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Verizon Wireline Standard VZ-STD-26.33.

October 2011

DC Power Engineering Standard

Part 1 of 3

DC Power Plant Engineering


This Document Supersedes the Following:

VZ-293-100-000 & VZB STD-022-0003

Revision 1.0

Issued October 21, 2011

Not for use or disclosure outside theVerizon Companies except under written agreement.
Verizon Wireline Standard VZ-STD-26.33.23
October 2011



DC POWER ENGINEERING STANDARDS ............................................................................4

1.0. Revisions: .................................................................................................................................4

1.1 Purpose and Scope:..................................................................................................................4

1.2 Disclaimer .................................................................................................................................5

1.3 Regulated and Non-Regulated Facilities: ..............................................................................5

1.4 Additional Standards Requirements: ....................................................................................6

1.5 Approved Products:.................................................................................................................6

2.0 DC Plant Layout and Configuration......................................................................................7

2.1 General DC Plant Design Parameters: ..................................................................................7

2.2 DC Plant Classifications Based Upon Type of Loads:..........................................................8

2.3 Cabled or Externally Bussed Plants: .....................................................................................9

2.4 General Busduct or Busbar Design Requirements:..............................................................9

2.5 Busduct/Busbar Application and Requirements: .................................................................9

2.6 Busbar/Application Requirements:........................................................................................9

2.7 BusbarSizing:.... 11

2.8 Required Structural, Electrical and HVAC Evaluations: 15

2.9 Clearances and Aisle Spacing for Power Equipment:.......................................................15

2.10 General Equipment Anchoring Requirements: ...............................................................17

2.11 General Requirements: Cable Rack, Framing and Bracing in the Power Room: ........17

2.12 General Grounding Requirements for the DC Plant: ......................................................19

NOTICE - Not To Be Disclosed OutsideVerizon. Without Written Agreement.

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Verizon Wireline Standard VZ-STD-26.33.23
October 2011
2.13 General AC Requirements for AC Feeds to Rectifiers or Rectifier Bays.......................20

2.14 Emergency Lighting in the Power Room: .........................................................................22

2.15 Power Plant Sizing, Growth and Capacity ........................................................................23

2.16 Power Plant Replacement ..................................................................................................24

2.17 Options for Plant Replacement, Augmentation or Modification ....................................27

2.18 Rectifier Capacity Calculations:.........................................................................................27

2.19 General Power Plant Configurations .................................................................................27

2.20 Rectifier General Requirements.........................................................................................29

3.0 Diversity ..................................................................................................................................30

4.0 Controller Functional Requirements ...................................................................................30

4.1 DC Power Plant Tresholds and Alarm Settings..................................................................30

5.0 Definitions...............................................................................................................................36

6.0 Reference Documents ............................................................................................................37

6.1 General....................................................................................................................................37

6.2 Telecordia Documents ...........................................................................................................37

6.3 Industry Documents and Standards ....................................................................................37

NOTICE - Not To Be Disclosed OutsideVerizon. Without Written Agreement.

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Verizon Wireline Standard VZ-STD-26.33.23
October 2011

1.0. Revisions

This document supersedes VZ-293-100-000 and VZB STD-022-0003 and is part 1 of 3 that
comprise the total DC Power Engineering Standard. This document is to be used in
conjunction with Battery Engineering Standard VZ-STD-26.33.13 and DC Distribution
Standard VZ-STD-26.33.10.

Whenever this practice is reissued, the reason(s) for reissue will be provided in this paragraph.

Issue 1.0 New DC Power Plant Engineering Standard for combined Verizon Telecom
and Verizon Business.

1.1. Purpose and Scope

1.1.1. This standard establishes the minimum engineering guidelines to be followed during the
design of any new Verizon Wireline facility's DC Power plant. The purpose of this document is
to bring consistency to the design of DC systems where possible and to establish minimum DC
engineering standards and guidelines. The guidelines of this standard are applicable to all new
Verizon Wireline technical facilities and major expansions to existing facilities. This document
is not applicable to Verizon Telecom outside plant facilities but is applicable to Verizon
Business shelters, regens, CEVs, POPs, CPE and other outside plant facilities, exceptions and
additional requirements shall be noted herein.

1.1.2. Changes made in this document and subsequent issues do not specifically mandate the
upgrade of existing facilitys DC power plants to meet any new requirements specified herein
unless specifically noted. Nor does it necessarily apply to additions made to existing DC power
Plants. In most instances of an existing DC plant, the legacy engineering standard will continue
to apply until such time that the plant is replaced. In cases where it makes engineering and fiscal
sense to adopt any of the new requirement specified, then it is permissible to do so, but is not

1.1.3. Verizon reserves the right to revise this document for any reason including but not limited
to conformity with standards promulgated by various state and federal agencies, utilization of
new advances in the state of the technical arts, or to reflect changes in the design of equipment or
services described herein. Liability for difficulties arising from technical limitations is

1.1.4. This document is not to be construed as a suggestion to any manufacturer to modify or

change any of its products, nor does this document represent any commitment by Verizon to
purchase any product, whether or not it provides the described characteristics.

1.1.5. The engineering requirements contained in this document have been prepared to

NOTICE - Not To Be Disclosed OutsideVerizon. Without Written Agreement.

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Verizon Wireline Standard VZ-STD-26.33.23
October 2011
provide DC Plant Engineering personnel (internal and external), with the general requirements
that are necessary to ensure that the systems and equipment specified in the engineering order
are engineered and installed in accordance with Verizon standards and that newly installed
equipment operates in accordance with the manufacturers design parameters and specifications.

1.1.6. This document is intended to supplement information provided in Telcordia GR-

1502CORE, Central Office Environment Detail Engineering Generic requirements, OEM
specifications, as well as other Verizon technical publications. Verizon Wireline may, at its
discretion, specify additional requirements for specific installations.

1.1.7. Engineering and provisioning services performed shall satisfy the major equipment,
interface, and environmental requirements established in the Telcordia Central Office
Environmental Detail Engineering Generic Requirements GR-1502-CORE and as outlined in
this document.

1.1.8. Deviations are sometimes necessary and are referred to as nonstandard design. However,
non-standard designs shall be compatible with standard equipment used in standard designs.
Compatible in this sense means to function and /or fit together effectively. Approval to use a
non-standard design shall be obtained from the Verizon Wireline Standards authority Verizon-
Power-Standards@verizon.com in writing, if not specified in the Scope of Work or Work Order

1.1.9. In addition to the standards and guidelines outlined in this document, the Engineering
Service Provider shall consult and adhere to the most current Verizon Wireline practices,
including, but not limited to Flashes, Technical Aids, etc.

1.2. Disclaimer
This practice was prepared solely for the use of Verizon Wireline. It shall be used only by its
employees, customers, and end users when engineering, installing, operating, maintaining, and
repairing Verizon Wirelines equipment, facilities, and services. Any other use of this practice is
forbidden. The information contained in this practice might not be applicable in all
circumstances and is subject to change without notice. By using this practice the user agrees that
Verizon Wireline has no liability (to the extent permitted by applicable law) for any
consequential, incidental, special or punitive damages that might result.

1.3. Regulated and Non-Regulated Facilities

1.3.1. Verizon Wireline consists of Verizon Telecom which is a regulated phone company and
Verizon Business which is Non-Regulated. The requirements for regulated facilities and non-
regulated facilities are not the same. As a general rule, the exemptions allowed in regulated
facilities do not apply to legacy Verizon Business Facilities. Non-Regulated facilities are subject
to a more extensive review by local Fire Marshalls and Electrical/ Building inspectors and must
comply with codes and requirements that are not always applicable to Verizon Telecom
facilities. Such codes include but are not limited to the Uniform Building Code (UBC),
International Building Code (IBC), National Electric Code (NEC), National Fire Protection
Association (NFPA) and Underwriters Laboratory (UL). Particular attention to the required
NOTICE - Not To Be Disclosed OutsideVerizon. Without Written Agreement.

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Verizon Wireline Standard VZ-STD-26.33.23
October 2011
codes when working in existing Verizon Business facilities is required; otherwise the building
could be flagged by the inspector or Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). This could result in
the building being shut down in a worst case scenario.

1.3.2. When designing power equipment layouts, individuals working in legacy Verizon
Telecom Facilities shall adhere to the codes and requirements of that facility. All equipment
must be NEBS approved and certain statutes of the NFPA and NEC do still apply along with
other restrictions imposed as a result of being a regulated phone company.

1.4. Additional Standards Requirements

This Verizon Wireline DC Power Plant Engineering Standard (VZ-STD-26.33.23) is not

intended to be a standalone alone document on the topic of DC Power. It is to be used in
conjunction with Verizon Wirelines DC Distribution Engineering Standard (VZ-STD-26.33.10)
and the DC Battery Engineering Standard (VZ-STD-26.33.13). Additionally other Verizon
Wireline standards such as AC, HVAC, Grounding, Firestopping as defined in IP72202, section
12, Installation and material practices and procedures shall apply. These standards include but
are not limited to the following: Verizon Wireline IP 72202, Verizon Wireline facility
Grounding Standard (VZ 330-100-100), Power Plant Material Standard, Flooded Battery
Material Standard, VRLA Battery Material Standard, Hydrogen Ventilation Standards and
Environment and Safety requirements. Additionally all other pertinent industry, state, local and
federal Standards such as National Electric Code (NEC), OSHA, ANSI, IEEE, Telcordia, NEBS,
state, local or federal standards and reference documents as required.

The principal reference document for power plants is Telcordia's TR-NWT-000154 Generic
Requirements for 24-, 48-, 130-, 140- Volt Office Power Plant Control and Distribution
Equipment, except as specifically modified by this standard. The requirements of this standard
generally supplement, rather than replace the requirements of TR-NWT-000154. In the event of
a conflict between the contents of this standard and TR-NWT-000154, the contents of this
standard shall take precedence.

1.5. Approved Products

Only products and materials approved by the VSO standards committee for use in the respective
groups network shall be deployed in Verizon Wireline. Each business group internal to Verizon
Wireline (i.e., Verizon Telecom and Verizon Business) approves products for their respective
facilities in their designated ordering system. Products deployed in legacy VZT and VZB
facilities shall be ordered from their respective ordering system to insure only products approved
for their use are provided. While the models and manufacturers of the equipment may be
common, there are different configurations approved that meet specific needs of the facility.
Equipment and components shall not be cross-mixed. This requirement shall be adhered to even
when a 3rd party vendor or contractor provides the equipment for Verizon Wireline use where
permitted by company policy.

NOTICE - Not To Be Disclosed OutsideVerizon. Without Written Agreement.

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Verizon Wireline Standard VZ-STD-26.33.23
October 2011
2.1. General DC Plant Design Parameters

2.1.1. The Power Engineer shall calculate the initial -48 Volt drain requirement to be provided
by the new -48 Volt power plant using specific equipment load estimates and/or actual
equipment drain readings taken from in-service equipment.

2.1.2. The Power Engineer shall design any new -48 Volt Power Plant to provide proper -48 Volt
load and battery capacity for the initial loads and for all planned or anticipated growth for the
following two (2) years.

2.1.3. The Power or Design Engineer shall layout the projected power plant arrangement with
the initial job. This plan should include all future battery strings, distribution bays, and rectifiers.
The plant capacity shall be capable of serving all anticipated loads, including growth, for the
duration of the systems design life.

2.1.4. New power plants shall be located as close as economically feasible to the loads they
serve. New power plants serving both integrated and isolated ground equipment must be located
so that all applicable grounding standards are maintained.

2.1.5. For power plants that serve a voice switch requiring a ground window, the ground window
shall be within one floor vertically and 100 feet horizontally of the switch it will serve. For
additional ground window requirement consult VZ Grounding Standard VZ 330-100-100.

2.1.6. The re-use of portions of existing power plants (battery strings and rectifiers) in new
power plants is acceptable. No power equipment shall be reused in new power plants if it has
been designated Manufacturer Discontinued, Discontinued Availability, or Additions
and Maintenance by the manufacturer. Re-used equipment must meet the original
manufacturers requirements for documentation testing

2.1.7. When installing a new power plant, the initial battery strings and rectifiers shall be sized to
grow using the fewest reasonable number of these components for the ultimate size of the power
plant without having to change them out during the course of the growth. This provides economy
of scale to the plant. For example: It would not be advisable to build a 6,000 amp power plant
using 50 amp rectifiers or even 100 amp rectifiers. A plant capable of accepting 150 amp
rectifiers or preferably 200 amp rectifiers would be the better choice. While using smaller
components may be convenient or cheaper initially, it will eventually result in more maintenance
and more points of failure.

2.1.8. Verizon Wireline does not employ "distributed power (DP) systems" for network DC
power applications. Distributed Power is where multiple small independent power plants
distributed on the technical floor are used to power a given lineup or small area in lieu of a large
bulk power plant in a central location, such as a power room, to power a given area or platform
type. These DP Plants are generally small independent power plants consisting of a given
quantity of rectifiers, 12V monoblock batteries, distribution and a controller in each bay. In some
NOTICE - Not To Be Disclosed OutsideVerizon. Without Written Agreement.

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Verizon Wireline Standard VZ-STD-26.33.23
October 2011
cases the small plants can be tied together to form larger power islands. All new power plants
shall be bulk or centralized DC Power plants. Legacy Verizon Business facilities presently
equipped with DP systems should be reviewed to determine if a bulk power system could be
retrofitted to the facility or if the load can be transferred to an existing bulk system already in the
facility where applicable.

2.1.9. Small independent power plants using 12V monoblock batteries are required in certain
applications within Verizon Wireline such as shelter facilities, Customer Premise (CPE) sites,
Point of Presence (POPs), collocates (where a customer wants a plant dedicated to them), or
even small network applications. DP systems are permitted for these applications only.

2.1.10. All necessary documents and databases shall be updated to reflect any new power plants
or additions to existing power plants.

2.2. DC Plant Classifications Based Upon Type of Loads

Verizon Wireline will deploy dedicated DC power plants based upon the different types of load
they serve. These classifications shall be used for new facilities, major expansions to existing
facilities or when replacing obsolete or failing DC plants. Due to differences in End Voltage and
Reserve Time requirements, this provides savings in the quantity of battery strings, amount of
cable deployed, and maintenance over the life of the power plant. Mixed technology power
plants shall be avoided where possible. Existing mixed use plants can remain and be expanded
up to their maximum capacity until replacement becomes necessary. Where required, the end
voltage and reserve time of a mixed use power plant will be based upon the equipment or load
type that requires either a higher end voltage, longer reserve time or both. New power plants
shall be segregated by load type as follows:

A) TDM Voice Switch or Isolated Ground Plane Plants TDM Voice Switch plants shall
have an end voltage of 1.88 Volts per Cell (VPC) or 45.12 VDC at the batteries and a reserve
time based upon the type of facility. These plants will be dedicated to TDM voice switch loads,
equipment that have an end voltage greater than 1.75 VPC and/or require isolated ground plane
treatment as specified by the manufacturer. Major network elements such as Tandems and Large
Central Office switches should be served by dedicated power plants. Single power plants serving
multiple switches are not recommended. IP based switches. i.e., soft switches or switch bays
should be mounted in the integrated ground plane and fed from a network plant where possible.

B) Network Plants Network plants (Toll/Transport plants) shall have an End Voltage of 1.75
VPC or 42 VDC at the batteries and a reserve time based upon the type of facility. Network
loads can be any type of load (transmission, terminal, midrange, servers, IP based Switches etc.)
with the exception of Voice Switch/Isolated Ground Plane or Collocation loads (DC power
provided to customers in Verizon Wireline facilities by Verizon Wireline).

C) Collocation Plants These plants shall have and end voltage of 1.75 VPC or 42 VDC at the
batteries. The reserve time shall be no more then 2 hours unless specified by regulations or
customer agreement. Besides end voltage and reserve time differences, separating collocation

NOTICE - Not To Be Disclosed OutsideVerizon. Without Written Agreement.

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October 2011
loads helps to prevent customers from possibly effecting Verizon Wireline revenue generating
equipment due to faults, surges or grounding problems potentially created by the customer.

2.3. Cabled or Externally Bussed Plants

Due to the flexibility they provide, new power plants should be cabled type plants versus
external busbar plants where practical. Very large power plants or power plants that have
batteries spaced at distances that make cabling impractical can be considered for external bus or

2.4. General Busduct or Busbar Design Requirements

The following information is provided to allow engineering personnel to make basic busbar or
busduct design decisions and is not intended to provide a complete practice on the topic. The
following is applicable to external busbar provided by the installation vendor. Busbars that are
provided from the manufacturer as part of an approved Verizon Wireline power plant that are
used to interlink the rectifier and distribution bays internally or externally do not need to meet
these requirements specifically. Consult Verizon IP72202 for detailed information on busduct or
busbar design requirements.

2.5. Busduct/Busbar Application and Requirements


2.5.1. Busduct and Busbar are used to carry large amounts of current while maintaining a
minimal voltage drop where cabling would be impractical. Busbar is exposed, whereas Busduct
is housed in an insulated enclosure that can be either vented or completely sealed.

2.5.2. Exposed busbar or busduct can be used to interconnect the batteries, rectifiers and power
boards associated with a given power plant; however, busduct can be a specific requirement for
certain applications in the DC distribution system. Busduct must be used for any floor or wall
penetrations or where used to carry large amounts of current from the main power distribution
board to remote locations within the central office building. This could include long horizontal
or vertical runs in multi-floored offices.

2.5.3. Busduct shall be fused at the main power distribution board when provided for DC
distribution outside of the DC Power Room. Busduct can be un-fused when used for connecting
batteries and rectifiers to the DC power plant, internally or externally from the power room.
Refer to NEC 368 for information on the rules and regulations about busways.

2.6. Busbar Application Requirements

2.6.1. External exposed busbar must be designed and routed to maintain a minimum 2-3/4 inch
clearance from all metallic objects when using isolators, otherwise a 5 inch clearance shall be
maintained between busbars and external objects and between both polarities of busbars. Where
NOTICE - Not To Be Disclosed OutsideVerizon. Without Written Agreement.

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Verizon Wireline Standard VZ-STD-26.33.23
October 2011
busbar is deployed near metal objects such as pipes and ducts where the risk of contact is
possible if someone was working in the vicinity, the busbar or the object shall be wrapped with a
non-conductive material such as fiber paper, insulating blankets, etc.

2.6.2. All new busbar or busduct shall consist of electrical grade copper bus laminations.
Aluminum is not permitted. Tinned/plated copper is permissible for busduct applications.

2.6.3. It is permissible to extend existing aluminum busbar runs with new copper ones. The
connection point must be properly cleaned and treated with No-Ox prior to clamping or bolting.

2.6.4. Existing aluminum busbars SHALL NOT be tapped for fastening terminal lugs or for
fastening bar to bar. Use through bolts, clamp joints, or threaded inserts.

2.6.5. Exposed busbar connections shall be made using an appropriately sized busbar clamp or
by bolting using a four-hole pattern and the busbar connection must overlap the width of the
busbar minimum and no more then one inch past the connection. (i.e., a 4 busbar run would be
overlapped 4 minimum or 5 maximum).

2.6.6. Busbar clamps shall be equipped with palnuts and lock washers.

2.6.7. Exposed overhead busbar containing multiple runs of bus shall utilize interlocking finger
type joints or connections. The laminations shall be separated by air equal to the thickness of the
busbar laminations being used with the exception of, at the clamped or bolted connections area.

2.6.8. Clamped or bolted connections shall use properly sized spacers to fill gaps so that solid
busbar connections are formed for bolting or clamping purposes.

2.6.9. Busbar supports shall utilize busbar combs that separate the laminations to provide an
air gap between the laminations. The busbar supports shall be insulated from the framing for
overhead bus using isolators.

2.6.10. New power plants with open busbar arrangements extending from the power plant,
distribution bays, and rectifiers, to all the associated battery strings shall be limited to dedicated
power rooms where restricted access is required. Only trained personnel familiar with the proper
safety precautions shall be permitted in the power room where exposed bus exists.

2.6.11. Exposed interconnecting busbars above the power plant rectifier and distribution bays
themselves (provided by the manufacturer as part of a system/assembly), is permissible outside
of a dedicated battery room but should have a protective cover to prevent accidental shorts.

2.6.12. Exposed busbar shall not be extended into the technical area where personnel unfamiliar
with the hazards must work. Exposed busbar can extend to the power room wall. When busbar
must extend through a wall into the technical area, a busduct insert shall be used. This insert

NOTICE - Not To Be Disclosed OutsideVerizon. Without Written Agreement.

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Verizon Wireline Standard VZ-STD-26.33.23
October 2011
must be UL Listed. Once through the wall, busduct will continue to the equipment destination
outside the battery room.

2.6.13. Where vertical busbar runs pass through floors or ceilings, enclosed busduct is required.
All busduct shall be UL Listed and must have adequate internal support for the vertical busbar in
the vertical plane. The busduct shall be structurally supported the length of the run.

2.6.14. Busduct shall not be deployed so that it exceeds the manufacturer specified ampacity and
voltage drop calculations performed per the manufacturers resistivity specifications.

2.6.15. When exposed busbar or busduct is installed for interconnecting the components
associated with a DC Plant, the busbar or busduct in the area of the power plant bays
(distribution and rectifiers) shall be sized for the full capacity of the plant and the quantity of
laminations shall not be tapered or decreased as the bus extends further down the plant lineup.
This prevents the plant from being capacity limited if additional distribution or rectifier bays
become necessary.

2.7. Busbar Sizing

2.7.1. Busbar shall be sized to accommodate the current and voltage drop as required. See Table
1 for allowable busbar ampacity based upon busbar dimensions and quantity of laminations. The
following formula shall be used for voltage drop calculations for external busbars.

Voltage drop = resistance/foot @ 70 C * Amperage * foot (LOOP)

2.7.2. Minimum bending radius for copper is equal to the thickness of the bars and for aluminum
it is equal to twice the thickness of the bars. The surface roughening which may occur at these
bending radii is not considered injurious.

Table 1: Busbar Data

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Busbar Amp Capacity and Data

Aluminum Copper

Ampacity Micro- Ampacity Micro-

No. of Thickness Width Area in Note lbs per ohms Note Note lbs per ohms
Bars (inches) (inches) CM 1 Note 2 Foot per Foot 1 2 Foot per Foot
1/2 79.6 114 112 0.070 271.600 154 152 0.242 159.490
3/4 119.4 159 157 0.110 180.900 215 212 0.362 106.320
1/8 1 159.2 203 200 0.150 135.800 275 271 0.483 79.740
1 1/2 238.7 287 283 0.220 90.540 390 385 0.725 53.160
2 318.3 370 364 0.290 67.910 503 496 0.966 39.870
1/2 159.2 177 174 0.150 135.800 238 234 0.483 79.740
1 318.3 302 297 0.290 67.910 409 403 0.966 39.870
1 1/2 477.5 421 415 0.440 45.270 572 564 1.450 26.580
2 656.6 537 529 0.590 33.950 731 721 1.930 19.940
2 1/2 795.8 651 636 0.730 27.160 887 869 2.420 15.950
3 954.9 762 746 0.880 22.630 1040 1019 2.900 13.290
3 1/2 1114.0 873 841 1.030 19.400 1192 1152 3.380 11.390
4 1273.0 982 946 1.170 16.980 1342 1298 3.860 9.970
6 1910.0 1408 1320 1.760 11.320 1931 1820 5.800 6.650
8 2546.0 1823 1649 2.340 8.490 2506 2292 7.730 4.980
1 477.5 387 381 0.440 45.270 524 517 1.450 26.580
1 1/2 716.2 533 525 0.660 30.180 724 714 2.170 17.720
2 954.9 675 665 0.880 22.630 919 906 2.900 13.290
2 1/2 1194.0 814 796 1.100 18.110 1110 1087 3.620 10.630
3 1432.0 951 930 1.320 15.090 1298 1272 4.350 8.850
4 1910.0 1219 1175 1.760 11.320 1667 1612 5.800 6.650
6 2865.0 1740 1629 2.640 7.550 2388 2250 8.690 4.430
8 3820.0 2248 2035 3.530 5.660 3092 2828 11.590 3.320
1 636.6 466 459 0.590 33.950 632 622 1.930 19.940
1 1/2 954.9 636 626 0.880 22.630 863 851 2.900 13.290
2 1273.0 800 788 1.170 16.980 1088 1073 3.860 9.970
1/2 3 1910.0 1118 1093 1.760 11.320 1525 1494 5.800 6.640
4 2546.0 1427 1376 2.340 8.490 1951 1897 7.730 4.980
6 3820.0 2029 1899 3.520 5.660 2783 2623 11.590 3.320
8 5093.0 2615 2366 4.690 4.250 3596 3289 15.460 2.490

Table 1: Busbar Data (continued)

NOTICE - Not To Be Disclosed OutsideVerizon. Without Written Agreement.

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Busbar Amp Capacity and Data

Aluminum Copper
Ampacity Micro- Ampacity Micro-
No. of Thickness Width Area in Note lbs per ohms Note lbs per ohms
Note 2
Bars (inches) (inches) CM 1 Foot per Foot Note 1 2 Foot per Foot
2 1273.0 969 935 1.180 16.980 1301 1259 3.860 9.970
3 1910.0 1363 1285 1.760 11.320 1834 1735 5.800 6.650
2 1/4 4 2546.0 1745 1596 2.340 8.490 2350 2163 7.720 4.980
6 3820.0 2483 2152 3.520 5.660 3352 2937 11.600 3.320
8 5093.0 3198 2605 4.680 4.250 4325 3583 15.460 2.490
2 1910.0 1397 1336 1.770 11.320 1865 1787 5.790 6.650
3 2865.0 1957 1813 2.640 7.540 2616 2432 8.700 4.430
3 1/4 4 3820.0 2498 2226 3.510 5.660 3342 2996 11.580 3.320
6 5730.0 3543 2947 5.280 3.770 4745 3992 17.400 2.220
8 7640.0 4552 3493 7.020 2.830 6105 4770 23.190 1.660
2 2546.0 1823 1735 2.360 8.490 2426 2313 7.720 4.980
3 3820.0 2549 2337 3.520 5.660 3394 3123 11.600 3.320
4 1/4 4 5093.0 3249 2850 4.680 4.250 4328 3819 15.440 2.490
6 7639.0 4598 3728 7.040 2.830 6130 5026 23.200 1.660
8 10186.0 5399 4354 9.360 2.120 7872 5916 30.920 1.240
4 6365.0 3999 3471 5.850 3.400 5312 4637 19.300 1.990
5 1/4 6 9550.0 5650 4502 8.800 2.260 7512 6048 29.000 1.330
8 12730.0 7242 5202 11.700 1.700 9634 7041 38.650 0.990
4 7610.0 4748 4090 7.020 2.830 6295 5452 23.160 1.660
6 1/4 6 11460.0 6702 5273 10.560 1.890 8891 7068 34.800 1.110
8 15330.0 8585 6043 14.040 1.420 11395 8154 46.380 0.830
6 13370.0 7753 6041 12.320 1.620 10270 8076 40.600 0.950
7 1/4
8 17822.0 9926 6878 16.380 1.210 13150 9259 54.110 0.710
6 15280.0 8804 6808 14.080 1.420 11645 9086 46.400 0.830
8 1/4
8 20372.0 11265 7711 18.720 1.060 14905 10360 61.840 0.620
6 17190.0 9854 7575 15.840 1.260 13020 10095 52.200 0.740
9 1/4
8 22914.0 12605 8541 21.060 0.940 16660 11455 69.570 0.550
6 19100.0 10905 8338 17.600 1.130 14400 11100 58.000 0.670
10 1/4
8 25460.0 13945 9369 23.400 0.850 18415 12545 77.300 0.490
6 21010.0 11955 9102 19.360 1.030 15775 12105 63.800 0.600
11 1/4
8 28006.0 15285 10195 25.740 0.770 20170 13640 85.030 0.450
6 22920.0 13005 9866 21.120 0.940 17150 13110 69.600 0.550
12 1/4
8 30560.0 16625 11025 28.080 0.710 21925 14725 92.860 0.410

Table 1: Busbar Data (continued)

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Busbar Amp Capacity and Data
Aluminum Copper
Ampacity Micro- Ampacity Micro-
lbs per lbs per
No. of Thickness Width Area in Note ohms Note ohms
Note 2 Foot Note 1 Foot
Bars (inches) (inches) CM 1 per Foot 2 per Foot
2 2546.0 1458 1411 2.340 8.490 1961 1902 7.720 4.980
3 3820.0 2015 1906 3.520 5.660 2715 2577 11.600 3.220
2 1/2 4 5093.0 2555 2346 4.680 4.240 3445 3182 15.460 2.490
6 7639.0 3597 3131 7.040 2.830 4861 4275 23.200 1.660
8 10186.0 4608 3770 9.380 2.120 6236 5189 31.920 1.250
4 7640.0 3670 3291 7.020 2.830 4918 4437 23.190 1.660
3 1/2 6 11460.0 5146 4311 10.560 1.880 6902 5848 34.770 1.110
8 15280.0 6572 5083 14.070 1.420 8824 6950 46.380 0.831
4 10186.0 4782 4228 9.360 2.120 6384 5679 30.920 1.250
4 1/2 6 15280.0 6688 5473 14.080 1.420 8933 7392 46.360 0.831
8 20372.0 8527 6362 18.760 1.060 11395 8659 61.840 0.623
4 12730.0 5892 5161 11.700 1.690 7847 6915 38.650 0.997
5 1/2 6 19100.0 8227 6626 17.600 1.130 10960 8921 57.950 0.665
8 25460.0 10475 7624 23.450 0.849 13960 10340 77.300 0.498
4 15280.0 7002 6092 14.040 1.420 9309 8148 46.380 0.831
6 1/2 6 22920.0 9765 7775 21.120 0.943 12980 10445 69.540 0.554
8 30560.0 12425 8876 28.140 0.707 16520 12005 92.760 0.415
1. Ampacity ratings are based on 30 C (86 F) temperature rise above 40 C (104 F) ambient temperature, bars
with long axis vertical and spacing between bars equal to or more than the thickness of the bars and bars run in
a horizontal plane.

2. Ampacity ratings to be used when the ambient temperature exceeds 40 C (104 F), or when the long axis of the
bars is in the horizontal plane, or when the spacing between bars is less than the thickness of the bars, or when
the bars are run in a vertical direction. .

2.8. Required Structural, Electrical and HVAC Evaluations

2.8.1. It is critical to personnel safety, network reliability, and building integrity that all power
equipment being installed in a Verizon Wireline facility is done so in a manner that is safe and
does not overload the electrical, HVAC or building structure. Proper structural, electrical, and
HVAC analyses and/or studies shall be performed to insure that the facility can physically,
electrically, and thermally support any new power equipment being installed.

2.8.2. The initial and ultimate power plant layout plans shall be provided to the Verizon Telecom
Real Estate or Verizon Business Regional Facilities Engineering and Construction (RFEC)
organization accordingly, so that all required AC panels, structural analysis, building
modifications, and support systems can be constructed.

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2.8.3. The approved plant layout plan, structural, electrical, and HVAC approvals or parameters
shall be documented in the appropriate drawings and databases for future reference. Any
equipment installations that create variations from the Approved Electrical, Structural or HVAC
studies will require reevaluation by Verizon Telecom Real Estate or Verizon Business Regional
Facilities Engineering and Construction (RFEC). Approval must be obtained before the
equipment can be installed.

2.8.4. Due to the weight of lead acid batteries, care should be taken when installing new batteries
so as not exceed the approved weight and point/live load bearing ability of the structure or floor.
Any variations from the original power plant floor plan, layout or product type shall be evaluated
to insure structural stability of the floor and building. Failure to do so can result in damage or
collapse of floor or support structure and cause damage to the facility or harm to personnel.

2.9. Clearances and Aisle Spacing for Power Equipment

2.9.1. Power plants shall be oriented to any walls, batteries, rectifiers or obstructions in a manner
that facilitates proper cabling of the equipment and the loads to be served. Once the power plant
is oriented for proper cabling, adequate clearances shall be maintained from obstructions, other
equipment, aisle ways, doorways, to maintain a safe working environment and provide adequate
space for installation and maintenance of the equipment both present and future. .

2.9.2. Sufficient access and working space shall be provided and maintained around all electrical
equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment. Minimum
clear working spaces and egress aisles shall be adhered to. See Table 2 for clearances in Verizon
Telecom Facilities and NEC 110.26(A)(1) for working Spaces for clearances in VZB facilities.

Table 2: Nominal AC voltages

2008 NEC Table 110.26(A)(1)

Nominal Voltage to Minimum Clear Distance (inches)

Condition 1 Condition 2 Condition 3

0-150 VAC 36 36 36

151-600 VAC 36 42 48

Condition 1: Exposed live parts on one side of the working space and no live or
grounded parts on the other side of the working space, or exposed live parts on both sides
of the working space that are effectively guarded by insulating materials.
Condition 2: Exposed live parts on one side of the working space and grounded parts on
the other side of the working space. Concrete, brick or tile walls shall be considered as

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Condition 3: Exposed live parts on both sides of the working space.

2.9.3. Adequate clearances must be left in front of and around any AC Panels, rectifiers, rectifier
bays, distribution bays, batteries, etc., in accordance with the NEC or any other applicable local
code. Working space is required for any electrical equipment or device that is likely to require
examination, adjustment, servicing or maintenance while energized. Distances shall be measured
from the exposed live parts or from the enclosure opening if the live parts are enclosed.

2.9.4. For required clearances around batteries see Verizon Wireline Battery Engineering
Standard Flooded and VRLA (VZ-STD-26.33.13) Section 3.2.

2.10. General Equipment Anchoring Requirements

2.10.1. The following information is provided to allow engineering personnel to make basic
equipment anchoring decisions and is not intended to provide a complete practice on the topic.
Consult Verizon IP72202 for detailed information on anchoring and bracing requirements.
2.10.2. The appropriate anchors or anchoring system shall be used to meet the seismic
requirements of the facilities geographical location. Anchoring requirements can vary based
upon depth of the slab, slab material, height, width, depth and weight of the equipment, along
with the material it is made of and even the location internal to the building where the equipment
will be installed (i.e., which floor). Where proper slab depth does not exist, the COEI
Supervisor, Vendor Manager (VM) and/or the Verizon Wireline engineer shall provide detail for
anchoring requirements.

2.10.3. All flooded battery racks shall be anchored to the floor with an appropriately sized
anchor in all four outside corners of the constructed rack. Additional anchoring may be required
in high seismic zones (Zone 3 and above). Anchors shall be sized to meet seismic needs and the
depth of the floor slab.

2.10.4. Large VRLA strings shall be anchored with appropriately sized anchors in two diagonal
corners of the base plate minimum for Seismic Zones 0 through 2B minimum. VRLA batteries
deployed in high seismic zones (Zone 3 and above) shall be anchored in all four corners of the

2.10.5. All floor mounted power equipment shall be anchored to the floor with an appropriately
sized anchor in two diagonal corners of the rack or bay minimum. Zone 3 through Zone 4
applications shall be anchored in all four corners of the rack. Anchors shall be sized to meet
seismic needs and the depth of the floor slab. A minimum of a 3/8 drop in anchor is required.

2.10.6. Before mounting any equipment to walls or floors, it must be determined whether the

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floors or walls have been waterproofed or sealed. Insure the required anchor depth leaves
appropriate clearances at the bottom of the anchor and that the membrane does not get
penetrated. The COEI Supervisor, Vendor Manager (VM) and or the Verizon Engineer shall
provide detail for drilling any waterproofed walls or floors.

2.10.7. All power equipment shall be properly anchored to meet local seismic requirements.
Verify slab depth is sufficient to properly seat the anchors being used. Anchoring shall be per
local codes, Verizon Wireline specifications, and manufacturer recommendations.

2.10.8. Power Equipment shall be elevated at least four inches off the floor slab in locations
where potential water/flooding issues exist. The equipment can be elevated using non-structural
I beam supports or a reinforced concrete maintenance pad. Non-Structural I beam
supports can be supplied and installed by the installation vendor as needed or where specified by
the Verizon Engineer in charge. Where a four inch reinforced concrete maintenance pad is
required, Verizon Wireline must supply it or provide concurrence for the installer to provide it
before it is or can be constructed.

2.11. General Requirements: Cable Rack, Framing and Bracing in the Power Room

The following information is provided to allow engineering personnel to make basic cable rack,
framing, and bracing decisions and is not intended to provide a complete practice on the topic.
Consult Verizon IP72202 for detailed information on cable rack, framing, and bracing

2.11.1. All power cable shall be installed on dedicated power cable racks. Un-fused power leads
shall be installed on dedicated Un-fused Power Lead Only cable racks. The rack shall be
labeled Un-fused Power Cables.

2.11.2. Cable rack in power rooms shall have two inch solid sidebars (stringers) and shall not
exceed 20 inches width (GR1275, 10.7.2, R10-69 & GR1502 R10-8). Rungs (cross straps)
shall be channel type (i.e., not bar). Panned cable rack is not permitted for power runs.

2.11.3. All cable will be properly laced per Verizon Installation standards. The use of tie wraps
for securing primary power runs is NOT permitted.

2.11.4. Auxiliary framing, cable rack, and Unistrut in the power room shall be channel type not
bar type. All Auxiliary framing, cable rack, and Unitstrut shall be finished with either paint or

2.11.5. Cable rack can extend/cantilever no more then 36 inches from the last support.

2.11.6. Auxiliary framing can extend/cantilever no more then 30 inches from the last support.

2.11.7. Minimum clearance of cable rack and framing from any columns or walls is five inches.

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2.11.8. Threaded Rod splices shall not be used for general purposes. They may be used only
where additional distance is required to clear an obstruction. When threaded rod splices can not
be avoided, splices shall be made with a rod coupling equipped with a sight hole with top and
bottom lock nuts per GR-1275-CORE.

2.11.9. The maximum vertical distance between levels of framing support is five feet.

2.11.10. Framing heights are specified and measured from the finished floor to the bottom of the

2.11.11. Cable Rack heights are specified and measured from the finished floor to the top of the

2.11.12. When pipe stands support is required due to lack of adequate overhead support, post
and lintel support shall be used with a minimum of two pipe stands (posts) for each aux channel
(lintel) at each support point of the cable rack. Single supports directly under the cable rack
should be avoided. Solid pipe support without threaded rod is preferred for maximum stability.
If threaded rod is needed, it shall be 5/8 minimum and extend no more then 12 above the pipe
stand. Pipe stands shall be of proper diameter, 3 diameter minimum, to support the required
load and anchored to meet seismic conditions. A minimum of two anchors per pipe stand flange
is required.

2.11.13. All threaded rods used for overhead cable rack support shall be 5/8 minimum.
It is advisable for larger power plants to route the load cabling into the power plant from
multiple directions to avoid congestion and excessive pileup where possible. Multiple cable
racks extending back from the technical area to a given power plant is advantageous to prevent
excessive weight and congestion on a given section of cable rack.

2.11.14. Where a considerable amount of power cables are to be routed on a given cable rack
run, it can be advantageous to run two parallel smaller cable racks versus one large ones. (e.g.,
two parallel 18 cable racks versus one 36 cable rack). Parallel racks help prevent bowing of
rungs or deflection of the sidebars between support points.

2.11.15. In all cases, the overhead structure and/or floor supports for cable rack shall be capable
of carrying the total weight load that is anticipated.

2.11.16. The maximum distance between cable rack supports is six feet but distances of five feet
or four feet between supports is preferable unless shorter distances are required due to weight.
Where heavy weight loads exist, the distance between framing supports should be shortened as
necessary based upon calculation of weight and deflection of the cable rack between supports.

2.11.17. All power equipment shall be properly braced to meet local seismic requirements.

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2.11.18. Bracing of power bays/equipment and battery strings in the power room shall comply
with the Verizon Installation practices IP72202. Bracing shall be done with 5/8 threaded rods
or angle iron according to seismic requirements at a minimum.

2.11.19. Power room cable rack shall be supported with framing under the cable rack. G clips
shall not be used for cable rack support. Where necessary, C clips can be used but should be

2.11.20. All power board frames shall be joined together using junction plates on top of the plant
or by bolting the frames together at a point no less then 2/3 of the distance from the bottom of
the bay.

2.11.21. All cable rack shall be properly braced per Verizon Wireline Standards. Consult
Verizon IP 72202 for bracing requirements and methods.

2.12. General Grounding Requirements for the DC Plant

The following information is provided to allow engineering personnel to make basic grounding
decisions and is not intended to provide a complete practice on the topic. Consult Verizon
Grounding standard (VZ 330-100-100) and IP72202 for detailed information on grounding
requirements for new facilities or major expansions to existing facilities where the current
grounding standard can be implemented without compromising the existing grounding system
(EX: Build outs on new floors or in areas separated from existing infrastructure). Legacy
grounding standards shall apply to existing facilities and power plants. Legacy standards are as

fGTE: 790-805-071, -072, -073, & -075

fBA: 790-700-100
VZT: VZ 330-100-100
VZB: STD-023-0003

2.12.1 Grounding and/or bonding leads must be run in a manner that permits them to be easily
inspected over their entire length.

2.12.2. Grounding conductors shall be RHH/RHW B strand (code) not Flex cable (I Strand).

2.12.3. Grounding conductors shall be green in color for identification purposes.

2.12.4. Grounding conductors shall not be run on a cable rack used for any other purposes.
Grounding conductors shall not be encircled in metal by either framing of the support
clips/brackets where the encircled area is less than 144 square inches. Open ended brackets or
clips are required. Grounding cable shall be supported with cable support brackets (i.e., L
brackets) or non-metallic click type of supports is permissible.
2.12.5. Grounding conductors passing through a wall shall be ran in a non-metallic sleeve such
as PVC and properly fire-stopped per Verizon standards.

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2.12.6. Equipment bays shall not be treated as isolated unless required by the equipment
manufacturer or legacy grounding standards. Equipment shall be mounted in the integrated
ground plane wherever possible and fed from an appropriate power plant that does not require
ground window treatment of the DC Power feeds.

2.12.7. Equipment that is designed to be in the integrated ground plane, but must be installed in
the isolated ground plane due to space or other logistical concerns, this equipment will be treated
as isolated and be fed from the same power plant feeding the isolated equipment or a new one as

2.12.8. All power plants shall have a reference ground connection from the discharge ground bus
to the office ground system. This cable shall be properly sized per Verizon Wireline Grounding

2.12.9. All power equipment shall be frame grounded according to Verizon grounding standards
and the NEC as applicable.

2.13. General AC Requirements for AC Feeds to Rectifiers or Rectifier Bays

The following information is provided to allow engineering personnel to make basic AC feed
decisions and is not intended to provide a complete practice on the topic.

2.13.1. Dual AC Power Panels shall be provided for all new power plants to feed the rectifiers
wherever possible. The dual AC panels shall be fed from separate circuit breakers and/or
automatic transfer switches. This requirement will also be applicable to any power plant serving
critical customers or other load centers. Dual AC feeds shall also be provided for existing power
plants meeting the above criteria on a going forward basis during power plant upgrades

2.13.2. For large DC plant applications, rectifiers can be fed in one of two manners based upon
rectifier type and rectifier bay configuration (for large switchmode). The following shall apply:

A) Ferroresonant rectifiers and switchmode rectifier bays designed for individual

feeds shall have individual feeds to each of the rectifier and shall be fed from the
dual AC panels by one breaker per rectifier (See Figure 1 below). The rectifiers
shall be broken up as evenly as possible on the dual AC Panels so that a single
panel failure or fault will interrupt only one-half of the rectifiers. In the case of the
individually fed switchmode rectifiers, the individual AC feeds may require power
from an OEM provided term strip internal to the rectifier bay which subsequently
provides the individual A and B AC feeds to the respective rectifiers internal to the

Figure 1: Individual rectifier feeds to the rectifiers.

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B) Switchmode rectifier bays that utilize rectifiers larger then 50 amps and that
provide for dual (or even quad) bulk AC feeds (A and B) to each rectifier bay,
shall have one feed (or two as required) provided from each of the dual AC Panels
to each rectifier bay. Each rectifier in the rectifier bay will be fed from a sub-
breaker at the rectifier bay with a dedicated breaker to provide the individual feeds
to the rectifiers themselves. The sub-breakers shall be provided as part of the
equipment from the manufacture and shall be either breakers at the top of the
rectifier bay or via a PDSC that is mounted with each rectifier bay.

2.13.3. Small modular shelf type DC power plants that utilize rectifiers up to 50 amps shall be
fed with a minimum of two AC feeds per shelf. The AC feeds shall be provided from dual AC
Panels for inside plant applications.

2.13.4. The larger capacity plants will be considered candidates for the larger rectifiers with the
higher AC service voltages. The use of step-down transformers should be avoided.

2.13.5. All the necessary AC feeds for a given rectifier bay or shelf shall be wired upon the
initial install to allow for ease of growth in the future.

Figure 2: Dual Bulk AC Feeds to Rectifier Bays

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2.13.6. All AC runs needed in the power room shall be installed in rigid conduit, EMT, or metal
wireway. BX or armored cable is not permitted.

2.13.7. Final connections of AC feeds to rectifier(s) or rectifier bay(s) shall be made with
jacketed flexible conduit such as Sealtite due to vibration concerns. Per NEC Section 348.42,
Flexible conduit shall be limited to three feet in length for trades sizes to 1-1/4, 4 feet in
length for 1-1/2 to 2 and 5 feet in length for 2-1/2 and greater.

2.13.8. All AC inputs to rectifiers or rectifier bays shall be designed to meet manufacturer
specifications for the rectifiers and bay. The required allowable voltage limits shall be
maintained along with any requirements for phase, frequency, and cabling requirements. All
cabling shall meet the NEC and all required local codes.

2.13.9. All AC work performed in Verizon Wireline facilities shall be approved by the Verizon
Wireline Engineer in charge and be performed by qualified personnel only.

2.13.10. All AC work shall meet Verizon Wireline requirements and all applicable local codes as

2.14 Emergency Lighting in the Power Room

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2.14.1. A source of lighting shall be provided to activate during loss of AC power. Egress
lighting shall be able to provide adequate lighting to aid in exiting the facility in conjunction
with the required exit signs. Emergency lighting shall provide repair personnel enough light to
effect repairs on the equipment or to be able to read the control and alarm monitors on the
equipment or to be able to view fuse and circuit breaker information at the DC plant or AC
panels. Emergency lighting can be incandescent or florescent with battery backup.

2.14.2. Emergency lighting shall be provided at or in the vicinity of the power plant main control
bay and as needed to provide isle lighting down the front of power board lineup to allow fuse
recognition internal to the plant.

2.14.3. The emergency lighting is not intended to provide a watt by watt or lumen by lumen
backup for the normal AC lighting but should be placed and sized to allow controls and
fuses/breakers of the plant to be accessed and to provide a means to exit the facility without

2.15. Power Plant Sizing, Growth and Capacity

2.15.1 New power plants shall be sized to carry all necessary office loads based upon load type,
reserve time or end voltage up to 10,000 amps in total capacity per plant.

2.15.2. Where the ultimate load for a given power plant is not known, it is best to over-size the
interconnecting busbar and shunt associated with the power plant to insure that growth is not
limited as the plant develops.

2.15.3. The Power Engineer shall initiate an addition/expansion to any power plant when the
existing plant load has reached the minimum reserve time of the plant or where the rectifier
capacity can no longer meet the necessary recharge capacity and sparing requirement as
calculated below in this standard. Additions and expansions to a given power plant are permitted
until the plant is capped for growth based upon its total capacity.

2.15.4. A DC Power Plants overall capacity is limited by its busbar rating and or its shunts size.
A power plant will be capped, and no further load added when its load at float voltage has
reached the 80% limit of its shunt or busbar current rating as specified by the manufacturer.
Batteries and rectifiers shall be added as needed to stay within the standards for capacity,
recharge, and redundancy till the plant is capped at the 80% rating of its shunt or busbar. A new
power plant will be required once the existing plant is capped if more load capacity is required.
Further limitations such as floor loading, space, HVAC, etc. can also limit the growth of the
plant and must be accounted for.

2.15.5. The Power Engineer shall design the power plant or power plant additions to serve all
anticipated loads and growth for two years after the power addition or the new plant is
completed. When determining the required capacity for a power plant, battery or rectifiers, all
loads shall be accounted for. This includes loads that may not be noticeable during normal

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operation, such as DC lighting loads or inverters that only activate during failure of the AC

2.15.6. All additions to existing power plants shall utilize equipment from the original equipment
manufacturer (OEM). Where the existing plant is equipped with ferroresonant rectifiers that are
obsolete, it is permissible to use switchmode rectifiers with the ferroresonant rectifiers to provide
growth as required. It is desirable to use the same OEMs switchmode rectifiers to expand their
old ferroresonant plants where possible, but it is not required. An engineering study may be
required before mixing ferroresonant and switchmode rectifiers in the same plant to determine if
this is the best course of action and if it is technically feasible.

2.15.7. Where it is required to cable a new supplemental distribution or rectifier bay in an

existing power plant, the cabling shall be sized to the ultimate capacity of the new supplemental
distribution or rectifier bay.

2.15.8. All equipment added to existing power plants must be compatible with the existing
monitoring and control system of the plant. If the controller is being replaced/upgraded as part
of the expansion of the plant, all the old equipment must have as much of the alarm, control, and
monitoring features transferred to the new controller.

2.15.9. Additional rectifiers shall be matched to those within the existing power plant where
possible. This will minimize spare parts requirements and potential control and alarm problems.

2.16. Power Plant Replacement

2.16.1. The following power plants (Distribution, Control and Rectifiers) should be replaced as
soon as possible due to age, serviceability, and lack of spare parts:

All Western Electric, Lucent, Reltec, LaMarche, Warren, Nortel Helios, Ericsson, Ratelco,
Power Conversion Products (PCP), Distributed Power Plants, all unapproved power
products, and all manufacturer discontinued products.

+/- 130 Volt Power Plants (known as 400 and 700 Type Power Plants)

Converter plants shall be utilized to replace all 400-type and 700-type battery plants.

Converter plants shall be utilized to replace all Verizon Business 24V battery plants where
practical. Perform an engineering study to determine viability.

2.16.2. The Power Engineer shall perform an engineering study to compare power plant
replacement versus plant re-use prior to the issuance of any engineering recommendation. The
following issues must be examined so that the most beneficial long-term decisions are made:

Modifications to existing control system to current standards

Provisions for complete plant monitoring with microprocessor control
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Modifications to existing grounding system to provide isolated ground (where required)
Location of Ground Window and subsequent cabling costs (where required)
Space and Floor Loading limitations
Replacement of mechanical connectors on existing plant loads with compression type
Removal or disabling of any LVDs that were deployed as part of legacy companies that
were purchased in the past.
Age and location of existing power plant
Asset value of existing plant

2.17. Options for Plant Replacement, Augmentation or Modification

2.17.1. The following are the options available in regards to dealing with existing plants. They
are in order of preference:

A) Total replacement, with new distribution bays, of old discontinued SCR, ferroresonant, and
first generation switchmode rectifier plants or any other plant past its useful life. This will
include load transfers to the new power plant. This option leaves the facility with the most up to
date plant and controls/monitoring available. Replacements of existing power plants shall
include complete removal of all equipment and cable mining of all unnecessary cabling.

B) Replacement of all the old existing obsolete rectifiers with latest generation switchmode
rectifiers without new distribution bays. When upgrading the plant with all new switchmode
rectifiers, the engineer needs to consider the existing alarms, controls, and monitoring performed
currently by the old power plant controller. While the old controls and monitoring can be left in
place and the new controller used only for the new rectifiers and any alarms associated with
them, this is not advisable. All the functions of the existing plant shall be re-created on the new
controller including all load shunt monitoring. Utilizing the existing branch monitoring, fuse
alarms, on the old plant will result in future maintenance problems and operations confusion. All
the features of the plant should be brought up to date when the rectifiers are totally replaced.
C) Augmentation of the power plant by mixing of SCR, Ferro and older generation of
switchmode rectifiers with new switchmode rectifiers, if technically possible. This poses a
variety of issues in implementation. Mixing of alarm and control functions and getting the
rectifiers to properly load share is complex. Because of the technical complexity, this option
should only be considered if the new controller can properly monitor and control the existing,
older rectifiers. If it becomes necessary to augment existing older rectifiers with new
switchmodes, the alarm and control function of the plant and rectifiers shall be transferred to the
new controller. Some of the new switchmode controllers can take direct control of the old ferro
and SCR rectifiers. When the new controller can take over it will be required to cable all the
rectifier monitoring and control signals to the new controller. In some cases, only the RFA and
rectifier load shunts of the old SCR and ferro rectifiers can be monitored by the new controller
and load sharing is done by manually adjusting the switchmode rectifiers to float lower then the
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existing SCRs/ferros to force load evenly on them. As the plant load changes up and down, this
function will have to be readjusted. Only experienced installers who are familiar with the
complete operation of the old and new technology shall attempt to mix old and new rectifiers.
When mixing old rectifiers with new, it is required to transfer as many of the existing alarm,
control and monitoring functions of the rectifiers and plant to the new controller as possible. This
will leave the plant with the most up to date alarms, controls and monitoring possible.

2.18. Rectifier Capacity Calculations

2.18.1. The Power Engineer shall calculate the initial -48 V drain requirement to be served by
the new -48 V power plant using specific equipment load estimates and/or actual equipment
current reading taken from in-service equipment.

2.18.2. All DC Power Plants shall be equipped with rectifier capacity necessary to serve all loads
through the engineering interval plus appropriate recharge and spare capacity.

2.18.3. A minimum of one spare rectifier is required above and beyond the rectifiers required to
maintain the engineering interval and recharge capacity. It is permissible to have more then one
spare rectifier where limited over current capacity exists on the rectifiers.

2.18.4. Rectifiers specified as having an over current rating in amps at a specified AC input
voltage shall have their recharge current calculated at 105% of the nameplate current rating.
While most rectifiers rated in amps provide 110% of over current capacity, 105% shall be used
for calculation purposes. For example, a 400 amp ferro rectifier will use 420 amps for
calculation purposes. Where over current capacity is not available from the rectifiers (as in some
older version switchmode rectifiers), use 0.95% of the rated output for calculating purposes.

2.18.5. Rectifiers rated in watts for a given AC input shall have their rated DC output capacity
derated by 5% (multiply capacity by 0.95%) for calculation purposes.

2.18.6. The minimum number of rectifiers in any power plant is defined by the following
formula on a going forward basis:

Step 1: Calculating required minimum capacity based on load

Formula 1:

Ic = If x 1.2

Where: Ic = Minimum Required Rectifier Output Current Based on Load (Minus Spare(s))
If = Load Current at Float Voltage (with the rectifiers online and properly operating).
Depending upon the calculation you are trying to do, this value can be the present load (for
calculations to determine present plant status), the anticipated load (for load addition
requirements) or the ultimate design system load (for ultimate plant capacity calculations).

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1.2 = Formula Constant.

Step 2: Calculating Rectifier Quantities

Formula 2:

Once the value of IC is calculated above the quantity of rectifiers can be determined, use the
following formula to determine the quantity of rectifiers.

Nrr = (Ic / Roc) + 1

Where: Nrr = Total Number of rectifiers required including the N+1 spare or spares.
Note: Always round the calculated Nrr up to the next whole value. Example: If Nrr was
calculated to (5.09) rectifiers required round up to (6) rectifiers total. Rounding down may
result in not being able to recover (batteries continue to discharge) from an outage if the
redundant rectifier was lost during recharge.
Ic = Minimum Required Rectifier Output Current minus spares as calculated in Step 1 above.
Roc = Rectifier output at current limit. For calculating purposes, this value shall not exceed 105%
of the nameplate rating of a SCR and ferroresonant rectifiers regardless of the actual
overcurrent setting of the rectifiers. For rectifiers rated in watts use 95% percent of the rated
watts output at the given AC input for the rectifiers. Example: A given ferroresonant
rectifier may physically be set at 110% of nameplate, but for calculating purposes 105%
shall be used. When using rectifiers with no over current capacity, use 95% of the nameplate
rating (watts or amps) for the calculations.
+1= Formula Constant (See note below). This provides for the redundant spare rectifier in
addition the rectifiers needed to maintain the load at 46 V.

Note: Switchmode rectifiers are more prone to failure then the previous SCR or Ferro rectifiers.
Where switchmode rectifiers are used (especially small 25 to 100 Amp rectifiers) an additional
redundant rectifier (N+2) is permissible where deemed necessary. Under no circumstances shall
less than N+1, rectifiers as calculated above, to be installed and operational.

CAUTION: When sizing the rectifier plant, ensure the spare rectification capacity DOES NOT
EXCEED the manufacturer's maximum recharge rate for batteries (especially with VRLA
battery technology).

For Verizon Telecom Facilities, on-line power calculating tools are available at the TSS Power
web site:

2.19 General Power Plant Configurations

2.19.1 Power Plant Architecture: Power Plant architecture is the method in which approved
power plant(s) components are deployed in a given facility. There are two methods as follows:

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Centralized or Bulk Power Architecture: Centralized or Bulk Power Architecture exists
when all power plant bays and components are located in a central location such as a
dedicated power room in larger facilities or power area or power lineup in smaller
facilities. The plant components are connected together with busbars and/or cables with or
without main term bars and/or ground windows. This type architecture is preferred for
all new applications going forward.

Distributed Power (DP) Architecture: Distributed architecture exists when power

equipment such as Powerboards/Distribution, Rectifiers and Batteries are placed out on
the technical floor and co-mingled with the end equipment in small islands where the
power plant is dedicated to feeding a given set of lineups or a given platform of
equipment. In many cases, but not all, small 12V monoblock batteries are used to provide
the battery backup of each plant/ island. This requires multiple small power plants spread
out across the technical floor to power an entire facility. Distributed Power Architecture is
not permitted and where it does exist in some legacy VZB facilities, it should be evaluated
for the possibility of removal and replacement.

Note: While some small applications such as shelters, regens, CEVs, CPE and the like
use small power plants and monoblock type batteries to power a relatively small amount
of equipment, this is not considered distributed power since these configurations still
generally use one power plant to feed all of the equipment associated with these types of

2.19.2 Power Plant Bay Types: Power Plant Bay Types are the configuration of the power plant
as provided by the equipment manufacturer.
Integrated power plant bays: Integrated or modular power plants are considered
power plants that integrate control, metering, rectification, and distribution in a single
shelf, shelves or bay. These types of plants can use 12V monoblock batteries internal to
the rack or larger VRLA/Flooded batteries external to the plant to provide the necessary
battery backup based upon the ultimate size of the plant and the reserve capacity
required. Multiple shelf, shelves or bays should not be connected together to increase the
total capacity of the plant using busbar connectors in the back of the bays that connect the
busbars of each bay together. These compact, integrated, single-bay power plants are
suited for use in small Verizon Wireline facilities for furnishing a new site or completely
replacing an existing system when the ultimate plant load is not expected to exceed
1200A. All integrated/modular power plants should allow access from the front of the
plant for all plant maintenance and growth activities.

Centralized or Non-integrated power plant bays: Centralized or Non-integrated

power plant bays are dedicated to either rectification or distribution, but not both. These
plants are recommended for most medium and large facilities where the ultimate plant
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load is expected to exceed 1200A. This plant can be reinforced until it reaches capacity
or its components become manufacture discontinued. The first bay of the plant, known
as the Main or Originating Bay, shall contain control and metering equipment in addition
to either DC distribution or rectifiers, but not both. Additional rectifier bays and
supplemental distribution bays can be added as needed. The rectifier and distribution
bays are specifically designed for their purpose and allow for better cabling.

Distributed architecture this configuration provides distribution (fuses/circuit

breakers) located in top of switchmode rectifier bays. Verizon Wireline will be
transitioning away from this type of plant. Centralized or Non-Integrated architecture
switchmode plants are the plant of choice as the old distributed architecture plants are
phased out.
Non-Modular Power Plants: Non-Modular power plants have hardwired rectifiers and
controllers and are generally of the older SCR, Ferroresonant and first generation
switchmode variety. Existing varieties of these types of plants should be phased out per
the guidelines of this standard.

2.20. Rectifier General Requirements

2.20.1. All unoccupied rectifier slots shall include covers or means to protect connectors from
dust and debris and internal busbars from incidental contact with conductive material.

2.20.2 Heat deflection shields shall be provided between relay rack mounted ferroresonant
rectifiers in the absence of forced air cooling or where required per switchmode rectifiers
manufacturer specifications.

2.20.3. Power Plants using switchmode rectifier bays shall be configured, so that they do not
vent hot air exhaust from the rectifiers directly on any battery strings. The power plants shall be
configured to keep adequate distance from the batteries or to vent away from the batteries where
possible. When adequate distance cannot be kept between the rectifier bays and the batteries, a
means of directing the heat away from the batteries or shielding of the batteries shall be
deployed. This is especially critical for VRLA batteries.

2.20. 4. Any cover or shield that needs to be installed on the switchmode rectifier bays to redirect
the exhaust away from any battery strings, shall be designed and approved by the equipment
manufacture to insure that this will not affect the performance of the rectifiers. Proper airflow
into and out of the rectifier bays must be maintained. Any baffle or shield installed on the
rectifier bays needs to be accounted for in the aisle spacing where it protrudes from the back of
the plant to insure egress aisles are maintained as well as proper working distances as specified
by the NEC or local codes.

2.20.5. Switchmode rectifier assignments shall start at the top most slot of the bay and grow
downward. Shelf type power systems with multiple slots for rectifiers per shelf shall have their
rectifiers numbered from left to right and from the top shelf down.

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3.0. Diversity

3.0.1 Equipment having two separate power inputs commonly referred to as A and B shall be
supplied from diverse sources of power originating at the main power board. Diverse power
feeders for circuits shall have no common over current protective devices, and the over current
devices must have the greatest physical separation as practical. The following illustrates the two
methods used to ensure power diversity.

Figure 3: Diversity - Method 1


Panel A
Equipment Bay
Fuse Panel

Panel B A B


Main Power

Equipment Bay

Figure 4: Diversity - Method 2

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4.0. Controller Functional Requirements

4.0.1. The Plant Controller shall have the rectifier sequencing function enabled to control the
start of all rectifiers to prevent power surges during transfers between commercial and standby
AC power.

4.0.2. All new high-efficiency rectifiers shall have the controllers energy efficiency algorithms
activated, where available.

4.0.3. The Plant Controller shall be programmed with the appropriate approved parameters to
provide programmable relay alarms based on data collected from within or outside the -48 Volt
Power Plant.

4.0.4. All new DC Plant controllers that are capable of TCP/IP communications shall be
provisioned with Ethernet access at the time of installation to allow remote communications with
the plant. Access shall be gained via at least three levels of passwords with the lowest level
providing information on a read only basis.

4.0.5. The Plant Controller shall be equipped to monitor all fuses or circuit breakers that are 100
amperes or greater in the Primary Distribution Bays. Each of these monitoring channels will
have a programmable alarm set point to trigger the plant alarm system should they exceed 40%
of the overcurrent device for ORd secondary distribution loads and 80% of the overcurrent
device for non-ORd secondary distribution loads.

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4.0.6. The total plant load shall be displayed on the plant meter, control and alarm panel and/or
the plant smart controller. Where an external smart monitor is provided to monitor the power
plant, the total plant load shall be available on this unit as well.

4.0.7. Smart plant controllers or external monitors shall be equipped and programmed to monitor
and display the total plant load. Plant load monitoring can be done by a main shunt, internal or
external of the power plant. Some of the new switchmode power plants may have a shunt or
other monitoring means such as hall-effect current sensors in each individual distribution bay,
that is used to total the plant load. These individual shunts from each distribution bay shall be
monitored by the controller. The controller, in such cases, shall be configured to total all the
loads of the individual distribution bays and display the resulting total plant load on the plant
display. Additional analog channels shall be provided to provide the load on each individual
distribution bay. This information shall be accessible via the controller. Individual bay shunts
can be programmed to alarm at 100% of the individual bay rating.

4.0.8. DC plants equipped with an integral smart controller, or a external smart monitor to
monitor the total plant load, shall be programmed at a minimum to provide a visual alarm at the
plant when the entire plant reaches 80% of its buss or shunt rating. This will indicate the plant
has reached its maximum capacity. Alternatively it is also permissible to program the controller
or monitor to alarm based upon 100% of the plants present rectifier or battery capacity
(whichever is less) as long this value does not exceed 80% of the total plant buss/shunt capacity.
This will provide warning when the total plant load exceeds the ability of either the batteries or
rectifiers to support it, based upon reserve time or recharge/sparing capacity.

4.0.9. All power plant alarms in Verizon Wireline facilities shall be consistent with Table 3.

Table 3: Verizon Wireline Minimum Alarm Standards

Alarm Causal Plant Condition(s)

LV1 Battery on Discharge / Low Voltage (See Tables 5 and 6

for required set points)
LV2 Switch Disconnect Pending
HV High Voltage 1 and 2 (See Tables 5 and 6 for required set
FA Any fuse failure
Rectifier Major Alarm Rectifier Failure (>1)
Rectifier Minor Alarm Single Rectifier Failure
Power Major (PMJ) AC Power Failure, Microprocessor Failure

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Power Minor Alarm (PMN) Optional: Fan Failure, Temperature Compensation Active,
Threshold Setting Exceeded

4.0.7. Plant alarms shall be dry contacts in the normally-closed (NC) state. Form-C contacts are
also acceptable. Outgoing alarms for new facilities or DC Plants will require the relay contacts to
open on alarm. All alarm cabling associated with DC Power equipment will utilize the Normally
Closed (NC) contacts of a given relay wherever possible to provide alarms to the Verizon
Wireline building alarms system.

4.0.8. Alarm cable shall be solid not stranded. Alarm cable shall be 22 GA solid twisted pair or
multiple twisted pair minimum and no more then 18 GA solid twisted pair(s).

4.1. DC Power Plant Voltage Thresholds and Alarm Settings

4.1.1. Existing Verizon Telecom and Verizon Business power plants will maintain their current
voltage and alarms settings. New facilities or power plants (new or re-used) shall be set up per
the following parameters:

Table 4: Legacy Verizon Telecom Voltage Levels for all DC Plants

Verizon Telecom DC Voltage Levels


23 Cell Plant 24 Cell Plant

Battery End Voltage 1.88 -43.24 -45.12

Low Voltage Alarm 1 (BOD) 2.083 Note 1 Note 1

Low Low Voltage Alarm 2 1.917 46.00 46.00

(Where applicable)

Float Voltage (Flooded Lead Calcium) 2.20 50.60 52.80

Float Voltage (Flooded Lead Antimony) 2.17 49.90 52.08

Float Voltage (Flooded Round Cells) 2.17 49.90 52.08

Float Voltage (VRLA Batteries) 2.25 51.75 54.0

Equalize Voltage Lead Antimony N/A 51.75 54.00

Equalize Voltage Flooded and VRLA Note 2 Note 2 Note 2

High Voltage Alarm N/A 53.00 54.75

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Verizon Wireline Standard VZ-STD-26.33.23
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High Voltage Shutdown (Chargers) N/A 55.00 55.00

Current Limit Setting Note 3 Note 3 Note 3

Note 1: The BOD alarms shall be set to one volt below the battery float voltage.

Note 2: Flooded Lead Calcium, Round Cells, and VRLA are not routinely equalized. The rectifier/controller
equalize voltage setting shall be set equal to the float voltage.

Note 3: The current limit shall be set per manufacturers recommendation.

Table 5: Legacy Verizon Business DC Plant Voltage Levels

Table 5A: Voltage Levels for all Equipment Except Switch DC Plants



Battery End Voltage 1.75 21.0 42.0

Low Voltage Alarm (Note 5) 2.083 25.0 (5) 50.0 (5)

Low Low Voltage Alarm 1.917 23.0 46.0

(Where applicable)

Equipment End Voltage N/A 19.0 (1) 40.0 (1)

Float Voltage (Flooded Batteries) 2.208 (4) 26.50 (4) 53.0 (4)

Float Voltage (VRLA Batteries) 2.25 (3, 4) 27.00 (3, 4) 54.0 (3, 4)

Equalize Voltage (Note 2) (Note 2) (Note 2)

High Voltage Alarm N/A 28.5 56.5

High Voltage Shutdown (Chargers) N/A 29.0 57.0

Current Limit Setting N/A 110% (6) 110% (6)

(Ferroresonant & Switchmode Rectifiers where

Current Limit Setting N/A 100% 100%

(For rectifiers with limited over current capacity or
older rectifiers that are prone to failure)

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Table 5B: Voltage Levels for Switch DC Plants


Battery End Voltage 44.5 44.5

Low Voltage Alarm (Note 5) 52.0 (5) 52.0 (5)

Low Low Voltage Alarm (where applicable) 47.5 47.5

Equipment End Voltage 43.5 43.5

Float Voltage (Flooded Batteries) 53.0 (4) 53.0 (4)

Float Voltage (VRLA Batteries) 54.0 (3, 4) 54.0 (3, 4)

Equalize Voltage (Note 2) (Note 2)

High Voltage Alarm 55.5 55.5

High Voltage Shutdown (Chargers) 56.0 56.0

Table 5A and 5B Notes

Note 1: The equipment end voltage is the voltage at which the operating equipment ceases to function properly. The battery
plant should be sized accordingly. It may be necessary to install separate battery plants for equipment with different end

Note 2: The use of equalization for VRLA batteries is not recommended. Equalization of flooded batteries should be very
limited. For equalizing flooded cell batteries, contact the Proponent Authority for criteria. The plants should have their
Equalize Voltage set to the same voltage as their Float Voltage (basically disabling the equalize function). All batteries must
be properly initialized at higher voltages as recommended by the battery manufacturer when first installed.

Note 3: The Float Voltages on the VRLA batteries should be adjusted for temperature compensation as recommended by the
manufacturer where climate control is not available. Where battery rooms temperature can be controlled independently, it
should be adjusted to 77 F or the manufacturers specification.

Note 4: The Float Voltages referenced above will generally work with all flooded and VRLA products, however, there are
cases where the float voltages must be adjusted to the manufacturers recommendations. This generally will apply to the
AT&T Round Cells and some low specific gravity (SG) batteries. Verizon generally uses flooded batteries in 1.215 SG range
and for VRLA 1.30 SG range. The manufacturers maximum recommended float voltage (high end of range) shall not be

Note 5: The Low Voltage alarm is the minimum alarm that must be monitored. This alarm will be run FROM ALL power
plants. The Low Low Voltage alarm shall be ran and monitored wherever possible based upon availability of the plant to
provide this alarm and where the alarming scheme permits.

Note 6: All Ratelco, Lucent/Tyco/ATT rectifiers must be set to 100% of their nameplate value for current limit. This is due
to the limited recharge capability of the rectifier or possibility of "tripping" the AC input circuit breaker feeding the rectifier.
Random tripping of the AC input breaker is possible when the rectifier goes into recharge if set above the 100% rating
(predominantly with Ratelco rectifiers). Tripping breakers is possible with all ferro type rectifiers and care must be exercised
when selecting/sizing the AC input breaker. The AC system should be designed to meet all "running loads" and "in-rush"
associated with the rectifiers.

Note 7: Other switches include; Ericsson, Alcatel (DSC) and Lucent.

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5.0. Definitions
Glossary of terminology and acronyms pertaining to DC distribution:

Circuit Breaker - A device designed to safely open and close a circuit and protect it against
overloads. The resettable device automatically opens the circuit when its capacity is exceeded.

Feed - the single power distribution cabling (conductors) necessary to deliver -48V DC power to
the equipment. Each feed will have a battery conductor from the over-current protective device
(fuse/circuit breaker) to the equipment and a battery return conductor from the load to the
common return at the power distribution point.

Feeder Term that is often used interchangeably with Feed.

Fuse - A device designed to safely open and close a circuit and protect it against overloads. The
device irreversibly opens the circuit when its capacity is exceeded.

Lumen A measure of the power of light perceived by the human eye.

Voltage Drop (DC Feeder) - a reduction of voltage that is delivered to the load due to the
resistance in the cable. It is equal to the product of the current times the cable resistance.

Watt A unit of DC power calculated by multiplying the voltage times the current.

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6.1. General
The documents listed in this section are considered reference and source documentation for the
guidelines and standards presented above.

This standard is part 1 of 3 documents that comprise the total DC Power Engineering
Standard. This document is to be used in conjunction with:
VZ-STD-26.33.13 Battery Engineering Standard
VZ-STD-26.33.10 DC Distribution Standard

6.2. Telecordia Documents

The following Telcordia documents shall apply, unless specifically modified by this standard:

TR-TSY-000406 DC Bulk Power Systems for Confined Locations

TR-EOP-000063 Network Equipment Building Systems (NEBS)
TR-NWT-000347 Generic Requirements for Central Office Power Wire
TR-TSY-000500 LATA Switching Systems Generic Requirements
TR-TSY-000221 Technical Requirements for Microprocessor Controlled Power Plants

6.3. Industry Documents and Standards

The following documents shall apply, as required, unless specifically modified by this
Network Reliability Council Report
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)..All Applicable Standards
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE).All Applicable Standards

Compliance with the following Telcordia (Bellcore) documents and industry standards is also

GR-512-CORE Reliability
GR-513-CORE LSSGR: Power
GR-63-CORE Network Equipment Building Systems (NEBS)
Electromagnetic Compatibility and Electrical Safety - Generic
ANSI/ASQC Q9000-1 Quality Management and Quality Assurance Standards
ANSI/ASQC Q9001 Model for Quality Assurance in Design/Development and Production
ANSI/ASQC Q9003 Model for Quality Assurance in Final Inspection and Test

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