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Americal American Psychological Association

Style Sample

The American Psychological Association (APA) style is primarily used in the social

science disciplines. It is formatted like Modern Language Association (MLA), and

shows many similarities, but is unique in several key points. This paper discusses the

APA in detail. Addressing plagiarism has become a major challenge in education

and educating students in referencing correctly with the APA 6th is one way of trying

to overcome the problem (Bretag, 2013; Manar & Shameem, 2014).

APA uses parenthetical (or in-text) citations within sentences, but rather than

indicating the author's name and page number, APA includes author's name and date

of publication. The page number, represented with a p. or a pp., is only added to the

citation when using a direct quote (not a summary or paraphrase). If the author's

name is mentioned in the sentence, then place the date of publication in parentheses

directly after the name. If the name is not mentioned include the author's name and

date in parentheses at the end of the source material. And, if you use a direct quote,

place the page number after the publication date within the parentheses.

Note the difference between the following three examples:

Terrence (1999) has presented poignant examples from 150 interviews. However, it

has been pointed out that the research was conducted in a selective, highly biased,

way (Strong & Porter, 1998). All of the interviewees have been called exceptions to

the norm (Strong & Porter, 1998, p. 5).

Unit Title Student Name and Number

Note the first example paraphrases an author that is named in the sentence, the

second example paraphrases authors that are not named in the sentence, and the third

example provides a direct quote (thus the inclusion of the page numbers) but also

does not identify the authors within the sentence. If the authors were identified

within the sentence in the third example, the authors' names would be followed by

the year of publication and only the page numbers would be in the parentheses at the

end of the quote.

Finally, the bibliographic page in APA style differs from MLA, what APA calls the

Reference page. You will notice a few immediate differences from the MLA Works

Cited format. With APA you include the initial of the author's first name rather than

the complete name, the publication date immediately follows the author's name in

parentheses, and titles of articles are not surrounded with quotation marks. The lists

are still alphabetized by author's last name (or title in the absence of an author) and

the first line is flush left while subsequent lines in the same entry are indented in

(approximately 5 spaces or one tab). A good resource to help you with referencing is

Notre Dames referencing guide at http://library.nd.edu.au/referencing/apa#s-lg-box-

3040351. There is also a summary downloadable help document available at:

http://library.nd.edu.au/ld.php?content_id=8053459. In APA Style, you include a

reference list rather than a bibliography with your paper (APA, 2017). A reference

list consists of all sources cited in the text of a paper whereas a bibliography may

include resources that were consulted but not cited in the text as well as an annotated

description of each one.


Assignment Number and Title

Unit Title Student Name and Number

The School of Education, University of Notre Dame Australia, uses the APA 6th

referencing style for all written documents. In addition to in text referencing and the

reference list there are a number of formatting requirements to ensure your essay

complies with APA standards. Get to know the APA 6th.

Assignment Number and Title

Unit Title Student Name and Number


APA. (2017) Bibliography versus reference list. Retrieved from

Bretag, T. (2013). Challenges in addressing plagiarism in education. PLoS Med,
10(12), E100157
Hosny, M., & Fatima, S. (2014). Attitude of students towards cheating and
plagiarism: University case study. Journal of Applied Sciences, 14(8), 748-757.


Assignment Number and Title