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Canine follicular dysplasia

Follicular dysplasia is a genetic disease of dogs causing


alopecia, or hair loss. It is caused by hair follicles that are
misfunctioning due to structural abnormality. There are
several types, some aecting only certain breeds. Diag-
nosis is achieved through a biopsy, and treatment is rarely
successful. Certain breeds, such as the Mexican Hairless
Dog and Chinese Crested Dog, are bred specically for
alopecia.

1 Structural follicular dysplasia


Structural follicular dysplasia varies by breed but all in-
volve weakened hairs that break easily. Hair loss is orig- A greyhound with bald thigh syndrome, a form of pattern bald-
inally seen in areas of repeated grooming or trauma, for ness seen in this breed
instance the neck because of contact with a collar. Hair
regrowth may occur, but the hair will be even weaker and
the pattern will repeat. The dogs are aected between the
ages of two to four years, and it is most commonly seen
3 Cyclic follicular dysplasia
on the back towards the tail. Progression of the hair loss
to cover the trunk can occur. Cyclic follicular dysplasia is also known as seasonal
alopecia.

1.1 Commonly aected breeds

Irish Water Spaniel

Portuguese Water Dog

Curly Coated Retriever[1]

2 Atrophic follicular dysplasia /


Pattern baldness
In some breeds hair follicles in certain parts of the
body become progressively miniaturized, analogous to Seasonal alopecia
what occurs in male pattern baldness in humans. It is
most commonly seen in Dachshunds, Miniature Pinsch-
ers, and Chihuahuas.[2] Aected areas become progres- It causes bilateral hair loss and hyperpigmentation of the
sively more alopecic. The pattern of hairlessness that re- anks. The disease usually starts in the late fall or early
sults is somewhat breed-dependent and sex dependent. In spring, and can regrow in about six months, although the
short-coated toy and miniature dogs, ventral neck, ventral hair may be dierent in color or texture. Treatment with
chest, ventral abdomen and inner thighs are aected. In melatonin may result in hair regrowth sooner, so it is
males, the pinnae (ear aps) are aected. In Greyhounds, thought that the amount of daylight inuences this con-
the thighs are aected as well as the ventral chest and ab- dition. The dogs are aected between the ages of two to
domen. four years.[1]

1
2 6 OTHER TYPES OF FOLLICULAR DYSPLASIA

3.1 Commonly aected breeds to hair breakage, making it similar to structural follicular
alopecia. It is important to treat the skin infections, and
Silver Labrador etretinate has been used to treat the hair loss.
Airedale Terrier
Bulldog
5.1 Commonly aected breeds

Staordshire Bull Terrier Dobermann - has the highest frequency of this con-
dition. It occurs in 93 percent of blues and 75 per-
Wirehaired Pointing Grion cent of fawns.[1]
Boxer Dachshund
Aenpinscher [1]
Great Dane
Rhodesian Ridgeback
Boerboel ( South African Masti)
Whippet
Italian Greyhound
4 Follicular lipidosis
Chow Chow
Follicular lipidosis is a type of follicular dysplasia found
Standard Poodle
in the Rottweiler. It usually occurs before the age of nine
months and involves loss of some of the mahogany or red Miniature Pinscher
hair of the face and feet. It is caused by lipid invasion of
the hair follicle cells. Yorkshire Terrier
Silky Terrier

5 Color dilution alopecia Chihuahua


Boston Terrier
Saluki
Newfoundland
German Shepherd Dog
Shetland Sheepdog
Schipperke
Bernese Mountain Dog
Bulldog

6 Other types of follicular dyspla-


Color dilution alopecia in a fawn doberman. The close-up of the
leg shows the characteristic sparing of the tan color points in this sia
syndrome, only fawn hairs being aected.
The Siberian Husky and Alaskan Malamute have a type
Color dilution alopecia is an inherited type of follicular of follicular dysplasia that occurs between the ages of
dysplasia. It most commonly aects dogs with blue or three and four months, possibly later in the Malamute.
fawn coats, which are dilutions of black and brown, re- The guard hairs of the trunk are progressively lost and
spectively. Dilution is caused by irregularities in melanin the coat turns reddish in color.
transfer and storage. Melanosomes may clump within
melanocytes of the skin and hair follicles, causing the hair In black or red Dobermanns, Miniature Pinschers, and
shafts to easily fracture.[3] Signs of color dilution alope- Manchester Terriers there is a type of follicular dysplasia
cia include hair loss and recurrent skin infection on the that occurs between the ages of one and four years. It
back. It can involve the whole body. The condition starts begins in the ank and spreads to the back.[1]
between the ages of six months and two years, depending Black hair follicular dysplasia occurs in piebald dogs
on the degree of dilution.[4] Early hair loss occurs due and causes hair loss in black-haired areas soon after birth.
3

It is most commonly seen in Papillon (dog), Gordon set-


ter, Saluki and Bearded Collie,[5] and is known to occur in
Large Mnsterlnder dogs.[6] It is considered to be similar
to color dilution alopecia and is inherited as an autosomal
recessive trait.[7]

7 References
[1] Grin, Craig E.; Miller, William H.; Scott, Danny W.
(2001). Small Animal Dermatology (6th ed.). W.B. Saun-
ders Company. ISBN 0-7216-7618-9.

[2] Carlotti, Didier-Nol (2005). Non-Hormonal Alopecia.


Proceedings of the 30th World Congress of the World Small
Animal Veterinary Association. Retrieved 2007-03-04.

[3] Philipp U, Hamann H, Mecklenburg L, Nishino S,


Mignot E, Gnzel-Apel A, Schmutz S, Leeb T (2005).
Polymorphisms within the canine MLPH gene are asso-
ciated with dilute coat color in dogs. BMC Genet. 6: 34.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-6-34. PMC 1183202 . PMID
15960853.

[4] Iwasaki, Toshiroh (2004). Non-Inammatory Alope-


cia. Proceedings of the 29th World Congress of the World
Small Animal Veterinary Association. Retrieved 2007-03-
04.

[5] Hereditary Alopecia and Hypotrichosis. The Merck Vet-


erinary Manual. 2006. Retrieved 2007-03-04.

[6] von Bomhard W, Mauldin E, Schmutz S, Leeb T, Casal


M (2006). Black hair follicular dysplasia in Large
Mnsterlnder dogs: clinical, histological and ultra-
structural features. Vet Dermatol. 17 (3): 1828.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-3164.2006.00517.x. PMC 3330242
. PMID 16674733.

[7] Schmutz S, Moker J, Clark E, Shewfelt R (1998). Black


hair follicular dysplasia, an autosomal recessive condition
in dogs. Can Vet J. 39 (10): 6446. PMC 1539457 .
PMID 9789677.
4 8 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

8 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


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