Q

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


6
Objectives

Repetition

Mechanical load
Values of factors for buildings
Material properties

Assessment 1 Table A1.1


A1 1 in EN 1990:2002
Design tables
Action 0 1 2
Simplified
calculation Imposed
p loads in buildings,
g , category
g y ((see EN 1991-1.1))
Category A : domestic, residential areas 0,7 0,5 0,3
Advanced
Category B : office areas 0,7 0,5 0,3
calculation Category C : congregation areas 0,7 0,7 0,6
Design software Category D : shopping areas 0,7 0,7 0,6
Category E : storage areas 10
1,0 09
0,9 08
0,8
Assessment 2 Category F : traffic area
vehicle weight 30kN 0,7 0,7 0,6
Worked example Category G : traffic area,
30 kN < vehicle weight 160kN 0,7 0,5 0,3
Assesment Category H : roofs 0 0 0
Conclusions Snow loads on buildings (see EN1991-1.3)
Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden 0,70 0,50 0,20
Notes Remainder of CEN Member States, for sites located at altitude 0,70 0,50 0,20
H > 1000 m a.s.l.
Remainder of CEN Member States, for sites located at altitude 0,50 0,20 0
H 1000 m a.s.l.

Wind loads on buildings (see EN1991-1.4) 0,6 0,2 0

Temperature (non-fire) in buildings (see EN1991-1.5) 0,6 0,5 0

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


7
Reduction factor fi
Objectives

Repetition

Mechanical load for load combination


Material properties

Assessment 1 The design value at fire situation devided by design


Design tables
value at ultimate limit state at elevated temperature:
Simplified
0,8

calculation
Gk + fiQk,l
fi

fi =
0,7
Advanced fi,1 = 0,9
calculation
GGk + Q,1 Qk,1
0,6

fi,1= 0,7
0,5
Design software
fi,1= 0,5
05
0,4
Assessment 2
0,3
fi,1= 0,2
Worked example
Gk is the characteristic value of a p
permanent action
0,2
Assesment 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0
Q k,1 / G k

Conclusions Qk,1 is characteristic value of the leading variable action


Notes
fi is the combination factor for values,
given either by 1,1 or 2,1 (according to relevant National Annexes)
G is the partial factor for permanent actions
Q,1 is the partial factor for variable action

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


8
(
Objectives

Repetition
Material properties
Mechanical load at elevated temparature
Material
properties
Design values of material properties at elevated temparature
Assessment 1
for structures exposed to fire are described by reduction factors
Design tables
of properties at ambient temperature
Simplified
p
calculation

Advanced
X d,fi = k X k / M,fi
calculation

D i software
Design ft k iis reduction
d ti ffactor
t ffor a mechanical
h i l property
t with
ith respectt tto
Assessment 2 temperature
Worked example
Xk is characteristic value of a mechanical p
property
p y for ambient
Assesment temperature design to EN1993-1-1
Conclusions
M,fi is Partial material safety factor for fire situation;
Notes
for thermal & mechanical properties recommended 1,0 10

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


9
Objectives

Repetition
Structural steel
Mechanical load att elevated
l t d temperatures,
t t EN 1993-1-2
1993 1 2
Material
properties

Assessment 1 Reduction factor, k Normalised stress


Design tables
strength % of normal value, k for advanced modelling
Simplified
p 20C 200C 400C
calculation 10
1,0 Effective yield 1
strength
Advanced 500C
0,8 0,8
calculation

D i software
Design ft 06
0,6 06
0,6
600C
Assessment 2 0,4 0,4
Elastic 700C
Worked example
0,2
0, modulus 0,2 800C
800 C
Assesment
0
Conclusions 0 300 600 900 1200 0 5 10 15 20
Notes Temperature,
p C Strain %
Strain,

Yield strength at 600C reduced by over 50%


Elastic modulus at 600C reduced by about 70%

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


10
Objectives

Repetition
Concrete
Mechanical load at elevated temperatures, EN 1994-1-2
Material
properties

Assessment 1 Reduction factor, k Normalised stress


strength % of normal value for advanced modelling
Design tables
Strain, % 6 1,0 20C
Simplified
p
calculation St i cu att
Strain 200C
1,0 maximum 5
Advanced 0,8
strength
calculation 400C
4
D i software
Design ft 06
0,6
Assessment 2 3 600C
Normal-
0,5 0,4
Worked example weight
2
Assesment
Concrete
1 0,2
Conclusions 800C
Notes
00
0,0 0
400 800 1200 1 2 3 4
Temperature, C Strain, % cu

Compressive strength at 600C reduced by about 50 %


Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
11
Objectives

Repetition Formative assessment question 1


Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1
Where are formulated the combination rules for
Design tables
mechanical actions?
Simplified
calculation
How is defined the redaction factor for load combinations?
Advanced
calculation
How is reduced the yield strength of structural steel
Design software
at 600C?
600 C?
Assessment 2

Worked example How is reduced the compressive strength of concrete


Assesment at 600C?
Conclusions
How is defined the reduction of the material properties
Notes at elevated temperature during fire in standards?

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


12
Objectives

Repetition
Procedure
Mechanical load f assessing
for i mechanical
h i l response iin fifire
Material properties

Assessment 1

Design tables
Tabulated
T b l t d data
d t
Simplified Composite structural members
calculation
Classic
Advanced
calculation
Simple calculation models and
Design software Critical temperature
p method traditional
Assessment 2 fi d
fire design
i
Steel and composite structural
Worked example
members
Assesment

Conclusions

Notes
Advanced calculation models
Advanced
All types of structures fire design
Numerical models based FE

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


13
Objectives
Tabulated data
Repetition

Mechanical load
for steel and concrete composite members
Material properties

Assessment 1 Composite
C
Composite
it columns
l
Design tables beams
Simplified
calculation

Advanced
calculation

Design software

Assessment 2

Worked example
Slab
Assesment

Conclusions

Notes

Concrete
for insulation

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


14
Objectives

Repetition
Tabulated data
Mechanical load parameters
t f composite
for it columns
l EN 1994-1-2
1994 1 2
Material properties

Assessment 1

Design tables ef
Simplified Ac As h Standard Fire
Standard
calculation fire rating
Resistance
Advanced us
calculation ew us Load level
Design software
b R30 R60 R90 R120
Minimum ratio of web to flange thickness ew/ef 05
0,5
Assessment 2 Section
S ti
1 Minimum cross-sectional dimensions for load level fi,t 0,28
Worked example 1.1 minimum dimensions h and b [mm] 160 200 300 400
dimension
1.2 minimum axis distance of reinforcing bars us [mm] - 50 50 70
Assesment 1.3 minimum ratio of reinforcement As/(Ac+As) in % - 4 3 4

Conclusions 2 Minimum cross-sectional dimensions for load level fi,t 0,47


2.1 minimum dimensions h and b [mm] 160 300 400 -
Notes 2.2 minimum axis distance of reinforcing bars us [mm] - 50 70 - Reinforcing
2.3 minimum ratio of reinforcement As/(Ac+As) in % - 4 4 -
steel
3 Minimum cross-sectional dimensions for load level fi,t 0,66
3.1 minimum dimensions h and b [mm] 160 400 -
-
-
-
Concrete
3.2 minimum axis distance of reinforcing bars us [mm] 40 70
3.3 minimum ratio of reinforcement As/(Ac+As) in % 1 4 - - cover

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09 15


Objectives

Repetition Application
pp of tabulated data
Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1

Design tables Verification


Simplified
Design resitance
calculation
att ambient
bi t ttemparature
t Rd
Advanced
calculation
Acting forces
Design software at elevated temparature
p Efi,d
Assessment 2

Worked example Reduction factor


for load combination fi = Efi,d / Rd
Assesment

Conclusions

Notes Section dimension


Reinforcing steel
Concrete cover

Rating
g
for nominal standard fire curve

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


Acording to DIFISEK+ 16
Simple calculations models

The Eurocode for fire design of steel structures EN 1993-1-2


based on global analyses at ambient temperature:
Limits of use
Classification of sections
Procedure
P d ffor evaluation
l ti off member
b resistance
i t
for evaluation of the members in time or resistance domain

Beams
Columns
Critical temperature procedure
for evaluation of the members in temperature domain

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


17
Objectives

Repetition Classification of cross


cross-sections
sections
Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1 For the purpose of the simplified rules the cross-sections


cross sections
Design tables may be classified as for ambient temperature design with
Worked examples a reduced value for 235
Simplified
Si lifi d = 0,85
calculation where: fy
Advanced
calculation
fy is the yield strength at ambient temperature
k E,
Design software Ration
k y,
1,2
Assessment 2

Worked example
p 1

Assesment 0,8
About 0,85 k E,
Conclusions 0,6 k y ,

Notes 0,4

0,2

0
0 200 400 600 800 T
Temparature,
t C

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


18
Objectives

Repetition
Beams
Mechanical load Class 1 and 2, laterally restrained
Material properties

Assessment 1 The design moment resistance


Design tables of a Class 1 or Class 2 cross-section
Worked examples with a uniform temperature a should be determined from
Simplified
Si lifi d
calculation Mfi,,Rd = ky, [M,0 / M,fi ] MRd
Advanced
calculation where:
Design software
ky, is the reduction factor for the effective yield strength
Assessment 2
of steel at temperature a
Worked example
p

Assesment
MRd is the plastic moment resistance of the
Conclusions
cross-section Mpl,Rd for ambient temperature
Notes
design
g
M,0 / M,fi is the ratio of partial safety factors at ambient
and fire situation

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


19
Objectives

Repetition
Beams
Mechanical load Non-uniform temperature distribution
Material properties

Assessment 1 Simplified solution


Design tables
The design moment resistance at time t
Worked examples
of a Class 1 or 2 cross-section in a member
Simplified
Si lifi d
calculation
with a non-uniform temperature distribution
Advanced Mfi,t,Rd = Mfi,,Rd /(1 2)
calculation

Design software
where:
h
Assessment 2 Mfi,,Rd is the design moment resistance
Worked example
p p
of the cross-section for a uniform temperature a
Assesment
1 and 2 are the adaptation factors of non-uniform
Conclusions temperature distribution
Notes
Complex solution
Based on reduction of material properties along the cross-section
hight and distance from the plastic neutral axis

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


20
Objectives Beams
Repetition
Adaptation factor
Mechanical load
for non-uniform temperature distribution across
Material properties

Assessment 1 For non-uniform temperature distribution across a cross-


Design tables section
Worked examples
- for a beam exposed
p on all four sides 1 = 1,0
,
Simplified
Si lifi d
calculation
- for an unprotected beam exposed on three sides, with a
Advanced
calculation composite or concrete slab on side four 1 = 0,70
Design software
- for an protected beam exposed on three sides, with a
Assessment 2
composite or concrete slab on side four 1 = 0,85
Worked example
p
Temperature Stresses
Assesment

Conclusions

Notes

1 = 0,7

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


21
Objectives Beams
Repetition
Adaptation factor
Mechanical load
for non-uniform temperature distribution along
Material properties

Assessment 1 For a non-uniform temperature distribution along a


Design tables
- at the supports of a statically indeterminate beam
Worked examples

Simplified
Si lifi d
2 = 0,85
,
2 = 1,0
calculation
- in all other cases
Advanced
calculation

Design software 2 = 0,85


Assessment 2

Worked example
p 2 = 1,00
,
Assesment

Conclusions

Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


22
Objectives

Repetition

Mechanical load
Critical temperature method
Material properties

Assessment 1 According to simple calculation models


models, for uniformly heated
Design tables steel members Rfi,d,t = ky, Rfi,d,0
Worked examples

Simplified
Si lifi d
On the other hand,, fire resistance should satisfy:
y
calculation Efi,d
Advanced Rfi,d,t Efi,d = Rfi,d,0 = 0 Rfi,d,0 ky, 0
calculation Rfi,d,0
Design software

Assessment 2
In particular, when ky, = 0 the corresponding
Worked example
p
temperature is defined as critical temperature cr
Assesment

Conclusions
In EN 1993-1-2 a formula is given to determine
Notes
critical temperature
1
a,cr = 39,19 ln - 1 + 482
0 9674 03,833
0,9674 3 833

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


23
Objectives

Repetition

Mechanical load
Verification in the time domain
Material properties

Assessment 1
The metod is handly for stress driven resistance
resistance,
Design tables

Simplified
e.g. bending
calculation

Advanced
F
For stability
t bilit problem
bl iis more efficient
ffi i t tto check
h k
calculation
the resistance at certain level of temperature
Design software

Assessment 2 Stress, MPa Utilisation level


Element resistance 1,0
Worked example

Assesment 08
0,8
Mechanical load at fire situation
Resource of resistance
Conclusions
0,6
Notes Collapse

04
0,4

0,2

Critical temperature Critical temperature


0,0
,
0 100 300 500 Temperature, C 0 100 300 500 Temperature, C

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


24
Objectives

Repetition Application
Mechanical load of critical temperature method
Material properties

Assessment 1

Design tables Action in fire Efi,d


Simplified
calculation Design resistance at ambient temperature Rd
Advanced
calculation
or design action at ambient temperature Ed
Design software

Assessment 2 Efi,d
Load level in fire fi,t =
Worked example
Rd
Assesment

Conclusions
M,fi
Notes Utilisation level 0 = fi,t
M

Critical temperature cr

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


25
Objectives

Repetition

Mechanical load Ad
Advanced
d calculation
l l ti model
d l
Material properties

Assessment 1 Example
p
Design tables composite cellular beam
Simplified
calculation

Advanced
calculation

Design software

Assessment 2
300 Tested failure mode
Deflection, mm

Worked example

Assesment 250
T t
Test
Conclusions 200
Calculation
Notes 150
100
50
0
0 20 40 60 80 Time, min
Calculation vs test Simulated failure mode
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09 Acording to DIFISEK+ O. Vassart, ArcelorMittal
26
Objectives

Repetition Examples of the tools


Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1

Design tables

Simplified General / Commerical codes Dedicated Codes


calculation

Advanced
calculation Examples Examples
Design software
Abaqus Vulcan
Assessment 2
Ansys Adaptic
Worked example

Assesment
Others Safir
Conclusions Others
Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


27
Objectives

Repetition Pros and Cons of the tools


Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1
General/Commerical codes Dedicated codes
Design tables

Simplified
calculation
Pros Pros
Advanced
calculation Fast Good price
Design software Reliable Access to source
Assessment 2
Very general Focussed on fire
Worked example
Support
Assesment

Conclusions
Cons
Notes Cons Struggle with large
problems
(Very) expensive
Not support
Black-box
Credibility

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


28
Objectives

Repetition Formative assessment question 2


Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1
What is the difference of classification of cross-sections
Design tables
at ambient and elevated temperatures?
Simplified
calculation
Describe the evaluation of the design moment resistance
Advanced
calculation of a beam of a Class 1 or Class 2 cross-section at
Design software elevated temperature with a uniform temperature?
Assessment 2
How may be treated the non-uniform temperature of
Worked example
a cross-section?
Assesment

Conclusions What is the principle of the critical temperature method?


Notes Pros of dedicated codes for advanced fire design?

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


29
Objectives

Repetition Worked example


Mechanical load Fire design of an unprotected beam using graphs
Material properties

Assessment 1
This worked example covers the fire design
Design tables
of a hot-rolled IPE section
Simplified
calculation forming
gppart of floor structure of an office building.
g
Advanced
calculation The beam is uniformly loaded and
Design software restrained against lateral torsional buckling
Assessment 2 b th
by the presents
t off a concretet slab
l b on the
th top
t flange.
fl
Worked example
The beam is to be designed to achieve
Assesment
R15 fire resistance
Conclusions
without the use of fire protection material.
Notes

q
g

l = 7,4 m
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
30
Objectives

Repetition Basic data


Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1
Material properties
Design tables

Simplified Steel grade S 275


calculation

Advanced Yield stress fy = 275 N/mm


calculation

Design software Density: a = 7850 kg/m


Assessment 2 q
Worked example g
Assesment Loads
Conclusions
Permanent action:
Notes
l = 7,4 m
gk = 4,8
, kNm-1
Variable action:
qk = 7,8
7 8 kNm-1

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


31
Objectives

Repetition
Mechanical actions
Mechanical load att ambient
bi t temperature
t t
Material properties

Assessment 1 q
Design tables
g
Simplified
calculation

Advanced
calculation
l = 7,4 m
Design software The characteristic value of the load is
Assessment 2
vk = gk + qk = 4,8 +7,2 = 12,6 kN/m
Worked example

Assesment The design


g value of the load is
Conclusions
vd = gk G+ qk Q= 4,8 1,35 + 7,2 1,5 = 18,18 kN/m
Notes
The applied bending moment is given by
1 1
M Ed = v d l 2 = 18,18 7,4 2 = 124,4 kNm
8 8

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


32
Objectives

Repetition Design at ambient temperature


Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1 The IPE 300 section is a Class 1 section in bending


bending.
Design tables

Simplified tf
calculation rr=15
15
Advanced tw =7,1
calculation h=300
Design software

Assessment 2

Worked example tf =10,7


Assesment
b=150

Conclusions

Notes
The section is checked at ULS at ambient temperature.
The concrete slab is assumed to provide full lateral restraint
to the beam; therefore, lateral-torsional instability does not
need to be taken into account
account.

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


33
Objectives

Repetition
Mechanical actions
Mechanical load f the
for th fire
fi design
d i situation
it ti
Material properties

Assessment 1

Design tables The reduction factor for the design load level is equal to
Simplified
calculation gk + 1,1 qk 4,8 + 0,3 7,8
fi = = = 0,393
gk + qk Q 4,8 1,35 + 7,8 1,5

G
Advanced
calculation

Design software

Assessment 2
where for office buildings is taken the factor as 1,1 = 0,3
Worked example

Assesment

Conclusions

Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


34
Objectives

Repetition Design at ambient temperature


Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1 Bending moment resistance


Design tables Wpl,y fy 628,4 103 275
Mpl,Rd = = = 172,8 kNm > 124,4 kNm = MSd
Simplified
calculation M0 1,0
Advanced
calculation OK
Design software

Assessment 2
Serviceability Limit State
Worked example Deflection limits are given either in a national annex or in
Assesment other national documents
documents. This limit is a typical value
value.
Conclusions
5 vk l 4 5 12,60 7 400 4 l
Notes = = = 28,0 mm < 29,6 mm =
384 E I y 384 210 000 83,56 10 6 250

OK
The section is satisfactory at ambient temperature.
temperature

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


35
Objectives

Repetition Design in the fire situation


Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1

Design tables Section factor


Simplified
calculation
The section factor for the hot-rolled section is taken from tables.
Advanced
The box section factor for an unprotected beam exposed on
calculation three sides is equal to
Design software
Am 1
Assessment 2
= 139 m
Worked example V b
Assesment
Th exposed
The d perimeter
i t is i indicated
i di t d by
b the
th ddashed
h d liline on figure.
fi
Conclusions

Notes The shadow effect is considered by modifying the section factor


as follows.
follows
Am Am 1
= 0,9 = 0,9 139 = 125 m
V sh V b

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


36
Objectives

Repetition Degree of utilization


Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1

Design tables The adaptation factor


Simplified
calculation
1 = 0,7
Advanced
calculation is used for an unprotected beam exposed to fire on three sides
Design software The adaptation factor
Assessment 2
2 = 1,0
Worked example

Assesment
is used for simply supported beam
beam.
Conclusions

Notes

The degree of utilization for the beam with non


non-uniform
uniform
temparature distruibution is given by
0 = fi 1 2 = 0,393 0,7 1,0 = 0,275

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


37
Objectives

Repetition Critical temparature


Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1

Design tables The critical temparature can be evaluated


Simplified for the degree of utilization
calculation

Advanced 1
calculation a,cr = 39,19 ln 1 + 482 =
0,9674 3,833
Design software 0
Assessment 2 1
= 39,19 ln 3,833
1 + 482 = 677C
Worked example
0,9674 0,275
Assesment

Conclusions

Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


38
Objectives

Repetition Transfer of heat by graph


Mechanical load

Material properties
Steel temperature a,cr [C] Am / V , ( Am / V )b [m-1 ]
250 150
Assessment 1 800 200 100 60 40 30 25 20 15 10

Design tables The


Simplified step-by-step 700
calculation procedure
Advanced may be 600
calculation
replaced
Design software
by reading 500
Assessment 2
on the
Worked example
graph, 400
Assesment
as
Conclusions
reproduced 300
Notes
in
Figure. 200

100

Fire duration t [min]


0
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
39
Objectives

Repetition Verification in the time domain


Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1

Design tables The fire resistance period predicted using Figure


Simplified is equal to 17 min.
calculation

Advanced This exceeds the required fire resistance R15.


calculation

Design software Therefore, the fire resistance of the section is satisfactory


Assessment 2 without
ith t applied
li d protection.
t ti
Worked example

Assesment

Conclusions

Notes

For detailed explanation and another worked examples with more


precised procedure see worked examples in www.access-steel.com
www access steel com

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


40
Objectives

Repetition Assessment
Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1
What is the difference between the load level and the
Design tables
utilisation level?
Simplified
calculation
For what cases is useful the critical temperature
Advanced
calculation method?
Design software
In which domain is recommended to evaluate the
Assessment 2
resistance in case of stability?
Worked example

Assesment

Conclusions

Notes

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41
Objectives

Repetition

Mechanical load Conclusions


Material properties

Assessment 1

Design tables There are tree levels of accuracy/complexity of


Simplified fire design
calculation

Advanced
calculation
For simple worked examples please consult
Design software
AcceesSteel
Assessment 2
For complex worked examples and software
Worked example

Assesment
please consult DIFISEK+
Conclusions
New models for composite slab, connections
Notes
and coldformed elements are finalised

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Thank
Th k you
for your attention

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


43
Objectives

Repetition Notes to users of the lecture


Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1
This session
Thi i iis a b
basic
i iinformation
f ti about
b t th
the mechanical
h i l lload d
Design tables of structures exposed to fire and its modeling requires about
Simplified
60 min lecturing and 60 min for tutorial session.
calculation

Advanced
calculation Further readings on the relevant documents from website of
www.access-steel.com and www.difisek.eu.
Design software

Assessment 2
The use of relevant standards of national standard institutions
Worked example are recommended.
Assesment

Conclusions
Formative questions should be well answered before the
Notes summative questions completed within the tutorial session.

Keywords for the lecture:


fire design, mechanical loading, mechanical response at
elevated temperature, simple calculation methods, Eurocodes.

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Objectives

Repetition

Mechanical load
Notes to users of the lecture
Material properties

Assessment 1

Design tables
Worked examples for mechanical response
Simplified
calculation
The application of the graph is in AccessSteel example
Advanced Fire design of an unprotected beam using graphs
calculation

Design software
The description of step by step procedure for heat transfer
Assessment 2
i in
is i A
AccessSteel
St l examples l
Worked example Fire design of an unprotected IPE section beam exposed to the
Assesment
standard time temperature curve
Conclusions Fire design of a protected HEB section column exposed to the
Notes
standard temperature time curve

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Objectives

Repetition Notes for lecturers


Mechanical load

Material properties

Assessment 1 Subject: Fire modelling and transfer of heat to structure


structure.
Design tables Lecture duration: 60 min plus 60 min tutorial
Simplified
calculation Keywords: fire design, mechanical loading, mechanical
Advanced
response at elevated temperature, simple calculation methods,
calculation Eurocodes.
Design software Aspects
p to be discussed: recources of fire safety
y at fire, start
Assessment 2 of reduction of material properties, advanced models.
Worked example Within the lecturing, the procedure of Eurocode fire design
Assesment is explained.
p
Conclusions Further reading: relevant documents from website of
Notes www.access-steel.com and www.difisek.eu.

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